Bibliography : Occupational Accidents and Injuries

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Das S, Patra AP, Shaha KK, Sukumar S, Chaudhari VA, Rahman NA Occupational death due to bilateral carotid artery occlusion - a medico-legal case report. 2015 J Forensic Leg Med.  article DOI  
Abstract: Occupational deaths are work-related deaths and usually occur in the work place of an individual. A case of occupational death in a female factory worker has been described, where the saree she was wearing accidentally got entangled in the moving belt and caused ligature strangulation. She was unconscious throughout indicating bilateral occlusion of the carotids and died a day after the incident. The authors have described the correlation between the distribution of the injuries on the body and the manner a saree is worn. Investigation of the workplace revealed that the place where she was standing was located between two machines, and the space was inadequate for normal movement. Some suggestions have been offered which may decrease the incidences of occupational ligature strangulation due to entanglement of dress materials in the moving machineries.
BibTeX:
@article{DasS12015,
  author = {Das S1, Patra AP2, Shaha KK2, Sukumar S2, Chaudhari VA2, Rahman NA2.},
  title = {Occupational death due to bilateral carotid artery occlusion - a medico-legal case report.},
  journal = {J Forensic Leg Med.},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2015.02.009}
}
Arun M, Kumar RG, Kumar GN, Chandrakanth HV, Nagesh KR, Menezes RG Accidental strangulation by a hot belt: an occupational medico-legal case report. 2013 Med Leg J., pp. 132-4  article DOI  
Abstract: Death due to strangulation is generally considered homicidal unless proved otherwise. Here a case of accidental strangulation by a faulty machine is presented and discussed where the deceased was strangled by a heated rubber belt of a rice mill machine. The ligature mark was an assortment of abrasion and dermo-epidermal burns. The term "thermal ligature strangulation" is proposed for such an occurrence
BibTeX:
@article{ArunM2013,
  author = {Arun M, Kumar RG, Kumar GN, Chandrakanth HV, Nagesh KR, Menezes RG.},
  title = {Accidental strangulation by a hot belt: an occupational medico-legal case report.},
  journal = {Med Leg J.},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {132-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025817213498196}
}
Goel R, Malik KP, Goel A, Sharma N, Aggarwal A Agriculture related corneal injuries. 2013 Nepal J Ophthalmol.
Vol. 5(9), pp. 45-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
Agricultural workers are predisposed to corneal injuries, which, if neglected, can lead to corneal blindness.
OBJECTIVE:
To study the prevalence and mode of agriculturerelated corneal injuries in the village of Badkali, MuzaffarNagar, Western Uttar Pradesh, India in 2005 - 2006.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
Adult population of village Badkali, MuzaffarNagar, Uttar Pradesh. A door-to-door survey was carried out by paramedical ophthalmic assistants in October and November 2007. The main outcome measure was occurrence of corneal trauma in the fields from January 2005 until December 2006, its mode of injury, symptoms, treatment taken and outcome.
RESULTS:
The study area comprised of 718 people, of whom 584 were engaged in agricultural activities and 481 were male. While working on the fields, 221 persons sustained corneal injuries and out of them four were injured more than once. The number of injuries caused due to sugarcane leaves, wheat , cattle tail/ ear, 'cheri leaves' and others were 83(36.7 %), 24(10.6 %), 60(25.5 %), 31(13.7 % )and 28(12.4 %) respectively. All were closed globe injuries except for two. Out of the 221 injured, 117 (51.7 %) took treatment and 95(42.2 %) had a best corrected visual acuity less than 6/18.
CONCLUSION:
The majority of the population in Badkali were employed in farming. Logistic regression shows that the occurrence of injuries was more in those engaged in farming and related activities as compared to other occupations (OR = 0.012, p = 0.000, 95 % CI = 0.02, 0.09) and the maximum number of injuries being caused by sugar cane leaves followed by cattle tails.
BibTeX:
@article{GoelR2013,
  author = {Goel R, Malik KP, Goel A, Sharma N, Aggarwal A},
  title = {Agriculture related corneal injuries.},
  journal = {Nepal J Ophthalmol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {5(9)},
  pages = {45-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/nepjoph.v5i1.7821.}
}
Jain P, Khanduja S, Chugh JP Corneal manifestations in chemical injury with stannous chloride. 2013 Int Ophthalmol.
Vol. 33(6), pp. 725-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Chemical injuries are potentially devastating ocular accidents that can lead to permanent damage to the ocular surface and visual loss. The majority of serious chemical injuries occur in factory workers who are exposed to hazardous chemicals in their day-to-day life. The ocular effects of commonly encountered acids and alkalis are well documented in the literature. Here we report briefly on the corneal and other ocular effects of stannous chloride, which is sparsely reported in the currently available literature.
BibTeX:
@article{JainP2013,
  author = {Jain P, Khanduja S, Chugh JP.},
  title = {Corneal manifestations in chemical injury with stannous chloride.},
  journal = {Int Ophthalmol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {33(6)},
  pages = {725-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-013-9720-z}
}
Khanduja S, Khurana A, Sachdeva S, Rathi A, Khurana AK Tractor nail as impacted foreign body: rare case scenario. 2013 Int Ophthalmol.
Vol. 33(3), pp. 291-3 
article DOI  
Abstract: A patient presented with a metallic nail impacted in the right orbital floor after being hit by a projectile. The nail was disimpacted and removed as guided by the radiograph image. Radiography proved helpful in forming a coherent scheme for case management.
BibTeX:
@article{KhandujaS2013,
  author = {Khanduja S, Khurana A, Sachdeva S, Rathi A, Khurana AK.},
  title = {Tractor nail as impacted foreign body: rare case scenario.},
  journal = {Int Ophthalmol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {33(3)},
  pages = {291-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-012-9705-3}
}
Kumar A, McCormick A, Bhargava JS Temporary Gortex (polytetrafluoroethylene) spacer for the treatment of fornix shortening following severe alkali chemical injury. 2011 Orbit.
Vol. 30(5), pp. 252-4 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Gortex is an inert, smooth, flexible material, which is well tolerated in situ. We describe a case of fornix shortening secondary to alkali injury, which was treated successfully with a temporary Gortex patch.
METHOD:
Retrospective case report.
RESULTS:
A patient with Grade IV chemical injury developed significant symblepharon formation 47 days after the initial injury. Following an initial failed mucous membrane graft the patient had a Gortex patch sutured into the upper lid fornix which acted as a spacer to allow epithelisation of the bulbar conjunctiva. The Gortex patch was removed after 25 days, and at 6 months' follow-up, there was no recurrence of symblepharon formation.
CONCLUSION:
Industry-related severe ocular chemical injury is a rare occurrence. It can lead to symblepharon formation and destruction of the conjunctival fornix. In this case a Gortex spacer was successfully used to prevent symblepharon formation and reform the upper eyelid fornix after severe chemical injury.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2011,
  author = {Kumar A, McCormick A, Bhargava JS.},
  title = {Temporary Gortex (polytetrafluoroethylene) spacer for the treatment of fornix shortening following severe alkali chemical injury.},
  journal = {Orbit.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {30(5)},
  pages = {252-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01676830.2011.574772}
}
Kumar L, Saloni, Rao J, Mattoo KA, Yadav A Finger prosthesis with an alternative approach. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak.
Vol. 22(1), pp. 58-60 
article DOI  
Abstract: This report describes the case of a 42 years old male patient whose one right hand finger was partially lost as a result of occupational trauma. A modified impression technique was used for impression making and wax pattern was fabricated using the normal hand of the same patient. A special type of wax was formulated to make a pattern which was easily molded and carved. Two indexed casts were used to determine the length of fingers. Intrinsic and extrinsic staining was also done to match the adjacent skin colour. A ring was used as a retentive method. The patient was highly appreciative of the social acceptance after he started wearing the finger prosthesis
BibTeX:
@article{KumarL,
  author = {Kumar L, Saloni, Rao J, Mattoo KA, Yadav A},
  title = {Finger prosthesis with an alternative approach.},
  journal = {J Coll Physicians Surg Pak.},
  volume = {22(1)},
  pages = {58-60},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/01.2012/JCPSP.5860}
}
Chalupka S Lockout and tagout procedures to prevent occupational injury and fatality. 2011 AAOHN J
Vol. 59(7), pp. 324 
article DOI  
Abstract: Hazardous energy control programs that include lockout and tagout procedures as well as worker training can prevent serious injury and death during machine maintenance.
BibTeX:
@article{S.2011,
  author = {Chalupka S.},
  title = {Lockout and tagout procedures to prevent occupational injury and fatality.},
  journal = {AAOHN J},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {59(7)},
  pages = {324},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/08910162-20110624-08}
}
Chalupka S Trenching and excavation-preventing workplace fatalities. 2011 AAOHN J.
Vol. 59(9), pp. 408 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{S.2011a,
  author = {Chalupka S.},
  title = {Trenching and excavation-preventing workplace fatalities.},
  journal = {AAOHN J.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {59(9)},
  pages = {408},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/08910162-20110825-05}
}
Vyas H, Das S, Mehta S Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers. 2011 Ind Health.
Vol. 49(5), pp. 642-51 
article  
Abstract: Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. The study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to male workers (N=153). The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries. Cuts were the chief injuries being reported. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, suffering from poor health and psycho-social stressors were associated with injury occurrence amongst automobile repair workers.
BibTeX:
@article{VyasH2011,
  author = {Vyas H, Das S, Mehta S.},
  title = {Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers.},
  journal = {Ind Health.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {49(5)},
  pages = {642-51}
}
Abbasi T, Abbasi SA Dust explosions-cases, causes, consequences, and
control
2007 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 140(1-2), pp. 7-44 
article  
Abstract: Dust explosions pose the most serious and widespread of explosion hazards in
the process industry alongside vapour cloud explosions (VCE) and boiling
liquid expanding vapour explosions (BLEVE). Dust explosions almost always
lead to serious financial losses in terms of damage to facilities and down time.
They also often cause serious injuries to personnel, and fatalities. We present
the gist of the dust explosion state-of-the-art. Illustrative case studies and past
accident analyses reflect the high frequency, geographic spread, and damage
potential of dust explosions across the world. The sources and triggers of dust
explosions, and the measures with which different factors associated with dust
explosions can be quantified are reviewed alongside dust explosion
mechanism. The rest of the review is focused on the ways available to prevent
dust explosion, and on cushioning the impact of a dust explosion by venting
when the accident does take place.
BibTeX:
@article{AbbasiT2007,
  author = {Abbasi T, Abbasi SA},
  title = {Dust explosions-cases, causes, consequences, and
control}, journal = {J Hazard Mater.}, year = {2007}, volume = {140(1-2)}, pages = {7-44} }
Ambade VN, Godbole HV, Dixit PG, Kukde HG Accidental ligature strangulation due to crop
thrasher
2008 J Forensic Leg Med.
Vol. 15(4), pp. 263-5 
article  
Abstract: Forty five years male was accidentally strangled when his shawl was caught in
a moving electrical crop thrasher used for separating the grains from dry crops
kept after cutting in the field. He was immediately taken to the nearest hospital.
He was unconscious. He died after six days. Accidental ligature strangulation
in this fashion due to such electrical machine is very rare and not reported
previously to the best of our knowledge.
BibTeX:
@article{AmbadeVN2008,
  author = {Ambade VN, Godbole HV, Dixit PG, Kukde HG.},
  title = {Accidental ligature strangulation due to crop
thrasher}, journal = {J Forensic Leg Med.}, year = {2008}, volume = {15(4)}, pages = {263-5} }
Divatia AS Ocular problems in cotton industry 1968 J All India Ophthalmol Soc.
Vol. 16(4), pp. 192-5 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{AS1968,
  author = {Divatia AS},
  title = {Ocular problems in cotton industry},
  journal = {J All India Ophthalmol Soc.},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {16(4)},
  pages = {192-5}
}
Babhulkar SS, Pande KC, Babhulkar S Bowing injury of forearm in an adult 1995 Injury
Vol. 26(4), pp. 277-8 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{BabhulkarSS1995,
  author = {Babhulkar SS, Pande KC, Babhulkar S},
  title = {Bowing injury of forearm in an adult},
  journal = {Injury},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {26(4)},
  pages = {277-8}
}
Badjate SJ, Cariappa KM Scapholunate dislocation: a rare occupational
hazard
2007 Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg.
Vol. 45(3), pp. 236-7 
article  
Abstract: Dentists and their assistants are at risk of physical injuries during dental
operations. The most common injuries are musculoskeletal. The need to work
in a fixed working position using continuous repetitive movements can
predispose dentists to wrist ache, lower backache, and neckache. We
encountered a rare case of scapholunate dislocation with ligamentous injury,
an unusual complication of extraction of teeth.
BibTeX:
@article{BadjateSJ2007,
  author = {Badjate SJ, Cariappa KM.},
  title = {Scapholunate dislocation: a rare occupational
hazard}, journal = {Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg.}, year = {2007}, volume = {45(3)}, pages = {236-7} }
Balasubramanya R, Rani A, Madhusudan, Sangwan VS Expansive mortar-induced ocular injury 2006 Indian J Ophthalmol.
Vol. 54(4), pp. 269-70 
article  
Abstract: We describe here a case of bilateral chemical injury (with an expansive mortar
which is being used in recent times to cut the rocks). On examination limbal
ischemia was more in the left eye (9 clock hours) than the right eye (2 clock
hours). The case was managed by bilateral removal of foreign bodies, along
with conjunctival resection and amniotic membrane transplantation in the left
eye. At six-month follow-up, patient had best corrected visual acuity of 20/30
and 20/60 in the right and left eyes respectively. Since this being an
occupational hazard, proper eye protection gear should be used by persons
using this expansive mortar.
BibTeX:
@article{BalasubramanyaR2006,
  author = {Balasubramanya R, Rani A; Madhusudan, Sangwan VS.},
  title = {Expansive mortar-induced ocular injury},
  journal = {Indian J Ophthalmol.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {54(4)},
  pages = {269-70}
}
Bali R, Sharma P, Angi S, Shruti Needle stick injuries in health care providers 2008 Nurs J India.
Vol. 99(11), pp. 251-4 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{BaliR2008,
  author = {Bali R, Sharma P, Angi S, Shruti.},
  title = {Needle stick injuries in health care providers},
  journal = {Nurs J India.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {99(11)},
  pages = {251-4}
}
Bali R, Sharma P, Garg A Incidence and patterns of needlestick injuries
during intermaxillary fixation
2011 Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg.
Vol. 49(3), pp. 221-4 
article  
Abstract: Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) carries an appreciable risk of occupational
exposure to bloodborne viruses. Our aim was to establish the incidence and
patterns of needlestick injuries during IMF at DAV Dental College. We
surveyed 12 residents working in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery for 1
year (December 2008 to December 2009) to find out how many injuries
occurred during IMF. A total of 40 needlestick injuries were recorded during
172 IMF procedures (23%). Most injuries occurred in the maxillary left quadrant
(n=16, 40%). Procedures done during the night had a much higher incidence
(13/29, 45%) compared with 27/153 (18%) done during the day. Of the 40
injuries, 31 (78%) were recorded as superficial, the rest being deep. All injuries
affected the non-working hand, and 39 (98%) were caused by a wire. Surgeons
are at high risk of occupational exposure to bloodborne viruses from
needlestick injuries during IMF. Detailed attention to the pattern of these
injuries could help to develop improved strategies to minimise the incidence.
BibTeX:
@article{BaliR2011,
  author = {Bali R, Sharma P, Garg A.},
  title = {Incidence and patterns of needlestick injuries
during intermaxillary fixation}, journal = {Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg.}, year = {2011}, volume = {49(3)}, pages = {221-4} }
Bazroy J, Roy G, Sahai A, Soudarssanane MB Magnitude and risk factors of injuries in a glass
bottle manufacturing plant
2003 J Occup Health.
Vol. 45(1), pp. 53-9. 
article  
Abstract: A study was conducted in a glass bottle manufacturing plant in Pondicherry,
India, to assess the magnitude and identify the risk factors of work-related
injuries between January and December 1998. Three hundred and seventyseven
injuries were reported among 341 permanent workers followed up for
one year (incidence=1,105.5/1,000 workers/yr). A higher load of injuries was
noted in the first half of the night shifts and the second half of the other three
shifts. Injuries were higher in the second half of the week and during the first
half of the year. Hands and wrists were the most common sites of injury
(40.6%), whereas the eye, foot, ankles and other body parts had 30%, 14.6%,
10.6% and 4.2% of injuries respectively. The commonest type of injury was
cuts and lacerations (50.1%); injuries to the eye (due to foreign bodies,
chemicals and welding sparks) accounted for 30%, sprains 8% and burns 7.1%
of the injuries. A cohort of 75 workers chosen from the 341 permanent workers
were followed up for the one year for identification of risk factors. Significant
risk factors were age (less than 30 yr) and experience (less than 2 yr).
Technical factors responsible for injury were a hazardous worksite in 37
(38.5%) cases, inadequate protection with safety wear in 32 (33%) cases and
proximity to machines in 14 (14.6%) cases. Human factors identified were nonuse
of protective wear in 43 (45%), overconfidence in 18 (18.7%) and timing
error while working with machines in 11 (11.4%) episodes.
BibTeX:
@article{BazroyJ2003,
  author = {Bazroy J, Roy G, Sahai A, Soudarssanane MB.},
  title = {Magnitude and risk factors of injuries in a glass
bottle manufacturing plant}, journal = {J Occup Health.}, year = {2003}, volume = {45(1)}, pages = {53-9.} }
Bhattacharya V, Sinha JK, Tripathi FM Management of scalp injuries 1982 J Trauma.
Vol. 22(8), pp. 698-702 
article  
Abstract: Scalp avulsions of various origin are frequently seen, owing to rapid
industrialization and the increased incidence of road-traffic accidents. This
article deals with 20 such cases seen and treated by the authors in the last 5
years. The victims were predominantly young females. The anatomic and
pathophysiologic aspects of avulsion injury are considered in detail, and
various modalities of treatment are discussed. With intact pericranium, splitskin
grafting remains the treatment of choice. In the presence of bare bone,
local flap is preferred, if feasible. If not, then the outer table of the skull is
chiseled out or multiple drilling is done through it to accelerate the formation of
granulation tissue. Subsequently, this is covered by split-skin grafting. Of
course, the grafts do not grow hair and the patients need to wear a wig for total
psychological and functional rehabilitation. Prevention remains still the best
remedy.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaV1982,
  author = {Bhattacharya V, Sinha JK, Tripathi FM},
  title = {Management of scalp injuries},
  journal = {J Trauma.},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {22(8)},
  pages = {698-702}
}
Bhattacherjee A at el. Relationships of physical job tasks and living
conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners
2007 Ind Health.
Vol. 45(2), pp. 352-8 
article  
Abstract: This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with
occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly
selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized selfadministred
questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression
method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks
with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools,
pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and
walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and
muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the
number of job tasks (JT) and injuries (adjusted ORs vs. JT 0-1: 2.21, 95%CI
1.27-3.86 for JT 2-6 and 3.82, 2.14-6.82 for JT>or=7), and significant
ORs>or=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug
use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also
significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions
strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers
to find remedial measures.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacherjeeA2007,
  author = {Bhattacherjee A, Bertrand JP, Meyer JP, Benamghar L, Otero
Sierra C, Michaely JP, Ghosh AK, d'Houtaud A, Mur JM, Chau N;
Lorhandicap Group}, title = {Relationships of physical job tasks and living
conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners}, journal = {Ind Health.}, year = {2007}, volume = {45(2)}, pages = {352-8} }
Bhattacherjee A at el. Relationships of job and some individual
characteristics to occupational injuries in employed
people: a community-based study
2003 J Occup Health.
Vol. 45(6), pp. 382-91 
article  
Abstract: This study assessed the associations of job and some individual factors with
occupational injuries among employed people from a general population in
north-eastern France; 2,562 workers were randomly selected from the working
population. A mailed auto-questionnaire was filled in by each subject.
Statistical analysis was performed with loglinear models. The annual incidence
rate of at least one occupational injury was 4.45%. Significant contributing
factors for occupational injuries were job category (60.8%), sex (16.2%),
regular psychotropic drug use (8.5%), age groups (7.5%), and presence of a
disease (7.0%). The men had higher risk than the women (adjusted odds-ratio
1.99, 95% CI 1.43-2.78). Compared to executives, intellectual professionals
and teachers, labourers had the highest risk (6.40, 3.55-11.52). They were
followed by farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen (6.18, 2.86-13.08), technicians
(3.14, 1.41-6.70), employees (2.94, 1.59-5.48) and other subjects (3.87, 1.90-
7.88). The young (< or = 29 yr) showed an increased risk. Similar odds-ratios
were observed for regular psychotropic drug use (1.54, 1.16-2.05) and the
presence of a disease (1.50, 1.11-2.02). Univariate analysis showed that
smoking habit, overweight and excess alcohol use were also associated with
injuries. The loglinear model results showed that there were associations
between some of these independent factors. It was concluded that job, sex,
young age, smoking habit, excess alcohol use, overweight, psychotropic drug
use, and disease influenced the occupational injuries. Preventive measures
concerning work conditions, risk assessment and job knowledge should be
conducted in overall active population, especially in men, young workers,
smokers, alcohol users, overweight workers and in individuals with a disease
or psychosomatic disorders.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacherjeeA2003,
  author = {Bhattacherjee A, Chau N, Sierra CO, Legras B, Benamghar L,
Michaely JP, Ghosh AK, Guillemin F, Ravaud JF, Mur JM;
Lorhandicap Group}, title = {Relationships of job and some individual
characteristics to occupational injuries in employed
people: a community-based study}, journal = {J Occup Health.}, year = {2003}, volume = {45(6)}, pages = {382-91} }
Biyani A, Sharma JC, Mathur NC Plantar panmetatarsophalangeal dislocation--a
hyperflexion injury
1998 J Trauma.
Vol. 28(6), pp. 868-9 
article  
Abstract: A rare panmetatarsophalangeal dislocation of the foot in a young male is
described. Hyperflexion was instrumental in causing this injury. The dislocation
was in the plantar direction.
BibTeX:
@article{BiyaniA1998,
  author = {Biyani A, Sharma JC, Mathur NC},
  title = {Plantar panmetatarsophalangeal dislocation--a
hyperflexion injury}, journal = {J Trauma.}, year = {1998}, volume = {28(6)}, pages = {868-9} }
Sarma BP Epidemiology and man-days loss in burn injuries
amongst workers in an oil industry
2001 Burns.
Vol. 27(5), pp. 475-80 
article  
Abstract: This retrospective study, conducted at the Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (Assam
Oil Division) Hospital, Digboi, in a period of 5 yr amongst workers of IOC Ltd.
(AOD) describes work-associated injuries. Out of 2320 cases of different types
of injuries involving workers over this period, 820 (35.3%) occurred at the
workplace. 1430 (61.6%) at home or other places and 70 (3.1%) occurred on
way to the workplace. Burn injuries were found in 132 cases (5.8% of the total
injuries), but constituted 12.6% of the accidents at the workplace. The majority
of the other injuries were soft tissue injuries, including sprains 1288 (55.5%)
and hand injuries 688 (29.5%). Major burns (above 20% BSB) were found only
in 5 cases. The most common sites of involvement in minor burns were the
hands (45 cases), the legs (35 cases) and face (20 cases) with the remaining
involving the chest and abdomen. Scald injury was observed in 66/132 (50%)
cases, contact burns in 13/132 (10%) cases, flame burns in 33/132 (25%)
cases, chemical burns in 11/132 (8.3%), and electrical burns in 9/132 (7%)
cases. Mortality was 1.5%. Working days lost (man-days loss) in burn injuries
was found to be higher in comparison to other injuries of similar severity.
Causation of industrial burns is discussed and importance of prevention of
burns in industries has been emphasised.
BibTeX:
@article{BP2001,
  author = {Sarma BP},
  title = {Epidemiology and man-days loss in burn injuries
amongst workers in an oil industry}, journal = {Burns.}, year = {2001}, volume = {27(5)}, pages = {475-80} }
Sathiyasekaran BW Accident trauma--a descriptive hospital study 1991 J R Soc Health.
Vol. 111(1), pp. 10-1 
article  
Abstract: The study was conducted at the casualty department of Government General
Hospital, Madras, South India. Accident trauma patients, 1906, have attended
the above department during a continuous period of one month round the
clock and accounted for 15.3% of the total attendance of patients to the
casualty department. Of those brought to hospital following accident trauma
1.8% were dead, 35.1% were due to road traffic accidents, 21.7% to household
accidents and 20.9% to occupational accidents. Of the accident traumas 46.9%
occurred in the age group 21-40 years. Males accounted for 80% of the
patients. Injuries involving lower extremities accounted for 35.4% of the total
injuries; head injuries accounted for 29.5%. Of the injuries 5.8% were life
threatening, 7.4% severely disabling, 35.9% disabling and the rest were trivial
injuries.
BibTeX:
@article{BW1991,
  author = {Sathiyasekaran BW},
  title = {Accident trauma--a descriptive hospital study},
  journal = {J R Soc Health.},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {111(1)},
  pages = {10-1}
}
Walls C Accident consultations in one month in a semirural
town
1988 N Z Med J.
Vol. 101(847 Pt 1), pp. 373-4 
article  
Abstract: General practice statistics for the month of July 1986 were analysed from a
semirural town. There were 498 accident consultations and Maoris tended to
be underrepresented. Thirty six percent of accidents were at work, 30% in the
home and 12.6% in sports. Twenty three percent of the accidents involved no
time off work and 32% had up to a week off. Thirty percent made a claim for
earnings related compensation to ACC. Eight patients had prolonged periods
off work.
BibTeX:
@article{C1988,
  author = {Walls C},
  title = {Accident consultations in one month in a semirural
town}, journal = {N Z Med J.}, year = {1988}, volume = {101(847 Pt 1)}, pages = {373-4} }
Chagas Silva M, Gaunekar G, Patel V, Kukalekar DS, Fernandes J The prevalence and correlates of hazardous
drinking in industrial workers: a study from Goa,
India
2003 Alcohol.
Vol. 38(1), pp. 79-83 
article  
Abstract: Aims:
This study aimed to describe the prevalence and associations of hazardous
drinking in a male industrial worker population in India.
Methods:
A total of 984 subjects from a randomly selected sample of 1013 workers from
four industries in Goa, India, were recruited. Interviews included the 10-item
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as an indicator of hazardous
drinking and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) as a measure
of common mental disorders (CMDs). Results: The prevalence of hazardous
drinking, defined as an AUDIT score of more than 8 was 21%. There was a
significant association with CMD (OR 2, P = 0.003). Hazardous drinking was
significantly associated with severe health problems, such as head injuries and
hospitalization, whereas CMD was found to be a confounder in its association
with adverse economic outcomes.
Conclusions:
Hazardous drinking is common among male industrial workers in Goa.
Interventions in the workplace must target both drinking problems and CMDs,
since they often co-exist and are associated with different types of adverse
outcomes.
BibTeX:
@article{ChagasSilvaM2003,
  author = {Chagas Silva M, Gaunekar G, Patel V, Kukalekar DS,
Fernandes J}, title = {The prevalence and correlates of hazardous
drinking in industrial workers: a study from Goa,
India}, journal = {Alcohol.}, year = {2003}, volume = {38(1)}, pages = {79-83} }
Chakravarthy M, Singh S, Arora A, Sengupta S, Munshi N The epinet data of four Indian hospitals on
incidence of exposure of healthcare workers to
blood and body fluid: a multicentric prospective
analysis
2010 Indian J Med Sci.
Vol. 64(12), pp. 540-8. 
article  
Abstract: Background: Sharps injury (SI) and blood and body fluid exposure are
occupational hazards to healthcare workers (HCWs). Although data from the
developed countries have shown the enormity of the problem, data from
developing countries, such as India, arelacking.
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to cumulate data from four major
hospitals in India and analyze the incidence of SI and blood and body fluid
exposure in HCWs.
Materials and methods: Four Indian hospitals (hospital A, B, C and D) from
major cities of India participated in this multicentric study. Data ranging from 6
to 26 months were collected from these hospitals using Exposure Prevention
Information network (EPINet), which is the database, created by International
Healthcare Worker Safety Research and Resource Center, University of
Virginia.
Results: Two hundred and forty-three sharp injuries and 22 incidents of blood
or body fluid exposure were encountered in the cumulated 50 months of our
study. The incidence of Sis was the highest among nurses (55%) of all the
HCWs, akin to the global data. An injury rate of nearly 20% among
housekeeping staff seems to be specific to the Indian data. Patient's room
followed by operation theatre appeared to be common locations of injury in our
study. The source of the injury was identified in majority (64%) of the injuries. A
major part of the group was not the primary users of the sharp (38%).
Disposable needles caused nearly half of the injuries. Suture needles
contributed to a reasonable number of injuries in one of the hospitals.
Conclusions: The incidence of SI is the highest among nurses and the
housekeeping staff (>30% each). A substantial number of injuries are
avoidable.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakravarthyM2010,
  author = {Chakravarthy M, Singh S, Arora A, Sengupta S, Munshi N.},
  title = {The epinet data of four Indian hospitals on
incidence of exposure of healthcare workers to
blood and body fluid: a multicentric prospective
analysis}, journal = {Indian J Med Sci.}, year = {2010}, volume = {64(12)}, pages = {540-8.} }
Chattopadhyay S, Pal I Survival following accidental ligature strangulation:
a case report
2008 J Forensic Leg Med.
Vol. 15(1), pp. 53-5 
article  
Abstract: Survival following accidental ligature strangulation is quite rare. The present
case involves an adult male strangulated by a soft cotton cloth entangled in the
rotor of a machine. Unilateral neck compression allowed survival of the victim.
The victim escaped with minimal injuries which were limited to contusion of the
neck and edema of the vocal cords and inter arytenoid region.
BibTeX:
@article{ChattopadhyayS2008,
  author = {Chattopadhyay S, Pal I.},
  title = {Survival following accidental ligature strangulation:
a case report}, journal = {J Forensic Leg Med.}, year = {2008}, volume = {15(1)}, pages = {53-5} }
Chugh SN, Mehta LK, Malhotra KC Disseminated intravascular coagulation 1989 J Assoc Physicians India.
Vol. 37(10), pp. 654-7 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{ChughSN1989,
  author = {Chugh SN, Mehta LK, Malhotra KC},
  title = {Disseminated intravascular coagulation},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {37(10)},
  pages = {654-7}
}
Mohan D Injuries and the 'poor' worker 1987 Ergonomics.
Vol. 30(2), pp. 373-7 
article  
Abstract: It is commonly assumed that occupational injuries are less of a problem in
developing countries because there is less industrialization. Spot studies
reveal, however, that injuries are a serious problem among miners, agricultural
workers, and industrial workers in most countries
Each nation differs greatly in its level of industrialization, laws, working
conditions, and range of products. Those with lower per capita incomes and
lower levels of industrialization are likely to have more decentralized production
which is less likely to be controlled effectively. Workers in developing countries
are more likely to be injured; injuries are more likely to be disabling; and
rehabilitation services more likely to be unavailable. Workers' transiency makes
it more difficult for them to appreciate hazards which operate over long periods.
Finally, workers' social status and level of organization in many cases greatly
reduces their power to promote change
In this paper, an attempt is made to understand which experiences of the rich
industrialized nations are valid for other nations and what new research needs
to be done.
BibTeX:
@article{D1987,
  author = {Mohan D},
  title = {Injuries and the 'poor' worker},
  journal = {Ergonomics.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {30(2)},
  pages = {373-7}
}
Das BC, Chaudhury S Accidents in the aluminium smelting industry 1995 Ind Health.
Vol. 33(4), pp. 191-8 
article  
Abstract: Analysis of the accident records of an aluminium smelting industry, covering
about 2,100 employees, over a period of three years, showed a total of 465
accidents of male employees. Out of these, 5 were fatal, 40.86% were from
contacts with extreme temperatures, causing burn injury to 42.58%. Hot
materials were the agents causing 44.52% of the burn injuries. Molten
aluminium constituted 43.96% amongst hot materials. Injury to lower limbs
constituted 38.71% and that to upper limbs 36.99%. The accidents occurring to
the employees, in the age group of 26-33 years, amounted to 61.72% of the
total accidents. The average number of man-days lost per year was 11,153.
Average frequency rate of accidents was 30.75 accidents per million manhours
worked. Severity rate of accidents was 2.196 per million man-hours
worked. Incident rate per thousand employees was 73.81. Average number of
days lost per accidents was 71.95 days and average duration of man-hours
between accidents was 32,516. Mean age of the employees, who met with the
accidents were 29.53 years. Share of accidents in the second half of each shift
was always more than that in the first half, and this average was 66.66%.
BibTeX:
@article{DasBC1995,
  author = {Das BC, Chaudhury S},
  title = {Accidents in the aluminium smelting industry},
  journal = {Ind Health.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {33(4)},
  pages = {191-8}
}
David SS, Goel K Knowledge, attitude, and practice of sugarcane
crushers towards hand injury prevention strategies
in India
2002 Inj Prev.
Vol. 7(4), pp. 329-30 
article  
Abstract: Introduction:
Injuries of the hand have an enormous impact on hand function and on quality
of life. Occupational injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in
India and their incidence has been steadily increasing. Sugarcane crushers
produce juice using dangerous procedures.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and
practices among sugarcane crushers in India and thus assist in the formulation
of effective preventive strategies.
Setting:
A block (area) in the Vellore District, South India (population 100 000).
Subjects and methods:
All sugarcane crushers living in this area (n = 32) were included. A single
observer, using a questionnaire, conducted personal on-site interviews.
Results:
Carelessness was involved in 63% of injuries. Sixteen per cent felt that
machines with improved safety features are required; 40% supported the use
of special gloves, although 19% considered them a hindrance. Eighty eight per
cent did not consider the long duration of work as a risk factor and 38% were
fatalistic (God's will); 50% thought the injuries were due to "bad luck".
Conclusion:
Sugarcane crushers do not perceive the need for safer equipment. To
overcome fatalistic views, and persuade this group to take other safety
measures, safety education will need to take into consideration their
socioeconomic and educational status.
67 Gupta
BibTeX:
@article{DavidSS2002,
  author = {David SS, Goel K},
  title = {Knowledge, attitude, and practice of sugarcane
crushers towards hand injury prevention strategies
in India}, journal = {Inj Prev.}, year = {2002}, volume = {7(4)}, pages = {329-30} }
Sharma DC Delhi radiation leak exposes lax safety procedures 2010 Lancet Oncol.
Vol. 11(6), pp. 518. 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{DC.2010,
  author = {Sharma DC.},
  title = {Delhi radiation leak exposes lax safety procedures},
  journal = {Lancet Oncol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {11(6)},
  pages = {518.}
}
Dega S, Gnaneswar SG, Rao PR, Ramani P, Krishna DM Electrical burn injuries. Some unusual clinical
situations and management
2007 Burns.
Vol. 33(5), pp. 653-65 
article  
Abstract: A retrospective and prospective management of 665 patients of electrical burn
injuries out of 10,000 burn cases admitted between 1996 and 2004 (9 years)
was analyzed. The problems encountered and their solutions are presented.
One hundred and fifty-five (155) of them had their limbs amputated, i.e. (24%).
The pathophysiology of electrical injury is reviewed. Serial and multiple
debridement of wounds were performed, preserving the nerves, tendons, joints
and bones even if denatured to preserve the continuity as these could
regenerate partially if covered with vascularised skin. Functional outcome of an
electrical burn wound is inversely proportional to the time lapsed before start of
reconstructive procedure/s. Infrastructural limitations like severe shortage of
blood, and surgical materials due to a disparity between demand and supply
added to the poor general condition of the patient unfavorably delayed the start
of reconstruction and precipitated "an unusual clinical situation". The aim of
management has been to obtain a healthy wound, which could support an inset
of a skin edge. Under these situations, a stable wound was obtained on the
12th day [average]. Split skin grafts and loco-regional flaps, using time-old
principles of rotation, advancement, transposition served well in most of our
cases. Through this paper, some unusual wounds in unusual clinical situations,
which were managed with various methods of reconstruction, following the
reconstructive ladder are presented.
BibTeX:
@article{DegaS2007,
  author = {Dega S, Gnaneswar SG, Rao PR, Ramani P, Krishna DM},
  title = {Electrical burn injuries. Some unusual clinical
situations and management}, journal = {Burns.}, year = {2007}, volume = {33(5)}, pages = {653-65} }
Doctor AM, Mathew J, Ellur S, Ananthram AA Three-flap cover for total hand degloving 2010 J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg.
Vol. 63(4):e, pp. 402-5. 
article  
Abstract: Re-surfacing after a total hand degloving injury is one of the most difficult
management problems in hand surgery. We present one such case that was
managed using three flaps for cover. The radial forearm flap is very thin and
pliable, resulting in satisfactory coverage of first web space and the thumb
remnant, and facilitates a mobile thumb. The groin-hypogastric flap covered the
remnant fingers admirably. The patient had a good first web and could use the
hand to lift objects and hold a pen to write legibly within 2 months of the injury.
BibTeX:
@article{DoctorAM2010,
  author = {Doctor AM, Mathew J, Ellur S, Ananthram AA.},
  title = {Three-flap cover for total hand degloving},
  journal = {J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {63(4):e},
  pages = {402-5.}
}
Dogra PN, Gautam G, Ansari MS Penile amputation and emasculation: hazards of
modern agricultural machinery
2004 Int Urol Nephrol.
Vol. 36(3), pp. 379-80 
article  
Abstract: We report a case of 20-year-old farmer with penile amputation and
emasculation secondary to crushing injury inflicted by agricultural machinery.
His entire penis, scrotum and both the testis had been avulsed after falling onto
a rotating axel wheel of an electronically driven thrashing machine. After
resuscitation the wound was thoroughly washed with saline, hemostasis
achieved and a perineal urethrostomy was made from the remnant urethra.
BibTeX:
@article{DograPN2004,
  author = {Dogra PN, Gautam G, Ansari MS.},
  title = {Penile amputation and emasculation: hazards of
modern agricultural machinery}, journal = {Int Urol Nephrol.}, year = {2004}, volume = {36(3)}, pages = {379-80} }
de Freitas CM, de S Porte MF, Gomez CM Amplified chemical disasters: a challenge for public
health
1995 Rev Saude Publica.
Vol. 29(6), pp. 503-14 
article  
Abstract: Chemical accidents involving explosions, large fires and leakages of hazardous
substances occurring during transport, storage and industrial production of
chemicals constitute a real challenge to health, environmental and industrial
safety professionals. The aim of this article is to discuss the main questions
that this kind of accident provokes, in terms of public health, particularly in
developing countries such as Brazil. The paper defines and characterises
these accidents and the various health risk they involve excluding the leakages
of hazardous substances during "normal" production in industry--through the
combination of quantitative and qualitative information drawn from the
international literature on the subject. From some examples of chemical
accidents such as occurred in Bhopal (India), Vila Socó (Brazil), São Paulo
(México) and data of the World Health Organization (WHO), the authors seek
to show that these events present a worsening, in terms of immediate deaths
and injuries, in developing countries. The statistics of chemical accidents which
occurred during the last ten years (1984 to 1993) in the State of Rio de Janeiro
are used taken as a frame reference for the purpose of bringing to light the
great number of occurrences made with no registration of basic information
regarding assessment or surveillance. The complexity of causes and
consequences, together with the structural problems of developing countries,
present public health professionals and institutions, with some important tasks
especially those of health risk assessment and the formulation of strategies to
prevent and control future major chemical accidents.
BibTeX:
@article{FreitasCM1995,
  author = {de Freitas CM, de S Porte MF, Gomez CM},
  title = {Amplified chemical disasters: a challenge for public
health}, journal = {Rev Saude Publica.}, year = {1995}, volume = {29(6)}, pages = {503-14} }
Gahankari D, Tambwekar S, Rana RE Flexor carpi radialis opponensplasty 1996 Br J Plast Surg.
Vol. 49(6), pp. 401-3 
article  
Abstract: Although numerous opponensplasties are described, the options are limited
when the median and ulnar nerves and the flexor tendons are injured. We
describe a new tendon transfer using the previously injured flexor carpi radialis
combined with a fascia lata graft for opponensplasty in a patient who had a
wrist injury resulting in division of all his flexor tendons, except flexor carpi
ulnaris, and the median and ulnar nerves.
BibTeX:
@article{GahankariD1996,
  author = {Gahankari D, Tambwekar S, Rana RE},
  title = {Flexor carpi radialis opponensplasty},
  journal = {Br J Plast Surg.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {49(6)},
  pages = {401-3}
}
Gangopadhyay S, Ghosh T, Das T, Ghoshal G, Das B Impact of injuries on work performance among the
surgical blacksmiths of West Bengal
2007 Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot.
Vol. 14(2), pp. 85-92 
article  
Abstract: The manufacture of surgical instruments is one of the leading small-scale
industrial sectors in West Bengal, India. The present study was undertaken to
assess the rate, type and cause of injury incidents among surgical blacksmiths
and whether these incidents affected the work performance of the blacksmiths.
A cluster of 216 skilled and 225 unskilled blacksmiths (male), engaged in the
manufacture of surgical instruments, was selected from Baruipur subdivision as
study subjects. The study included: 1) completion of a questionnaire; 2)
measurement of physical parameters; 3) incident records; 4) statistical analysis
of the data. The present study revealed that the blacksmiths suffered very
frequently from work-related injuries. The number of injuries that occurred
during 2004 - 2005 for skilled and unskilled blacksmiths was 1413 and 1610
respectively. Unskilled blacksmiths were disproportionately affected. These
injuries resulted in a high rate of lost workdays, i.e. 517 and 742 workdays for
skilled and unskilled workers respectively. The study thus indicated that
surgical blacksmiths are highly prone to injuries in their occupation, mostly
affecting the fingers (23% and 23%) and back region (21.7% and 22%) in both
groups, which consequently affected their health, productivity and work
performance.
BibTeX:
@article{GangopadhyayS2007,
  author = {Gangopadhyay S, Ghosh T, Das T, Ghoshal G, Das B.},
  title = {Impact of injuries on work performance among the
surgical blacksmiths of West Bengal}, journal = {Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot.}, year = {2007}, volume = {14(2)}, pages = {85-92} }
Ganveer GB, Tiwari RR Injury pattern among non-fatal road traffic
accident cases: a cross-sectional study in Central
India
2005 Indian J Med Sci.
Vol. 59(1), pp. 9-12 
article  
Abstract: Research question:
What is the pattern of injuries among non-fatal cases of road traffic accidents?
Objective:
To study the pattern of injuries among non-fatal cases of road traffic accidents
Study design:
Cross-sectional study
Setting:
Nagpur, a city in central India
Participants:
423 non-fatal cases of road traffic accidents reporting for treatment to Indira
Gandhi Medical College, Nagpur during 1999-2000
Study variables:
Demographic characteristics, accident characteristics
Statistical analysis:
Percentages, proportions, Chi-square test
Results:
Out of total 423 subjects, 363 (85.8%) were male while only 60 (14.2%) were
female subjects. Majority of the victims (75%) were in the age group 18- 37
years. Sideways collision was the most common type of accident seen in 269
(63.59%) cases. Two wheelers and LMV were the common vehicle being
involved in accidents (69.97%) and these accidents were almost equally
distributed in both half of the day. Fracture of the bones was the common injury
afflicted to the victims followed by multiple injuries like blunt injury, abrasions
and lacerations. Lower extremity was involved in 192 (45.39%) cases while
multiple sites were affected in 114 (26.95%) cases.
Conclusions:
In the present study, the fractures were the commonest injury among the
victims of non-fatal road traffic accidents.
BibTeX:
@article{GanveerGB2005,
  author = {Ganveer GB, Tiwari RR.},
  title = {Injury pattern among non-fatal road traffic
accident cases: a cross-sectional study in Central
India}, journal = {Indian J Med Sci.}, year = {2005}, volume = {59(1)}, pages = {9-12} }
Ghosh AK, Bhattacherjee A, Chau N Relationships of working conditions and individual
characteristics to occupational injuries: a casecontrol
study in coal miners
2004 J Occup Health.
Vol. 46(6), pp. 470-80 
article  
Abstract: This study assessed the relationship of age, poor perception of working
condition, poor safety environment, poor management and supervision, risktaking
behavior, emotional instability, negative job involvement, job
dissatisfaction, job stress, and poor safety performance of workers to
occupational injuries. This case-control study was conducted on 202 male coal
miners with at least one occupational injury during a five-year period and 202
male controls with no occupational injury, matched on the job. A standardized
questionnaire administered by individual interviewers was used. Data were
analysed by the logistic regression method. For all workers combined, the
factors with significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) found were: 30-45 and >45
yr age groups (OR vs. <30 yr age group: 1.80, 95% CI 1.02-3.17 and 2.59,
1.38-4.85 respectively), poor perception of working conditions (1.61, CI 1.00-
3.18), emotional instability (2.33, 1.04-5.22), job stress (1.83, 1.00-3.46) and
poor safety performance of workers (3.10, 1.45-6.63). No significant interaction
was found between these risk factors and the job. It was concluded that older
age, poor perception of work conditions, poor work environment, and human
behavioral factors played significant roles in occupational injuries. This
information would help in implementing preventive programs to improve
working conditions and management quality and to help the workers to develop
positive psychological traits, but workers with negative traits such as emotional
instability and older workers should be employed in less demanding jobs.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshAK2004,
  author = {Ghosh AK, Bhattacherjee A, Chau N},
  title = {Relationships of working conditions and individual
characteristics to occupational injuries: a casecontrol
study in coal miners}, journal = {J Occup Health.}, year = {2004}, volume = {46(6)}, pages = {470-80} }
Ghosh DB, Singh G, Banerji SC, Singh M Accidental injuries among technical personnel in
railways at Allahabad
1981 Indian J Med Res.
Vol. 74, pp. 621-9 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshDB1981,
  author = {Ghosh DB, Singh G, Banerji SC, Singh M},
  title = {Accidental injuries among technical personnel in
railways at Allahabad}, journal = {Indian J Med Res.}, year = {1981}, volume = {74}, pages = {621-9} }
Goel I, Khanuja "Ocular injuries in industry"; a survey of six
factories
1968 J All India Ophthalmol Soc.
Vol. 16(4), pp. 183-5 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{GoelI1968,
  author = {Goel I, Khanuja},
  title = {"Ocular injuries in industry"; a survey of six
factories}, journal = {J All India Ophthalmol Soc.}, year = {1968}, volume = {16(4)}, pages = {183-5} }
Gouda HS, Shashidhar, Mestri C Mediastinal emphysema due to an isolated facial
trauma: a case report
2008 Med Sci Law.
Vol. 48(2), pp. 178-80 
article  
Abstract: A case of mediastinal emphysema due to an isolated facial trauma, which
contributed to the death of an adult male, is reported in this article. A thorough
search in the literature reveals only 19 cases of mediastinal emphysema
occurring secondary to facial injury, none of which was fatal.
BibTeX:
@article{GoudaHS2008,
  author = {Gouda HS, Shashidhar, Mestri C},
  title = {Mediastinal emphysema due to an isolated facial
trauma: a case report}, journal = {Med Sci Law.}, year = {2008}, volume = {48(2)}, pages = {178-80} }
Gupta BD, Jani CB Fatal air pressure injuries of the intestine: a case
report
2001 Med Sci Law.
Vol. 41(2), pp. 170-3 
article  
Abstract: This is a case report of a worker in a big industrial company. He was injured by
air, which forcefully entered into his body through his anus while he and his
three co-workers were having fun with an air tube. He succumbed to his
injuries. Details of the case are described. It is presented due to its rarity.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaBD2001,
  author = {Gupta BD, Jani CB},
  title = {Fatal air pressure injuries of the intestine: a case
report}, journal = {Med Sci Law.}, year = {2001}, volume = {41(2)}, pages = {170-3} }
Gupta BD, Singh OG, Mehta RA Death comes through eye: a rare case of
electrocution
2009 Am J Forensic Med Pathol.
Vol. 30(3), pp. 301-2 
article  
Abstract: Injury and death from electric current although rare, are not uncommon. In
majority of the fatalities, death usually results from accidental contact with a
live wire, both in industrial and domestic circumstances. The entry wound is
usually in the hand or foot, with the exit wound being in the opposite hand or
foot touching the earth (or the ground). Rarely, due to a unique position of the
body and circumstances, they may be seen on head, face, neck, mouth, lips,
body trunk, etc. However, here we present a unique site of electrocution, the
eye, which has probably never been reported before. This case was also
accidental in nature.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaBD2009,
  author = {Gupta BD, Singh OG, Mehta RA.},
  title = {Death comes through eye: a rare case of
electrocution}, journal = {Am J Forensic Med Pathol.}, year = {2009}, volume = {30(3)}, pages = {301-2} }
Gupta RC, Bhasin SK, Khanka BS Drive-belt or patta injuries 1982 Injury
Vol. 13(6), pp. 495-9 
article  
Abstract: With increasing electrification and mechanization in rural areas, industrial drivebelt
or patta injuries have posed a serious problem. Most of these severe
injuries come to hospital. Eighty-eight cases admitted to the SRN Hospital
which is attached to MLN Medical College, Allahabad, over 3 years from 1977
to 1979 have been reviewed. This type of injury constituted 3.22 per cent of the
total rural orthopaedic accidents (36.27 per cent of total accidents) and
involved, exclusively, growing children and young people of working age, It was
directly responsible for 9.09 per cent of deaths. This serious and disabling
accident usually resulted from neglect or carelessness of workers and lack of
adequate safety measures.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaRC1982,
  author = {Gupta RC, Bhasin SK, Khanka BS},
  title = {Drive-belt or patta injuries},
  journal = {Injury},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {13(6)},
  pages = {495-9}
}
Gupta S, Jani CB Oxygen cylinders: "life" or "death"? 2009 Afr Health Sci.
Vol. 9(1), pp. 57-60 
article  
Abstract: Oxygen is crucial to maintain and save human life. Other than medical
purposes it is widely used for manufacture of mineral water, fabrication works
and other industrial activities. If adequate precautionary measures are not
adopted while handling, storage or transport of oxygen cylinder or container,
accidental blast may claim human life and other damage as well. The case
involving three victims is presented to highlight various relevant aspects i.e.
autopsy findings, cause/s of blast and recommended precautions are
discussed in the light of oxygen cylinder blast case in an" oxygen filling
factory", claiming three human lives.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaS2009,
  author = {Gupta S, Jani CB},
  title = {Oxygen cylinders: "life" or "death"?},
  journal = {Afr Health Sci.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {9(1)},
  pages = {57-60}
}
Weill H Disaster at Bhopal: the accident, early findings and
respiratory health outlook in those injured
1987 Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir.
Vol. 23(6), pp. 587-90 
article  
Abstract: In December, 1984, in Bhopal, India, a massive leak of methyl isocyanate
(MIC) resulted from operational and equipment malfunctions in a pesticide
plant. Many thousands of residents of the city, most in proximity to the plant,
suffered sublethal and lethal respiratory injuries, the expected consequences of
high-level exposure to this type of potent irritant chemical vapour. Animal
toxicologic information was limited prior to the accident, but has since
confirmed that the lung is the major target of these lethal injuries, invariably
with pulmonary oedema. Early concerns regarding acute cyanide intoxication
were not supported by subsequent scientific inquiry. Superficial corneal
erosions did not result in permanent eye injury. The primary medical (and,
presumably, legal) issue which is unresolved, and perhaps unresolvable, is the
incidence and determinants of long-term respiratory injury in the survivors.
Available evidence, which is limited, suggests that chronic damage, when
present, is, or resembles, fibrosing bronchiolitis obliterans, the expected
consequence when permanent injury results from acute, high-level irritant gas
exposure. Definition of the follow-up population is uncertain, and exposure
information is lacking. Dose-response relationships are not likely to emerge
from follow-up studies.
BibTeX:
@article{H1987,
  author = {Weill H},
  title = {Disaster at Bhopal: the accident, early findings and
respiratory health outlook in those injured}, journal = {Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir.}, year = {1987}, volume = {23(6)}, pages = {587-90} }
Rennie J Trojan horse. Did a protective peptide exacerbate
Bhopal injuries?
1992 Sci Am.
Vol. 266(3):27-8, pp. 27-8 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{J.1992,
  author = {Rennie J.},
  title = {Trojan horse. Did a protective peptide exacerbate
Bhopal injuries?}, journal = {Sci Am.}, year = {1992}, volume = {266(3):27-8}, pages = {27-8} }
Jain BS, Soni SR Ocular injuries: an analytical study in a teaching
general hospital
1987 Indian J Ophthalmol.
Vol. 35(3), pp. 112-6 
article  
Abstract: A total of 319 cases of ocular injuries were examined in a period of 3 years by
us. Out of these only 108 cases needed hospitalization. The total incidence
among patients attending the ophthalmic O.P.D. was 1.43%. The patients had
many different modes of injuries and the ocular tissue involved differed in many
ways but notably injuries among stone crushers were in abundance (157
cases) in this region The injuries lead to partial blindness in 52.3% and total
blindness in 11.6% of cases
Sight is the most cared for function of the human Although, nature has
provided a protective bony wall and lids to cover the eye to protect it from
injury, still it is exposed to all types of trauma. In most of the cases of ocular
injuries, it is the anterior segment of the eye, including conjunctiva cornea, iris,
lens, and the angle of the anterior chamber, which bear the brunt of direct as
well as indirect force of the injuries However ciliary body, choroid, retina and
vitreous may also be involved.
BibTeX:
@article{JainBS1987,
  author = {Jain BS, Soni SR},
  title = {Ocular injuries: an analytical study in a teaching
general hospital}, journal = {Indian J Ophthalmol.}, year = {1987}, volume = {35(3)}, pages = {112-6} }
Jain V, Agrawal M, Dabas V, Kashyap A, Sural S, Dhal A Dupatta (scarf): a unique cause of cervical spine
injury in females
2008 Injury.
Vol. 39(3), pp. 334-8 
article  
Abstract: Introduction:
Dupatta (scarf) is a part of the traditional dress for females in the Indian
subcontinent. Working near machinery, riding a motorcycle or cyclerickshaw,
can result in entanglement of dupatta in moving parts of machinery and
subsequent cervical spine injury. It is seen most commonly in rural areas, with
farmyard equipment.
Material and methods:
A retrospective study was performed between January 2004 and January
2006, on all the patients presenting with cervical spine injury secondary to
dupatta entanglement in machinery. They were assessed for mode, level of
injury, neurological status, associated complications, radiological picture and
clinical outcome.
Results:
There were 12 such cases of cervical spine injury. The most common cause of
injury was a threshing machine. All cases except one had quadriplegia (ASIA
grade A) with bladder and bowel involvement. There was loss of
consciousness in nine patients. Three patients expired. There was no
neurological recovery in any patient.
Conclusion:
Dupatta is a unique cause of cervical spine injury in females, especially in rural
areas. Easy methods of prevention may be helpful in preventing such injuries.
BibTeX:
@article{JainV2008,
  author = {Jain V, Agrawal M, Dabas V, Kashyap A, Sural S, Dhal A.},
  title = {Dupatta (scarf): a unique cause of cervical spine
injury in females}, journal = {Injury.}, year = {2008}, volume = {39(3)}, pages = {334-8} }
Jayanth ST, Kirupakaran H, Brahmadathan KN, Gnanaraj L, Kang G Needle stick injuries in a tertiary care hospital 2009 Indian J Med Microbiol
Vol. 27(1), pp. 44-7 
article  
Abstract: Background:
Accidental needle stick injuries (NSIs) are an occupational hazard for
healthcare workers (HCWs). A recent increase in NSIs in a tertiary care
hospital lead to a 1-year review of the pattern of injuries, with a view to
determine risk factors for injury and potential interventions for prevention.
Methods:
We reviewed 1-year (July 2006-June 2007) of ongoing surveillance of NSIs.
Results:
The 296 HCWs reporting NSIs were 84 (28.4%) nurses, 27 (9.1%) nursing
interns, 45 (21.6%) cleaning staff, 64 (21.6%) doctors, 47 (15.9%) medical
interns and 24 (8.1%) technicians. Among the staff who had NSIs, 147 (49.7%)
had a work experience of less than 1 year (n = 230, 77.7%). In 73 (24.6%) of
the NSIs, the patient source was unknown. Recapping of needles caused 25
(8.5%) and other improper disposal of the sharps resulted in 55 (18.6%) of the
NSIs. Immediate post-exposure prophylaxis for HCWs who reported injuries
was provided. Subsequent 6-month follow-up for human immunodeficiency
virus showed zero seroconversion.
Conclusion:
Improved education, prevention and reporting strategies and emphasis on
appropriate disposal are needed to increase occupational safety for HCWs.
BibTeX:
@article{JayanthST2009,
  author = {Jayanth ST, Kirupakaran H, Brahmadathan KN, Gnanaraj L,
Kang G.}, title = {Needle stick injuries in a tertiary care hospital}, journal = {Indian J Med Microbiol}, year = {2009}, volume = {27(1)}, pages = {44-7} }
Jindal P, Nagarkar AN, Mann SB Reversible hearing loss associated with high-voltage
electric shock
2005 J Laryngol Otol.
Vol. 119(8), pp. 631-3 
article  
Abstract: Hearing loss associated with high-voltage electric shock is a rare entity and
minimal information is available in the current literature about this condition. To
our knowledge, this article represents the first case report in the literature of
improvement in sensorineural hearing loss sustained due to a high-voltage
electric shock. A case report of a patient, who incurred various otologic
problems, including hearing loss and tinnitus, is presented. An improvement in
hearing loss and tinnitus was observed in the subsequent follow up after one
month. Audiological findings and possible pathophysiology of hearing loss are
discussed. We recommend that further studies be done to investigate the
incidence, severity and pathophysiology of hearing loss in such cases.
BibTeX:
@article{JindalP2005,
  author = {Jindal P, Nagarkar AN, Mann SB},
  title = {Reversible hearing loss associated with high-voltage
electric shock}, journal = {J Laryngol Otol.}, year = {2005}, volume = {119(8)}, pages = {631-3} }
Raman K Industrial eye accident prevention in textile mills 1968 J All India Ophthalmol Soc.
Vol. 16(4), pp. 196-7 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{K.1968,
  author = {Raman K.},
  title = {Industrial eye accident prevention in textile mills},
  journal = {J All India Ophthalmol Soc.},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {16(4)},
  pages = {196-7}
}
Karim T, Topno M An unusual case of penetrating head injury in a
child
2010 J Emerg Trauma Shock.
Vol. 3(2), pp. 197-8 
article  
Abstract: Penetrating head injuries can be the result of numerous intentional or
unintentional events, including missile wounds, stab wounds, and motor vehicle
or occupational accidents (nails, screw-drivers). Penetrating head injuries in
children constitute only a small part of the total number of traumatic head
injuries seen in casualty. We report a case of neuro-trauma who was operated
in our institution. Patient, 4 years male presented in casualty on 15/01/09 with
a iron rod penetrating into the skull.
BibTeX:
@article{KarimT2010,
  author = {Karim T, Topno M.},
  title = {An unusual case of penetrating head injury in a
child}, journal = {J Emerg Trauma Shock.}, year = {2010}, volume = {3(2)}, pages = {197-8} }
Kasthuri AS, Nagpal BM, Handa A, Singh YD Medical problems in surgical patients 2000 J Assoc Physicians India.
Vol. 48(7), pp. 695-9 
article  
Abstract: Objectives:
There has been an increase in surgical cases due to physical violence,
accidents and weapon related injuries. This study was undertaken to assess
the medical problems in general surgical cases and due to various injuries.
Methods:
All general surgical cases and casualties arising out of weapon related,
accidents and blunt injuries admitted to a zonal hospital over a period of one
and half years were studied. Only cases who developed a medical illness due
to surgical cause, anaesthetic or surgery were included. Evaluation and
treatment was done alongwith the surgeon till discharge/death. Details were
analysed to ascertain the type of surgical illness, medical complication and the
outcome of treatment.
Results:
There were seven hundred sixty two (53.8%) general surgery cases and six
hundred fifty four (46.2%) cases due to various injuries. After excluding cases
with prior known medical illness, thirty-seven patients were studied. There were
eight (1.05%) patients out of seven hundred sixty two general surgery cases
and twenty-nine (4.43%) out of six hundred fifty four injury cases. Weapon
related injury cases were the maximum. Their medical problems related to the
organ injury, fat embolism and sepsis. Soft tissue injury was next common,
they all developed renal failure. Vehicle accident victim(3) were few and
developed fat embolism, aspiration. Two patients out of thirty-seven
succumbed to post anaesthetic complications.
Conclusion:
The incidence of medical problem in injury related cases are more than in
general surgery cases. The type of injury contributes to the medical problem.
Increase in mortality and morbidity is because of emergency nature of surgery.
This problem needs special study.
BibTeX:
@article{KasthuriAS2000,
  author = {Kasthuri AS, Nagpal BM, Handa A, Singh YD},
  title = {Medical problems in surgical patients},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {48(7)},
  pages = {695-9}
}
Kermode M, Jolley D, Langkham B, Thomas MS, Crofts N Occupational exposure to blood and risk of
bloodborne virus infection among health care
workers in rural north Indian health care settings
2005 Am J Infect Control.
Vol. 33(1), pp. 34-41 
article  
Abstract: Background:
Approximately 3 million health care workers (HCWs) experience percutaneous
exposure to bloodborne viruses (BBVs) each year. This results in an estimated
16,000 hepatitis C, 66,000 hepatitis B, and 200 to 5000 human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections annually. More than 90% of these
infections are occurring in low-income countries, and most are preventable.
Several studies report the risks of occupational BBV infection for HCWs in
high-income countries where a range of preventive interventions have been
implemented. In contrast, the situation for HCWs in low-income countries is not
well documented, and their health and safety remains a neglected issue.
Objective:
To describe the extent of occupational exposure to blood and the risk of BBV
infection among a group of HCWs in rural north India.
Methods:
A cross-sectional survey of HCWs from 7 rural health settings gathered data
pertaining to occupational exposure to blood and a range of other relevant
variables (eg, demographic information, compliance with Universal
Precautions, perception of risk, knowledge of BBVs). A mass action model was
used to estimate the risk of occupational BBV infection for these HCWs over a
10-year period.
Results:
A total of 266 HCWs returned questionnaires (response rate, 87%). Sixty-three
percent reported at least 1 percutaneous injury (PI) in the last year (mean no. =
2.3) and 73% over their working lifetime (mean no. = 4.2). Predictors of PI
during the last year were hospital site, job category, perception of risk, and
compliance with Universal Precautions.
Conclusion:
The high level of occupational exposure to blood found among this group of
rural north Indian HCWs highlights the urgent need for interventions to
enhance their occupational safety to prevent unnecessary nosocomial
transmission of BBVs.
BibTeX:
@article{KermodeM2005,
  author = {Kermode M, Jolley D, Langkham B, Thomas MS, Crofts N.},
  title = {Occupational exposure to blood and risk of
bloodborne virus infection among health care
workers in rural north Indian health care settings}, journal = {Am J Infect Control.}, year = {2005}, volume = {33(1)}, pages = {34-41} }
Khanzode VV, Maiti J, Ray PK Injury count model for quantification of risk of
occupational injury;
2011 Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot.
Vol. 18(2), pp. 151-62 
article  
Abstract: Reduction of risk of occupational injuries is one of the most challenging
problems faced by industry. Assessing and comparing risks involved in
different jobs is one of the important steps towards reducing injury risk. In this
study, a comprehensive scheme is given for assessing and comparing injury
risks with the development of injury count model, injury risk model and derived
statistics. The hazards present in a work system and the nature of the job
carried out by workers are perceived as important drivers of injury potential of a
work system. A loglinear model is used to quantify injury counts and the eventtree
approach with joint, marginal and conditional probabilities is used to
quantify injury risk. A case study was carried out in an underground coal mine.
Finally a number of indices are proposed for the case study mine to capture
risk of injury in different jobs. The findings of this study will help in designing
injury intervention strategies for the mine studied. The job-wise risk profiles will
be used to prioritise the jobs for redesign. The absolute indices can be applied
for benchmarking job-wise risks and the relative indices can be used for
comparing job-wise risks across work systems.
BibTeX:
@article{KhanzodeVV2011,
  author = {Khanzode VV, Maiti J, Ray PK.},
  title = {Injury count model for quantification of risk of
occupational injury;}, journal = {Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot.}, year = {2011}, volume = {18(2)}, pages = {151-62} }
Khanzode VV, Maiti J, Ray PK, Tewari VK Injury severity assessment for underground
coalmine workers
2010 Appl Ergon.
Vol. 41(2), pp. 242-50 
article  
Abstract: An injury severity model is proposed for assessment of injury incidents in
industrial settings. A classification scheme for injury incidents considering
interactions is also developed. The injury severity model considers injury
potential in the form of unsafe conditions and analyzes its transfer to actual
injury of varying severity. A case study was conducted in an underground
coalmine of eastern India. An observed reduction in risk realization is explained
through the model. Presence of interactions is found to be the most significant
incident attribute of injury occurrences. The classification scheme and the
results obtained from this study will help in improving accident/injury
investigation reporting and devising preventive measures for reducing injury
severity.
BibTeX:
@article{KhanzodeVV2010,
  author = {Khanzode VV, Maiti J, Ray PK, Tewari VK},
  title = {Injury severity assessment for underground
coalmine workers}, journal = {Appl Ergon.}, year = {2010}, volume = {41(2)}, pages = {242-50} }
Kumar A, Mohan D, Patel R, Varghese M Development of grain threshers based on
ergonomic design criteria
2002 Appl Ergon.
Vol. 33(5), pp. 503-8. 
article  
Abstract: Threshers are used extensively on Indian farms for threshing grains, but are
involved in a significant proportion of limb crush injuries. International safety
standards are somewhat difficult to enforce because manufacture of machines
is done at widely dispersed local workshops. Locally made machines are used
for crop production and post-harvesting operations, with a great deal of manual
work. This technical note reports the results of a study to develop a cost
effective, improved design for safe operation of threshers based on ergonomic
principles.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2002,
  author = {Kumar A, Mohan D, Patel R, Varghese M.},
  title = {Development of grain threshers based on
ergonomic design criteria}, journal = {Appl Ergon.}, year = {2002}, volume = {33(5)}, pages = {503-8.} }
Kumar Pa, Abraham CEb Two tier burn by ignited compressed acetylene gas
and air mixture
1998 Burns.
Vol. 24(4), pp. 378-82 
article  
Abstract: A rare case is reported of combined surface burn and subcutaneous burn, due
to ignitedcompressedacetylenegas and airmixture that a 21-yr-old male
sustained at his work place.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarPa1998,
  author = {Kumar Pa, Abraham CEb},
  title = {Two tier burn by ignited compressed acetylene gas
and air mixture}, journal = {Burns.}, year = {1998}, volume = {24(4)}, pages = {378-82} }
Kumar SG, Rathnakar U, Harsha Kumar H Epidemiology of accidents in tile factories of
mangalore city in Karnataka
2010 Indian J Community Med.
Vol. 35(1), pp. 78-81 
article  
Abstract: Background: Occupational accidents are a major point of concern in
industries. The academic community should take the first step to address the
long-neglected concerns of occupational safety.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and pattern of occupational accidents.
Materials and methods: A record-based, cross-sectional study was done in
three tile factories of Mangalore city, in Karnataka. A total of 416 workers were
analyzed for the year 2004, and data regarding age, sex, job duration, type and
nature of injury, body parts involved, and time of injury were collected in a
prestructured proforma.
Statistical analysis: Proportions, Chi-square test, Univariate and Multivariate
analysis.
Results: The overall prevalence rate of accidents was found to be 18.5%. It
was found that almost around 86% of the accidents had affected the limbs
(upper limb 24.7%, lower limb 61%), around half (52%) of the injuries were
contributed by superficial injuries, 40% of accidents were due to
stepping/striking against objects and while handling. Hand tools and machinery
in motion contributed to around 20% of the accidents. Accidents were more
common among the younger age group and less-experienced workers. Multiple
logistic regression analyses revealed that the age group of 30-39 years had an
independent significant association with accidents (OR = 0.21, P = 0.04).
Conclusion: Accidents in tile industries are an important occupational health
problem in this area of the country. There is a need for proper safety training of
the workers.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarSG2010,
  author = {Kumar SG, Rathnakar U, Harsha Kumar H.},
  title = {Epidemiology of accidents in tile factories of
mangalore city in Karnataka}, journal = {Indian J Community Med.}, year = {2010}, volume = {35(1)}, pages = {78-81} }
Kunar BM, Bhattacherjee A, Chau N Relationships of job hazards, lack of knowledge,
alcohol use, health status and risk taking behavior
to work injury of coal miners: a case-control study
in India
2008 J Occup Health.
Vol. 50(3), pp. 236-44 
article  
Abstract: Objective is to assess the relationships of job hazards, individual
characteristics, and risk taking behavior to occupational injuries of coal miners.
This case-control study compared 245 male underground coal miners with
injury during the previous two-year period with 330 matched controls without
injury during the previous five years. Data were collected via face-to-face
interview and analyzed using the conditional logistic model. Handling material,
poor environmental/working conditions, and geological/strata control- related
hazards were the main risk factors: adjusted ORs 5.15 (95% CI 2.42-10.9),
2.40 (95% CI 1.29-4.47), and 2.25 (95% CI 1.24-4.07) respectively. Their roles
were higher among the face-workers than among the non-face-workers. No
formal education, alcohol consumption, disease, big-family, and risk-taking
behavior were associated with injuries (2.36were similar for both face and non-face workers. Prevention should focus on
handling material, poor environmental condition, especially addressing workers
with no formal education, alcohol consumption, disease, big family size, and
risk-taking behavior.
BibTeX:
@article{KunarBM2008,
  author = {Kunar BM, Bhattacherjee A, Chau N.},
  title = {Relationships of job hazards, lack of knowledge,
alcohol use, health status and risk taking behavior
to work injury of coal miners: a case-control study
in India}, journal = {J Occup Health.}, year = {2008}, volume = {50(3)}, pages = {236-44} }
Narain L Perforating injuries in coal mining area 1984 Indian J Ophthalmol.
Vol. 32(5), pp. 273-6 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{L1984,
  author = {Narain L},
  title = {Perforating injuries in coal mining area},
  journal = {Indian J Ophthalmol.},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {32(5)},
  pages = {273-6}
}
Laxminarayan Ocular injuries in coal mines 1968 J All India Ophthalmol Soc.
Vol. 16(4), pp. 186-91 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{Laxminaray1968,
  author = {Laxminarayan},
  title = {Ocular injuries in coal mines},
  journal = {J All India Ophthalmol Soc.},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {16(4)},
  pages = {186-91}
}
Lorin HG, Kulling PE The Bhopal tragedy--what has Swedish disaster
medicine planning learned from it?
1986 J Emerg Med.
Vol. 4(4), pp. 311-6 
article  
Abstract: On December 3, 1984, a leak of methylisocyanate (MIC) from a chemical plant
in Bhopal, India, affected 150,000 to 200,000 people. More than 10,000 people
were severely injured and approximately 2,500 died. In this article a survey of
symptoms, treatment, and rescue work is given. On the basis of this, we
discuss ways to help reduce the effects of a major release of an irritant gas.
People living in the vicinity of potential health hazards need information on how
to behave in case of accidents. Rescue workers and medical personnel must
be trained to operate under "toxic conditions." There must be planning for
treatment of thousands of patients at the same time, a circumstance that will
often require temporary "satellite hospitals" to be opened. As symptoms and
injuries are of the same kind, even if the magnitude and the effect may differ,
treatment can, in many ways, be standardized. Therefore members of the
health care team, irrespective of their daily different specialty fields, can work
with the most urgent missions.
BibTeX:
@article{LorinHG1986,
  author = {Lorin HG, Kulling PE},
  title = {The Bhopal tragedy--what has Swedish disaster
medicine planning learned from it?}, journal = {J Emerg Med.}, year = {1986}, volume = {4(4)}, pages = {311-6} }
Sambasivan M Survey of the problems of head injuries in India 1977 Neurol India.
Vol. 25(2), pp. 51-9 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{M1977,
  author = {Sambasivan M},
  title = {Survey of the problems of head injuries in India},
  journal = {Neurol India.},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {25(2)},
  pages = {51-9}
}
Maiti J, Chatterjee S, Bangdiwala SI Determinants of work injuries in mines - an
application of structural equation modelling
2004 Inj Control Saf Promot.
Vol. 11(1), pp. 29-37 
article  
Abstract: In spite of stringent regulations and much attention towards reducing risks in
the physical environment, the mining industry continues to be associated with
high levels of accidents, injuries and illnesses. Only engineering solutions to
accident prevention are inappropriate unless coupled with focused attention to
the attitudes and behaviours of the mineworkers in coping with the inherent
physical, technical and situational risks. The present study identified these
various risk factors and analysed their influences on work injury in a causal
framework. Data were collected from an underground coalmine of India. The
pattern and strength of relationships of 16 causal factors with work injuries
were assessed through structural equation modelling. The case study results
showed that negatively personified individuals are of major concern for safety
improvement in the mine studied. They not only fail to avoid work injuries, they
are unable to extend safe work behaviours in their work. The variable safety
environment is negatively affected by personality, whereas social support has a
positive relationship with safety environment. The variable job hazards
appeared to have a significant relationship with job involvement, which has a
negative relationship with work injury. Elimination of negative behaviours must
be focused and committed by the mine safety management. Long term
planning through (i) identification of negative individuals, (ii) proper councelling
of adverse effects of negative behaviours, and (iii) special training with
psychological treatment is highly required. Identification may begin while
recruiting new workers through interview. Proper allocation of jobs (right person
for right job) may be a judicial solution to this end.
BibTeX:
@article{MaitiJ2004,
  author = {Maiti J, Chatterjee S, Bangdiwala SI.},
  title = {Determinants of work injuries in mines - an
application of structural equation modelling}, journal = {Inj Control Saf Promot.}, year = {2004}, volume = {11(1)}, pages = {29-37} }
Malhotra P, Dhar S, Dogra S, Kaul S, Raina RK Pattern of injuries in a hydro-electric project 1995 J Indian Med Assoc.
Vol. 93(5), pp. 171-2 
article  
Abstract: A study of work-related injuries at a hydro-electric project site (May 1991-April
1992) was undertaken to determine the incidence and pattern of the injuries
out of a total number of 119 injuries in the year. A significant proportion of
these were orthopaedic in nature and the commonest site of injury was limbs
(both upper and lower limbs) like auto-amputations and head injuries. A large
proportion of these accidents (24.37%) resulted in permanent disability likely to
interfere in the normal activities or locomotion of those injured.
BibTeX:
@article{MalhotraP1995,
  author = {Malhotra P, Dhar S, Dogra S, Kaul S, Raina RK},
  title = {Pattern of injuries in a hydro-electric project},
  journal = {J Indian Med Assoc.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {93(5)},
  pages = {171-2}
}
Mathew S, Vasu U, Francis F, Nazareth C Transconjunctival orbital emphysema caused by
compressed air injury: a case report
2008 Indian J Ophthalmol.
Vol. 56(3), pp. 247-9 
article  
Abstract: Orbital emphysema following conjunctival tear in the absence of orbital wall
fracture, caused by air under pressure is rare. Usually orbital emphysema is
seen in facial trauma associated with damage to the adjacent paranasal
sinuses or facial bones. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only
eight reports of orbital emphysema following use of compressed air during
industrial work. The air under pressure is pushed through the subconjunctival
space into the subcutaneous and retrobulbar spaces. We present here a rare
cause of orbital emphysema in a young man working with compressed air gun.
Although the emphysema was severe, there were no orbital bone fracture and
the visual recovery of the patient was complete without attendant
complications.
BibTeX:
@article{MathewS2008,
  author = {Mathew S, Vasu U, Francis F, Nazareth C.},
  title = {Transconjunctival orbital emphysema caused by
compressed air injury: a case report}, journal = {Indian J Ophthalmol.}, year = {2008}, volume = {56(3)}, pages = {247-9} }
Mathew SN, Field WE, French BF Secondary injury potential of assistive technologies
used by farmers with disabilities: findings from case
studies
2011 J Agromedicine.
Vol. 16(3), pp. 210-25 
article  
Abstract: In order to complete essential tasks, farmers with disabilities often make and
use assistive technology (AT), which itself may cause further injuries known as
secondary injuries. A set of 19 case studies was used to investigate the
potential for injury on home-fabricated assistive technologies (ATs) used by
farmers with disabilities. The case studies consisted of close-ended and openended
interviews that were designed to help understand the farmers'
perception of potential for injuries and safety measures implemented or not
implemented. The qualitative study used grounded theory principles and the
collected data were analyzed to arrive at a list of features on ATs that have
substantial potential to cause injury to the user. Based on the case study
results, AT user characteristics and environmental factors were also
considered as factors that contribute to potential injuries. Findings were used to
develop an instrument for use by rehabilitation professionals to evaluate ATs
for potential injury causing hazards.
BibTeX:
@article{MathewSN2011,
  author = {Mathew SN, Field WE, French BF},
  title = {Secondary injury potential of assistive technologies
used by farmers with disabilities: findings from case
studies}, journal = {J Agromedicine.}, year = {2011}, volume = {16(3)}, pages = {210-25} }
Mathur N, Sharma KK Medico-economic implications of industrial hand
injuries in India
1988 J Hand Surg Br.
Vol. 13(3), pp. 325-7 
article  
Abstract: 625 five consecutive cases of industrial hand injuries attending the Employee's
State Insurance Hospital, Jaipur, have been studied from 1983 to October
1986. The incidence of injuries was 36 per 10,000 workers per year. 47% were
due to entrapment of the hand in active machines, 25% occurred during lifting
and transportation of heavy objects and 12% while handling tools. The injuries
resulted in residual deficit in 55% of cases and were serious enough to require
absence from work of more than four weeks in 48% of cases. On an average
35 days were lost per injured worker. The average economic loss per injured
worker was Rs. 6900 (approximately pounds 275) for workers in the wagerange
of Rs. 5400 to 19,200 (pounds 216 to pounds 768) per annum.
BibTeX:
@article{MathurN1988,
  author = {Mathur N, Sharma KK},
  title = {Medico-economic implications of industrial hand
injuries in India}, journal = {J Hand Surg Br.}, year = {1988}, volume = {13(3)}, pages = {325-7} }
Mathur N, Sharma KK, Tiwari VK Orthopaedic industrial injuries 1990 J Indian Med Assoc.
Vol. 88(6), pp. 153-4 
article  
Abstract: A study of 600 consecutive cases of industrial injuries, who came from power
using mechanised industries at Jaipur was undertaken to determine the
incidence, pattern and causes of industrial injuries. The study revealed that
there were fewer injuries in the 18 to 25 years age group than in those over the
age of 36. Most of the injuries involved the upper limbs (66.2%), of which
nearly 41% resulted from entrapment of hands in machines and were serious.
This reflected the lack of adequate safety measures where it is most required.
BibTeX:
@article{MathurN1990,
  author = {Mathur N, Sharma KK, Tiwari VK},
  title = {Orthopaedic industrial injuries},
  journal = {J Indian Med Assoc.},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {88(6)},
  pages = {153-4}
}
Mazumdar A, Sen KN, Lahiri BN Two-tier Haddon matrix approach to fault analysis
of accidents and cybernetic search for relationship
to effect operational control: a case study at a
large construction site
2007 Int J Occup Saf Ergon.
Vol. 13(1), pp. 49-61 
article  
Abstract: The Haddon matrix is a potential tool for recognizing hazards in any operating
engineering system. This paper presents a case study of operational hazards
at a large construction site. The fish bone structure helps to visualize and
relate the chain of events, which led to the failure of the system. The two-tier
Haddon matrix approach helps to analyze the problem and subsequently
prescribes preventive steps. The cybernetic approach has been undertaken to
establish the relationship among event variables and to identify the ones with
most potential. Those event variables in this case study, based on the
cybernetic concepts like control responsiveness and controllability salience, are
(a) uncontrolled swing of sheet contributing to energy, (b) slippage of sheet
from anchor, (c) restricted longitudinal and transverse swing or rotation about
the suspension, (d) guilt or uncertainty of the crane driver, (e) safe working
practices and environment.
BibTeX:
@article{MazumdarA2007,
  author = {Mazumdar A, Sen KN, Lahiri BN},
  title = {Two-tier Haddon matrix approach to fault analysis
of accidents and cybernetic search for relationship
to effect operational control: a case study at a
large construction site}, journal = {Int J Occup Saf Ergon.}, year = {2007}, volume = {13(1)}, pages = {49-61} }
Mehta A, Rodrigues C, Ghag S, Bavi P, Shenai S, Dastur F Needlestick injuries in a tertiary care centre in
Mumbai, India
2005 J Hosp Infect.
Vol. 60(4), pp. 368-73 
article  
Abstract: Accidental exposure from blood/body fluid of patients is a risk to healthcare
workers (HCWs). Percutaneous injury is the most common method of exposure
to blood-borne pathogens. A policy was formulated at our institute, a tertiary
care centre in central Mumbai, and we report a six-year (1998--2003) ongoing
surveillance of needlestick injuries. Of the 380 HCWs who reported needlestick
injuries, 45% were nurses, 33% were attendants, 11% were doctors and 11%
were technicians. On source analysis, 23, 15 and 12 were positive for Hepatitis
B surface antigen (HBsAg), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis
C virus (HCV), respectively. Immediate action following potential exposure
included washing the wound with soap and water, encouraging bleeding and
reporting the incident to the emergency room. Analysis of the source of injuries
revealed that known sources accounted for 254 injuries, and unknown sources
from garbage bags and Operating Theatre instruments accounted for 126
injuries. Most needlestick injuries occurred during intravenous line insertion
(N=112), followed by blood collection (N=69), surgical blade injury (N=36) and
recapping needles (N=36). Immediate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for
HCWs who sustained injuries with hepatitis-B-virus-positive patients included
booster hepatitis B immunization for those positive for antiHBs. A full course of
immunization with hepatitis B immunoglobulin was given to those who were
antiHBs negative. All staff who sustained injury with HIV were given immediate
antiretroviral therapy (AZT 600 mg/day) for six weeks. Subsequent six-month
follow-up showed zero seroconversion.
BibTeX:
@article{MehtaA2005,
  author = {Mehta A, Rodrigues C, Ghag S, Bavi P, Shenai S, Dastur F.},
  title = {Needlestick injuries in a tertiary care centre in
Mumbai, India}, journal = {J Hosp Infect.}, year = {2005}, volume = {60(4)}, pages = {368-73} }
Mehta A, Rodrigues C, Singhal T, Lopes N, D'Souza N, Sathe K, Dastur FD Interventions to reduce needle stick injuries at a
tertiary care centre
2010 Indian J Med Microbiol
Vol. 28(1), pp. 17-20 
article  
Abstract: Background:
Occupational exposure to blood/body fluids is associated with risk of infection
with blood borne pathogens like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis
B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).
Materials and methods:
We carefully document needle stick injuries (NSI) and implement postexposure
prophylaxis (PEP). We report a four-year continuing surveillance
study where 342 healthcare workers (HCWs) sustained NSI. PEP was given to
HCWs injured from seropositive sources. If the source was HbsAg positive,
HCWs were given a hepatitis B immunization booster. If the HCW was antiHBs
negative, both hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine were
administered. For HCWs who sustained injuries from HIV positive sources,
antiretroviral therapy was started. Follow-up was done after three and six
months of exposure. Recent interventions by the infection control committee at
our hospital reduced NSI considerably during intravenous line administration
and glucose monitoring.
Results and discussion:
Of 342 injuries, 254 were from known sources and 88 from unknown sources.
From known sources, 37 were seropositive; 13 for HIV, 15 for HCV, nine for
HBV. Sixty six sharp injuries were sustained through garbage bags, 43 during
IV line administration, 41 during injection administration, 35 during needle
recapping, 32 during blood collection, 27 during blood glucose monitoring, 24
from OT instruments, 17 during needle disposal, 16 while using surgical blade,
7 during suturing and 34 from miscellaneous sources.
Conclusion:
No case of seroconversion has taken place, so far, as a result of needle stick
injuries at our centre.
BibTeX:
@article{MehtaA2010,
  author = {Mehta A, Rodrigues C, Singhal T, Lopes N, D'Souza N, Sathe K,
Dastur FD.}, title = {Interventions to reduce needle stick injuries at a
tertiary care centre}, journal = {Indian J Med Microbiol}, year = {2010}, volume = {28(1)}, pages = {17-20} }
Muralidhar S, Singh PK, Jain RK, Malhotra M, Bala M Needle stick injuries among health care workers in
a tertiary care hospital of India
2010 Indian J Med Res
Vol. 131, pp. 405-410 
article  
Abstract: Background & objectives: Percutaneous injuries caused by needlesticks,
pose a significant risk of occupational transmission of bloodborne pathogens.
Their incidence is considerably higher than current estimates, and hence a low
injury rate should not be interpreted as a non existent problem. The present
study was carried out to determine the occurrence of NSI among various
categories of health care workers (HCWs), and the causal factors, the
circumstances under which these occur and to, explore the possibilities of
measures to prevent these through improvements in knowledge, attitude and
practice.
Methods: The study group consisted of 428 HCWs of various categories of a
tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, and was carried out with the help of an
anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire structured specifically to identify
predictive factors associated with NSIs.
Results: The commonest clinical activity to cause the NSI was blood
withdrawal (55%), followed by suturing (20.3%) and vaccination (11.7%). The
practice of recapping needles after use was still prevalent among HCWs
(66.3%). Some HCWs also revealed that they bent the needles before
discarding (11.4%). It was alarming to note that only 40 per cent of the HCWs
knew about the availability of PEP services in the hospital and 75 per cent of
exposed nursing students did not seek PEP.
Interpretation & conclusions: The present study showed a high occurrence
of NSI in HCWs with a high rate of ignorance and apathy. These issues need
to be addressed, through appropriate education and other interventional
strategies by the hospital infection control committee.
BibTeX:
@article{MuralidharS2010,
  author = {Muralidhar S, Singh PK*, Jain RK, Malhotra M and Bala M},
  title = {Needle stick injuries among health care workers in
a tertiary care hospital of India}, journal = {Indian J Med Res}, year = {2010}, volume = {131}, pages = {405-410} }
Khan MY Fatal thoracic squeeze 1979 J Indian Med Assoc.
Vol. 73(2), pp. 38-9 
article  
Abstract: Abstract nopt available.
BibTeX:
@article{MY1979,
  author = {Khan MY},
  title = {Fatal thoracic squeeze},
  journal = {J Indian Med Assoc.},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {73(2)},
  pages = {38-9}
}
Mathur N Does training reduce the incidence of industrial
hand injuries?
1992 J Hand Surg Br.
Vol. 17(4), pp. 491-2 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{N1992,
  author = {Mathur N},
  title = {Does training reduce the incidence of industrial
hand injuries?}, journal = {J Hand Surg Br.}, year = {1992}, volume = {17(4)}, pages = {491-2} }
Nag PK, Nag A Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian
agriculture
2004 Ind Health.
Vol. 42(2), pp. 149-62 
article  
Abstract: The Indian farming employs 225 million workforce to cover 140 million hectares
of total cultivated land. In spite of rapid farm mechanization (e.g., 149 million
farm machinery), the vast resource-poor family farming has primary
dependence on traditional methods (e.g., 520 million hand tools and 37 million
animal-drawn implements are in operation). The work drudgery, the traumatic
accidents and injuries are the major concerns to examine options for
ergonomics intervention and betterment of work in crop production activities.
This review summarizes human energy expenditure in crop production
activities, to assess the job severity, tools and machinery, and formulate the
basis to reorganize work and work methods. While the farm mechanization is
more in the northern India, the accidents were more in the villages in southern
India. On average of the four regions, the tractor incidents (overturning, falling
from the tractor, etc.) were highest (27.7%), followed by thresher (14.6%),
sprayer/duster (12.2%), sugarcane crusher (8.1%) and chaff cutter (7.8%)
accidents. Most of the fatal accidents resulted from the powered machinery,
with the annual fatality rate estimated as 22 per 100,000 farmers. The hand
tools related injuries (8% of the total accidents) were non-fatal in nature. In
spite of the enactment of legislation, the shortcomings in production and
monitoring of the machinery in field use may be responsible for the high rate of
accidents (e.g., 42 thresher accidents/1,000 mechanical threshers/year in
southern India). Due to the lack of technical capability of the local artisans,
adhering to safety and design standards is impractical to the implements
fabricated in the rural areas. The analysis emphasizes that the effective safety
and health management may be possible through legislative enabling of the
local infra-structure, such as block development authority and primary health
services, to permeate occupational health and safe work practices in the
farming sector.
BibTeX:
@article{NagPK2004,
  author = {Nag PK, Nag A.},
  title = {Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian
agriculture}, journal = {Ind Health.}, year = {2004}, volume = {42(2)}, pages = {149-62} }
Nag PK, Nag A Shiftwork in the hot environment 2001 J Hum Ergol (Tokyo).
Vol. 30(1-2), pp. 161-6 
article  
Abstract: The study examined the risks of heat induced workplace accidents (textile
industry, N = 4125) and the heat tolerability of the rotating day (morning and
afternoon, N = 16) and permanent night shift workers (N = 13) in hot-dry and
hot-humid environment (34 to 49 degrees C, 50-80% RH; 31 to 42 degrees C
ET, Basic). Accident prevalence was significantly high in the summer months
(May-June) when the ambient temperature ranged between 42 and 48 degrees
C (hot-dry). The influence of hot climate in accident causation was evident from
the shift-wise variations in the occurrence of accidents. The longitudinal study
showed that the night workers were more vulnerable and less tolerant to heat,
the tolerance time being less by about 15% (31 degrees C ET) to 40% (39
degrees C ET), compared to the rotating day workers. The relationship of the
segmental and compartmental temperatures (segmental triggering response)
played a critical role in heat dissipation/accumulation mechanism, and reflected
in the heat tolerability of the day and night workers.
BibTeX:
@article{NagPK2001,
  author = {Nag PK, Nag A.},
  title = {Shiftwork in the hot environment},
  journal = {J Hum Ergol (Tokyo).},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {30(1-2)},
  pages = {161-6}
}
Nagesh KR, Menezes RG, Shetty BS, Menon A Circumscribed injuries caused by an explosion in
firecracker factory
2010 J Forensic Leg Med.
Vol. 17(3), pp. 169-71 
article  
Abstract: Firecracker display is used worldwide for celebrating religious festivities, New
Year celebrations and various other occasions. Explosion during the
manufacture of firecrackers can result in serious injuries. We, herein, report a
case, where a person succumbed to injuries sustained in an explosion in a
firecracker factory. Superficial to deep burns, traumatic amputation of right
upper limb, and multiple abrasions and lacerations were present on various
parts of the body with contusion of internal thoracic and abdominal organs.
Also, multiple punctured circumscribed wounds with burnt floor and margins
were present over the body.
BibTeX:
@article{NageshKR2010,
  author = {Nagesh KR, Menezes RG, Shetty BS, Menon A.},
  title = {Circumscribed injuries caused by an explosion in
firecracker factory}, journal = {J Forensic Leg Med.}, year = {2010}, volume = {17(3)}, pages = {169-71} }
Nagesh KR, Rastogi P Amputation due to fishing net 2007 J Forensic Leg Med.
Vol. 14(6), pp. 377-81 
article  
Abstract: Occupational injury is a major and often preventable health problem in a work
environment. Every year around a million people are affected and thousands
are killed in work related accidents. Fishing as a sport and occupation is
enjoyed and practiced by people of all age groups. Fishing related hazards and
injuries are common but unreported. A fatal case of amputation of a limb
caused by fishing net is described.
BibTeX:
@article{NageshKR2007,
  author = {Nagesh KR, Rastogi P},
  title = {Amputation due to fishing net},
  journal = {J Forensic Leg Med.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {14(6)},
  pages = {377-81}
}
Kher NN Incidence and management of perforating injuries
of the eye
1964 J Indian Med Assoc.
Vol. 42, pp. 469-74 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{NN1964,
  author = {Kher NN},
  title = {Incidence and management of perforating injuries
of the eye}, journal = {J Indian Med Assoc.}, year = {1964}, volume = {42}, pages = {469-74} }
Agrawal OP Profile of burn injury in steel industry 1990 J Indian Med Assoc.
Vol. 88(1), pp. 4-6 
article  
Abstract: Among the industrial workers of Bokaro Steel Plant 270 cases of burn injury
were studied to streamline the cases from the site of accident, to find out the
different causes of burn accident and to evaluate the result of specific
management. After first-aid and resuscitating at the casualty department they
were treated in intensive burn unit. The most vulnerable age for burn injury
were the patients of 21-30 years. Maximum number of cases were seen due to
electrical flash (78 cases or 28.9%) and slag burn (70 cases or 25.9%). Flame
burn (39 cases or 14.4%), electrical contact (30 cases or 11.1%), gaseous burn
(20 cases or 7.4%), scald (18 cases or 6.7%) and chemical burn (15 cases or
5.6%) were accounting for the rest. Adequate safety education to young
employees, prompt transport to hospital, nursing in isolated area and early
excision of eschar reduced the mortality and morbidity of burn injury.
BibTeX:
@article{OP1990,
  author = {Agrawal OP},
  title = {Profile of burn injury in steel industry},
  journal = {J Indian Med Assoc.},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {88(1)},
  pages = {4-6}
}
Paul PS, Maiti J The synergic role of sociotechnical and personal
characteristics on work injuries in mines
2008 Ergonomics.
Vol. 51(5), pp. 737-67 
article  
Abstract: Occupational injuries in mines are attributed to many factors. In this study, an
attempt was made to identify the various factors related to work injuries in
mines and to estimate their effects on work injuries to mine workers. An
accident path model was developed to estimate the pattern and strength of
relationships amongst the personal and sociotechnical variables in
accident/injury occurrences. The input data for the model were the correlation
matrix of 18 variables, which were collected from the case study mines. The
case study results showed that there are sequential interactions amongst the
sociotechnical and personal factors leading to accidents/injuries in mines.
Amongst the latent endogenous constructs, job dissatisfaction and safe work
behaviour show a significant positive and negative direct relationship with work
injury, respectively. However, the construct safety environment has a
significant negative indirect relationship with work injury. The safety
environment is negatively affected by work hazards and positively affected by
social support. The safety environment also shows a significant negative
relationship with job stress and job dissatisfaction. However, negative
personality has no significant direct or indirect effect on work injury, but it has a
significant negative relationship with safe work behaviour. The endogenous
construct negative personality is positively influenced by job stress and
negatively influenced by social support.
BibTeX:
@article{PaulPS2008,
  author = {Paul PS, Maiti J.},
  title = {The synergic role of sociotechnical and personal
characteristics on work injuries in mines}, journal = {Ergonomics.}, year = {2008}, volume = {51(5)}, pages = {737-67} }
Paul PS, Maiti J, Dasgupta S, Forjuoh SN An epidemiological study of injury in mines:
implications for safety promotion
2005 Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot.
Vol. 12(3), pp. 157-65 
article  
Abstract: The role of various factors in coal mine-related injuries was investigated using
a case-control design. The study setting was two neighbouring underground
coal mines in India. Cases comprised mine workers (n = 150) who had
sustained a prior mine-related injury from a population of 1000 underground
workers. Controls were selected from those mineworkers with no history of a
prior mine-related injury using frequency matching (n = 150) from the same
source population. Data were collected from the cases and controls using a
structured survey questionnaire. Based on the responses of the participants,
each factor was grouped into three categories. High-low plots and Chi-square
tests were conducted to explore the differences between the cases and
controls. Bivariate logistic regression was run to estimate the crude odds of
injuries, while multivariate logistic regression estimated the adjusted odds of
injuries to the workers for the various variable categories. High-low plots and
the Chi-square test clearly revealed that the cases and controls significantly
differed in their responses for the variables studied. Accident-involved workers
take more risks, are negatively affected, job dissatisfied, feel more production
pressure, job stress, work hazards and are less job involved and are more
dissatisfied with safety environment and social climate of the mines compared
to the controls. The multivariate odds of injuries to high risk taking, negatively
affected and job dissatisfied workers are 1.21, 9.34 and 2.00 times more
compared to their lowest counterparts. Similarly, workers satisfied with the
overall safety practice and safety equipment availability and maintenance are
1.5 and 3.12 times less likely to be injured than the workers with little or no
satisfaction with the above factors. It is therefore concluded that negative
affectivity and job dissatisfaction are the two major personal level factors that
contribute more towards accident/injury in the mines studied. Identification and
elimination/reduction of negative attitudes are of utmost importance.
BibTeX:
@article{PaulPS2005,
  author = {Paul PS, Maiti J, Dasgupta S, Forjuoh SN.},
  title = {An epidemiological study of injury in mines:
implications for safety promotion}, journal = {Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot.}, year = {2005}, volume = {12(3)}, pages = {157-65} }
Raina S, Samuel AM Isotope angiography and blood pool imaging as a
procedure for assessing radiation-induced injuries
to the hands
1992 Clin Nucl Med.
Vol. 17(8), pp. 646-51 
article  
Abstract: The authors discuss radioisotope angiography and blood pool imaging for
assessing radiation-induced injuries to the hands and the deterioration or
improvement in status during follow-up. Two industrial radiographers in two
separate accidents were exposed to 22 Ci to 25 Ci of a Co-60 for 2 to 3
minutes each in February 1985. Subsequently, besides routine clinical
examinations and other tests, they underwent a series of amputations and
grafts in the digits of the hands. A first-pass study with Tc-99m sodium
pertechnetate followed by delayed RBC labeled blood pool imaging was
performed in September 1988 in both patients. Both had a reduced flow of
tracer to the more affected hand and the affected digits. A repeat study
performed in March 1989 revealed improvement in perfusion to the more
affected hand in the first patient and no change in the second. Delayed blood
pool imaging did not reveal any change. The improvement in flow also
coincided with the reduction of pain in the affected digits of the first patient. The
authors conclude that isotope angiography followed by delayed blood pool
imaging is a simple, noninvasive procedure to assess radiation-induced
damage to extremities and to evaluate deterioration or improvement during
follow-up.
BibTeX:
@article{RainaS1992,
  author = {Raina S, Samuel AM},
  title = {Isotope angiography and blood pool imaging as a
procedure for assessing radiation-induced injuries
to the hands}, journal = {Clin Nucl Med.}, year = {1992}, volume = {17(8)}, pages = {646-51} }
Raja Sabapathy S, Sebastin SJ, Venkatramani H, Balaji G Primary use of the index finger for reconstruction
of amputated thumbs
2004 Br J Plast Surg.
Vol. 57(1), pp. 50-60. 
article  
Abstract: Seven cases of primary reconstruction of traumatic amputation of the thumb
using the index finger are reported. In six cases, the reconstruction was done
using an injured index finger, while in one case where the amputation of the
thumb was through the carpometacarpal joint, an intact index finger was
primarily pollicised. This reduces cost of treatment, hospitalisation period and
allows earlier rehabilitation without a period of a 'no thumb experience'. We
have followed all the patients for a minimum period of 2 years and all of them
have excellent functional results. We believe that pollicisation of a normal index
finger, if thumb amputation is through the carpometacarpal joint or an injured
index finger at the time of initial management of a severely traumatised hand
with thumb amputation is an excellent technique for thumb reconstruction.
BibTeX:
@article{RajaSabapathyS2004,
  author = {Raja Sabapathy S, Sebastin SJ, Venkatramani H, Balaji G.},
  title = {Primary use of the index finger for reconstruction
of amputated thumbs}, journal = {Br J Plast Surg.}, year = {2004}, volume = {57(1)}, pages = {50-60.} }
Ramdas S, Thomas A, Arun Kumar S Temporary ectopic testicular replantation,
refabrication and orthotopic transfer
2007 J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg.
Vol. 60(7), pp. 700-3. 
article  
Abstract: Bilateral traumatic castration if left untreated can result in permanent sexual,
social and psychological maladjustments. We hereby report a novel procedure
of temporary ectopic replantation of a traumatically avulsed testis on the
forearm with refabrication and subsequent successful orthotopic microsurgical
transfer to the perineum. The significance of this replantation is related to the
refabrication of a long pedicle for subsequent reattachment to the perineum.
This would not have been possible but for the ectopic replantation.
BibTeX:
@article{RamdasS2007,
  author = {Ramdas S, Thomas A, Arun Kumar S.},
  title = {Temporary ectopic testicular replantation,
refabrication and orthotopic transfer}, journal = {J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg.}, year = {2007}, volume = {60(7)}, pages = {700-3.} }
Rani M, Gupta A, Dikshit PC, Aggrawal A, Setia P, Dhankar V Accidental death resulting from acetylene cylinder
impact
2005 Am J Forensic Med Pathol.
Vol. 26(2), pp. 170-3 
article  
Abstract: Acetylene is an inflammable gas commonly used for welding in small-scale
industries. We present a case of a 34-year-old male welder who died following
injuries sustained from explosion of an acetylene gas-welding cylinder. In this
case report, we discuss the circumstances leading to the explosion of the
welding cylinder, the autopsy findings, and a brief review of the literature on
deaths resulting from blasts of acetylene cylinders.
BibTeX:
@article{RaniM2005,
  author = {Rani M, Gupta A, Dikshit PC, Aggrawal A, Setia P, Dhankar V.},
  title = {Accidental death resulting from acetylene cylinder
impact}, journal = {Am J Forensic Med Pathol.}, year = {2005}, volume = {26(2)}, pages = {170-3} }
Rath S, Bhan S Unusual open injury of multiple
metacarpophalangeal joints
1988 Injury.
Vol. 19(5), pp. 339-41 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{RathS1988,
  author = {Rath S, Bhan S},
  title = {Unusual open injury of multiple
metacarpophalangeal joints}, journal = {Injury.}, year = {1988}, volume = {19(5)}, pages = {339-41} }
Rautji R, Behera C, Dogra TD An unusual fatal construction site injury in India: a
case report
2009 Med Sci Law.
Vol. 49(3), pp. 222-3 
article  
Abstract: A 35-year-old male, employed at a construction site, accidentally injured
himself when an iron rod, which he was handing up from the ground floor to a
fellow worker standing on the first floor, fell backwards. It pierced his
suprascapular fossa on the right side, damaging great vessels and the tricuspid
valve, and entered the pericardial cavity after puncturing the posterior wall of
the right ventricle. The iron rod was taken out by fellow workers at the site and
the injured man was immediately taken to a nearby clinic where he was
resuscitated and the wound was stitched. He was later transferred to a tertiary
care hospital where he died about an hour after admission. Though many
bizarre injuries have been reported at construction sites, a fatal injury of this
nature deserves a mention in the forensic literature.
BibTeX:
@article{RautjiR2009,
  author = {Rautji R, Behera C, Dogra TD},
  title = {An unusual fatal construction site injury in India: a
case report}, journal = {Med Sci Law.}, year = {2009}, volume = {49(3)}, pages = {222-3} }
Rautji R, Lalwani S, Dogra TD Fatal occupational injuries in the South Delhi
construction industry: a retrospective study
2005 Med Sci Law.
Vol. 45(2), pp. 169-73 
article  
Abstract: One hundred and forty-five unselected autopsy cases of construction site
accidents received from South Delhi were studied during the period from 1996-
-2002. Data for the study was gathered from autopsy reports and hospital
records. The cases represented approximately 1.61% of all autopsy cases
received from South Delhi at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New
Delhi (India). Data was analysed with regard to the age and sex of the victim,
the part of the body involved, the manner of accident, the cause of death and
the pattern of injuries in different body regions. Death occurred at the scene of
the fatal event in thirty-four cases; forty-three cases were dead on arrival at the
hospital; sixty-eight cases died after being admitted to the hospital. Ethanol
was detected in the blood of 16% of the cases.
BibTeX:
@article{RautjiR2005,
  author = {Rautji R, Lalwani S, Dogra TD},
  title = {Fatal occupational injuries in the South Delhi
construction industry: a retrospective study}, journal = {Med Sci Law.}, year = {2005}, volume = {45(2)}, pages = {169-73} }
Rautji R, Rudra A, Dogra TD An unusual fatal injury due to tyre burst: a case
report
2003 Forensic Sci Int.
Vol. 138(1-3), pp. 111-3 
article  
Abstract: A 20 year-old male driver of a heavy duty crane, employed in an industry
located in an industrial area on the outskirts of Delhi was fatally injured while
repositioning an ill-fitted locking rim of a crane tyre (Fig. 1). The inner tube of
the crane tyre had accidentally burst, dislodging the loose iron-locking rim,
which hit the individual with a great force resulting in multiple injuries. He died
on his way to the hospital.
BibTeX:
@article{RautjiR2003,
  author = {Rautji R, Rudra A, Dogra TD.},
  title = {An unusual fatal injury due to tyre burst: a case
report}, journal = {Forensic Sci Int.}, year = {2003}, volume = {138(1-3)}, pages = {111-3} }
Reddy GM, Negandhi H, Singh D, Singh AJ Extent and determinants of cost of road traffic
injuries in an Indian city
2009 Indian J Med Sci.
Vol. 63(12), pp. 549-56 
article  
Abstract: Background:
Studies aimed at estimating losses that are incurred as a result of road traffic
injuries (RTIs), especially at the family level, are very limited.
Aims: To ascertain the direct and productivity costs of road traffic injuries and
their determinants.
Settings and design:
This study was a cross-sectional survey of all the road traffic crashes recorded
by traffic police during 2004 in Chandigarh, a modern planned city of north
India.
Material and methods:
All road traffic crashes recorded by the traffic police during the year 1st
January to 31st December 2004 were included in the study. The houses of all
the victims were visited. The direct costs included the immediate medical costs
(i.e., emergency and hospital care, follow-up care, medicines and appliances,
doctor bills, etc.), and nonmedical costs (transportation, property damage cost,
etc.). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Work productivity and activity questionnaire
(WPAI-SHP), the health and labor questionnaire (HLQ) and Human Capital
Method were used for estimating the productivity costs. Percentage, mean,
standard deviation of the outcome parameters were calculated. RESULTS: Of
the 121 crash victims listed, 95 agreed to participate in the study. The net
direct costs incurred were Rs. 8,55,644 ($19,991). The vehicle repair costs
constituted more than half of such cost. Surgery, which was conducted in 28
cases, constituted 14.5% of the direct costs. The total productivity cost incurred
was Rs. 8,06,24,530 ($1,883,750). Costs incurred due to premature mortality
constituted over 99% of these productivity losses suffered by society. Lost
wages due to the crash constituted less than 1% [Rs. 1,40,230 ($3276)] of the
total productivity loss. CONCLUSIONS: Road traffic injuries are a significant
financial drag on the society. The productivity costs far outweigh the direct
costs. Premature mortality, vehicle damage and medical costs constituted the
major share of the cost of RTIs.
BibTeX:
@article{ReddyGM2009,
  author = {Reddy GM, Negandhi H, Singh D, Singh AJ},
  title = {Extent and determinants of cost of road traffic
injuries in an Indian city}, journal = {Indian J Med Sci.}, year = {2009}, volume = {63(12)}, pages = {549-56} }
Roy PK, Bhatt A, Rajagopal C Quantitative risk assessment for accidental release
of titanium tetrachloride in a titanium sponge
production plant
2003 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 102(2-3), pp. 167-86 
article  
Abstract: This paper outlines the quantitative risk assessment for storage and purification
section of a titanium sponge production facility. Based on qualitative HAZAN
technique, which involves a detailed FETI and HAZOP study of the entire plant,
the storage and the purification section were found to be the most hazardous
sections. Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl(4)) is the major reactant used in this
plant. TiCl(4) is a toxic, corrosive water reactive chemical and on spillage from
containment creates a liquid pool that can either boil or evaporate leading to
the evolution of toxic hydrogen chloride (HCl). Fault tree analysis technique
has been used to identify the basic events responsible for the top event
occurrence and calculate their probabilities. Consequence analysis of the
probable scenarios has been carried out and the risk has been estimated in
terms of fatality and injuries. These results form the basic inputs for the risk
management decisions.
BibTeX:
@article{RoyPK2003,
  author = {Roy PK, Bhatt A, Rajagopal C.},
  title = {Quantitative risk assessment for accidental release
of titanium tetrachloride in a titanium sponge
production plant}, journal = {J Hazard Mater.}, year = {2003}, volume = {102(2-3)}, pages = {167-86} }
Tiwari RR Child labour in footwear industry: Possible
occupational health hazards
2005 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 9, pp. 7-9 
article  
Abstract: The constitution of India, as a part of the fundamental rights, has laid down that
the State shall direct its policy towards protection of childhood and youth
against exploitation and shall not be employed to work in any factory or mine or
engaged in any hazardous employment. India has the largest number of urban
and rural child workers in the world. The Government of India acknowledges at
least 17.5 million working children.2 Footwear industry is also one of the major
export oriented industry employing a large number of children. The Footwear
Industry is a significant segment of the Leather Industry in India. India ranks
second among the footwear producing countries next to China. The industry is
labour intensive and is concentrated in the small and cottage industry sectors.
While leather shoes and uppers are concentrated in large-scale units, the
sandals and Chappals are produced in the household and cottage sector. The
major production centers India are Chennai, Ranipet, Ambur in Tamil Nadu,
Mumbai in Maharashtra, Kanpur and Agra in Uttar Pradesh, Jalandhar in
Punjab and Delhi. The processes in the footwear making include last making,
pattern cutting, clicking, Sewing, Assembling and Finishing. Children between
10 and 15 years old are mainly employed in assembling shoes. Some 80
percent of the children work for contractors at home. Children work on soling
(fixing upper portions of shoes to leather or rubber soles) with glue. Children in
cramped poorly lit rooms suffer from continuous skin contact with industrial
adhesives and breathing vapors from glues. The children working in the
footwear industry are exposed to physical factors like poor illumination, noise
and poor ventilation, and chemicals like leather dust, benzene that is used as a
solvent in glues and p-tert butyl phenols, which is used in neoprene adhesives.
Thus most children suffer from respiratory problems, lung diseases and skin
infections through constant exposure to glue and fumes. They are also
exposed to risk of nasal cancer, neurotoxicity and adverse physical factors. It is
recommended to stop child labour and let the child be bread eater rather than
bread earner.
BibTeX:
@article{RR2005,
  author = {Tiwari RR},
  title = {Child labour in footwear industry: Possible
occupational health hazards}, journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med}, year = {2005}, volume = {9}, pages = {7-9} }
Gupta S Laboratory approach to the management of clinical
emergencies: a diagnostic series
2009 J Lab Physicians.
Vol. 1(1), pp. 27-30 
article  
Abstract: This article emphasizes on the laboratory investigations that may play a
significant role in the prompt management of the patient. Hence, other
conditions where laboratory investigations will not play a major role are not
included in this article. An attempt has been made to highlight certain issues
wherein we can prevent inadvertent ordering of tests to minimize the burden on
the overworked emergency laboratory, without compromising patient care. The
conditions that will be dealt here include: acute chest pain, acute abdominal
pain, road traffic injuries, acute respiratory distress, high grade fever, vomiting,
loss of consciousness, poisoning and laboratory accidents, and lastly
occupational exposure to potential biological hazards.
BibTeX:
@article{S.2009,
  author = {Gupta S.},
  title = {Laboratory approach to the management of clinical
emergencies: a diagnostic series}, journal = {J Lab Physicians.}, year = {2009}, volume = {1(1)}, pages = {27-30} }
Sabapathy SR, Mohan D, Bharathi RR 'Jumping' cross finger flaps: a useful technique for
salvaging parts in mutilating hand injuries
2000 Br J Plast Surg.
Vol. 53(6), pp. 488-90 
article  
Abstract: In multi-digital injuries, soft tissue from non-adjacent injured fingers, which
would have otherwise been discarded, can be used to cover small defects in
salvageable digits. This was found useful in the salvage of four digits and one
thumb. Anticipation of the need for a flap cover, and the possible availability of
tissue in non-adjacent digits, is of paramount importance during the planning
process in these injuries. This technique of using 'jumping' cross finger flaps is
a useful method, when dealing with multiple finger mutilations that need soft
tissue cover.
BibTeX:
@article{SabapathySR2000,
  author = {Sabapathy SR, Mohan D, Bharathi RR},
  title = {'Jumping' cross finger flaps: a useful technique for
salvaging parts in mutilating hand injuries}, journal = {Br J Plast Surg.}, year = {2000}, volume = {53(6)}, pages = {488-90} }
Sabapathy SR, Venkatramani H, Bharathi RR, D'Silva J Technical considerations in replantation of total
scalp avulsions
2006 J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg.
Vol. 59(1):2-10, pp. 59(1):2-10 
article  
Abstract: Total scalp avulsions are devastating injuries and replantation is the best form
of reconstruction. We present our experience of replantation of six totally
avulsed scalps done between 1996 and 2004. All were technically successful,
but one was lost in the post-operative period due to accidental shearing of the
scalp during nursing care. A single team performed the surgery in all cases and
the average operating time was 6 h. No vein grafts were used. Hair growth was
satisfactory in all cases. None underwent formal nerve repair but there was
adequate sensory recovery in all of them by 6-9 months. A small area of skin
necrosis in the occipital area (three cases), telecanthus and epiphora (two
cases) were the minor complications. The available Literature highlights the
need for multiple teams to reduce the long operating time, the use of multiple
vein grafts and the complexities involved. Since, they are rare injuries, gaining
wide experience is difficult. In this article we offer recommendations in pre-op
preparation, vessel identification, technique of anchoring the avulsed scalp
prior to vessel anastomosis and post-op care to make this rare procedure
quicker, easier and successful.
BibTeX:
@article{SabapathySR2006,
  author = {Sabapathy SR, Venkatramani H, Bharathi RR, D'Silva J.},
  title = {Technical considerations in replantation of total
scalp avulsions}, journal = {J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg.}, year = {2006}, volume = {59(1):2-10}, pages = {59(1):2-10} }
Saha A, Kulkarni PK, Chaudhuri R, Saiyed HN Occupational injuries: is job security a factor? 2005 Indian J Med Sci.
Vol. 59(9), pp. 375-81 
article  
Abstract: Context:
Although a large number of contributing factors of occupational injury causation
are explored meticulously to explain the phenomenon of higher occupational
injury occurrence in some subjects, it has remained a matter of controversy.
AIMS:
In this study, an effort is made to explore whether job security has any
contribution in explaining higher susceptibility of some workers.
Settings and design:
This was a retrospective occupational injury record study conducted in an
industry of eastern India.
Materials and methods:
Along with the study of injury records of 5 years, an interview was also
conducted involving 726 workers (including permanent and temporary workers
both) of the factory.
Statistical analysis used:
Comparison was made between permanent and temporary workers by using
the Mann-Whitney U-test and the chi-square test. A theoretical model of
Poisson's distribution was used to compare between expected and real
occurrence.
Results:
Although two worker groups were very similar in relation to age, level of
education, habits, and nature of work, accident frequency and severity rates
were found to be significantly higher in temporary workers.
Conclusions:
This study concluded that the higher accident risk of the temporary workers
might have been due to the less effective experience as well as due to lack of
job security inherent in such workers.
BibTeX:
@article{SahaA2005,
  author = {Saha A, Kulkarni PK, Chaudhuri R, Saiyed HN.},
  title = {Occupational injuries: is job security a factor?},
  journal = {Indian J Med Sci.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {59(9)},
  pages = {375-81}
}
Saha A, Kumar S, Vasudevan DM Factors of occupational injury: a survey in a
chemical company
2008 Ind Health.
Vol. 46(2), pp. 152-7 
article  
Abstract: Chemical industries being the seat of dangerous occurrences frequently
resulting in injuries, an occupational injury surveillance study was initiated
involving 307 permanent and 419 temporary workers in a chemical company to
understand the contribution of different possible factors on injury causation.
Risk calculation was undertaken in relation to every individual factor using
univariate and multivariate analysis techniques. Workers of lower age were
found to be more susceptible to accidents (as evidenced by negative
correlation coefficient), though non-significantly. Lower job duration
(experience) had a significant impact on injury causation (correlation coefficient
-0.5115, p<0.05). Alcohol habit could not show any significant impact but
smoking/chewing habit showed significant effect (OR, 7.29: 95% CI, 3.88-9.33)
on accident occurrence. Nature of job had no significant impact but nature of
employment was found to have considerable effect on the causation of injuries.
Temporary nature of employment was at greater risk (OR, 2.51: 95% CI, 1.42-
3.77) in comparison to permanent workers.
BibTeX:
@article{SahaA2008,
  author = {Saha A, Kumar S, Vasudevan DM.},
  title = {Factors of occupational injury: a survey in a
chemical company}, journal = {Ind Health.}, year = {2008}, volume = {46(2)}, pages = {152-7} }
Saha A, Kumar S, Vasudevan DM Occupational injury surveillance: A study in a metal
smelting industry
2007 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 11(3), pp. 103-7. 
article  
Abstract: An investigation of occupational injury was undertaken in a metal smelting
industry to examine the occurrence and nature of occupational accidents
where analysis of occupational injury records was carried out. At the same
time, all the workers were interviewed to collect data in relation to personal and
occupational characteristics. With this information, the study aimed to examine
the role of different factors in the causation of occupational accidents. High
incidence of superficial injuries of limbs due mostly to stepping / striking against
objects and overexertion / wrong movements of the workers and the frequent
association of handling of small tools with work injuries, observed in this study
indicated the role of human error in these accidents and highlighted the
necessity of proper safety training of the workers. This study also highlighted
the need of elevated safety status during summer months and in evening and
night shifts (more so in the second half). Moreover, this study could categorize
some high-risk groups e.g. young workers, less-experienced workers, obese
workers, workers having smoking / chewing habits etc, who need special
attention so far as workplace safety is concerned.
BibTeX:
@article{SahaA2007,
  author = {Saha A, Kumar S, Vasudevan DM},
  title = {Occupational injury surveillance: A study in a metal
smelting industry}, journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.}, year = {2007}, volume = {11(3)}, pages = {103-7.} }
Saha A, Ramnath T, Chaudhuri RN, Saiyed HN An accident-risk assessment study of temporary
piece rated workers
2004 Ind Health.
Vol. 42(2), pp. 240-5 
article  
Abstract: An occupational injury surveillance study (record study of five years duration)
was conducted involving the workers of a fertilizer producing industry in
eastern India to assess whether the risk of occupational accidents in temporary
piece rated workers was higher in comparison to the permanent time rated
workers. At the same time, to collect the personal details of the workers who
have worked in the industry in the study period, an interview was also
conducted. Mean age of temporary piece rated workers and permanent time
rated workers were (35.9 +/- 12.5) and (35.3 +/- 11.4) respectively. Distribution
of other variables like nature of work, level of education, experience, habits
were also very similar between the two worker groups. Accident incidence rate,
accident frequency rate and accident severity rate were found to be
significantly higher in temporary piece rated workers. This difference was more
prominent in case of time-loss accidents than in no time-loss accidents.
Relative risk has varied from 2.3 to 18.0 in case of time-loss accidents. In case
of no time-loss accidents, it has varied from 1.1 to 2.6. When relative risk is
considered after taking both types of accidents together, it has ranged from 1.2
to 3.5. This study concluded that the temporary piece rated workers are more
vulnerable to occupational accidents.
BibTeX:
@article{SahaA2004,
  author = {Saha A, Ramnath T, Chaudhuri RN, Saiyed HN.},
  title = {An accident-risk assessment study of temporary
piece rated workers}, journal = {Ind Health.}, year = {2004}, volume = {42(2)}, pages = {240-5} }
Sarma BP, Sarma N Epidemiology, morbidity, mortality and treatment
of burn injuries--a study in a peripheral industrial
hospital
1994 Burns.
Vol. 20(3), pp. 253-5 
article  
Abstract: This is a retrospective study of 348 patients with burn injuries admitted to a
peripheral industrial hospital over a period of 10 years. The patients were from
all walks of life. The study compared the incidence of burns occurring in
various industries and those in other situations, assessed the morbidity and
mortality profile of burn injuries treated in a hospital devoid of a modern burn
care unit and presents ways of improving the treatment of burn injuries. Out of
the 348 patients 42.5 per cent had major burns and 57.5 per cent had minor
burns. Children mostly received minor burns, females between the ages of 20
and 40 years commonly received major burns. Flame burns due to kerosene
stoves, open flames and fireworks were the commonest causative agent (60.3
per cent). Scalds comprised 28.7 per cent of the injuries, the remainder being
due to chemicals, electricity and lighting. Eighty-five per cent of the burns
occurred in households; 12 per cent were industrial burns and rest were due to
road traffic accidents and lightning. Out of 42 industrial burns, only two cases
were of major severity. Most of the industrial burns were scalds. The overall
mortality was 18.3 per cent. The average hospital stay was 17.5 days. The
treatment given to the patients is briefly discussed and the importance of the
introduction of modern methods of burn management in our hospital is also
emphasized.
BibTeX:
@article{SarmaBP1994,
  author = {Sarma BP, Sarma N},
  title = {Epidemiology, morbidity, mortality and treatment
of burn injuries--a study in a peripheral industrial
hospital}, journal = {Burns.}, year = {1994}, volume = {20(3)}, pages = {253-5} }
Sen RK, Jain JK, Nagi ON Traumatic bowing of the forearm bones in roller
machine injuries
2004 Injury.
Vol. 35(11), pp. 1202-6 
article  
Abstract: Slow bending forces created by rollers of rotating machines and acting on
forearm bones can result in traumatic bowing even in adults. Four patients
having this peculiar injury pattern in industrial accidents have been reported in
this paper. Three of these had concomitant fractures of ipsilateral humerus.
There were problems in appropriate reduction of the deformity due to the
presence of associated overlying soft tissue injury. The literature has also been
reviewed for this injury and 13 reports defining the injury profile, problems in
realigning forearm bones and their subsequent maintenance have been
described. The eventual outcome of such machine injuries has not been good
due to persistence of some degrees of bowing and associated restriction of
forearm rotation.
BibTeX:
@article{SenRK2004,
  author = {Sen RK, Jain JK, Nagi ON},
  title = {Traumatic bowing of the forearm bones in roller
machine injuries}, journal = {Injury.}, year = {2004}, volume = {35(11)}, pages = {1202-6} }
Sharma A, Tyagi G, Sahai A, Baijal SS Traumatic aneurysm of superficial temporal artery-
CT demonstration
1991 Neuroradiology.
Vol. 33(6), pp. 510-2 
article  
Abstract: A case of traumatic pseudo-aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery
documented on Computed tomography (CT) and angiography is described in a
55-years-old female, who was treated by surgical excision. Computed
tomographic appearance of this lesion is illustrated. This represents, to our
knowledge, the first CT demonstration of traumatic aneurysm of superficial
temporal artery within a large subgaleal haematoma.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaA1991,
  author = {Sharma A, Tyagi G, Sahai A, Baijal SS},
  title = {Traumatic aneurysm of superficial temporal artery-
CT demonstration}, journal = {Neuroradiology.}, year = {1991}, volume = {33(6)}, pages = {510-2} }
Singh R, Sharma AK, Jain S, Sharma SC, Magu NK Wheat thresher agricultural injuries: a by-product
of mechanised farming
2005 Asia Pac J Public Health
Vol. 17(1), pp. 36-9 
article  
Abstract: Farm mechanization has resulted in extensive use of wheat threshers on
Indian farms. It has also increased agricultural injuries. A prospective study
was undertaken for analysis of wheat thresher agricultural injuries and their
remedial measures. Fifty two patients presenting with thresher injuries during
the wheat harvesting season of March to June, 2003 were studied. A studyspecific
14-point proforma was prepared to gather all possible information from
site of injury to hospital records. Injuries were mostly of the upper limb and
amputations accounted for most of these. Poor light arrangements, unskilled
workers, drug / alcohol abuse, fatigue, poor designing and lack of orientation to
work on these machines were the contributory factors to such injuries. The
analysis emphasizes that the need of the hour is to decrease wheat thresher
injuries through specific preventive approaches like improved designing,
education, legislation, compensation and surveillance programmes.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghR2005,
  author = {Singh R, Sharma AK, Jain S, Sharma SC, Magu NK.},
  title = {Wheat thresher agricultural injuries: a by-product
of mechanised farming}, journal = {Asia Pac J Public Health}, year = {2005}, volume = {17(1)}, pages = {36-9} }
Singh RS, Dhaliwal RS, Singh H, Batra I Successful management of combined penetrating
injury of innominate artery and trachea
1998 J Trauma.
Vol. 44(4), pp. 723-5 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghRS1998,
  author = {Singh RS, Dhaliwal RS, Singh H, Batra I},
  title = {Successful management of combined penetrating
injury of innominate artery and trachea}, journal = {J Trauma.}, year = {1998}, volume = {44(4)}, pages = {723-5} }
Sunder S, Bharat R Industrial burns in Jamshedpur, India:
epidemiology, prevention and first aid
1998 Burns.
Vol. 24(5), pp. 444-7 
article  
Abstract: Industrial burn injuries result in significant morbidity, infrequent mortality and
man-hour loss, leading to loss of productivity. With a view to study the
epidemiology of industrial burns in Jamshedpur and first aid awareness, we
analysed 815 patients (142 inpatients and 673 outpatients) with industrial burns
seen by us during the period from January 1993 to December 1996. 69% of
these injuries were caused by contact with hot objects, while the rest were
caused by flame, electrical and chemical agents. Our audio-visual awareness
promotion programme for burns safety and first aid awareness amongst our
officers and employees at various levels, has been successful in reducing the
incidence of burns. The campaign has also popularised the use of cool water
as the best first aid measure.
BibTeX:
@article{SunderS1998,
  author = {Sunder S, Bharat R},
  title = {Industrial burns in Jamshedpur, India:
epidemiology, prevention and first aid}, journal = {Burns.}, year = {1998}, volume = {24(5)}, pages = {444-7} }
Taneja N, Pinto LJ Diagnostic categories among 232 military aircrew
with musculoskeletal disabilities
2005 Aviat Space Environ Med.
Vol. 76(6), pp. 581-5 
article  
Abstract: Background:
Musculoskeletal disabilities are a cause for concern in aircrew as they can
critically affect return to flying duties. Analysis of the nature and cause of
musculoskeletal disabilities can provide insight to assist in developing
preventive and therapeutic intervention programs.
Methods:
The Institute of Aerospace Medicine (IAM) is responsible for centralized
evaluation of military and civil aircrew with any musculoskeletal disability. We
analyzed musculoskeletal disabilities among Indian Air Force aircrew who were
evaluated at this Institute from 2001-2003.
Results:
A total of 232 aircrew were evaluated. The majority (53.4%, n=124) came from
the fighter stream. A large proportion (30.2%, n=70) were in the age group 26
to 30 yr with an additional number (25.4%, n = 59) in the 31-35 age group.
Musculoskeletal injuries affecting the spine constituted most (48.2%, n = 121)
of the disabilities followed by upper limbs (28.2%, n = 71) and lower limbs
(19.9%, n=50), respectively. Of the spinal disabilities, degenerative disease of
the disk was the leading diagnosis (46 aircrew, 38.0%), followed by fracture of
the spine (28.1%, n=35). Road traffic accidents accounted for almost a quarter
of the injuries (23.3%, n=54).
Discussion:
These findings provide insight into the nature of musculoskeletal disabilities
among military aircrew. Implications for preventive and therapeutic strategies
are elaborated. Follow-up studies to understand the characteristics associated
with each disability have been initiated.
BibTeX:
@article{TanejaN2005,
  author = {Taneja N, Pinto LJ.},
  title = {Diagnostic categories among 232 military aircrew
with musculoskeletal disabilities}, journal = {Aviat Space Environ Med.}, year = {2005}, volume = {76(6)}, pages = {581-5} }
Thatte UM, Kulkarni-Munshi R, Kalekar SA Review of policies for injuries to research
participants in India
2009 J Med Ethics.
Vol. 35(2), pp. 133-9 
article  
Abstract: Background:
As there is little Indian data about severity, frequency and types of research
related injuries, costs involved and policies regarding compensation, this study
was conducted to review the present Indian scenario.
Methods:
The study was carried out in three parts; a questionnaire-based survey, indepth
interviews, and a review of informed consent and insurance documents
of projects submitted to three ethics committees.
Results:
47% of investigators were either unaware of, or had not understood, the legal
requirements and depended on sponsors to manage these issues, whereas
74% of ethics committee members were aware of the requirements. Although
40% of investigators, 30% of ethics committee members and all sponsors had
policies to manage compensation issues, these were mainly to provide
immediate free medical care or reimbursement of expenses incurred for the
acute management of an adverse event. Compensation for loss of time/wages,
death, physical disability or long term incapacitation was not included. A review
of informed consent and insurance documents showed that compensation
issues were inadequately discussed, with only insurance certificates submitted
to ethics committees.
Conclusion:
In India, there are no uniform policies and investigators are largely unaware of
their responsibilities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to draft national
guidelines regarding compensation for research injuries of research
participants and highlight the responsibilities of each stakeholder. Potential
research injuries should be categorised based on risk assessment, severity
and seriousness of the injury. Further, it would be necessary to have arbitration
committees to determine the extent of compensation. Training and awareness
workshops for those involved in clinical research, including research
participants, is also needed.
BibTeX:
@article{ThatteUM2009,
  author = {Thatte UM, Kulkarni-Munshi R, Kalekar SA},
  title = {Review of policies for injuries to research
participants in India}, journal = {J Med Ethics.}, year = {2009}, volume = {35(2)}, pages = {133-9} }
Titiyal JS, Murthy GV Industrial ocular morbidity in a north Indian town 1998 Indian J Public Health.
Vol. 42(2), pp. 29-33 
article  
Abstract: A study on industrial ocular morbidity was carried out in 6 industrial
establishments at Saharanpur. The mean age of the respondents was 35.3
years. 58.2% were regular floor staff. 10.6% professed suffering from an
industrial ocular injury. 60% of these injuries were sustained by ocular metallic
trauma. 51.9% complained of ocular symptoms at the time of the survey. The
frequency of ocular complaints increased with age. The point prevalence of
ocular morbidity was 746.03/1000 industrial workers. Refractive errors were the
commonest ocular condition (56.7%) observed, followed by Trachoma (32.6%).
The highest prevalence of morbidity was recorded among workers above 44
years. Clerical and managerial personnel had higher prevalence compared to
other jobs. Only 3.6% of the floor workers were using protective devices while
on the job.
BibTeX:
@article{TitiyalJS1998,
  author = {Titiyal JS, Murthy GV},
  title = {Industrial ocular morbidity in a north Indian town},
  journal = {Indian J Public Health.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {42(2)},
  pages = {29-33}
}
Tiwari PS, Gite LP, Dubey AK, Kot LS Agricultural injuries in Central India: nature,
magnitude, and economic impact
2002 J Agric Saf Health.
Vol. 8(1), pp. 95-111 
article  
Abstract: A study was carried out in Madhya Pradesh (Central India) to collect data on
injury-causing agricultural incidents during the period 1995-1999. The overall
incidence rate was 1.25/1000 workers/year. About 9.2% of the incidents were
fatal, and most of the fatal incidents were due to tractors and snakebites
(42.9% each). About 77.6% of all incidents were due to farm machinery, 11.8%
were due to hand tools, and the remaining 10.6% were due to other sources
like snakes, wells, etc. Data on 1,911 incidents reported in 10 leading
newspapers published during the five-year period (1995-1999) from different
regions of the state were also collected and analyzed, which indicated that only
major or roadside agricultural incidents were reported in newspapers. Based
on the survey data, it was estimated that in the year 2000 there would have
been about 17,480 agricultural incidents in Madhya Pradesh, causing death to
about 2,050 workers and injuries to about 16,770 workers, including
amputations of limbs, burns, cuts, etc. Total monetary loss due to agricultural
injuries in the state of Madhya Pradesh has been estimated as US $27
million/year.
BibTeX:
@article{TiwariPS2002,
  author = {Tiwari PS, Gite LP, Dubey AK, Kot LS.},
  title = {Agricultural injuries in Central India: nature,
magnitude, and economic impact}, journal = {J Agric Saf Health.}, year = {2002}, volume = {8(1)}, pages = {95-111} }
Tiwari RR, Rajmohan HR, Dave SK, Saiyed HN Care of burns: a knowledge, attitude and practice
study among match industry workers
2001 Indian J Med Sci.
Vol. 55(11), pp. 600-3 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{TiwariRR2001,
  author = {Tiwari RR, Rajmohan HR, Dave SK, Saiyed HN.},
  title = {Care of burns: a knowledge, attitude and practice
study among match industry workers}, journal = {Indian J Med Sci.}, year = {2001}, volume = {55(11)}, pages = {600-3} }
Tiwari RR, Saha A, Parikh JR, Saiyed HN Injuries and injury care among child labourers in
gem polishing industries in Jaipur, India
2004 J Occup Health.
Vol. 46(3), pp. 216-9 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{TiwariRR2004,
  author = {Tiwari RR, Saha A, Parikh JR, Saiyed HN},
  title = {Injuries and injury care among child labourers in
gem polishing industries in Jaipur, India}, journal = {J Occup Health.}, year = {2004}, volume = {46(3)}, pages = {216-9} }
Gupta TN Compensation in industrial ocular injuries 1968 J All India Ophthalmol Soc.
Vol. 16(4), pp. 243-4 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available.
BibTeX:
@article{TN1968,
  author = {Gupta TN},
  title = {Compensation in industrial ocular injuries},
  journal = {J All India Ophthalmol Soc.},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {16(4)},
  pages = {243-4}
}
Mago V Retrograde posterior interosseous flap 2007 Iowa Orthop J.
Vol. 27, pp. 58-60 
article  
Abstract: This paper describes and discusses some of the clinical applications of the
posterior interosseous forearm flap in hand reconstruction. It is based on a
series of 20 patients in whom a distally based posterior interosseous island flap
was used for closure of defects on the dorsum of the hand. Flaps survived
completely in 16 patients. Partial necrosis occurred in one flap. Total flap loss
occurred in two patients (20%). The flaps adapted well to the recipient site and
had excellent color and texture match. The donor site morbidity was minimal.
BibTeX:
@article{V.2007,
  author = {Mago V.},
  title = {Retrograde posterior interosseous flap},
  journal = {Iowa Orthop J.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {58-60}
}
Vasu U, Vasnaik A, Battu RR, Kurian M, George S Occupational open globe injuries 2001 Indian J Ophthalmol.
Vol. 49(1), pp. 43-7 
article  
Abstract: Purpose:
Occupational ocular trauma is an important cause of acquired monocular
blindness in a rapidly industrialising country like India. Knowledge of the
epidemiology of occupational eye injuries is essential to formulate viable
industrial safety measures.
Method:
We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occupational open globe injuries
between 1994 and 1998. We documented the circumstances of the injuries,
their clinical findings and the use of appropriate protective eyewear at the time
of the injury. The visual acuity 6 months after the injury was the final outcome
measure.
Results:
In this study period we examined 43 patients with open globe injuries
sustained at the work place. Thirty-four (79.1%) patients were young males.
The iron and steel industry accounted for 19 (44.2%) cases while 8 (18.6%)
patients each were from the agricultural, mining and other small scale industrial
sectors. At the time of the injury, 33 (76.7%) were not wearing the
recommended protective eyewear and 6 (13.9%) were under the influence of
alcohol. The injuries were mild in 6 (13.9%), moderate in 18 (41.9%) and
severe in 19 (44.2%) patients. At the end of 6 months, 2 (4.7%) patients had a
visual acuity of 6/12 or better, 4 (9.3%) had a visual acuity of 6/18 to 6/60 and
43
29 (67.4.%) had a vision of <6/60. Eight (18.6%) patients were not available for
follow up.
Conclusions:
Occupational open globe injuries are usually severe and are associated with a
poor visual outcome. Mandatory use of protective eyewear and alcohol-free
environment at the work place is likely to reduce the incidence of severe
occupational open globe injuries.
BibTeX:
@article{VasuU2001,
  author = {Vasu U, Vasnaik A, Battu RR, Kurian M, George S.},
  title = {Occupational open globe injuries},
  journal = {Indian J Ophthalmol.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {49(1)},
  pages = {43-7}
}
Verma SK, Agarwal BB Accidental hanging with delayed death in a lift 1999 Med Sci Law.
Vol. 39(4), pp. 342-4 
article  
Abstract: While hanging is a common method of committing suicide in India, accidental
hanging is uncommon. However, it does occur when people are engaged in
auto-erotic practices. An adult male who was helping passengers trapped in
the lift of an outpatient department at a teaching hospital was accidentally
hanged. He survived for 39 days. This case highlights a rare but serious
hazard in the use of lifts.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaSK1999,
  author = {Verma SK, Agarwal BB},
  title = {Accidental hanging with delayed death in a lift},
  journal = {Med Sci Law.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {39(4)},
  pages = {342-4}
}
Veturi SM, Lakshmi BK, Ganguli AK, Chakrabarti AK The impact and feasibility of international/national
standards in the prevention of musculoskeletal
injuries in developing countries
1987 Ergonomics.
Vol. 30(2), pp. 405-10 
article  
Abstract: This paper considers various facets of a preventive scheme for
musculoskeletal injuries and examines the role of standards in the terminology,
investigation, reporting, compilation and computation in such schemes.
BibTeX:
@article{VeturiSM1987,
  author = {Veturi SM, Lakshmi BK, Ganguli AK, Chakrabarti AK},
  title = {The impact and feasibility of international/national
standards in the prevention of musculoskeletal
injuries in developing countries}, journal = {Ergonomics.}, year = {1987}, volume = {30(2)}, pages = {405-10} }
Vinodkumar MN, Bhasi M Safety management practices and safety behaviour:
assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge
and motivation;
2010 Accid Anal Prev.
Vol. 42(6), pp. 2082-93 
article  
Abstract: Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also
positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety,
thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees'
perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety
knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by
conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to
eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in
southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were
found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of
the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the
safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety
participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key
mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as
the most important safety management practice that predicts safety
knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation.
These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for
identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace.
BibTeX:
@article{VinodkumarMN2010,
  author = {Vinodkumar MN, Bhasi M.},
  title = {Safety management practices and safety behaviour:
assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge
and motivation;}, journal = {Accid Anal Prev.}, year = {2010}, volume = {42(6)}, pages = {2082-93} }
Wankhede AG, Dongre AP Head injury with traumatic and postural asphyxia: a
case report
2002 Med Sci Law.
Vol. 42(4), pp. 358-9 
article  
Abstract: An autopsy was performed on a 22-year-old tractor driver who was found on a
cliff, 20 feet down from the highway, trapped between the wheel of a tractor
trolley and some stones in an inverted position, after sustaining a head injury.
Post mortem lividity was present above the knee joints except where the left
arm was firmly adducted on the chest and where the cloth folds were
compressing on the chest and abdomen all round. Sub-mucosal ecchymoses
and petechial hemorrhages were present in the pharyngeal walls, and on both
surfaces of the epiglottis and larynx above the vestibular folds. Such
hemorrhages were first noticed along with other findings of traumatic and
postural asphyxia.
BibTeX:
@article{WankhedeAG2002,
  author = {Wankhede AG, Dongre AP.},
  title = {Head injury with traumatic and postural asphyxia: a
case report}, journal = {Med Sci Law.}, year = {2002}, volume = {42(4)}, pages = {358-9} }
(Last Updated Upto:2016)