Bibliography : Arsenic

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Badarkhe GV, Sil A, Bhattacharya S, Nath UK, Das NK Erythema multiforme due to arsenic trioxide in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia: A diagnostic challenge 2016 Indian J Pharmacol., pp. 216-8  article DOI  
Abstract: Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, self-limited, Type IV hypersensitivity reactions associated with infections and drugs. In this case of acute promyelocytic leukemia, EM diagnosed during the induction phase was mistakenly attributed to vancomycin used to treat febrile neutropenia during that period. However, the occurrence of the lesions of EM again during the consolidation phase with arsenic trioxide (ATO) lead to a re-evaluation of the patient and both the Naranjo and World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre scale showed the causality association as "probable." The rash responded to topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. This rare event of EM being caused by ATO may be attributed to the genetic variation of methyl conjugation in the individual which had triggered the response, and the altered metabolic byproducts acted as a hapten in the subsequent keratinocyte necrosis.
BibTeX:
@article{BadarkheGV12016,
  author = {Badarkhe GV1, Sil A2, Bhattacharya S3, Nath UK1, Das NK3.},
  title = {Erythema multiforme due to arsenic trioxide in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia: A diagnostic challenge},
  journal = {Indian J Pharmacol.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {216-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.178827}
}
Bandyopadhyay S, Das SK Functional analysis of ars gene cluster of Pannonibacter indicus strain HT23(T) (DSM 23407(T)) and identification of a proline residue essential for arsenate reductase activity. 2016 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol., pp. 3235-44  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic is a naturally occurring ubiquitous highly toxic metalloid. In this study, we have identified ars gene cluster in Pannonibacter indicus strain HT23(T) (DSM 23407(T)), responsible for reduction of toxic pentavalent arsenate. The ars gene cluster is comprised of four non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a transcriptional regulator (ArsR), a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMW-PTPase) with hypothetical function, an arsenite efflux pump (Acr3), and an arsenate reductase (ArsC). Heterologous expression of arsenic inducible ars gene cluster conferred arsenic resistance to Escherichia coli ?ars mutant strain AW3110. The recombinant ArsC was purified and assayed. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to ascertain the role of specific amino acids in ArsC catalysis. Pro94X (X = Ala, Arg, Cys, and His) amino acid substitutions led to enzyme inactivation. Circular dichroism spectra analysis suggested Pro94 as an essential amino acid for enzyme catalytic activity as it is indispensable for optimum protein folding in P. indicus Grx-coupled ArsC.
BibTeX:
@article{BandyopadhyayS12016,
  author = {Bandyopadhyay S1, Das SK2.},
  title = {Functional analysis of ars gene cluster of Pannonibacter indicus strain HT23(T) (DSM 23407(T)) and identification of a proline residue essential for arsenate reductase activity.},
  journal = {Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {3235-44},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7390-2}
}
Bhattacharjee P, Paul S, Bhattacharjee P Risk of occupational exposure to asbestos, silicon and arsenic on pulmonary disorders: Understanding the genetic-epigenetic interplay and future prospects. 2016 Environ Res., pp. 425-34  article DOI  
Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggest strong association of lung disorders with occupational exposure to asbestos, silicon and arsenic. The chronic occupational exposure primarily through inhalation results in adverse outcome on the respiratory tract which may also be fatal. Although several mechanisms have attributed towards these diseases; the molecular pathogenesis is still unknown.
OBJECTIVE:
In this review, we investigated the plausible molecular mechanism based on current research that may identify the genetic and epigenetic susceptibility of respiratory disorders upon such occupational exposures in humans.
METHODS:
We considered genetic variants and epigenetic alterations associated with pulmonary exposure hazards leading to asbestosis, silicosis and arsenicosis. Our review is stringently based on the literatures available through peer-reviewed articles mostly published in the last 10 years. Relevant search were conducted using keywords like "occupational lung disorders" along with "asbestos", "silicon" and "arsenic".
RESULTS:
Till September 2015, pubmed search yielded approximately 780 articles relating to asbestos exposure; 240 articles for silicon exposure and 60 articles for arsenic exposure. Extensive screening for genetic and epigenetic factors identified certain genes and related pathways that are important to determine the susceptibility of an individual towards such occupational exposure.
CONCLUSION:
The link between genotype and phenotype and its association with disease susceptibility is very complex in nature due to several factors like person's environment, lifestyle and nutritional status. The epigenome is dynamic as well as reversible and can be reshaped further by certain dietary components throughout its life. In the present review, we have addressed the role of molecular pathogenesis of occupational lung diseases based on the genetic variability and epigenetic alterations and also attempted to highlight the promising aspect of dietary interventions to counter toxic outcomes upon occupational exposure to asbestos, silicon or arsenic.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharjeeP12016,
  author = {Bhattacharjee P1, Paul S2, Bhattacharjee P3.},
  title = {Risk of occupational exposure to asbestos, silicon and arsenic on pulmonary disorders: Understanding the genetic-epigenetic interplay and future prospects.},
  journal = {Environ Res.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {425-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.02.038}
}
Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Ahamed S, Dutta RN, Pati S, Mukherjee SC Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in Patna district (capital of Bihar) in the middle Ganga plain, India. 2016 Chemosphere., pp. 520-9  article DOI  
Abstract: We investigated the extent and severity of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination in five blocks in Patna district, Bihar, India along with As in biological samples and its health effects such as dermatological, neurological and obstetric outcome in some villages. We collected 1365 hand tube-well water samples and analyzed for As by the flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 61% and 44% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 ?g/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1466 ?g/l. Our medical team examined 712 villagers and registered 69 (9.7%) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical skin lesions were also observed in 9 children of 312 screened. We analyzed 176 biological samples (hair, nail and urine). Out of these, 69 people had arsenical skin lesions and rest without skin lesions. We found 100% of the biological samples had As above the normal levels (concentrations of As in hair, nail and urine of unexposed individuals usually ranges from 20 to 200 ?g/kg, 20-500 ?g/kg and <100 ?g/l, respectively), indicating many people are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 40.5% of 37 arsenicosis patients with 73.3% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 26.7% for sensor-motor. Among patients, different clinical and electrophysiological neurological features and abnormal quantitative sensory perception thresholds were also noted. The study also found that As exposed women with severe skin lesions had adversely affected their pregnancies. People including children in the affected areas are in danger. To combat As situation in affected areas, villagers urgently need (a) provision of As-safe water for drinking and cooking, (b) awareness about the danger of As toxicity, and (c) nutritious food.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD12016,
  author = {Chakraborti D1, Rahman MM2, Ahamed S3, Dutta RN4, Pati S5, Mukherjee SC6.},
  title = {Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in Patna district (capital of Bihar) in the middle Ganga plain, India.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {520-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.02.119}
}
Chandra S, Saha R, Pal P Arsenic Uptake and Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) as Affected by Different Arsenical Speciation. 2016 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol., pp. 395-400  article  
Abstract: Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of different arsenic (As) species such as arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). The present study describes the changes in the growth, yield and accumulation characteristics of okra plants spiked with 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) of As(III), As(V) and DMA. As species negatively affected the yield and growth of the plant.The availability of arsenic compounds in the aerial parts decreased in the order As(V) > As(III) > DMA and in the roots observed as As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The results showed that except As(V), okra accumulated As(III) and DMA mainly in its roots with limited transport to shoots. Thus the plant has the capacity to tolerate As stress and can be considered as a resistive variety. The study also reveals that removal of As by boiling the vegetables with excess of water is not possible.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandraS12016,
  author = {Chandra S1, Saha R2, Pal P3.},
  title = {Arsenic Uptake and Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) as Affected by Different Arsenical Speciation.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {395-400}
}
Choudhury S, Gupta P, Ghosh S, Mukherjee S, Chakraborty P, Chatterji U, Chattopadhyay S Arsenic-induced dose-dependent modulation of the NF-?B/IL-6 axis in thymocytes triggers differential immune responses. 2016 Toxicology., pp. 85-96  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a matter of global concern. Arsenic intake impairs immune responses and leads to a variety of pathological conditions including cancer. In order to understand the intricate tuning of immune responses elicited by chronic exposure to arsenic, a mouse model was established by subjecting mice to different environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic in drinking water for 30days. Detailed study of the thymus, a primary immune organ, revealed arsenic-mediated tissue damage in both histological specimens and scanning electron micrographs. Analysis of molecular markers of apoptosis by Western blot revealed a dose-dependent activation of the apoptotic cascade. Enzymatic assays supported oxidative stress as an instigator of cell death. Interestingly, assessment of inflammatory responses revealed disparity in the NF-?B/IL-6/STAT3 axis, where it was found that in animals consuming higher amounts of arsenic NF-?B activation did not lead to the classical IL-6 upregulation response. This deviation from the canonical pathway was accompanied with a significant rise in numbers of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3 expressing cells in the thymus. The cytokine profile of the animals exposed to higher doses of arsenic also indicated an immune-suppressed milieu, thus validating that arsenic shapes the immune environment in context to its dose of exposure and that at higher doses it leads to immune-suppression. Our study establishes a novel role of arsenic in regulating immune homeostasis in context to its dose, where, at higher doses, arsenic related upregulation of NF-?B cascade takes on an alternative role that is correlated with increased immune-suppression.
BibTeX:
@article{ChoudhuryS12016,
  author = {Choudhury S1, Gupta P1, Ghosh S1, Mukherjee S1, Chakraborty P1, Chatterji U2, Chattopadhyay S3.},
  title = {Arsenic-induced dose-dependent modulation of the NF-?B/IL-6 axis in thymocytes triggers differential immune responses.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {85-96},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2016.06.005}
}
Deepika KV, Raghuram M, Kariali E, Bramhachari PV Biological responses of symbiotic Rhizobium radiobacter strain VBCK1062 to the arsenic contaminated rhizosphere soils of mung bean. 2016 Biological responses of symbiotic Rhizobium radiobacter strain VBCK1062 to the arsenic contaminated rhizosphere soils of mung bean.
Vol. 1, pp. 10 
article DOI  
Abstract: The rationale could be that mung bean is cultivated in areas of arsenic contamination and therefore it is worth investigating how Rhizobium is impacted by arsenic exposure. The objective(s) of the study deals with relationship between Rhizobium metal tolerance and its adaptations to metal stressed environment. The selected strain was recovered from root nodules of Vigna radiata, based on viscous EPS production and arsenic tolerant capacity, identified as R. radiobacter by 16S rDNA sequencing. Batch studies were performed to evaluate toxic effects of heavy metal ions in decreasing order of MIC As(V) (10mM), Cu(1.5mM), Pb(0.18mM), Cr(0.1mM), Ni(0.08mM) and Cd(0.04mM). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of Arsenic resistant strain revealed evident changes in cell morphology. SDS-PAGE results showed altered expression of proteins in response to arsenate. One unique protein of approximately 21kDa was highly expressed in 5mM arsenate, but same protein was down regulated in 10mM arsenate. The exopolysaccharide components such as total carbohydrates, proteins and uronic acids were significantly enhanced by 41%, 25% and 33% (P Value <0.05) and also produced EPS under Arsenic stressed conditions. Fourier transformed spectroscopy analysis demonstrated arsenic metal ion-EPS interactions. The results obtained from SEM-EDS analysis clearly revealed mucous nature of Rhizobial-EPS surrounding bacterial cells and confirmed the role of EPS in arsenate sequestration (10% as weight). Interestingly total arsenate uptake by strain VBCK1062 in whole-cell pellet and EPS were 0.045mg and 0.068mgg-1 of biomass respectively. Thus these results significantly contribute to better understanding of plant-metal-microbe interactions, cellular-metabolic changes and As-enhanced EPSs, hence can serve as potential bioremediation agent for As-contaminated agrogeoecosystems.
BibTeX:
@article{DeepikaKV2016,
  author = {Deepika KV, Raghuram M, Kariali E, Bramhachari PV.},
  title = {Biological responses of symbiotic Rhizobium radiobacter strain VBCK1062 to the arsenic contaminated rhizosphere soils of mung bean.},
  journal = {Biological responses of symbiotic Rhizobium radiobacter strain VBCK1062 to the arsenic contaminated rhizosphere soils of mung bean.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.08.008}
}
Dixit G, Singh AP, Kumar A, Mishra S, Dwivedi S, Kumar S, Trivedi PK, Pandey V, Tripathi RD Reduced arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoot involves sulfur mediated improved thiol metabolism, antioxidant system and altered arsenic transporters. 2016 Plant Physiol Biochem., pp. 86-96  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) contamination in rice is at alarming level as majority of rice growing regions are As contaminated such as South East Asia. Restricting the As in aerial parts of rice plant may be an effective strategy to reduce As contamination in food chain. Sulfur (S), an essential element for plant growth and development, plays a crucial role in diminishing heavy metal toxicity. Current study is designed to investigate the role of S to mitigate As toxicity in rice under different S regimes. High S (5 mM) treatment resulted in enhanced root As accumulation as well as prevented its entry in to shoot. Results of thiol metabolism indicate that As was complexed in plant roots through enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins. High S treatment also reduced the expression of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, the potent transporters of As in rice. High S treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and mitigated the As induced oxidative stress. Thus from present study it is evident that proper supply of S nutrition may be helpful in prevention of As accumulation in aerial parts of plant as well as As induced toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{DixitG12016,
  author = {Dixit G1, Singh AP1, Kumar A2, Mishra S1, Dwivedi S1, Kumar S1, Trivedi PK1, Pandey V1, Tripathi RD3.},
  title = {Reduced arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoot involves sulfur mediated improved thiol metabolism, antioxidant system and altered arsenic transporters.},
  journal = {Plant Physiol Biochem.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {86-96},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.11.005}
}
Ganapathy S, Li P, Fagman J, Yu T, Lafontant J, Zhang G, Chen C Low doses of arsenic, via perturbing p53, promotes tumorigenesis. 2016 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol., pp. 98-104  article DOI  
Abstract: In drinking water and in workplace or living environments, low doses of arsenic can exist and operate as a potent carcinogen. Due to insufficient understanding and information on the pervasiveness of environmental exposures to arsenic, there is an urgent need to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of arsenic regarding its carcinogenic effect on human health. In this study, we demonstrate that low doses of arsenic exposure mitigate or mask p53 function and further perturb intracellular redox state, which triggers persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activates UPR (unfolded protein response), leading to transformation or tumorigenesis. Thus, the results suggest that low doses of arsenic exposure, through attenuating p53-regulated tumor suppressive function, change the state of intracellular redox and create a microenvironment for tumorigenesis. Our study also provides the information for designing more effective strategies to prevent or treat human cancers initiated by arsenic exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{GanapathyS12016,
  author = {Ganapathy S1, Li P2, Fagman J3, Yu T4, Lafontant J4, Zhang G5, Chen C6.},
  title = {Low doses of arsenic, via perturbing p53, promotes tumorigenesis.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {98-104},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2016.07.009}
}
Goyal T, Zawar V, Varshney A Chronic arsenic toxicity: a spectrum of clinical manifestations in a single patient, a diagnostic challenge! 2016 G Ital Dermatol Venereol.  article  
BibTeX:
@article{GoyalT12016,
  author = {Goyal T1, Zawar V, Varshney A.},
  title = {Chronic arsenic toxicity: a spectrum of clinical manifestations in a single patient, a diagnostic challenge!},
  journal = {G Ital Dermatol Venereol.},
  year = {2016}
}
Gupta A, Verma NC, Khan S, Nandi CK Carbon dots for naked eye colorimetric ultrasensitive arsenic and glutathione detection. 2016 Biosens Bioelectron., pp. 465-72  article DOI  
Abstract: A novel one-step method for the synthesis of bright, multicolor fluorescent sulphur doped carbon dots (CNDs) has been developed by using simple microwave assisted pyrolysis of citric acid and sodium thiosulphate. The synthesized CNDs showed dual mode naked eye colorimetric ultrasensitive sensing capability both for arsenic [As (III)] and glutathione (GSH) with high selectivity. Using fluorometric assay, the detection limit (DL) for As (III) was found to be as low as 32pM. The selectivity data show that the newly developed CNDs is very specific for As (III) even with interference by high concentrations of other metal ions. The CNDs were also able to detect GSH very selectively over other biothiols like cysteine (Cys) and homo-cysteine (H-cys) with a DL of 43nM, even in blood plasma. The fast kinetic data suggests that the present CNDs assay could be used onsite As (III) detection. The CNDs, further, showed its potential application in high resolution bioimaging of bacterial nucleoid segregation.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaA12016,
  author = {Gupta A1, Verma NC1, Khan S1, Nandi CK2.},
  title = {Carbon dots for naked eye colorimetric ultrasensitive arsenic and glutathione detection.},
  journal = {Biosens Bioelectron.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {465-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.03.018}
}
Kumar M, Patel AK, Das A, Kumar P, Goswami R, Deka P, Das N Hydrogeochemical controls on mobilization of arsenic and associated health risk in Nagaon district of the central Brahmaputra Plain, India. 2016 Environ Geochem Health.  article  
Abstract: In recent years, elevated concentration of arsenic (As) in groundwater in the northeastern states of India has become a major cause of concern. Since many regions of the Brahmaputra plains are reported with groundwater As contamination, an attempt was made to study the As contamination and factors governing its release in the Nagaon district in Brahmaputra floodplain, based on various water types, relation of As with other major ions and with various depth profiles. The origin of groundwater mineralization and the processes responsible for As enrichment in groundwater was determined by calculating saturation index using PHREEQC code. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out for identification of As-releasing mechanism based on rock-water interaction. Principle component analysis of physicochemical parameters revealed the association of As with SiO2 and Cl- in pre-monsoon and the fact that alkaline condition favors release of As. The relation between As and Fe shows that reductive dissolution of solid Fe oxide and hydroxide phases could be the source of As in Nagaon district. The result of hierarchical cluster analysis indicates that As release could also be associated with the agrochemicals application. Health risk assessment revealed that children are more susceptible to carcinogenic as well as non-carcinogenic health impact with consumption of As-contaminated drinking water. The male population is more susceptible to cancer as compared to females as the average water consumption is higher in case of male. Overall, the study highlights the health risk assessment is a matter of chief concern in this study as the younger generation are at higher risk.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarM12016,
  author = {Kumar M1, Patel AK2, Das A2, Kumar P3, Goswami R2, Deka P2, Das N2.},
  title = {Hydrogeochemical controls on mobilization of arsenic and associated health risk in Nagaon district of the central Brahmaputra Plain, India.},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health.},
  year = {2016}
}
Kumar S, Mukherjee TK, Guptasarma P Arsenic and 17-?-estradiol bind to each other and neutralize each other's signaling effects. 2016 Biochem Biophys Res Commun., pp. 575-80  article DOI  
Abstract: We report that arsenic trioxide (ATO) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2) abolish each other's independent cell signaling effects in respect of cell survival and proliferation/migration of breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. The possibility that this is due to binding of ATO to E2 was confirmed through difference absorption spectroscopy, chromatography-coupled voltammometry and 1-D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Binding leads to attenuation of E2's hydroxyl (1)H peaks at its C17 and C3 carbon positions. The results suggest that ATO and E2 can titrate each other's levels, potentially explaining why sustained arsenic exposure tends to be associated with delays in age of menarche, advanced age of menopause, poorer sperm quality, higher overall morbidity in men, and lower incidences of breast cancer in women in some arsenic-contaminated areas.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS12016,
  author = {Kumar S1, Mukherjee TK2, Guptasarma P3.},
  title = {Arsenic and 17-?-estradiol bind to each other and neutralize each other's signaling effects.},
  journal = {Biochem Biophys Res Commun.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {575-80},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.06.087}
}
Kumari N, Jagadevan S Genetic identification of arsenate reductase and arsenite oxidase in redox transformations carried out by arsenic metabolising prokaryotes - A comprehensive review. 2016 Chemosphere., pp. 400-412  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) contamination in water is a cause of major concern to human population worldwide, especially in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are the two common forms in which arsenic exists in soil and groundwater, the former being more mobile and toxic. A large number of arsenic metabolising microorganisms play a crucial role in microbial transformation of arsenic between its different states, thus playing a key role in remediation of arsenic contaminated water. This review focuses on advances in biochemical, molecular and genomic developments in the field of arsenic metabolising bacteria - covering recent developments in the understanding of structure of arsenate reductase and arsenite oxidase enzymes, their gene and operon structures and their mechanism of action. The genetic and molecular studies of these microbes and their proteins may lead to evolution of successful strategies for effective implementation of bioremediation programs.
BibTeX:
@article{KumariN2016,
  author = {Kumari N, Jagadevan S.},
  title = {Genetic identification of arsenate reductase and arsenite oxidase in redox transformations carried out by arsenic metabolising prokaryotes - A comprehensive review.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {400-412},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.08.044}
}
Laskar M, Das A, Maiti A Raindrop Pigmentation in Chronic Arsenic Toxicity. 2016 Am J Med Sci.(625)  article  
BibTeX:
@article{LaskarM12016,
  author = {Laskar M1, Das A1, Maiti A2.},
  title = {Raindrop Pigmentation in Chronic Arsenic Toxicity.},
  journal = {Am J Med Sci.},
  year = {2016},
  number = {625}
}
Mukherjee AK, Manna SK, Roy SK, Chakraborty M, Das S, Naskar JP Plasma-aminothiols status and inverse correlation of total homocysteine with B-vitamins in arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India. 2016 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng., pp. 962-73  article DOI  
Abstract: Chronic arsenic toxicity is a serious environmental health problem across the world. Bangladesh and India (particularly the state of West Bengal) are the worst affected countries with such problem. The present study reports plasma-aminothiols (p-aminothiols) like L-cysteine (L-Cys), cysteinyl glycine (Cys-gly), total homocysteine (t-Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) status, and the inverse relationship of t-Hcy with B-vitamins (B1, B6, B9 and B12) in arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India. Reverse phase HPLC was used to measure p-aminothiols and serum B-vitamins in different arsenic exposed population. Arsenic in drinking water and urine were measured by flow injection analysis system - Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FIAS-AAS) and Transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA-AAS) techniques, respectively. Water arsenic exposure was >50 µg/L in 50% population, of which majority (33.58%) belong to the range of >50-500 µg/L and more than 8% were even >1000 µg/L. Urine arsenic (µg/g creatinine) levels increased with arsenic exposure. The variability among p-aminothiols was also observed with higher exposure to arsenic in drinking water. A significant difference between exposed and control population was noticed for plasma L-Cys. The difference of B-vitamins between the population exposed to <50 and >50 µg/L arsenic in drinking water was also found to be significant. B9 and B12 deficiency with increased consumption of arsenic in water corroborates the anemic conditions commonly observed among arsenic exposed population. The aminothiol status indicated oxidative stress in exposed population. This study demonstrated progressive increase in plasma t-Hcy as well as inverse relationships of serum B-vitamins with increased water arsenic concentration.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeAK12016,
  author = {Mukherjee AK1, Manna SK1, Roy SK1, Chakraborty M1, Das S1, Naskar JP2.},
  title = {Plasma-aminothiols status and inverse correlation of total homocysteine with B-vitamins in arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {962-73},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2016.1191816}
}
Mukhopadhyay S, Mukherjee S, Hashim MA, Sen Gupta B Remediation of Arsenic Contaminated Soil Using Phosphate and Colloidal Gas Aphron Suspensions Produced from Sapindus mukorossi. 2016 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.  article  
Abstract: Phosphate and colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) generated from saponin extracted from Sapindus mukorossi fruit, were evaluated for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Phosphate is one of the most commonly dispersed chemicals that increases arsenic mobility in soil due to their structural similarities, making it an important factor in arsenic removal process. Column washing experiments were performed with CGAs in down flow and up flow modes on soil of pH 5 and 6. Soapnut CGAs, when paired with phosphate removed up to 95 % arsenic while soapnut CGAs alone could only remove up to 70 % arsenic. The presence of phosphate improved efficiency of soapnut solution by up to 35 %. SEM image of washed soil revealed minor corrosion of soil surface while using phosphate with soapnut. Therefore, the addition of phosphates would have positive impact on soil washing using soapnut saponin.
BibTeX:
@article{MukhopadhyayS12016,
  author = {Mukhopadhyay S1, Mukherjee S1, Hashim MA2, Sen Gupta B3.},
  title = {Remediation of Arsenic Contaminated Soil Using Phosphate and Colloidal Gas Aphron Suspensions Produced from Sapindus mukorossi.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2016}
}
Pandey C, Khan E, Panthri M, Tripathi RD, Gupta M Impact of silicon on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) root traits by regulating growth parameters, cellular antioxidants and stress modulators under arsenic stress. 2016 Plant Physiol Biochem., pp. 216-25  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) is an emerging pollutant causing inhibition in growth and development of plants resulting into phytotoxicity. On the other hand, silicon (Si) has been suggested as a modulator in abiotic and biotic stresses that, enhances plant's physiological adaptations in response to several stresses including heavy metal stress. In this study, we used roots of hydroponically grown 14 day old seedlings of Brassica juncea var. Varuna treated with 150 ?M As, 1.5 mM Si and both in combination for 96 h duration. Application of Si modulated the effect of As by improving morphological traits of root along with the development of both primary and lateral roots. Changes observed in root traits showed positive correlation with As induced cell death, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular superoxide radicals (O2(-)). Addition of 1.5 mM Si during As stress increased accumulation of As in roots. Mineral nutrient analysis was done using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique and positively correlated with increased cysteine, proline, MDA, H2O2 and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX). The results obtained from the above biochemical approaches support the protective and active role of Si in the regulation of As stress through the changes in root developmental process.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyC12016,
  author = {Pandey C1, Khan E1, Panthri M1, Tripathi RD2, Gupta M3.},
  title = {Impact of silicon on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) root traits by regulating growth parameters, cellular antioxidants and stress modulators under arsenic stress.},
  journal = {Plant Physiol Biochem.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {216-25},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.03.032}
}
Podder MS, Majumder CB Sequestering of As(III) and As(V) from wastewater using a novel neem leaves/MnFe2O4 composite biosorbent. 2016 Int J Phytoremediation., pp. 1237-57  article DOI  
Abstract: An arsenic biosorbent comprising neem leaves (NL) and MnFe2O4 particles was developed and its removal potential was investigated. Physicochemical analysis of the NL/MnFe2O4 composite (MNL) was performed for the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The following parameters were optimized: pH, biosorbent dose, contact time, temperature, and initial arsenic concentration. The optimum pH values achieved for biosorption of As(III) and As(V) were 7.0 and 4.0, respectively, when the equilibrium time was 110 minutes for both. MNL was found to be efficient with 85.217% and 88.154% biosorption efficiency at a concentration of 50 mg/L of As(III) or As(V) solution, respectively. This was also proved by the FT-IR study of arsenic-loaded biosorbent. For establishing the best suitable correlation for the equilibrium curves exploiting the procedure of the nonlinear regression for curve fitting analysis, isotherm studies were conducted for As(III) and As(V) using 30 isotherm models. The pattern of biosorption fitted well with Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm model for As(III) and Langmuir-Freundlich as well as Sips isotherm models for As(V). Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm studies specified that ion exchange might play a significant role. The influence of various co-existing ions at different concentrations was examined. Desorption study was performed using various concentrations of NaOH solution.
BibTeX:
@article{PodderMS12016,
  author = {Podder MS1, Majumder CB1.},
  title = {Sequestering of As(III) and As(V) from wastewater using a novel neem leaves/MnFe2O4 composite biosorbent.},
  journal = {Int J Phytoremediation.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1237-57},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2016.1193467}
}
Prakash C, Kumar V Arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage is mediated by decreased PGC-1? expression and its downstream targets in rat brain. 2016 Chem Biol Interact., pp. 228-35  article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage and its relation to biogenesis in rat brain. Chronic sodium arsenite (25 ppm, orally) administration for 12 weeks decreased mitochondrial complexes activities and mRNA expression of selective complexes subunits. The expression of mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1?, and its downstream targets NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam were decreased significantly both at mRNA and protein levels suggesting impaired biogenesis following chronic arsenic-exposure. In addition to this, protein expression analysis also revealed activation of Bax and caspase-3, leading to translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol suggesting induction of apoptotic pathway under oxidative stress. This was further confirmed by electron microscopy study which depicted morphological changes in mitochondria in terms of altered nuclear and mitochondrial shape and chromatin condensation in arsenic-treated rats. The immunohistochemical studies showed both nuclear and cytosolic localization of NRF-1 and NRF-2 in arsenic-exposed rat brain further suggesting regulatory role of these transcription factors under arsenic neurotoxicity. The results of present study indicate that arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in rat brain that may present as important target to reveal the mechanism for arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{PrakashC12016,
  author = {Prakash C1, Kumar V2.},
  title = {Arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage is mediated by decreased PGC-1? expression and its downstream targets in rat brain.},
  journal = {Chem Biol Interact.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {228-35},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2016.07.017}
}
Saha S, Sarkar P Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for detection of As (III) by Chitosan-Fe(OH)3 modified glassy carbon electrode: A new approach towards speciation of arsenic. 2016 Talanta., pp. 235-45  article DOI  
Abstract: An efficient electrochemical sensor for As(III) was developed based on adsorption of arsenic on a specially modified electrodes at some applied potential and subsequent i) stripping at a fixed potential by anodic stripping voltammetry ii) analysis by generating surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The working glassy carbon electrode was modified by Chitosan-Fe(OH)3 composite and a reducing agent L-cysteine. The composite enhanced adsorption of As(III) and subsequent reduction to As(O) moieties and measurement by anodic stripping. The surface property of modified electrode was characterized by SEM, AFM, FTIR, XPS and electrochemistry was analyzed by impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) was also employed to investigate the As(III) binding capability of polymer matrix. Several optimum voltammetric parameters e.g supporting electrolyte; 0.1M acetate buffer (pH 5.2) deposition potential, -0.9V; deposition time, 100s were established for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). A linear correlation was obtained in the range of 2-100ppb for ASV (R(2) 0.974) with limit of detection 0.072ppb. A variety of common coexistent ions such as Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd in water samples showed no interferences on the As (III) determination. The method was applied successfully to real samples collected from arsenic affected areas of West Bengal, India.
BibTeX:
@article{SahaS12016,
  author = {Saha S1, Sarkar P2.},
  title = {Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for detection of As (III) by Chitosan-Fe(OH)3 modified glassy carbon electrode: A new approach towards speciation of arsenic.},
  journal = {Talanta.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {235-45},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.05.053}
}
Sarkar A, Paul B The global menace of arsenic and its conventional remediation - A critical review. 2016 Chemosphere., pp. 37-49  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic is a ubiquitous element found in the earth crust with a varying concentration in the earth soil and water. Arsenic has always been under the scanner due to its toxicity in human beings. Contamination of arsenic in drinking water, which generally finds its source from arsenic-containing aquifers; has severely threatened billions of people all over the world. Arsenic poisoning is worse in Bangladesh where As(III) is abundant in waters of tube wells. Natural occurrence of arsenic in groundwater could result from both, oxidative and reductive dissolution. Geothermally heated water has the potential to liberate arsenic from surrounding rocks. Inorganic arsenic has been found to have more toxicity than the organic forms of arsenic. MMA and DMA are now been considered as the organic arsenic compounds having the potential to impair DNA and that is why MMA and DMA are considered as carcinogens. Endless efforts of researchers have elucidated the source, behavior of arsenic in various parts of the environment, mechanism of toxicity and various remediation processes; although, there are lots of areas still to be addressed. In this article, attempts have been made to lay bare an overview of geochemistry, toxicity and current removal techniques of arsenic together.
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarA12016,
  author = {Sarkar A1, Paul B2.},
  title = {The global menace of arsenic and its conventional remediation - A critical review.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {37-49},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.05.043}
}
Sharma S, Kaur J, Nagpal AK, Kaur Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs. 2016 Environ Monit Assess., pp. 188-9  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a carcinogenic metalloid that enters food chain through food and water and poses health risk to living beings. It is important to assess the As status in the environment and risks associated with it. Hence, a risk assessment study was conducted across Ropar wetland, Punjab, India and its environs in pre-monsoon season of 2013, to estimate the risk posed to adults and children via daily consumption of As contaminated groundwater and wheat grains. Arsenic concentrations determined in groundwater, soil and wheat grain samples using atomic absorption spectrometer ranged from 2.90 to 10.56 ?g L(-1), 0.06 to 0.12 mg kg(-1) and 0.03 to 0.21 mg kg(-1), respectively. Arsenic in wheat grains showed significant negative correlation with phosphate content in soil indicating a competitive uptake of arsenate and phosphate ions by plants. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggested that both natural and anthropogenic factors contribute to variation in As content and other variables studied in soil and groundwater samples. Total cancer risk and hazard index were higher than the USEPA safety limits of 1.00 × 10(-6) and 1, respectively, for both adults and children indicating a high risk of cancer and other health disorders. Consumption of As contaminated wheat grains was found to pose higher risk of cancer and non-cancer health disorders as compared to intake of As contaminated groundwater by both adults and children. Moreover, children were found to be more prone to cancer and other heath disorders due to As exposure via wheat grains and groundwater as compared to adults.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaS2016,
  author = {Sharma S, Kaur J, Nagpal AK, Kaur},
  title = {Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {188-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5507-9}
}
Sharma S, Gupta A, Deshmukh A, Puri V Arsenic poisoning and Mees' lines. 2016 QJM., pp. 565-6  article  
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaS12016,
  author = {Sharma S1, Gupta A1, Deshmukh A1, Puri V1.},
  title = {Arsenic poisoning and Mees' lines.},
  journal = {QJM.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {565-6}
}
Singh N, Marwa N, Mishra SK, Mishra J, Verma PC, Rathaur S, Singh N Brevundimonas diminuta mediated alleviation of arsenic toxicity and plant growth promotion in Oryza sativa L. 2016 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., pp. 25-34  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid adversely affects plant growth in polluted areas. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of improving phytostablization of arsenic through application of new isolated strain Brevundimonas diminuta (NBRI012) in rice plant [Oryza sativa (L.) Var. Sarju 52] at two different concentrations [10ppm (low toxic) and 50ppm (high toxic)] of As. The plant growth promoting traits of bacterial strains revealed the inherent ability of siderophores, phosphate solubilisation, indole acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase production which may be associated with increased biomass, chlorophyll and MDA content of rice and thereby promoting plant growth. The study also revealed the As accumulation property of NBRI012 strain which could play an important role in As removal from contaminated soil. Furthermore, NBRI012 inoculation significantly restored the hampered root epidermal and cortical cell growth of rice plant and root hair elimination. Altogether our study highlights the multifarious role of B. diminuta in mediating stress tolerance and modulating translocation of As in edible part of rice plant.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghN12016,
  author = {Singh N1, Marwa N2, Mishra SK3, Mishra J4, Verma PC4, Rathaur S5, Singh N6.},
  title = {Brevundimonas diminuta mediated alleviation of arsenic toxicity and plant growth promotion in Oryza sativa L.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {25-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.11.020}
}
Singh NK, Raghubanshi AS, Upadhyay AK, Rai UN Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India. 2016 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., pp. 224-33  article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for understanding algae mediated As detoxification and bioindication studies.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghNK12016,
  author = {Singh NK1, Raghubanshi AS2, Upadhyay AK3, Rai UN3.},
  title = {Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {224-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.04.024}
}
Verma PK, Verma S, Pande V, Mallick S, Deo Tripathi R, Dhankher OP, Chakrabarty D5 Overexpression of Rice Glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 Reduces Intracellular Arsenic Accumulation and Increases Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. 2016 Front Plant Sci., pp. 740  article  
Abstract: Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are a family of small multifunctional proteins involved in various cellular functions, including redox regulation and protection under oxidative stress. Despite the high number of Grx genes in plant genomes (48 Grxs in rice), the biological functions and physiological roles of most of them remain unknown. Here, the functional characterization of the two arsenic-responsive rice Grx family proteins, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 are reported. Over-expression of OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana conferred arsenic (As) tolerance as reflected by germination, root growth assay, and whole plant growth. Also, the transgenic expression of OsGrxs displayed significantly reduced As accumulation in A. thaliana seeds and shoot tissues compared to WT plants during both AsIII and AsV stress. Thus, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 seem to be an important determinant of As-stress response in plants. OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 transgenic showed to maintain intracellular GSH pool and involved in lowering AsIII accumulation either by extrusion or reducing uptake by altering the transcript of A. thaliana AtNIPs. Overall, OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 may represent a Grx family protein involved in As stress response and may allow a better understanding of the As induced stress pathways and the design of strategies for the improvement of stress tolerance as well as decreased As content in crops.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaPK12016,
  author = {Verma PK1, Verma S1, Pande V2, Mallick S3, Deo Tripathi R3, Dhankher OP4, Chakrabarty D5.},
  title = {Overexpression of Rice Glutaredoxin OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 Reduces Intracellular Arsenic Accumulation and Increases Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.},
  journal = {Front Plant Sci.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {740}
}
Acharyya N, Deb B, Chattopadhyay S, Maiti S Arsenic-Induced Antioxidant Depletion, Oxidative DNA Breakage, and Tissue Damages are Prevented by the Combined Action of Folate and Vitamin B12. 2015 Biol Trace Elem Res., pp. 122-32  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic is a grade I human carcinogen. It acts by disrupting one-carbon (1C) metabolism and cellular methyl (-CH3) pool. The -CH3 group helps in arsenic disposition and detoxification of the biological systems. Vitamin B12 and folate, the key promoters of 1C metabolism were tested recently (daily 0.07 and 4.0 ?g, respectively/100 g b.w. of rat for 28 days) to evaluate their combined efficacy in the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakage and tissue damages. The selected tissues like intestine (first-pass site), liver (major xenobiotic metabolizer) and lung (major arsenic accumulator) were collected from arsenic-ingested (0.6 ppm/same schedule) female rats. The hemo-toxicity and liver and kidney functions were monitored. Our earlier studies on arsenic-exposed humans can correlate carcinogenesis with DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that the supplementation of physiological/therapeutic dose of vitamin B12 and folate protected the rodents significantly from arsenic-induced DNA damage (DNA fragmentation and comet assay) and hepatic and renal tissue degeneration (histo-architecture, HE staining). The level of arsenic-induced free-radical products (TBARS and conjugated diene) was significantly declined by the restored actions of several antioxidants viz. urate, thiol, catalase, xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the tissues of vitamin-supplemented group. The alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea and creatinine (hepatic and kidney toxicity marker), and lactate dehydrogenase (tissue degeneration marker) were significantly impaired in the arsenic-fed group. But a significant protection was evident in the vitamin-supplemented group. In conclusion, the combined action of folate and B12 results in the restitution in the 1C metabolic pathway and cellular methyl pool. The cumulative outcome from the enhanced arsenic methylation and antioxidative capacity was protective against arsenic induced mutagenic DNA breakages and tissue damages.
BibTeX:
@article{AcharyyaN12015,
  author = {Acharyya N, Deb B, Chattopadhyay S, Maiti S},
  title = {Arsenic-Induced Antioxidant Depletion, Oxidative DNA Breakage, and Tissue Damages are Prevented by the Combined Action of Folate and Vitamin B12.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {122-32},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-015-0324-5}
}
Baviskar S, Choudhury R, Mahanta C Dissolved and solid-phase arsenic fate in an arsenic-enriched aquifer in the river Brahmaputra alluvial plain 2015 Environ Monit Assess., pp. 187  article  
Abstract: Dissolved arsenic mobility in the environment is controlled by its associations with solid-phase As and other minerals by chemodynamics of adsorptions and co-precipitation. Arsenic mobilization potential and mechanisms in the groundwater of a part of the river Brahmaputra alluvial plain in India were inferred from aqueous and solid-phase geochemical analyses of groundwater samples and sediment cores from various depths. Sediments were analyzed for key parameters, e.g., total and sequentially extracted Fe, As, and Mn; organic carbon content; carbonate phases; and specific surface area, while groundwater samples collected from close proximity of the drilled bore well were analyzed for major and trace element hydrogeochemistry. Result shows Mn- and Fe-oxyhydroxides as the major leachable As solid phases. Median total leachable solid-phase As was found to be ~9.50 mg/kg, while groundwater As ranged between 0.05 and 0.44 mg/L from adjoining water wells. Morphological and mineralogical studies of the aquifer sediments conducted using scanning electronic microscope energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicate the major presence of Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Sequential leaching experiments along with the mineralogical studies suggest that bacterially mediated, reductive dissolution of MnOOH and FeOOH is probably an important mechanism for releasing As into the groundwater from the sediments.
BibTeX:
@article{BaviskarS12015,
  author = {Baviskar S1, Choudhury R, Mahanta C.},
  title = {Dissolved and solid-phase arsenic fate in an arsenic-enriched aquifer in the river Brahmaputra alluvial plain},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {187}
}
Gupta VK, Singh S, Agrawal A, Siddiqi NJ, Sharma B Phytochemicals Mediated Remediation of Neurotoxicity Induced by Heavy Metals. 2015 Biochem Res Int.  article  
Abstract: Almost all the environmental components including both the abiotic and biotic factors have been consistently threatened by excessive contamination of heavy metals continuously released from various sources. Different heavy metals have been reported to generate adverse effects in many ways. Heavy metals induced neurotoxicity and impairment in signalling cascade leading to cell death (apoptosis) has been indicated by several workers. On one hand, these metals are required by the cellular systems to regulate various biological functions of normal cells, while on the other their biomagnification in the cellular systems produces adverse effects. The mechanism by which the heavy metals induce neurotoxicity follows free radicals production pathway(s) specially the generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. These free radicals produced in excess have been shown to create an imbalance between the oxidative and antioxidative systems leading to emergence of oxidative stress, which may cause necrosis, DNA damage, and many neurodegenerative disorders. This mini review summarizes the current knowledge available on the protective role of varied natural products isolated from different herbs/plants in imparting protection against heavy metals (cadmium, lead, arsenic, and mercury) mediated neurotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaVK12015,
  author = {Gupta VK1, Singh S1, Agrawal A2, Siddiqi NJ3, Sharma B1.},
  title = {Phytochemicals Mediated Remediation of Neurotoxicity Induced by Heavy Metals.},
  journal = {Biochem Res Int.},
  year = {2015}
}
Kanwar MK, Poonam, Bhardwaj R Arsenic induced modulation of antioxidative defense system and brassinosteroids in Brassica juncea L. 2015 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., pp. 119-25  article DOI  
Abstract: Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) L. plants were exposed to different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mM) of arsenic (V) and harvested after 30 and 60 days of sowing for the analysis of growth parameters, metal uptake, brassinosteroids (BRs) synthesis and oxidative stress markers. As (V) significantly hampered the growth of B. juncea plants and triggered the modulations of various stress markers like proteins, antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD, APX, GR, MDHAR and DHAR) and MDA content. Furthermore, As (V) induced the synthesis of 4 BRs, castasterone, teasterone, 24-epibrassinolide, and typhasterol, which were isolated and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study further highlig5895hted the significant uptake of arsenic ions by mustard plants.
BibTeX:
@article{KanwarMK12015,
  author = {Kanwar MK1, Poonam2, Bhardwaj R3},
  title = {Arsenic induced modulation of antioxidative defense system and brassinosteroids in Brassica juncea L.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {119-25},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.02.016}
}
Prajapati V, Kale RK, Singh RP Silibinin combination with arsenic strongly inhibits survival and invasiveness of human prostate carcinoma cells. 2015 Nutr Cancer.  article DOI  
Abstract: Effects of silibinin, a naturally occurring flavanone, on prostate carcinoma (PCa) cells in presence of arsenic are not known. Arsenic is clinically approved for leukemia treatment; however, studies are not enough to support its role in the management of solid tumors. In the present study, we observed that silibinin (100 µM) modulated the oxidative status of human PCa DU145 cells exposed to arsenic (0.5 or 5 µM) and inhibited cell growth and survival by primarily inducing autophagy and apoptosis. The silibinin-arsenic combination also inhibited the growth, survival, and clonogenic potential of 22Rv1 PCa cells. Silibinin with 0.5 or 5 µM arsenic induced G1 or G2/M phase arrest, respectively, and decreased the protein levels of CDK2, -4, and -6 and cyclin D1, D3, and E and increased CDK inhibitors p21 and p27. Arsenic alone increased cyclin B1 level and Cdc2 kinase activity which were reduced in silibinin combination. Cell motility and invasiveness along with expression of MMP-2 and vimentin were suppressed. Together, these in vitro findings suggest that in presence of arsenic, silibinin strongly inhibits tumorigenic and metastatic potential of PCa cells.
BibTeX:
@article{PrajapatiV12015,
  author = {Prajapati V1, Kale RK, Singh RP.},
  title = {Silibinin combination with arsenic strongly inhibits survival and invasiveness of human prostate carcinoma cells.},
  journal = {Nutr Cancer.},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2015.1019635}
}
Jain RB Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010. 2015 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol., pp. 651-8  article  
Abstract: Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ? 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ? 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.
BibTeX:
@article{RB1.2015,
  author = {Jain RB1.},
  title = {Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {651-8}
}
Sharma VK, Zboril R, Varma RS Ferrates: greener oxidants with multimodal action in water treatment technologies. 2015 Acc Chem Res., pp. 182-91  article  
Abstract: CONSPECTUS: One of the biggest challenges for humanity in the 21st century is easy access to purified and potable water. The presence of pathogens and toxins in water causes more than two million deaths annually, mostly among children under the age of five. Identifying and deploying effective and sustainable water treatment technologies is critical to meet the urgent need for clean water globally. Among the various agents used in the purification and treatment of water, iron-based materials have garnered particular attention in view of their special attributes such as their earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature. In recent years, higher-valent tetraoxy iron(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)), commonly termed, ferrate, is being explored for a broad portfolio of applications, including a greener oxidant in synthetic organic transformations, a water oxidation catalyst, and an efficient agent for abatement of pollutants in water. The use of Fe(VI) as an oxidant/disinfectant and further utilization of the ensuing iron(III) oxides/hydroxide as coagulants are other additional attributes of ferrate for water treatment. This multimodal action and environmentally benign character of Fe(VI) are key advantages over other commonly used oxidants (e.g., chlorine, chlorine dioxide, permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone). This Account discusses current state-of-the-art applications of Fe(VI) and the associated unique chemistry of these high-valence states of iron. The main focus centers around the description and salient properties of ferrate species involving various electron transfer and oxygen-atom transfer pathways in terms of presently accepted mechanisms. The mechanisms derive the number of electron equivalents per Fe(VI) (i.e., oxidation capacity) in treating various contaminants. The role of pH in the kinetics of the reactions and in determining the removal efficiency of pollutants is highlighted; the rates of competing reactions of Fe(VI) with itself, water, and the contaminants, which are highly pH dependent, determine the optimum pH range of maximum efficacy. The main emphasis of this account is placed on cases where various modes of ferrate action are utilized, including the treatment of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing waste products, antibiotics, viruses, bacteria, arsenic, and heavy metals. For example, the oxidative degradation of N- and S-bearing contaminants by Fe(VI) yields either Fe(II) or Fe(III) via the intermediacy of Fe(IV) and Fe(V) species, respectively (e.g., Fe(VI) ? Fe(IV) ? Fe(II) and Fe(VI) ? Fe(V) ? Fe(III)). Oxidative transformations of antibiotics such as trimethoprim by Fe(VI) generate products with no residual antibiotic activity. Disinfection and inactivation of bacteria and viruses can easily be achieved by Fe(VI). Advanced applications involve the use of ferrate for the degradation of cyanobacteria and microcystin originating from algal blooms and for covalently embedding arsenic and heavy metals into the structure of formed magnetic iron(III) oxides, therefore preventing their leaching. Applications of state-of-the-art analytical techniques, namely, in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy, rapid-freeze electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation, and mass spectrometry will enhance the mechanistic understanding of ferrate species. This will make it possible to unlock the true potential of ferrates for degrading emerging toxins and pollutants, and in the sustainable production and use of nanomaterials in an energy-conserving environment.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaVK12015,
  author = {Sharma VK1, Zboril R, Varma RS.},
  title = {Ferrates: greener oxidants with multimodal action in water treatment technologies.},
  journal = {Acc Chem Res.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {182-91}
}
Shukla P, Singh AK Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L. 2015 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int., pp. 22  article DOI  
Abstract: The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaP12015,
  author = {Shukla P1, Singh AK.},
  title = {Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {22},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4501-z}
}
Sarkar A Ecosystem perspective of groundwater arsenic contamination in India and relevance in policy. 2010 Ecohealth.
Vol. 7(1), pp. 114-26 
article DOI  
Abstract: Millions of people living in India are at risk by consuming arsenic contaminated groundwater. Several technological solutions have failed to address the problem due to segmental approaches, resulting in human suffering for a period of three decades. The article is based on an analysis of arsenic-related health problems from an ecosystem perspective through a primary survey conducted in five arsenic affected villages in the state of West Bengal and review of existing research and policy documents. Although modern agricultural practices and drinking water policies have resulted in arsenic contamination of groundwater, current mitigation policy is essentially confined to biomedical approaches, which includes potable water supply and medical care. The study also shows that existing disparity, difficulty in coping, inaccessibility to health service and potable water supply and lack of participation in decision making have resulted in more suffering among the poor. On the other hand, spreading of arsenic contamination in the ecosystem remains unabated. Foods grown in the affected area have emerged as additional sources of exposure to humans. There is lack of evidence of any perceivable benefits due to sustainable agriculture, as present nature of agriculture practice is essentially driven by crop yield only. Further research is needed to generate credible evidence of alternative agriculture paradigms that may eventually reduce body burden of arsenic through reduced dependency on groundwater.
BibTeX:
@article{A.2010,
  author = {Sarkar A.},
  title = {Ecosystem perspective of groundwater arsenic contamination in India and relevance in policy.},
  journal = {Ecohealth.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {7(1)},
  pages = {114-26},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-010-0309-y}
}
Abbas S, Khan K, Khan MP, Nagar GK, Tewari D, Maurya SK, Dubey J, Ansari NG, Bandyopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay Developmental exposure to As, Cd, and Pb mixture diminishes skeletal growth and causes osteopenia at maturity via osteoblast and chondrocyte malfunctioning in female rats.
N.
2013 Toxicol Sci.
Vol. 134(1), pp. 207-20 
article DOI  
Abstract: We studied the effect of metal mixture (MM), comprising As, Cd, and Pb, in developing female rat skeleton from gestation day 5 until postnatal day 60 (P-60). MM resulted in synergistic inhibition in viability and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro, likely induced by reactive oxygen species. MM, administered at their most frequently occurring concentrations present in the groundwater of India, i.e., As: 0.38 ppm, Pb: 0.22 ppm, and Cd: 0.098 ppm or 10× of the ratio to developing rats, exhibited a synergistic decrease in ex vivo mineralization of bone marrow stromal (osteoprogenitor) cells. MM group showed a dose-dependent attenuation in weight and axial lengths and shortening of tibias at P-60. Furthermore, the growth plate was shortened, which was associated with shorter proliferative and hypertrophic zones, decreased parathyroid hormone-related protein and Indian hedgehog expression in the chondrocytes, reduced primary and secondary spongiosa, and hypomineralized osteoids-a major characteristic of osteomalacia. In addition, compared with the control, MM-treated rats were clearly osteopenic based on bone mineral density, microarchitecture, biomechanical strength, and particularly the biochemical profile, that suggested high turnover bone loss. Finally, in comparison to the control, the fracture-healing ability of MM group was delayed and accompanied by inferior quality of the healed bone. Together, these data demonstrated that the mixture of As, Cd, and Pb induced synergistic toxicity to developing skeleton, thereby diminishing modeling-directed bone accrual, inducing osteopenia and dampening fracture healing
BibTeX:
@article{AbbasS2013,
  author = {Abbas S, Khan K, Khan MP, Nagar GK, Tewari D, Maurya SK, Dubey J, Ansari NG, Bandyopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay},
  title = {Developmental exposure to As, Cd, and Pb mixture diminishes skeletal growth and causes osteopenia at maturity via osteoblast and chondrocyte malfunctioning in female rats.
N.}, journal = {Toxicol Sci.}, year = {2013}, volume = {134(1)}, pages = {207-20}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kft093} }
Acharyya N, Sajed Ali S, Deb B, Chattopadhyay S, Maiti S Green tea (Camellia sinensis) alleviates arsenic-induced damages to DNA and intestinal tissues in rat and in situ intestinal loop by reinforcing antioxidant system. 2014 Environ Toxicol.  article DOI  
Abstract: This study elucidates the protective role of Green tea (Camellia sinensis or CS) against arsenic-induced mutagenic DNA-breakage/intestinal (small) damages in female rats. Intestinal epithelial cells receive ingestedarsenic initially. Though, the possibility of damages in this tissue is immense and the therapeutic strategies against this damage are of great concern, reports on either issue are scanty. Our earlier study on arsenic-exposed human unveils a link between carcinogenesis and mutagenic DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that supplementation of CS-extract (10 mg/mL water) with NaAsO2 (0.6 ppm)/100 g b.w. for 28 days to rats offered a significant protection against arsenic-induced oxidative damages to DNA and intestinal (small) tissues by buttressing antioxidant systems. Necrotic and apoptotic damages and their CS-protection are shown in DNA-fragmentation, comet-assay, and histoarchitecture (hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-schiff staining) results. Only arsenic exposure significantly decreased intestinal superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and level of soluble thiol with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde/conjugated dienes. Alteration of serum necrotic marker lactate dehydrogenase and the metabolic inflammatory marker c-reactive protein also indicate the impairment may be occurring at transcription and/or cellular signal transduction level. In addition, in situ incubation in rat intestinal loop filled for 24 h with NaAsO2 alone (250 µM) or with aqueous CS-extract (250 mg/mL) suggests that small intestinal epithelial cells are significantly protected by CS againstarsenic-associated necrotic/mutagenic damages, which is observed in DNA-breakage studies. In conclusion, besides intensifying endogenous antioxidant system, CS polyphenols also offer a direct role on free radical scavenging activity that is associated to the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakages and prevention of tissue necrosis/carcinogenesis generated by arsenic.
BibTeX:
@article{AcharyyaN2014,
  author = {Acharyya N, Sajed Ali S, Deb B, Chattopadhyay S, Maiti S.},
  title = {Green tea (Camellia sinensis) alleviates arsenic-induced damages to DNA and intestinal tissues in rat and in situ intestinal loop by reinforcing antioxidant system.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.21977}
}
Anirudhan TS, Jalajamony S Cellulose-based anion exchanger with tertiary amine functionality for the extraction of arsenic(V) from aqueous media. 2010 J Environ Manage.
Vol. 91(11), pp. 2201-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: A novel cellulose-based anion exchanger (Cell-AE) with tertiary amine functionality was synthesized by graft polymerization reaction of cellulose and glycidyl methacrylate using N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide as a crosslinker and benzoyl peroxide as an initiator, followed by dimethylamine (amination) and acid (HCl) treatment. The chemical modification was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and CHN analysis. The anion exchanger was used in batch processes to study AS(V) adsorption in solutions. The operating variables studied were pH, contact time, initial As(V) concentration, sorbent mass, and ionic strength. The process was affected by solution pH with an optimum adsorption occurring at pH 6.0. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h. Increasing ionic strength of solution negatively affected the arsenic uptake. The adsorption process performed more than 99.0% of As(V) removal from an initial concentration of 25.0 mg/L. The process of adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich equations. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm described the adsorption data over the concentration range 25-400 mg/L. The adsorption mechanism appears to be a ligand-exchange process. A simulated groundwater sample was treated with Cell-AE to demonstrate its efficiency in removing As(V). The adsorbed As(V) ions were desorbed effectively by a 0.1 M NaOH solution.
BibTeX:
@article{AnirudhanTS2010,
  author = {Anirudhan TS, Jalajamony S},
  title = {Cellulose-based anion exchanger with tertiary amine functionality for the extraction of arsenic(V) from aqueous media.},
  journal = {J Environ Manage.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {91(11)},
  pages = {2201-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.05.019}
}
Balakumar P, Kaur J Arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disorders: an overview. 2009 Cardiovasc Toxicol.
Vol. 9(4), pp. 169-76 
article DOI  
Abstract: The incidence of arsenic toxicity has been observed in various countries including Taiwan, Bangladesh, India, Argentina, Australia, Chile, China, Hungary, Peru, Thailand, Mexico and United States of America. Arsenic is a ubiquitous element present in drinking water, and its exposure is associated with various cardiovascular disorders. Arsenic exposure plays a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial dysfunction as it inactivates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, leading to reduction in the generation and bioavailability of nitric oxide. In addition, the chronic arsenic exposure induces high oxidative stress, which may affect the structure and function of cardiovascular system. Further, the arsenic exposure has been noted to induce atherosclerosis by increasing the platelet aggregation and reducing fibrinolysis. Moreover, arsenic exposure may cause arrhythmia by increasing the QT interval and accelerating the cellular calcium overload. The chronic exposure to arsenic upregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule and vascular endothelial growth factor to induce cardiovascular pathogenesis. The present review critically discussed the detrimental role of arsenic in the cardiovascular system.
BibTeX:
@article{BalakumarP2009,
  author = {Balakumar P, Kaur J},
  title = {Arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disorders: an overview.},
  journal = {Cardiovasc Toxicol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {9(4)},
  pages = {169-76},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-009-9050-6}
}
Banerjee C, Goswami R, Datta S, Rajagopal R, Mazumder S Arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular calcium homeostasis induces head kidney macrophage apoptosis involving the activation of calpain-2 and ERK in Clarias batrachus 2011 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 256(1), pp. 44-51 
article DOI  
Abstract: We had earlier shown that exposure to arsenic (0.50 ?M) caused caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis involving the p38-JNK pathway in Clarias batrachus. Here we examined the roles of calcium (Ca(2+)) and extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), the other member of MAPK-pathway on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved increased expression of ERK and calpain-2. Nifedipine, verapamil and EGTA pre-treatment inhibited the activation of calpain-2, ERK and reduced arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis as evidenced from reduced caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. Pre-incubation with ERK inhibitor U 0126 inhibited the activation of calpain-2 and interfered with arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Additionally, pre-incubation with calpain-2 inhibitor also interfered with the activation of ERK and inhibited arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride also inhibited ERK activation indicating activation of ERK in arsenic-exposed HKM also depends on signals from NADPH oxidase pathway. Our study demonstrates the critical role of Ca(2+) homeostasis on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. We suggest thatarsenic-induced alteration in intracellular Ca(2+) levels initiates pro-apoptotic ERK and calpain-2; the two pathways influence each other positively and induce caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. Besides, our study also indicates the role of ROS in the activation of ERK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus.
BibTeX:
@article{BanerjeeC2011,
  author = {Banerjee C, Goswami R, Datta S, Rajagopal R, Mazumder S.},
  title = {Arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular calcium homeostasis induces head kidney macrophage apoptosis involving the activation of calpain-2 and ERK in Clarias batrachus},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {256(1)},
  pages = {44-51},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/.1016/j.taap.2011.07.007.}
}
Banerjee N, Banerjee S, Sen R, Bandyopadhyay A, Sarma N, Majumder P, Das JK, Chatterjee M, Kabir SN, Giri AK Chronic arsenic exposure impairs macrophage functions in the exposed individuals. 2009 J Clin Immunol
Vol. 29(5), pp. 582-94 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
Owing to the established roles of human macrophages in immune defense, we investigated the effect of chronic arsenic exposure upon these major hematopoietic cells in 70 arsenic-exposed individuals with skin lesions and 64 unexposed individuals.
METHODS:
Human monocyte-derived macrophages were prepared from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, by culture of the adherent cells for 6 days in medium supplemented with granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor. Parameters studied included cell adhesion capacity, expression of CD54 and F-actin, nitric oxide production, phagocytic capacity, and effect of arsenic on Rho A-ROCK pathway.
RESULTS:
In macrophages of exposed individuals when compared to unexposed group, there was cell rounding accompanied with a significant (p < 0.001) loss of cell adhesion capacity, decrease in nitric oxide production, impaired phagocytic capacity, and decreased CD 54 and F-actin expression. Additionally, chronicarsenic exposure affected Rho A-ROCK pathway which in turn impaired macrophage functions.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:
These altogether could contribute significantly to arsenic-induced immunosuppression observed in the arsenic-exposed individuals
BibTeX:
@article{BanerjeeN2009,
  author = {Banerjee N, Banerjee S, Sen R, Bandyopadhyay A, Sarma N, Majumder P, Das JK, Chatterjee M, Kabir SN, Giri AK.},
  title = {Chronic arsenic exposure impairs macrophage functions in the exposed individuals.},
  journal = {J Clin Immunol},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {29(5)},
  pages = {582-94},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-009-9304-x}
}
Bera AK, Rana T, Das S, Bhattacharya D, Bandyopadhyay S, Pan D, De S, Samanta S, Chowdhury AN, Mondal TK,Das SK Ground water arsenic contamination in West Bengal, India: a risk of sub-clinical toxicity in cattle as evident by correlation between arsenic exposure, excretion and deposition. 2010 Toxicol Ind Health.
Vol. 26(10), pp. 709-16. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic contamination of ground water in West Bengal, India, is a great concern for both human and livestock populations. Our study investigated and correlated the arsenic concentration in the drinking water, urinary excretion and deposition of total arsenic in hair of cattle at an arsenic contaminated zone in West Bengal. The results of our study indicated that the average concentration of arsenic in tube well water in contaminated villages ranged from 0.042 to 0.251 ppm and a statistical significant (p < 0.01) difference was seen when compared to samples from a non-contaminated zone. The arsenic concentration in urine and hair of cattle ranged between 0.245-0.691 ppm and 0.461-0.984 ppm, respectively. A close relationship was found between the total arsenic in drinking water urinary excretion (r² = 0.03664, p < 0.05) and the arsenic concentration in hair (r² = 0.03668, p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that quantification of arsenic concentration in cattle urine and hair can serve as biomarkers for both present and past exposure in cattle population.
BibTeX:
@article{BeraAK2010,
  author = {Bera AK, Rana T, Das S, Bhattacharya D, Bandyopadhyay S, Pan D, De S, Samanta S, Chowdhury AN, Mondal TK,Das SK.},
  title = {Ground water arsenic contamination in West Bengal, India: a risk of sub-clinical toxicity in cattle as evident by correlation between arsenic exposure, excretion and deposition.},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {26(10)},
  pages = {709-16.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233710377775}
}
Bhargavi SD, Savitha J Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation. 2014 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 92(3), pp. 369-73 
article DOI  
Abstract: Bioremediation is an effective method for the treatment of major metal contaminated sites. Fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different arsenate contaminated areas across India. An isolate, Penicillium coffeae, exhibited resistance to arsenate up to 500 mM. Results indicated that pretreatment of biomass with alkali (NaOH) enhanced the percentage of adsorption to 66.8% as compared to that of live and untreated dead biomass whose adsorption was 22.9% and 60.2% respectively. The physiological parameters evaluated in this study may help pilot studies aimed at bioremediation of arsenate contaminated effluents using arsenate resistant fungus P. coffeae.
BibTeX:
@article{BhargaviSD2014,
  author = {Bhargavi SD, Savitha J.},
  title = {Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {92(3)},
  pages = {369-73},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1212-y}
}
Bhattacharjee H, Rosen BP, Mukhopadhyay R Aquaglyceroporins and metalloid transport: implications in human diseases. 2009 Handb Exp Pharmacol.
Vol. (190), pp. 309-25 
article DOI  
Abstract: Aquaglyceroporin (AQP) channels facilitate the diffusion of a wide range of neutral solutes, including water, glycerol, and other small uncharged solutes. More recently, AQPs have been shown to allow the passage of trivalent arsenic and antimony compounds. Arsenic and antimony are metalloid elements. At physiological pH, the trivalent metalloids behave as molecular mimics of glycerol, and are conducted through AQP channels. Arsenicals and antimonials are extremely toxic to cells. Despite their toxicity, both metalloids are used as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer and protozoan parasitic diseases. The metalloid homeostasis property of AQPs can be a mixed blessing. In some cases, AQPs form part of the detoxification pathway, and extrude metalloids from cells. In other instances, AQPs allow the transport of metalloids into cells, thereby conferring sensitivity. Understanding the factors that modulate AQP expression will aid in a better understanding of metalloid toxicity and also provide newer approaches to metalloid based chemotherapy.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharjeeH2009,
  author = {Bhattacharjee H, Rosen BP, Mukhopadhyay R},
  title = {Aquaglyceroporins and metalloid transport: implications in human diseases.},
  journal = {Handb Exp Pharmacol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {(190)},
  pages = {309-25},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79885-9_16}
}
Bhattacharjee P, Das N, Chatterjee D, Banerjee A, Das JK, Basu S, Banerjee S, Majumder P, Goswami P, Giri AK Association of NALP2 polymorphism with arsenic induced skin lesions and other health effects. 2013 Mutat Res
Vol. 755(1), pp. 1-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Prolonged consumption of arsenic-laden water above the threshold limit of 10?g/L causes a plethora of dermatological and non-dermatological multi-organ health problems, including cancer and death. Among several mechanisms of arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity studied so far, role of arsenic in impairment of immune system is less understood. Epidemiological data, animal model as well as cell line based studies have indicated that arsenic targets immune system and is associated with characteristic immunosupression, which may further adversely affect respiratory function. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study with respect to arsenic susceptibility investigating the role of genetic variation having immunological function. Hence, we have recruited a total of 432 arsenic-exposed individuals, of which 219 individuals with characteristic arsenic-induced skin lesions (cases) and 213 individuals without arsenic-induced skin lesion(controls), from arsenic-exposed districts of West Bengal, India. To find any probable association between arsenicism and the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NALP2 gene, an important component of inflammasome complex, we screened the entire coding region (exon) in all the study participants. Among 9 SNPs found in NALP2 gene, the A1052E polymorphism (at least with one minor allele), was significantly overrepresented in controls and hence implies decreased risk toward the development of skin lesions [OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.97]. Since, development of non-dermatological health effects are also important factor to properly look into, we have attempted to correlate the genetic variation of NALP2 with the extent of cytogenetic damage as measured by chromosomal aberration assay and adverse health effects including peripheral neuropathy, eye problem and respiratory diseases in the study population. We observed individuals with the protective genotype had less chromosomal aberration (p<0.05), and were also less susceptible toward arsenic-related respiratory diseases [OR=0.47; 95%CI: 0.23-0.89]. These findings suggest that NALP2 A1052E SNP plays an important role toward development of arsenic-induced skin lesions, chromosomal damage and respiratory diseases.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharjeeP2013,
  author = {Bhattacharjee P, Das N, Chatterjee D, Banerjee A, Das JK, Basu S, Banerjee S, Majumder P, Goswami P, Giri AK.},
  title = {Association of NALP2 polymorphism with arsenic induced skin lesions and other health effects.},
  journal = {Mutat Res},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {755(1)},
  pages = {1-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2013.04.010}
}
Bhattacharya S, Das SK, Haldar PK Arsenic Induced Myocardial Toxicity in Rats: Alleviative Effect of Trichosanthes dioica Fruit. 2014 Diet Suppl
Vol. 11(3), pp. 248-61 
article DOI  
Abstract: ABSTRACT The present study investigated the alleviative effect of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica fruit (AQTD) against arsenic induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. AQTD (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) for 8 days. Then the body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile; myocardial antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Pretreatment with AQTD markedly and significantly normalized body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile and significantly modulated all the myocardial antioxidative parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic intoxicated rats. Therefore, T. dioica fruit possessed remarkable alleviative effects against arsenic induced myocardial toxicity in Wistar albino rats mediated by amelioration of arsenic induced myocardial oxidative stress by several mechanisms.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaS2014,
  author = {Bhattacharya S, Das SK, Haldar PK},
  title = {Arsenic Induced Myocardial Toxicity in Rats: Alleviative Effect of Trichosanthes dioica Fruit.},
  journal = {Diet Suppl},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {11(3)},
  pages = {248-61},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2014.937044}
}
Bhattacharya S, Haldar PK Trichosanthes dioica root alleviates arsenic induced myocardial toxicity in rats. 2013 J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol
Vol. 32(3), pp. 251-61. 
article  
Abstract: The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) against arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. TDA (5 and 10 mg kg-1) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10 mg kg-1) for 8 days. Then the body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile; and the following myocardial tissue antioxidative parameters were evaluated: lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with TDA markedly and significantly maintained body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile. Pretreatment also significantly modulated all of the myocardial antioxidative parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic-intoxicated rats. The present findings conclude that T. dioica root possessed remarkable alleviative effect against arsenic-induced myocardial toxicity in Wistar albino rats
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaS2013,
  author = {Bhattacharya S, Haldar PK},
  title = {Trichosanthes dioica root alleviates arsenic induced myocardial toxicity in rats.},
  journal = {J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {32(3)},
  pages = {251-61.}
}
Bhattacharyya P, Sen P, Ghosh A, Saha C, Bhattacharya PP, Das A, Majumdar K, Mazumder DG Chronic lung disease and detection of pulmonary artery dilatation in high resolution computerized tomography of chest in chronic arsenic exposure. 2014 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 49(13), pp. :1453-61 
article DOI  
Abstract: Lung affection in chronic arsenicosis developing from chronic ingestion of arsenic contaminated groundwater has been known but little is known on its effect on pulmonary arterial system. A cross sectional study was carried out at two geographically similar areas and demographically similar populations with or without evidence of chronic arsenic exposure in West Bengal, India. The willing participants in both the groups with chronic respiratory symptoms were evaluated with High Resolution Computerized Tomography (HRCT) of Chest. Evaluation of High Resolution Computerized Tomography of chest followed clinical assessment of lung disease in194 and 196 subjects from the arsenic exposed and unexposed people; the former had a higher prevalence of cough OR(Odds Ratio) 3.23 (95% CI(Confidence Interval): 1.72-6.07) and shortness of breath OR1.76 (95% CI: 0.84-3.71), respectively. The arsenic exposed individuals showed higher score for bronchiectasis [mean ± SD(Standard Deviation)] as 2.41 ± 2.32 vs. 1.22 ± 1.48 (P <0.001), pulmonary artery branch dilatation (PAD) as 2.48 ± 2.33 vs. 0.78 ± 1.56, (P <0.001) and pulmonary trunk dilatation as 0.26 ± 0.45 vs. nil. Age-adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) for Pulmonary Artery Dilatation Found in HRCT comparing those exposed toarsenic (Group 1) to unexposed participants (Group 2) was found to be 6.98 (CI: 2.26-16.48). There was a strong dose-response relationship between the PAD (Pulmonary Artery Dilatation) and cumulative arsenicexposure. Pulmonary trunk and branch dilatation in chronic arsenicosis is a frequent abnormality seen in HRCT Chest of arsenicosis patients. The significance of such finding needs further investigation.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyyaP2014,
  author = {Bhattacharyya P, Sen P, Ghosh A, Saha C, Bhattacharya PP, Das A, Majumdar K, Mazumder DG.},
  title = {Chronic lung disease and detection of pulmonary artery dilatation in high resolution computerized tomography of chest in chronic arsenic exposure.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {49(13)},
  pages = {:1453-61},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2014.937157}
}
Bhowmick S, Halder D, Kundu AK, Saha D, Iglesias M, Nriagu J, Guha Mazumder DN, Roman-Ross G, Chatterjee D Is saliva a potential biomarker of arsenic exposure? A case-control study in West Bengal, India. 2013 Environ Sci Technol.
Vol. 47(7), pp. 3326-32 
article DOI  
Abstract: Saliva is a biological fluid that has not been used extensively as a biomonitoring tool in epidemiological studies. This study presents the arsenic (As) concentrations in saliva and urine samples collected from populations of West Bengal, India who had been previously exposed to high As levels in their drinking water. We found a significant (p < 0.05) association between the Log transformed Daily Ingestion of As (?g day(-1)) and the As concentration in saliva (r = 0.68). Additionally, As concentration of saliva and urine also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). Male participants, smokers, and cases of skin lesion were independently and significantly associated with an increase in salivary As. Thus our findings show that saliva is a useful biomarker of As exposure in the study population. The study also advocates that measurement of the forms of As in saliva may additionally provide insight into the internal dose and any individual differences in susceptibility to As exposure
BibTeX:
@article{BhowmickS2013,
  author = {Bhowmick S, Halder D, Kundu AK, Saha D, Iglesias M, Nriagu J, Guha Mazumder DN, Roman-Ross G, Chatterjee D.},
  title = {Is saliva a potential biomarker of arsenic exposure? A case-control study in West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Technol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {47(7)},
  pages = {3326-32},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es303756s}
}
Bhowmick S, Halder D, Nriagu J, Guha Mazumder DN, Roman-Ross G, Chatterjee D, Iglesias M Speciation of arsenic in saliva samples from a population of West Bengal, India. 2014 Environ Sci Technol.
Vol. 48(12), pp. 6973-80 
article DOI  
Abstract: Saliva, an easily accessible biofluid, is validated as biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in several villages of West Bengal, India. Pentavalent arsenic [As(V)] was found to be the predominant species in saliva, with the amount of inorganic As [As(V) and trivalent form, As(III)] being more than half of the total As in the samples. Significant association was found between total daily ingestion of As and As(V) (r = 0.59; p = 0.000), As(III) (r = 0.60; p = 0.000), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(V)) (r = 0.40; p = 0.000), and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(V)) (r = 0.44; p = 0.000), implying that these species have mainly been derived from the methylation of the inorganic As in the water that study participants drank and the food they ate. Analysis of confounding effects of age, sex, smoking, body mass index and the prevalence of skin lesion suggests that women and controls with no skin lesion had a higher capacity to methylate the ingested As compared to the rest of the population. Thus, our study demonstrates that As species in saliva can be an useful tool to predict the individual susceptibility where higher As exposure and a lower methylation capacity are implicated in the development of As-induced health effects.
BibTeX:
@article{BhowmickS2014,
  author = {Bhowmick S, Halder D, Nriagu J, Guha Mazumder DN, Roman-Ross G, Chatterjee D, Iglesias M.},
  title = {Speciation of arsenic in saliva samples from a population of West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Technol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {48(12)},
  pages = {6973-80},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es4056142}
}
Biswas A, Nath B, Bhattacharya P, Halder D, Kundu AK, Mandal U, Mukherjee A, Chatterjee D, Mörth CM, Jacks G Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: consequences for sustainable drinking water supply. 2012 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 431, pp. 402-12 
article DOI  
Abstract: Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH(4)(+), PO(4)(3-), Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dissolution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO(4)(2-) reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.
BibTeX:
@article{BiswasA2012,
  author = {Biswas A, Nath B, Bhattacharya P, Halder D, Kundu AK, Mandal U, Mukherjee A, Chatterjee D, Mörth CM, Jacks G.},
  title = {Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: consequences for sustainable drinking water supply.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {431},
  pages = {402-12},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.05.031}
}
Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Kunhikrishnan A, Choppala G Phosphorus-arsenic interactions in variable-charge soils in relation to arsenicmobility and bioavailability. 2013 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 463-464, pp. 1154-62 
article DOI  
Abstract: Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components of soil. The objective of this study was to examine P-As interaction in variable-charge allophanic soils in relation to P-induced As mobilization and bioavailability. In this work, the effect of P on arsenate [As(V)] adsorption and desorption was examined using a number of allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity. The effect of P on As uptake by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants was examined using a solution culture, and a soil plant growth experiment involving two As-spiked allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity, and a field As-contaminated sheep dip soil. Arsenate adsorption increased with an increase in the anion adsorption capacity of soils. The addition of P resulted in an increase in As desorption, and the effect was more pronounced in the case of allophanic soil. In the case of both As-spiked soils and field contaminated sheep-dip soil, application of P increased the desorption of As, thereby increasing its bioavailability. The effect of P on As uptake was more pronounced in the high anion adsorbing allophanic than low adsorbing non-allophanic soil. In the case of solution culture, As phytoavailability decreased with increasing concentration of P which is attributed to the competition of P for As uptake by roots. While increasing P concentration in solution decreased the uptake of As, it facilitated the translocation of As from root to shoot. The net effect of P on As phytoavailability in soils depends on the extent of P-induced As mobilization in soils and P-induced competition for As uptake by roots. The P-induced mobilization of As could be employed in the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. However, care must be taken to minimize the leaching of As mobilized through the P-induced desorption, thereby resulting in groundwater and off site contamination.
BibTeX:
@article{BolanN2013,
  author = {Bolan N, Mahimairaja S, Kunhikrishnan A, Choppala G.},
  title = {Phosphorus-arsenic interactions in variable-charge soils in relation to arsenicmobility and bioavailability.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {463-464},
  pages = {1154-62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.016}
}
Chakrabortty S, Sen M, Pal P Arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater by membrane-integrated hybrid plant: optimization and control using Visual Basic platform. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(5), pp. 3840-57 
article DOI  
Abstract: A simulation software (ARRPA) has been developed in Microsoft Visual Basic platform for optimization and control of a novel membrane-integrated arsenic separation plant in the backdrop of absence of such software. The user-friendly, menu-driven software is based on a dynamic linearized mathematical model, developed for the hybrid treatment scheme. The model captures the chemical kinetics in the pre-treating chemical reactor and the separation and transport phenomena involved in nanofiltration. The software has been validated through extensive experimental investigations. The agreement between the outputs from computer simulation program and the experimental findings are excellent and consistent under varying operating conditions reflecting high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. High values of the overall correlation coefficient (R (2)?=?0.989) and Willmott d-index (0.989) are indicators of the capability of the software in analyzing performance of the plant. The software permits pre-analysis, manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. Performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units is possible using the tool. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakraborttyS2014,
  author = {Chakrabortty S, Sen M, Pal P.},
  title = {Arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater by membrane-integrated hybrid plant: optimization and control using Visual Basic platform.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(5)},
  pages = {3840-57},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2382-6}
}
Chakraborty A, Sengupta A, Bhadu MK, Pandey A, Mondal A Efficient removal of arsenic (V) from water using steel-making slag. 2014 Water Environ Res.
Vol. 86(6), pp. 524-31 
article  
Abstract: This study describes the potential use of steel-making slag as an arsenic-removal medium. Systematic analysis of slag material revealed a composition of oxides of calcium, iron, silicon, and phosphorous. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the equilibrium time was shown to be 2 hours, and the removal capacity to be 99%, with an adsorbent loading capacity of 1.25g/l. The adsorption kinetics were shown to follow a pseudo-second-order rate equation, and the adsorption isotherm closely followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermic models. Variations in solution pH levels demonstrated that with a decrease in the initial solution pH, the adsorption capacity decreases. This is attributed to the leaching of silica and phosphate from the slag to the solution, which imparted a competing effect for adsorption sites. However, with an alkaline pH, such leaching was reduced, and due to formation of calcium carbonate from the leached calcium from the slag material, the arsenic removal efficiency increased as it was co-precipitated with calcium carbonate.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyA2014,
  author = {Chakraborty A, Sengupta A, Bhadu MK, Pandey A, Mondal A.},
  title = {Efficient removal of arsenic (V) from water using steel-making slag.},
  journal = {Water Environ Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {86(6)},
  pages = {524-31}
}
Chanda S, Dasgupta UB, Mazumder DG, Saha J, Gupta B Human GMDS gene fragment hypermethylation in chronic high level of arsenicexposure with and without arsenic induced cancer. 2013 Springerplus.
Vol. 24;2:, pp. 557 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic, though a poor mutagen, is an accepted environmental carcinogen. Perturbation of DNA methylation pattern leading to aberrant gene expression has been hypothesized as the mechanism for arsenic induced carcinogenesis. We had earlier demonstrated the hypermethylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes in persons exposed to different doses of arsenic. Till now no genomic hot spot has been identified which is frequently hypermethylated or hypomethylated in persons chronically exposed to environmental arsenic. In the present work, we have identified one hypermethylated sequence by methyl-sensitive arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction in the peripheral blood leukocyte DNA of chronically arsenic exposed persons with and without arsenic induced skin cancer. The sequence is from GMDS gene responsible for fucose metabolism. Southern hybridization of the sequence to the amplification products of methyl sensitive restriction enzyme digested genome of persons exposed to different doses of arsenic indicated that methylation increased in a dose dependent manner.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandaS2013,
  author = {Chanda S, Dasgupta UB, Mazumder DG, Saha J, Gupta B.},
  title = {Human GMDS gene fragment hypermethylation in chronic high level of arsenicexposure with and without arsenic induced cancer.},
  journal = {Springerplus.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {24;2:},
  pages = {557},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-557}
}
Chandravanshi LP, Shukla RK, Sultana S, Pant AB, Khanna VK Early life arsenic exposure and brain dopaminergic alterations in rats. 2014 Int J Dev Neurosci  article DOI  
Abstract: Recently, we found that early life exposure to arsenic at low doses resulted to cause brain cholinergic deficits and exhibited a trend of recovery on withdrawal of arsenic exposure. In continuation to this, the present study has been carried out to assess the impact of low level arsenic exposure on brain dopaminergic system and associated behavior in developing rats and investigate if neurobehavioral changes are recovered or persistent. Early life exposure (PD22-PD59) to arsenic (2 or 4mg/kg body weight, p.o.) in rats resulted to increase the motor activity on PD60, compared to controls. The hyperactivity in arsenic exposed rats was found to be linked with increase in the binding of DA-D2 receptors (38%, 56%), mRNA expression of DAR-D2 receptor gene (68%, 97%) and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase protein (1.93, 2.73-fold) in the corpus striatum as compared to controls on PD60. Exposure to arsenic enhanced generation of ROS (47%, 84%) and was associated with decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (13.3%, 15.33%), activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced oxidative stress. Disruption in the expression of pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and stress marker proteins was also distinct in the corpus striatum of arsenic exposed rats. The severity of changes in the behavioral and neurochemical endpoints were found to persist in rats exposed to arsenic at high dose and exhibited a trend of recovery at low dose on withdrawal of arsenic exposure on PD90. Early life arsenicexposure appears to be critical and vulnerable as development of dopamine receptors continues during this period
BibTeX:
@article{ChandravanshiLP2014,
  author = {Chandravanshi LP, Shukla RK, Sultana S, Pant AB, Khanna VK.},
  title = {Early life arsenic exposure and brain dopaminergic alterations in rats.},
  journal = {Int J Dev Neurosci},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2014.08.009}
}
Chandravanshi LP, Yadav RS, Shukla RK, Singh A, Sultana S, Pant AB, Parmar D, Khanna VK Reversibility of changes in brain cholinergic receptors and acetylcholinesterase activity in rats following early life arsenic exposure. 2014 Int J Dev Neurosci
Vol. 34, pp. 60-75 
article DOI  
Abstract: In view of the increasing incidences of arsenic induced health effects and the vulnerability of the developing brain to its toxic effects, studies have been carried out to investigate the mechanism of arsenic induced cholinergic alterations and understand if such changes are persistent or transient on withdrawal of arsenicexposure. Male rats were exposed to arsenic (2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg body weight, p.o) from post-lactational day (PD)22 to PD59, and the effect on selected behavioral and neurochemical end points associated with cholinergic functions was assessed on PD60 and PD90. Decrease in the binding of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in frontal cortex (26%, 43%) and hippocampus (21%, 34%) associated with reduced CHRM2 mRNA levels, acetylcholinesterase activity and expression of ChAT and PKC ?-1 was observed in arsenic exposed rats on PD60 as compared to controls. Spatial learning and memory and muscle strength were affected following arsenic exposure in rats on PD60 and associated with arsenic induced cholinergic alterations. Enhanced oxidative stress associated with increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins was distinct in both frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenicexposure in rats on PD60. The cholinergic alterations and other neurochemical modifications were found to be linked with increased arsenic levels in frontal cortex (1.39, 3.90-fold) and hippocampus (3.23, 5.48-fold) on PD60. Although a trend of recovery was observed both in behavioral and neurochemical endpoints on withdrawal of arsenic exposure on PD90, the results indicate that continuous arsenic exposure may have detrimental effects.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandravanshiLP2014a,
  author = {Chandravanshi LP, Yadav RS, Shukla RK, Singh A, Sultana S, Pant AB, Parmar D, Khanna VK.},
  title = {Reversibility of changes in brain cholinergic receptors and acetylcholinesterase activity in rats following early life arsenic exposure.},
  journal = {Int J Dev Neurosci},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {60-75},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2014.01.007}
}
Chandronitha C, Ananthi S, Ramakrishnan G, Lakshmisundaram R, Gayathri V, Vasanthi HR Protective role of tannin-rich fraction of Camellia sinensis in tissue arsenic burden in Sprague Dawley rats. 2010 Hum Exp Toxicol
Vol. 29(9), pp. 705-19 
article DOI  
Abstract: The protective effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) was tested against arsenic-induced toxicity. However, the possible role of tannins in green tea in alleviating hepatic and renal oxidative injury has also been studied. Administration of sodium arsenite (100 mg/kg/day) for 28 days in Sprague Dawley female rats resulted in significant reduction of biochemical parameters such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the index of nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels. The tissue arsenic burden was increased after arsenic exposure for a period of 28 days. Green tea crude fraction (GTC) co-treated with sodium arsenite for 28 days caused significant (p < .01) elevation of ALAD, GSH, GPx, SOD, and nitrate/nitrite levels and reduction of the TBARS level and tissue burden when compared to detannified green tea fraction (GTDT)-treated groups. The protective role of tannin-rich fraction of C. sinensis when compared to the detannified fraction was also confirmed by histological examinations. The greater activity of GTC than that of detannified green tea fraction correlates with the higher content of tannins in green tea. Overall, these results indicate that the tannin-rich green tea could have improved the defense mechanism against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and reduced the tissue arsenic burden.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandronithaC2010,
  author = {Chandronitha C, Ananthi S, Ramakrishnan G, Lakshmisundaram R, Gayathri V, Vasanthi HR},
  title = {Protective role of tannin-rich fraction of Camellia sinensis in tissue arsenic burden in Sprague Dawley rats.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29(9)},
  pages = {705-19},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327110361503}
}
Chatterjee D, Bhattacharjee P, Sau TJ, Das JK, Sarma N, Bandyopadhyay AK, Roy SS, Giri AK Arsenic exposure through drinking water leads to senescence and alteration of telomere length in humans: A case-control study in West Bengal, India. 2014 Mol Carcinog.  article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) induces pre-malignant and malignant dermatological lesions, non-dermatological health effects and cancers in humans. Senescence involves telomere length changes and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which promotes carcinogenesis. Though in vitro studies have shown that As induces senescence, population based studies are lacking. We investigated the arsenic-induced senescence, telomere length alteration and its contribution towards development of As-induced skin cancer. The study participants included 60 each of As-exposed individuals with skin lesion (WSL), without skin lesions (WOSL) and 60 unexposed controls. Exposure assessment of drinking water and urine was done. SA ?-gal activity, ELISA, and quantification of senescence proteins, alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) associated proteins and telomerase activity were performed. Relative telomere length (RTL) was determined by qPCR. A significantly higher number of senescent cells, over-expression of p53 and p21 were observed in the As-exposed individuals when compared to unexposed. SASP markers, MMP-1/MMP-3 were significantly higher in the WSL but not IL-6/IL-8. A significant increase of RTL was observed in the WSL group, which was telomerase-independent but exhibited an over-expression of ALT associated proteins TRF-1 and TRF-2 with higher increase in TRF-2. An increased risk for developing As-induced skin lesions was found for individuals having RTL greater than 0.827 (odds ratio, 13.75; 95% CI: 5.66-33.41; P?
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeD2014,
  author = {Chatterjee D, Bhattacharjee P, Sau TJ, Das JK, Sarma N, Bandyopadhyay AK, Roy SS, Giri AK.},
  title = {Arsenic exposure through drinking water leads to senescence and alteration of telomere length in humans: A case-control study in West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Mol Carcinog.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22150}
}
Chatterjee D, Halder D, Majumder S, Biswas A, Nath B, Bhattacharya P, Bhowmick S, Mukherjee-Goswami A, Saha D,Hazra R, Maity PB, Chatterjee D, Mukherjee A, Bundschuh J Assessment of arsenic exposure from groundwater and rice in Bengal Delta Region, West Bengal, India. 2010 Water Res.
Vol. 44(19), pp. 5803-12 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) induced identifiable health outcomes are now spreading across Indian subcontinent with continuous discovery of high As concentrations in groundwater. This study deals with groundwater hydrochemistry vis-à-vis As exposure assessment among rural population in Chakdaha block, West Bengal, India. The water quality survey reveals that 96% of the tubewells exceed WHO guideline value (10 ?g/L of As). The groundwaters are generally anoxic (-283 to -22 mV) with circum-neutral pH (6.3 to 7.8). The hydrochemistry is dominated by HCO(3)(-) (208 to 440 mg/L), Ca(2+) (79 to 178 mg/L) and Mg(2+) (17 to 45 mg/L) ions along with high concentrations of As(T) (As total, below detection limit to 0.29 mg/L), Fe(T) (Fe total, 1.2 to 16 mg/L), and Fe(II) (0.74 to 16 mg/L). The result demonstrates that Fe(II)-Fe(III) cycling is the dominant process for the release of As from aquifer sediments to groundwater (and vice versa), which is mainly controlled by the local biogeochemical conditions. The exposure scenario reveals that the consumption of groundwater and rice are the major pathways of As accumulation in human body, which is explained by the dietary habit of the surveyed population. Finally, regular awareness campaign is essential as part of the management and prevention of health outcomes.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeD2010,
  author = {Chatterjee D, Halder D, Majumder S, Biswas A, Nath B, Bhattacharya P, Bhowmick S, Mukherjee-Goswami A, Saha D,Hazra R, Maity PB, Chatterjee D, Mukherjee A, Bundschuh J.},
  title = {Assessment of arsenic exposure from groundwater and rice in Bengal Delta Region, West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Water Res.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {44(19)},
  pages = {5803-12},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.04.007}
}
Chattopadhyay S, Ghosh D The involvement of hypophyseal-gonadal and hypophyseal-adrenal axes in arsenic-mediated ovarian and uterine toxicity: modulation by hCG. 2010 J Biochem Mol Toxicol.
Vol. 24(1), pp. 29-41 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study evaluated the involvement of hypophyseal-gonadal and hypophyseal-adrenal axes as a possible mechanism of sodium arsenite toxicity in ovary and uterus by the coadministration of hCG. Subchronic treatment of 0.4 ppm of sodium arsenite/(100 g body weight day) via drinking water for seven estrous cycles significantly suppressed the plasma levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol along with sluggish ovarian activities of Delta(5),3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase followed by a reduction in gonadal tissue peroxidase activities in mature female rats at diestrous phase. Noticeable weight loss of the ovary and uterus along with prolonged diestrous phase and increased deposition of arsenic in the plasma and in these reproductive organs were also demonstrated following the ingestion of arsenic. Follicular atresia and thinning of the uterine luminal diameter were evident after sodium arsenite treatment. Effective protection of gonadal weight loss, suppressed ovarian steroidogenesis, and altered ovarian and uterine peroxidase activities were noticed when 1.0 IU hCG/(100 g body weight day) is given in arsenic-intoxicated rats. Normal estrous cyclicity was restored toward the control level after hCG coadministration, though the elimination of elementary arsenic from the plasma and gonadal tissues was impossible. A significant recovery in the restoration of ovarian and uterine histoarchitecture was prominent after hCG treatment. Adrenal hypertrophy and steroidogenic arrest of the adrenal gland along with altered level of brain monoamines in the midbrain and diencephalons following arsenic intoxication were also ameliorated after hCG coadministration.
BibTeX:
@article{ChattopadhyayS2010,
  author = {Chattopadhyay S, Ghosh D.},
  title = {The involvement of hypophyseal-gonadal and hypophyseal-adrenal axes in arsenic-mediated ovarian and uterine toxicity: modulation by hCG.},
  journal = {J Biochem Mol Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {24(1)},
  pages = {29-41},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.20309}
}
Chaturvedi N, Pandey PN Phylogenetic analysis of gammaproteobacterial arsenate reductase proteins specific to enterobacteriaceae family, signifying arsenic toxicity. 2014 Interdiscip Sci.
Vol. 6(1), pp. 57-62 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study focuses on the phylogenetic analysis of all the ArsC protein sequences, obtained from similarity search against Gammaproteobacteria, and also studies the role of Gammaproteobacterial family in arsenictoxicity. The ars gene provides arsenic tolerance for microbial cell system and encodes for an arsenate reductase (ArsC), which is essential for arsenate resistance that converts arsenate into arsenite. Phylogenetic analysis offers an opportunity to understand the evolutionary relationship between organisms of interest. The phylogenetic experiment was set up for all possible ArsC sequences in class Gammaproteobacteria. The results suggested a wide similarity between ArsC sequences in the species of Enterobacteriaceae family rather than other families in Gammaproteobacteria. The three evolutionary clades revealed a role of Enterobacteriaceae species, which has the capability to code ArsC protein. Further phylogenetic analysis of ArsC crystal structure sequences has also shown the separate cluster of Enterobacter species. The overall phylogeny of the ArsC protein sequences suggests the species of Enterobacteriaceae family express more among all family of Gammaproteobacteria. This study could be advantageous to emphasize the importance of Enterobacteriaceae in arsenic toxicity
BibTeX:
@article{ChaturvediN2014,
  author = {Chaturvedi N, Pandey PN.},
  title = {Phylogenetic analysis of gammaproteobacterial arsenate reductase proteins specific to enterobacteriaceae family, signifying arsenic toxicity.},
  journal = {Interdiscip Sci.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {6(1)},
  pages = {57-62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-014-0186-0}
}
Chauhan D, Dwivedi J, Sankararamakrishnan N Novel chitosan/PVA/zerovalent iron biopolymeric nanofibers with enhanced arsenicremoval applications. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(15), pp. 9430-42 
article DOI  
Abstract: Enhanced removal application of both forms of inorganic arsenic from arsenic-contaminated aquifers at near-neutral pH was studied using a novel electrospun chitosan/PVA/zerovalent iron (CPZ) nanofibrous mat. CPZ was carefully examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Application of the adsorbent towards the removal of total inorganic arsenic in batch mode has also been studied. A suitable mechanism for the adsorption has also been discussed. CPZ nanofibers mat was found capable to remove 200.0?±?10.0 mg g(-1) of As(V) and 142.9?±?7.2 mg g(-1) of As(III) from aqueous solution of pH 7.0 at ambient condition. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enabled the stability of iron in zerovalent state (ZVI). Enhanced capacity of the fibrous mat could be attributed to the high surface area of the fibers, presence of ZVI, and presence of functional groups such as amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups of the chitosan and EDTA. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applicable to describe the removal process. The possible mechanism of adsorption has been explained in terms of electrostatic attraction between the protonated amino groups of chitosan/arsenate ions and oxidation of arsenite to arsenate by Fentons generated from ZVI and subsequent complexation of the arsenate with the oxidized iron. These CPZ nanofibrous mats has been prepared with environmentally benign naturally occurring biodegradable biopolymer chitosan, which offers unique advantage in the removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater.
BibTeX:
@article{ChauhanD2014,
  author = {Chauhan D, Dwivedi J, Sankararamakrishnan N.},
  title = {Novel chitosan/PVA/zerovalent iron biopolymeric nanofibers with enhanced arsenicremoval applications.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(15)},
  pages = {9430-42},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2864-1}
}
Chetia M, Chatterjee S, Banerjee S, Nath MJ, Singh L, Srivastava RB, Sarma HP Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India. 2011 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 173(1-4), pp. 371-85. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Millions of individuals worldwide are suffering from arsenic toxic effect due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain, which is formed by the Ganga-Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh is considered as the worst As-affected alluvial basin. The present study was carried out to examine As contamination in the state of Assam, an adjoining region of the West Bengal and Bangladesh borders. Two hundred twenty-two groundwater samples were collected from shallow and deep tubewells of six blocks of Golaghat district (Assam). Along with total As, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, viz., Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, and Mg with pH, total hardness, and SO[Formula: see text], was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the World Health Organization (WHO; As 0.01 ppm, Fe 1.0 ppm, and Mn 0.3 ppm for potable water), the present study showed that out of the 222 groundwater samples, 67%, 76.4%, and 28.5% were found contaminated with higher metal contents (for total As, Fe, and Mn, respectively). The most badly affected area was the Gamariguri block, where 100% of the samples had As and Fe concentrations above the WHO drinking water guideline values. In this block, the highest As and Fe concentrations were recorded 0.128 and 5.9 ppm, respectively. Tubewell water of depth 180±10 ft found to be more contaminated by As and Fe with 78% and 83% of the samples were tainted with higher concentration of such toxic metals, respectively. A strong significant correlation was observed between As and Fe (0.697 at p<0.01), suggesting a possible reductive dissolution of As-Fe-bearing minerals for the mobilization of As in the groundwater of the region.
BibTeX:
@article{ChetiaM2011,
  author = {Chetia M, Chatterjee S, Banerjee S, Nath MJ, Singh L, Srivastava RB, Sarma HP.},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {173(1-4)},
  pages = {371-85.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1393-8}
}
Das D, Bindhani B, Mukherjee B, Saha H, Biswas P, Dutta K, Prasad P, Sinha D, Ray MR Chronic low-level arsenic exposure reduces lung function in male population without skin lesions. 2014 Int J Public Health.
Vol. 59(4)., pp. 655-63 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
The respiratory effects of chronic low-level arsenic exposure from groundwater have been investigated in West Bengal, India.
METHODS:
The participants (834 non-smoking adult males) were subdivided in two groups: an arsenic-exposed group (n = 446, mean age 35.3 years) drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater (11-50 ?g/L) and a control group of 388 age-matched men drinking water containing <10 ?g/L of arsenic. Arsenic in water samples was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was documented by structured, validated questionnaire. Pulmonary function test (PFT) was assessed by portable spirometer.
RESULTS:
Compared with control, the arsenic-exposed subjects had higher prevalence of upper and lower respiratory symptoms, dyspnea, asthma, eye irritation and headache. Besides, 20.6 % of arsenic-exposed subjects had lung function deficits (predominantly restrictive and combined types) compared with 13.6 % of control (p < 0.05). A positive association was observed between arsenic concentration in drinking water and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, while a negative association existed between arsenic level and spirometric parameters.
CONCLUSIONS:
The findings suggest that even low-level arsenic exposure has deleterious respiratory effects.
BibTeX:
@article{DasD2014,
  author = {Das D, Bindhani B, Mukherjee B, Saha H, Biswas P, Dutta K, Prasad P, Sinha D, Ray MR.},
  title = {Chronic low-level arsenic exposure reduces lung function in male population without skin lesions.},
  journal = {Int J Public Health.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {59(4).},
  pages = {655-63},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0567-5}
}
Das J, Sarkar P, Panda J, Pal P Low-cost field test kits for arsenic detection in water. 2014 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 49(1), pp. 108-15 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic, a common contaminant of groundwater, affects human health adversely. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the maximum recommended contamination level of arsenic in drinking water is 10 ?g/L. The purpose of this research was to develop user-friendly kits for detection of arsenic to measure at least up to 10 ?g/L in drinking water, so that a preventive measure could be taken. Two different kits for detection of total arsenic in water are reported here. First, the arsenic in drinking water was converted to arsine gas by a strong reducing agent. The arsine produced was then detected by paper strips via generation of color due to reaction with either mercuric bromide (KIT-1) or silver nitrate (KIT-2). These were previously immobilized on the detector strip. The first one gave a yellow color and the second one grey. Both of these kits could detect arseniccontamination within a range of 10 ?g/L-250 ?g/L. The detection time for both the kits was only 7 min. The kits exhibited excellent performance compared to other kits available in the market with respect to detection time, ease of operation, cost and could be easily handled by a layman. The field trials with these kits gave very satisfactory results. A study on interference revealed that these kits could be used in the presence of 24 common ions present in the arsenic contaminated water. Though the kits were meant for qualitative assay, the results with unknown concentrations of real samples, when compared with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) were in good agreement as revealed by the t-test.
BibTeX:
@article{DasJ2014,
  author = {Das J, Sarkar P, Panda J, Pal P.},
  title = {Low-cost field test kits for arsenic detection in water.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {49(1)},
  pages = {108-15},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2013.824764}
}
Das N, Paul S, Chatterjee D, Banerjee N, Majumder NS, Sarma N, Sau TJ, Basu S, Banerjee S, Majumder P,Bandyopadhyay AK, States JC, Giri AK Arsenic exposure through drinking water increases the risk of liver and cardiovascular diseases in the population of West Bengal, India. 2012 BMC Public Health.
Vol. 10;12, pp. 639 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Arsenic is a natural drinking water contaminant affecting 26 million people in West Bengal, India. Chronic arsenic exposure causes cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, neuropathies and ocular diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess bioindicators of hepatocellular injury as indicated by the levels of liver enzymes, to determine the auto immune status, as indicated by the amounts of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies in their serum, and to predict cardiovascular risk in the arsenicexposed population.
METHODS:
Effect of chronic arsenic exposure on liver was determined by liver function tests. Autoimmune status was measured by measuring ANA and anti-dsDNA in serum. Inflammatory cytokines associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, IL6, IL8 and MCP-1 were determined.
RESULTS:
Our results indicated that serum levels of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and ANA were increased in the arsenic exposed population. Serum levels of IL6 and IL8 also increased in the arsenic exposed group.
CONCLUSIONS:
Chronic arsenic exposure causes liver injury, increases the serum levels of autoimmune markers and imparts increased cardiovascular risk.
BibTeX:
@article{DasN2012,
  author = {Das N, Paul S, Chatterjee D, Banerjee N, Majumder NS, Sarma N, Sau TJ, Basu S, Banerjee S, Majumder P,Bandyopadhyay AK, States JC, Giri AK.},
  title = {Arsenic exposure through drinking water increases the risk of liver and cardiovascular diseases in the population of West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {BMC Public Health.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {10;12},
  pages = {639},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-639}
}
Das S, Pan D, Bera AK, Rana T, Bandyopadhyay S, De S, Das SK, Bhattacharya D, Bandyopadhyay SK Stress inducible heat shock protein 70: a potent molecular and toxicological signature in arsenic exposed broiler chickens. 2010 Mol Biol Rep.
Vol. 37(7), pp. 3151-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: This communication reports about heat shock protein response after arsenic exposure in broiler chickens in vivo and in vitro both. Splenocytes harvested in presence of sodium arsenite expressed Heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) which could be identified on the basis of relative migration pattern and western blot analysis. Serum levels of HSP 70 in broiler chicken also increased after continuous feeding of sodium arsenite in drinking water. This particular observation may be attributed towards systematic inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatocellular injury. In vitro relative quantification of transcription level of HSP 70 revealed that splenocytes harvested in presence of sodium arsenite expressed (final concentration 3 and 7 ?M/ml) more HSP 70 in comparison to cells harvested without sodium arsenite and the values were statistically significant (P < 0.001) when compared to untreated control. Collectively this result indicated that, HSP 70 level increased both in vivo and in vitro trials and may be used as potential molecular and toxicological biomarker.
BibTeX:
@article{DasS2010,
  author = {Das S, Pan D, Bera AK, Rana T, Bandyopadhyay S, De S, Das SK, Bhattacharya D, Bandyopadhyay SK.},
  title = {Stress inducible heat shock protein 70: a potent molecular and toxicological signature in arsenic exposed broiler chickens.},
  journal = {Mol Biol Rep.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {37(7)},
  pages = {3151-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-009-9894-7}
}
Dash JR, Datta BK, Sarkar S, Mandal TK Chronic arsenicosis in cattle: possible mitigation with Zn and Se. 2013 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 92, pp. 119-22. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Supply of arsenic free water in the arsenic endemic zone of West Bengal since a long time could not prevent arsenicosis in human completely. So exploration of arsenic contamination at all levels of food chain may be important. The report on arsenicosis in cattle of arsenic affected zone is scarcely available. In the present study, cattle from villages of two arsenic endemic blocks (Chakdah and Haringhata) in Nadia district of West Bengal were selected. The cattle affected with arsenicosis were identified and isolated. They were divided into two groups: untreated control group and treated group-was treated with mixture of zinc oxide (10mg/kg) and sodium selenite (0.1mg/kg) orally once daily for 180 days. Milk, faeces and hair samples were collected at different time intervals from those cattle for analysis of arsenic. Drinking water and straw of those areas were also collected for analysis of arsenic. Serum ALT and AST were estimated in collected blood samples of the cattle. The untreated control group had shown gradual accumulation of total arsenic in hair while the treated group showed a non-significant but declined accumulation of arsenic in hair from 90th day onwards and a significant increase (p<0.05) in total arsenic in faeces from 90th day onwards. The arsenic load considerably but non-significantly decreased in milk from 60th day onwards in the treated group. Serum AST and ALT activities were also decreased in treated cattle. It is concluded that straw is also a major source of arseniccontamination in cattle apart from drinking water and arsenic may enter into human through consumption of contaminated milk. But zinc and selenium mixture may be used to reduce arsenic load in cattle.
BibTeX:
@article{DashJR2013,
  author = {Dash JR, Datta BK, Sarkar S, Mandal TK.},
  title = {Chronic arsenicosis in cattle: possible mitigation with Zn and Se.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {92},
  pages = {119-22.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.03.003}
}
Datta BK, Bhar MK, Patra PH, Majumdar D, Dey RR, Sarkar S, Mandal TK, Chakraborty AK Effect of environmental exposure of arsenic on cattle and poultry in nadia district, west bengal, India. 2012 Toxicol Int
Vol. 19(1), pp. 59-62 
article DOI  
Abstract: A study was undertaken to evaluate an alternative source of arsenicosis in human food chain through livestock. Thirty milch cattle and 20 poultry birds along with their eggs were selected randomly from two endemic villages of Nadia district and one nonendemic villages of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India. Milk, feces, urine, and hair samples of cattle and feed materials, such as water and straw, were collected to analyze arsenic status.Arsenic concentration in egg yolk and albumen from poultry eggs and different poultry organs after culling was estimated. Distribution of arsenic in animal body indicates that major portion of arsenic was eliminated through feces, urine, and milk. Poultry egg yolk, albumen, and poultry products retain arsenic in all organs. Cows and poultry birds reared in endemic zone retain significantly higher concentration of arsenic. Consumption of egg, agricultural produces grown in contaminated soil, and milk might have produced arsenicosis and may be considered as alternative source of arsenic contamination.
BibTeX:
@article{DattaBK2012,
  author = {Datta BK, Bhar MK, Patra PH, Majumdar D, Dey RR, Sarkar S, Mandal TK, Chakraborty AK.},
  title = {Effect of environmental exposure of arsenic on cattle and poultry in nadia district, west bengal, India.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {19(1)},
  pages = {59-62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.94511}
}
Deepa K, Lingappa Y A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of arsenic in industrial and environmental samples using 2,4-Dihydroxy benzophenone-2-amino thiophenol. 2014 Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.
Vol. 24;124, pp. 102-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: 2,4-Dihydroxy benzophenone-2-amino thiophenol (BPBT) has been proposed as new analytical reagent for the direct non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of arsenic. The reagent reacts with arsenic in acidic medium (pH=6.0, sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer) to form light greenish yellow colored 1:1 (M:L) complex. Maximum absorbance was obtained at 343 nm and remains constant for over 24 h. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of BPBT are found to be 6.01×10(4) L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.0016 ?g cm(-2) respectively. The system obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.125-2.637 ?g/ml of As (III). Since BPBT method is more sensitive, it was applied for the determination of arsenic in some environmental water samples.
BibTeX:
@article{DeepaK2014,
  author = {Deepa K, Lingappa Y},
  title = {A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of arsenic in industrial and environmental samples using 2,4-Dihydroxy benzophenone-2-amino thiophenol.},
  journal = {Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {24;124},
  pages = {102-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2013.12.030}
}
Dhatrak SV, Nandi SS Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners. 2009 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 13(2), pp. 60-4 
article DOI  
Abstract: The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.
BibTeX:
@article{DhatrakSV2009,
  author = {Dhatrak SV, Nandi SS.},
  title = {Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {13(2)},
  pages = {60-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.55121}
}
Dhoble RM, Lunge S, Bhole AG, Rayalu S Magnetic binary oxide particles (MBOP): a promising adsorbent for removal of As (III) in water. 2011 Water Res.
Vol. 45(16), pp. 4769-81. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Magnetic binary oxide particles (MBOP) synthesized using chitosan template has been investigated for uptake capacity of arsenic (III). Batch experiments were performed to determine the rate of adsorption and equilibrium isotherm and also effect of various rate limiting factors including adsorbent dose, pH, optimum contact time, initial adsorbate concentration and influence of presence cations and anions. It was observed that uptake ofarsenic (III) was independent of pH of the solution. Maximum adsorption of arsenic (III) was ?99% at pH 7.0 with dose of adsorbent 1 g/L and initial As (III) concentration of 1.0 mg/L at optimal contact time of 14 h. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent was 16.94 mg/g. With increase in concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+ from 50 mg/L to 600 mg/L, adsorption of As (III) was significantly reduced while for Fe3+ the adsorption of arsenic (III) was increased with increase in concentration. Temperature study was carried out at 293 K, 303 K and 313 K reveals that the adsorption process is exothermic nature. A distinct advantage of this adsorbent is that adsorbent can readily be isolated from sample solutions by application of an external magnetic field. Saturation magnetization is a key factor for successful magnetic separation was observed to be 18.78 emu/g which is sufficient for separation by conventional magnate.
BibTeX:
@article{DhobleRM2011,
  author = {Dhoble RM, Lunge S, Bhole AG, Rayalu S},
  title = {Magnetic binary oxide particles (MBOP): a promising adsorbent for removal of As (III) in water.},
  journal = {Water Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {45(16)},
  pages = {4769-81.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.06.016}
}
Dixit S, Dhar P, Mehra RD Protective role of exogenous ?-lipoic acid (ALA) on hippocampal antioxidant status and memory function in rat pups exposed to sodium arsenite during the early post-natal period 2011 Toxicol Mech Methods.
Vol. 21(3), pp. 216-24 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present work focussed on the effect of exogenous ?-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on retention memory and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus subsequent to early post-natal exposure of rat pups to sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2)). Wistar rat pups were divided into the control groups receiving either no treatment (Ia) or distilled water by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) (Ib) and the experimental groups receiving either NaAsO(2) alone (1.5 and 2.0?mg/kg body wt.) (IIa, IIb) or NaAsO(2) (1.5 and 2.0?mg/kg body wt.) followed by ALA (70?mg/kg body wt.) (IIIa, IIIb) (i.p.) from post-natal day (PND) 4-15. The initial and retention transfer latency (ITL and RTL) was determined on PND 14 and 15 using elevated plus maze. The animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation (PND 16) and the brains were obtained. The dissected out hippocampus was processed for estimation of oxidative stress markers, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). NaAsO(2) exposure resulted in longer RTL in animal groups IIa and IIb, thereby suggestive of arsenic-induced impairment in retention memory. RTL was significantly shorter in animal groups (IIIa, IIIb) receiving ALA following NaAsO(2), thereby suggestive of improvement in retention memory. GSH and SOD levels were significantly decreased in animals receiving NaAsO(2) alone as against group Ib and administration of ALA following NaAsO(2) increased the levels of hippocampal GSH and SOD. These observations are suggestive of the role of exogenous ALA in ameliorating the adverse effects induced by NaAsO(2) exposure of rat pups on retention memory and oxidative stress markers.
BibTeX:
@article{DixitS2011,
  author = {Dixit S, Dhar P, Mehra RD.},
  title = {Protective role of exogenous ?-lipoic acid (ALA) on hippocampal antioxidant status and memory function in rat pups exposed to sodium arsenite during the early post-natal period},
  journal = {Toxicol Mech Methods.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {21(3)},
  pages = {216-24},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15376516.2010.538751}
}
Dutta M, Ghosh D, Ghosh AK, Bose G, Chattopadhyay A, Rudra S, Dey M, Bandyopadhyay A, Pattari SK,Mallick S, Bandyopadhyay D High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver. 2014 Food Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 66, pp. 262-77 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenictoxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress.
BibTeX:
@article{DuttaM2014,
  author = {Dutta M, Ghosh D, Ghosh AK, Bose G, Chattopadhyay A, Rudra S, Dey M, Bandyopadhyay A, Pattari SK,Mallick S, Bandyopadhyay D.},
  title = {High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {262-77},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2014.01.050}
}
Dwivedi N, Mehta A, Yadav A, Binukumar BK, Gill KD, Flora SJ MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats. 2011 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 256(3), pp. 241-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality.Arsenic induced free radicals generated are known to cause cellular apoptosis through mitochondrial driven pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenic interactions with various complexes of the electron transport chain and attempted to evaluate if there was any complex preference of arsenic that could trigger apoptosis. We also evaluated if chelation with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) could reverse these detrimental effects. Our results indicate that arsenic exposure induced free radical generation in rat neuronal cells, which diminished mitochondrial potential and enzyme activities of all the complexes of the electron transport chain. Moreover, these complexes showed differential responses towards arsenic. These early events along with diminished ATP levels could be co-related with the later events of cytosolic migration of cytochrome c, altered bax/bcl(2) ratio, and increased caspase 3 activity. Although MiADMSA could reverse most of these arsenic-induced altered variables to various extents, DNA damage remained unaffected. Our study for the first time demonstrates the differential effect of arsenic on the complexes leading to deficits in bioenergetics leading to apoptosis in rat brain. However, more in depth studies are warranted for better understanding of arsenic interactions with the mitochondria.
BibTeX:
@article{DwivediN2011,
  author = {Dwivedi N, Mehta A, Yadav A, Binukumar BK, Gill KD, Flora SJ.},
  title = {MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {256(3)},
  pages = {241-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2011.04.004}
}
Ghosal U, Sikdar PK, McArthur JM Palaeosol Control of Arsenic Pollution: The Bengal Basin in West Bengal, India. 2014 Ground Water.  article DOI  
Abstract: Groundwater in the Bengal Basin is badly polluted by arsenic (As) which adversely affects human health. To provide low-As groundwater for As mitigation, it was sought across 235 km2 of central West Bengal, in the western part of the basin. By drilling 76 boreholes and chemical analysis of 535 water wells, groundwater with <10 µg/L As in shallow aquifers was found under one-third of a study area. The groundwater is in late Pleistocene palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of weathered brown sand that are capped by a palaeosol of red clay. The aquifers form two N-S trending lineaments that are bounded on the east by an As-polluted deep palaeo-channel aquifer and separated by a shallower palaeo-channel aquifer. The depth to the top of the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers is mostly between 35 and 38 m below ground level (mbgl). The palaeo-interfluvial aquifers are overlain by shallow palaeo-channel aquifers of gray sand in which groundwater is usually As-polluted. The palaeosol now protects the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers from downward migration of As-polluted groundwater in overlying shallow palaeo-channel aquifers. The depth to the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers of 35 to 38 mbgl makes the cost of their exploitation affordable to most of the rural poor of West Bengal, who can install a well cheaply to depths up to 60 mbgl. The protection against pollution afforded by the palaeosol means that the palaeo-interfluvial aquifers will provide a long-term source of low-As groundwater to mitigate As pollution of groundwater in the shallower, heavily used, palaeo-channel aquifers. This option for mitigation is cheap to employ and instantly available.
BibTeX:
@article{GhosalU2014,
  author = {Ghosal U, Sikdar PK, McArthur JM.},
  title = {Palaeosol Control of Arsenic Pollution: The Bengal Basin in West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Ground Water.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gwat.12251}
}
Ghosh A, Mandal AK, Sarkar S, Das N Hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activity of liposomal quercetin in combating chronic arsenic induced oxidative damage in liver and brain of rats. 2011 Drug Deliv.
Vol. 18(6), pp. 451-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: CONTEXT:
Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxicant that causes acute and chronic adverse health effects, including cancer.
OBJECTIVE:
The study was performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of liposome entrapped flavonoidal quercetin in combating arsenic toxicity mediated oxidative damage in hepatocytes and brain cells in rat model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Hepatic and neuronal cell damage in rats was made by daily arsenic (6 mg/kg b wt, 9 mg/kg b wt and 12 mg/kg b wt) treatment via oral route for four consecutive months. Liposomal quercetin (2.71 mg QC/kg b. wt) were injected s.c. on rats treated with 12 mg/kg b. wt. NaAsO(2) twice a week for four months.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Inorganic arsenic deposition was found to be most significant in hepatic (9.32 ± 0.100 µg/g tissue) and neuronal (6.21 ± 0.090 µg/g tissue) cells of rats treated with 12 mg/kg b wt of arsenite. Antioxidant levels in hepatic and neuronal cells were reduced significantly by the induction of arsenic. Liposomal quercetin was found most potent for a complete prevention of arsenite-induced reduction in antioxidant levels in the liver and brain of rats. Arsenic induced a substantial increase in hepatic hydroxyproline (HP) and Liposomal quercetin treatment resulted in complete replenishment of the HP level to normal. Liposomal quercetin completely prevented the arsenite-induced upregulation of cytochrome c expression in liver and brain significantly suggesting that the protective effect of Liposomal quercetin could be related to the reduction of arsenic deposition in both the organs.
CONCLUSION:
Thus, Liposomal quercetin might prove to be of therapeutic potential against arsenite-induced hepatic and neuronal cell damage in rats.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshA2011,
  author = {Ghosh A, Mandal AK, Sarkar S, Das N.},
  title = {Hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activity of liposomal quercetin in combating chronic arsenic induced oxidative damage in liver and brain of rats.},
  journal = {Drug Deliv.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18(6)},
  pages = {451-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2011.577110}
}
Ghosh A, Mandal AK, Sarkar S, Panda S, Das N Nanoencapsulation of quercetin enhances its dietary efficacy in combating arsenic-induced oxidative damage in liver and brain of rats. 2009 Life Sci
Vol. 84(3-4), pp. 75-80 
article DOI  
Abstract: AIMS:
This study was performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of nanocapsulated flavonoidal quercetin (QC) in combating arsenic-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage in hepatocytes and brain cells in a rat model.
MAIN METHODS:
Hepatic and neuronal cell damage in rats was made by a single injection (sc) of sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2), 13 mg/kg b. wt. in 0.5 ml of physiological saline). A single dose of 500 microl of quercetin suspension (QC) (QC 8.98 micromol/kg) or 500 microl of nanocapsulated QC (NPQC) (QC 8.98 micromol/kg) was given orally to rats at 90 min prior to the arsenite injection.
KEY FINDINGS:
Inorganic arsenic depositions (182+/-15.6 and 110+/-12.8 ng/g protein) were found in hepatic and neuronal mitochondrial membranes. Antioxidant levels in hepatic and neuronal cells were reduced significantly by arsenic. NPQC prevented the arsenite-induced reduction in antioxidant levels in the liver and brain. Arsenic induced a substantial decrease in liver and brain cell membrane microviscosities, and NPQC treatment resulted in a unique protection against the loss. A significant correlation between mitochondrialarsenic and its conjugated diene level was observed both in liver and brain cells for all experimental rats.
SIGNIFICANCE:
Arsenic-specific antidotes are used against arsenic-induced toxicity. However, the target site is poorly recognized and therefore achieving an active concentration of drug molecules can be a challenge. Thus, our objective was to formulate NPQC and to investigate its therapeutic potential in an oral route against arsenite-induced hepatic and neuronal cell damage in a rat model.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshA2009,
  author = {Ghosh A, Mandal AK, Sarkar S, Panda S, Das N.},
  title = {Nanoencapsulation of quercetin enhances its dietary efficacy in combating arsenic-induced oxidative damage in liver and brain of rats.},
  journal = {Life Sci},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {84(3-4)},
  pages = {75-80},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2008.11.001}
}
Ghosh D, Ghosh S, Sarkar S, Ghosh A, Das N, Das Saha K, Mandal AK Quercetin in vesicular delivery systems: evaluation in combating arsenic-induced acute liver toxicity associated gene expression in rat model. 2010 Chem Biol Interact
Vol. 186(1), pp. 61-71. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic, the environmental toxicant causes oxidative damage to liver and produces hepatic fibrosis. The theme of our study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of liposomal and nanocapsulated herbal polyphenolic antioxidant quercetin (QC) in combating arsenic induced hepatic oxidative stress, fibrosis associated upregulation of its gene expression and plasma TGF beta (transforming growth factor beta) in rat model. A single dose of arsenic (sodium arsenite-NaAsO(2), 13 mg/kgb.wt) in oral route causes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), arsenic accumulation in liver, hepatotoxicity and decrease in hepatic plasma membrane microviscosity and antioxidant enzyme levels in liver. Arsenic causes fibrosis associated elevation of its gene expression in liver, plasma TGF ss (from normal value 75.2+/-8.67 ng/ml to 196.2+/-12.07 ng/ml) and release of cytochrome c in cytoplasm. Among the two vesicular delivery systems formulated with QC, polylactide nanocapsules showed a promising result compared to liposomal delivery system in controllingarsenic induced alteration of those parameters. A single dose of 0.5 ml of nanocapsulated QC suspension (QC 2.71 mg/kg b.wt) when injected to rats 1h after arsenic administration orally protects liver from arsenic induced deterioration of antioxidant levels as well as oxidative stress associated gene expression of liver. Histopathological examination also confirmed the pathological improvement in liver. Nanocapsulated plant origin flavonoidal compound may be a potent formulation in combating arsenic induced upregulation of gene expression of liver fibrosis through a complete protection against oxidative attack in hepatic cells of rat liver.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshD2010,
  author = {Ghosh D, Ghosh S, Sarkar S, Ghosh A, Das N, Das Saha K, Mandal AK.},
  title = {Quercetin in vesicular delivery systems: evaluation in combating arsenic-induced acute liver toxicity associated gene expression in rat model.},
  journal = {Chem Biol Interact},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {186(1)},
  pages = {61-71.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2010.03.048}
}
Ghosh D, Sarkar S, Sengupta AK, Gupta A Investigation on the long-term storage and fate of arsenic obtained as a treatment residual: a case study 2014 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 30;271, pp. 302-10. 
article DOI  
Abstract: In several places in India, activated alumina is used for effective removal of arsenic from contaminated ground water used for drinking purposes. Once exhausted, activated alumina is regenerated and reused for number of cycles. Regeneration of activated alumina generates treatment residuals containing arsenic, disposal of which needs care so as to avoid further pollution of the neighbouring environment. In the present study, a suitable stabilization and disposal method for the treatment residuals inside a well aerated coarse sand filter bed has been developed. Standard leaching tests carried out with the stabilized treatment residual indicated that the leaching of arsenic from the stabilized treatment residual was minimum, and was within the regulatory limit. Water quality data of all the wells located within 100 m from the sand filter were monitored for nearly four years and no adverse impact of disposal of arsenic-laden treatment residuals in the sand filter was observed.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshD2014,
  author = {Ghosh D, Sarkar S, Sengupta AK, Gupta A.},
  title = {Investigation on the long-term storage and fate of arsenic obtained as a treatment residual: a case study},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {30;271},
  pages = {302-10.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.02.015}
}
Ghosh J, Das J, Manna P, Sil PC Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: role of NF-kappa B, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway. 2009 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 240(1), pp. 73-87 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant properties. The present study has, therefore, been carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage and cell death. Arsenic reduced cardiomyocyte viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium overload, and induced apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial dependent caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These changes due to arsenic exposure were found to be associated with increased IKK and NF-kappaB (p65) phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of myocytes to an IKK inhibitor (PS-1145) prevented As-induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Arsenic also markedly increased the activity of p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK to that extent. Pre-treatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) attenuated NF-kappaB and IKK phosphorylation indicating that p38 and JNK MAPKs are mainly involved inarsenic-induced NF-kappaB activation. Taurine treatment suppressed these apoptotic actions, suggesting that its protective role in arsenic-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by attenuation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. Results suggest that taurine prevented arsenic-induced myocardial pathophysiology, attenuated NF-kappaB activation via IKK, p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and could possibly provide a protection against As-induced cardiovascular burden.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshJ2009,
  author = {Ghosh J, Das J, Manna P, Sil PC.},
  title = {Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: role of NF-kappa B, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {240(1)},
  pages = {73-87},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.07.008}
}
Giri AK, Patel RK, Mishra PC Biosorption of As(V) from aqueous solutions by living cells of Bacillus cereus. 2012 Water Sci Technol.
Vol. 66(8), pp. 1699-707 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this work, the biosorption of As(V) from aqueous solutions by living cells of Bacillus cereus has been reported. The batch biosorption experiments were conducted with respect to biosorbent dosage 0.5 to 15 g/L, pH 2 to 9, contact time 5 to 90 min, initial concentration 1 to 10 mg/L and temperature 10 to 40 °C. The maximum biosorption capacity of B. cereus for As(V) was found to be 30.04 at pH 7.0, at optimum conditions of contact time of 30 min, biomass dosage of 6 g/L, and temperature of 30 ± 2 °C. Biosorption data were fitted to linearly transformed Langmuir isotherms with R(2) (correlation coefficient) >0.99. Bacillus cereus cell surface was characterized using AFM and FTIR. The metal ions were desorbed from B. cereus using both 1 M HCl and 1 M HNO(3). The pseudo-second-order model was successfully applied to predict the rate constant of biosorption.
BibTeX:
@article{GiriAK2012,
  author = {Giri AK, Patel RK, Mishra PC.},
  title = {Biosorption of As(V) from aqueous solutions by living cells of Bacillus cereus.},
  journal = {Water Sci Technol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {66(8)},
  pages = {1699-707},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2012.332}
}
Gora RH, Baxla SL, Kerketta P, Patnaik S, Roy BK Hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea against arsenic induced toxicity in rats. 2014 Indian J Pharmacol
Vol. 46(2), pp. 197-200 
article DOI  
Abstract: AIM:
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced sub-acute toxicity in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Twenty four wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly divided into three groups. Group II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) daily in drinking water for 28 days. Additionally Group III was orally treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) @ 500 mg/kg daily for the same time period, whereas only deionized water was given to Group I (control). Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress parameters and arsenic concentration were assessed in liver. Histopathology was also conducted.
RESULTS:
It has been seen that TPE (500 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced serum ALT, AST, ALP activity and increased total protein and reduced necrosis and inflammation in liver of group III compared to group II. A significantly (P < 0.01) higher LPO and lower GSH levels without change in SOD activity in liver was also observed in group II compared to group III, though there was no significant difference in arsenicaccumulation between them. The plant extract also protects the animals of group III from significant (P < 0.01) reduction in body weight.
CONCLUSION:
Our study shows that supplementation of Tephrosia purpurea extract (500 mg/kg) could ameliorate the hepatotoxic action of arsenic.
BibTeX:
@article{GoraRH2014,
  author = {Gora RH, Baxla SL, Kerketta P, Patnaik S, Roy BK.},
  title = {Hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea against arsenic induced toxicity in rats.},
  journal = {Indian J Pharmacol},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {46(2)},
  pages = {197-200},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.129317}
}
Gora RH, Kerketta P, Baxla SL, Toppo R, Prasad R, Patra PH, Roy BK Ameliorative Effect of Tephrosia Purpurea in Arsenic-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats. 2014 Toxicol Int
Vol. 21(1), pp. 78-83 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TPE) against arsenic-induced toxicity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Twenty four number of wistar rats were equally divided into three groups. Sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) was orally given to group I for 28 days, additionally group II was orally treated with TPE (500 mg/kg), while the control group was kept untreated with neither arsenic nor TPE. Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress indices and arsenic concentration in kidney were estimated. Histopathology of kidney was also conducted.
RESULTS:
Group II animals show significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine, and increased serum albumin level compared to group I. The higher lipid peroxidation with exhausted superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione level were noticed in group I compared to group II. There was no significant difference in arsenic accumulation in kidneys between the two arsenic treated groups, but the histopathology of kidney of group II rats revealed reduced necrosis and intact tubular architecture as compared to group I.
CONCLUSIONS:
Tephrosia Purpurea extract has a significant role in protecting the animals from arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{GoraRH2014a,
  author = {Gora RH, Kerketta P, Baxla SL, Toppo R, Prasad R, Patra PH, Roy BK.},
  title = {Ameliorative Effect of Tephrosia Purpurea in Arsenic-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(1)},
  pages = {78-83},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.128807}
}
Goswami C, Majumder A, Misra AK, Bandyopadhyay K Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system. 2014 Int J Phytoremediation.
Vol. 16(7-12), pp. 1221-7 
article  
Abstract: Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenicconcentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenicat initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenicconcentration.
BibTeX:
@article{GoswamiC2014,
  author = {Goswami C, Majumder A, Misra AK, Bandyopadhyay K.},
  title = {Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.},
  journal = {Int J Phytoremediation.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {16(7-12)},
  pages = {1221-7}
}
Guha Mazumder D, Purkayastha I, Ghose A, Mistry G, Saha C, Nandy AK, Das A, Majumdar KK Hypertension in chronic arsenic exposure: A case control study in West Bengal. 2012 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 47(11), pp. 1514-20 
article DOI  
Abstract: Various systemic manifestations are reported to be caused by chronic arsenic exposure in the population living in the Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. This study from West Bengal assesses the likelihood of occurrence of hypertension (HTN) in individuals resident in an area of high groundwater contamination with arsenic (Nadia district) compared to those from a non-contaminated area (Hoogly district) in West Bengal, India. Two hundred and eight study participants (Group 1) were recruited from a cross-sectional study in six villages in the Nadia district and 100 controls (Group 2) from a village in the Hoogly district.
The two groups were evenly matched in regard to age and sex. History taking and clinical examination including blood pressure measurement were undertaken in each participant. Water samples from current and previous drinking water sources and hair and urine samples from each participant were collected for estimation of arsenic. The present study shows evidence of increased association of HTN in individuals resident in arsenic endemic region compared to those from a non-endemic region in West Bengal. There were increased odds ratios for HTN [Adjusted Odds Ratio, OR, 2.87 (95 %CI = 1.26-4.83)] in Group- 1 participants compared to Group- 2 people. Within Group 1, there was no difference in prevalence of HTN between those with and without skin lesion. There was a dose-effect relationship seen with increasing cumulative arsenic exposure and arsenic level in hair and HTN in participants living in arsenic endemic region.The findings reported here support an association between arsenic exposure and HTN. More work is needed to characterize the link further.
BibTeX:
@article{GuhaMazumderD2012,
  author = {Guha Mazumder D, Purkayastha I, Ghose A, Mistry G, Saha C, Nandy AK, Das A, Majumdar KK.},
  title = {Hypertension in chronic arsenic exposure: A case control study in West Bengal.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {47(11)},
  pages = {1514-20},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2012.680329}
}
Gupta A, Sankararamakrishnan N Column studies on the evaluation of novel spacer granules for the removal of arsenite and arsenate from contaminated water. 2010 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 101(7), pp. 2173-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Decontamination of arsenic ions from aqueous media has been investigated using iron chitosan spacer granules (ICS) as an adsorbent. Drying of beads saturated with a spacer sucrose was considered as simple treatment, to prevent the restriction of polymer network and enhance sorption capacity. The novel sorbent was studied in up flow column experiments conducted at different flow rates, pH and bed depth to quantify the treatment performance. It was found that silicate was more inhibitory than phosphate, and the silicate in groundwater controlled the arsenic removal efficiency. The column regeneration studies were carried out for two sorption-desorption cycles using 0.1N NaOH as the eluant. TCLP leaching tests were conducted on thearsenic loaded adsorbent which revealed the containment of arsenic-laden sludge can be managed without adverse environmental impact. The developed procedure was successfully applied for the removal of both As(III) and As(V) from arsenic contaminated drinking water samples.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaA2010,
  author = {Gupta A, Sankararamakrishnan N},
  title = {Column studies on the evaluation of novel spacer granules for the removal of arsenite and arsenate from contaminated water.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {101(7)},
  pages = {2173-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.11.027}
}
Gupta K, Bhattacharya S, Nandi D, Dhar A, Maity A, Mukhopadhyay A, Chattopadhyay DJ, Ray NR, Sen P, Ghosh UC Arsenic(III) sorption on nanostructured cerium incorporated manganese oxide (NCMO): a physical insight into the mechanistic pathway. 2012 J Colloid Interface Sci.
Vol. 377(1), pp. 269-76. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic(III) sorption was investigated with nanostructured cerium incorporated manganese oxide (NCMO). The pH between 6.0 and 8.0 was optimized for the arsenic(III) sorption. Kinetics and equilibrium data (pH=7.0±0.2, T=303±1.6 K, and I=0.01 M) of arsenic(III) sorption by NCMO described, respectively, the pseudo-second order and the Freundlich isotherm equations well. The sorption process was somewhat complicated in nature and divided into two different segments, initially very fast sorption followed by slow intraparticle diffusion process. Sorption reaction of arsenic(III) on NCMO was endothermic (?H°=+13.46 kJ mol(-1)) and spontaneous (?G°=-24.75 to -30.15 kJ mol(-1) at T=283-323 K), which took place with increasing entropy (?S°=+0.14 kJ mol(-1)K(-1)) at solid-liquid interface. Energy of arsenic(III) sorption estimated by analyzing the equilibrium data using the D-R isotherm model was 15.4 kJ mol(-1), indicating the ion-exchange type mechanism. Raman, FT-IR, pH effect, desorption, etc. studies indicated that arsenic(III) was oxidized to arsenic(V) during the sorption process.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaK2012,
  author = {Gupta K, Bhattacharya S, Nandi D, Dhar A, Maity A, Mukhopadhyay A, Chattopadhyay DJ, Ray NR, Sen P, Ghosh UC},
  title = {Arsenic(III) sorption on nanostructured cerium incorporated manganese oxide (NCMO): a physical insight into the mechanistic pathway.},
  journal = {J Colloid Interface Sci.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {377(1)},
  pages = {269-76.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2012.01.066}
}
Gupta K, Maity A, Ghosh UC Manganese associated nanoparticles agglomerate of iron(III) oxide: synthesis, characterization and arsenic(III) sorption behavior with mechanism. 2010 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 184(1-3), pp. 832-42 
article DOI  
Abstract: Three samples of manganese associated hydrous iron(III) oxide (MNHFO), prepared by incinerating metal hydroxide precipitate at T (± 5)=90, 300 and 600°C, showed increase of crystalline nature in XRD patterns with decreasing As(III) removal percentages. TEM images showed the increase of crystallinity from sample-1 (MNHFO-1) to sample-3 (MNHFO-3). Dimensions (nm) of particles estimated were 5.0, 7.0 and 97.5. Optimization of pH indicated that MNHFO-1 could remove aqueous As(III) efficiently at pH between 3.0 and 7.0. Kinetic and equilibrium data of reactions under the experimental conditions described the pseudo-second order and the Langmuir isotherm equations very well, respectively. The Langmuir capacity (q(m)) estimated was 691.04 mmol kg(-1). The values of enthalpy, Gibb's free energy and entropy changes (?H(0)=+23.23 kJ mol(-1), ?G(0)=-3.43 to -7.20 kJ mol(-1) at T=283-323K, ?S(0)=+0.094 kJ mol(-1)K(-1)) suggested that the reaction was endothermic, spontaneous and took place with increasing entropy. The As(III) sorbed by MNHFO-1 underwent surface oxidation to As(V), and evidences appeared from the XPS and FTIR investigations. MNHFO-1 packed column (internal diameter: 1.0 cm, height: 3.7 cm) filtered 11.5 dm(3) groundwater (105 ?g As dm(-3)) with reducing arsenic concentration to ? 10 ?g dm(-3).
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaK2010,
  author = {Gupta K, Maity A, Ghosh UC.},
  title = {Manganese associated nanoparticles agglomerate of iron(III) oxide: synthesis, characterization and arsenic(III) sorption behavior with mechanism.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {184(1-3)},
  pages = {832-42},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.08.117}
}
Gupta M, Ahmad MA Arsenate induced differential response in rice genotypes. 2014 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 107, pp. 46-54. 
article DOI  
Abstract: To study the differential response in two rice genotypes (PB1 and IR-64), hydroponically grown 14 days old plants were exposed to 50, 150 and 300µM As(V) for 24 and 96h. Accumulation of As was not significantly higher in PB1 variety except at higher concentration (300?M) and duration (96h), but up regulation of gene transcripts were higher as compared to IR-64. Inhibition in seed germination, root-shoot length, chlorophyll and protein content was observed in both varieties with increasing concentration and exposure time. PB1 variety was found more capable to detoxify As(V) through induction of antioxidant defense system and other stress related parameters (cysteine, proline content). SDS-PAGE and semi quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed significant changes in protein profile and gene expression analysis. The results suggests that various studied parameters and transcripts accumulation showed a combinatorial type of tolerance mechanism in PB1 variety to provide better protection against As(V) stress.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaM2014,
  author = {Gupta M, Ahmad MA.},
  title = {Arsenate induced differential response in rice genotypes.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {107},
  pages = {46-54.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.04.030}
}
Gupta RK, Bhanarkar AD, Tamhane SM, Dhopte SM Assessment of in-plant particulate matter and its toxic metals contents of sponge iron industry in Goa, India. 2010 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 85(6), pp. 614-8. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study attempted to assess toxic metal contents (Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Cobalt, Chromium, Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Lead and Zinc) in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and Particulate Matter less than ten micron (PM??) in three sponge iron industries in Goa (India), one of the famous tourist place on the World map. TSP and PM(10) average concentration in all three sponge iron industries were found to be in the range 401-485 ?g/m³ and 135-270 ?g/m³ respectively. Amongst all the metals, concentration of iron was the highest in TSP as well as in PM??. Statistical results indicate that proportion of specific metals were found higher in PM?? as compared to the ratio of PM??/TSP ratio. Value of correlation coefficient was found to be significant for Cr-Pb indicating coal burning was the major source contributor.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaRK2010,
  author = {Gupta RK, Bhanarkar AD, Tamhane SM, Dhopte SM.},
  title = {Assessment of in-plant particulate matter and its toxic metals contents of sponge iron industry in Goa, India.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {85(6)},
  pages = {614-8.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0153-3}
}
Hunt KM, Srivastava RK, Elmets CA, Athar M The mechanistic basis of arsenicosis: Pathogenesis of skin cancer. 2014 Cancer Lett  article DOI  
Abstract: Significant amounts of arsenic have been found in the groundwater of many countries including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, and the United States with an estimated 200 million people at risk of toxic exposure. Although chronic arsenic poisoning damages many organ systems, it usually first presents in the skin with manifestations including hyperpigmentation, hyperkeratoses, Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Arsenic promotes oxidative stress by upregulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, uncoupling nitric oxide synthase, and by depleting natural antioxidants such as nitric oxide and glutathione in addition to targeting other proteins responsible for the maintenance of redox homeostasis. It causes immune dysfunction and tissue inflammatory responses, which may involve activation of the unfolded protein response signaling pathway. In addition, the dysregulation of other molecular targets such as nuclear factor kappa B, Hippo signaling protein Yap, and the mineral dust-induced proto-oncogene may orchestrate the pathogenesis of arsenic-mediated health effects. The metalloid decreases expression of tumor suppressor molecules and increases expression of pro-inflammatory mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways leading to a tumor-promoting tissue microenvironment. Cooperation of upregulated signal transduction molecules with DNA damage may abrogate apoptosis, promote proliferation, and enhance cell survival. Genomic instability via direct DNA damage and weakening of several cellular DNA repair mechanisms could also be important cancer development mechanisms in arsenic-exposed populations. Thus, arsenicmediates its toxicity by generating oxidative stress, causing immune dysfunction, promoting genotoxicity, hampering DNA repair, and disrupting signal transduction, which may explain the complex disease manifestations seen in arsenicosis.
BibTeX:
@article{HuntKM2014,
  author = {Hunt KM, Srivastava RK, Elmets CA, Athar M},
  title = {The mechanistic basis of arsenicosis: Pathogenesis of skin cancer.},
  journal = {Cancer Lett},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2014.08.016}
}
Ingawale DK, Mandlik SK, Naik SR Models of hepatotoxicity and the underlying cellular, biochemical and immunological mechanism(s): a critical discussion. 2014 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 37(1), pp. 118-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: Liver is a primary organ involved in biotransformation of food and drugs. Hepatic diseases are a major worldwide problem. Hepatic disorders are mainly caused by toxic chemicals (alcohol), xenobiotics (carbon tetrachloride, chlorinated hydrocarbons and gases CO? and O?) anticancer (azathioprine, doxorubicin, cisplatin), immunosuppressant (cyclosporine), analgesic anti-inflammatory (paracetamol, thioacetamide), anti-tubercular (isoniazid, rifampicin) drugs, biologicals (Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin vaccine), radiations (gamma radiations), heavy metals (cadmium, arsenic), mycotoxin (aflatoxin), galactosamine, lipopolysaccharides, etc. Various risk factors for hepatic injury include concomitant hepatic diseases, age, gender, alcoholism, nutrition and genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes have also been emphasized. The present review enumerates various in vivo animal models and in vitro methods of hepatic injury using diverse toxicants, their probable metabolic pathways, and numerous biochemical changes viz. serum biomarkers enzymes, liver function, oxidative stress associated events like free radicals formation, lipid peroxidation, enzyme antioxidants and participation of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-?, transforming growth factor-?, tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand), and other biomolecules (Fas and C-jun N-terminal kinase) are also discussed. The underlying cellular, molecular, immunological, and biochemical mechanism(s) of action responsible for liver damage (toxicity) are also been discussed. This review should be immensely useful for researchers especially for phytochemists, pharmacologists and toxicologists working on hepatotoxicity, hepatotoxic chemicals and drugs, hepatoprotective agents and drug research organizations involved especially in phytopharmaceuticals and other natural products.
BibTeX:
@article{IngawaleDK2014,
  author = {Ingawale DK, Mandlik SK, Naik SR.},
  title = {Models of hepatotoxicity and the underlying cellular, biochemical and immunological mechanism(s): a critical discussion.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {37(1)},
  pages = {118-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2013.08.015}
}
Jain A, Flora GJ, Bhargava R, Flora SJ Influence of age on arsenic-induced oxidative stress in rat. 2012 Biol Trace Elem Res
Vol. 149(3), pp. 382-90 
article DOI  
Abstract: Influence of age on arsenic-induced (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 lethal dose to 50 % population (LD(50)) given intraperitoneally) oxidative stress was investigated in young, adult, and old rats at days 7 and 14 post-exposure. A significant dose-dependent effect of arsenic on biochemical variables suggestive of oxidative stress was noted at day 7 following exposure in old rats. The parameters which were significantly altered include an increased reactive oxygen species, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase activity accompanied by a decreased glutathione level. At day 14 following arsenic exposure (0.05 and 0.1 LD(50) dose), we observed a significant oxidative injury as evident from significant depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in blood and tissues in addition to more pronounced accumulation of arsenic in blood and tissues. Interestingly, the toxicity was pronounced in young and old rats compared with adult rats. Accumulation of arsenic found to be more prominent in old rats compared with young and adult, which might be due to impaired metabolism with ageing. We conclude that young and old animals are more vulnerable to thearsenic-induced oxidative injury which is comparable with arsenic accumulation in blood and tissues and duration of exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{JainA2012,
  author = {Jain A, Flora GJ, Bhargava R, Flora SJ.},
  title = {Influence of age on arsenic-induced oxidative stress in rat.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {149(3)},
  pages = {382-90},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-012-9432-7}
}
Jain CK, Singh RD Technological options for the removal of arsenic with special reference to South East Asia. 2012 J Environ Manage
Vol. 30;107, pp. 1-18 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in ground water, used for drinking purpose, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. However, arsenic contamination of ground water in parts of South East Asia is assuming greater proportions and posing a serious threat to the health of millions of people. A variety of treatment technologies based on oxidation, co-precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane process are available for the removal of arsenic from ground water. However, question remains regarding the efficiency and applicability/appropriateness of the technologies, particularly because of low influent arsenic concentration and differences in source water composition. Some of these methods are quite simple, but the disadvantage associated with them is that they produce large amounts of toxic sludge, which needs further treatment before disposal into the environment. Besides, the system must be economically viable and socially acceptable. In this paper an attempt has been made to review and update the recent advances made in the technological development in arsenic removal technologies to explore the potential of those advances to address the problem of arsenic contamination in South East Asia.
BibTeX:
@article{JainCK2012,
  author = {Jain CK, Singh RD.},
  title = {Technological options for the removal of arsenic with special reference to South East Asia.},
  journal = {J Environ Manage},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {30;107},
  pages = {1-18},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.04.016}
}
Jain S, Saluja B, Gupta A, Marla SS, Goel R Validation of arsenic resistance in Bacillus cereus strain AG27 by comparative protein modeling of arsC gene product. 2011 Protein J.
Vol. 30(2), pp. 91-101 
article DOI  
Abstract: The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance to a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance and transforms arsenate into arsenite, which is extruded from the cell. Therefore, arsC gene from Bacillus cereus strain AG27 isolated from soil was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The strain exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration of 40 and 35 mM to sodium arsenate and sodium arsenite, respectively. Homology of the sequence, when compared with available database using BLASTn search showed that 300 bp amplicons obtained possess partial arsC gene sequence which codes for arsenate reductase, an enzyme involved in the reduction of arsenate to arsenite which is then effluxed out of the cell, thereby indicating the presence of efflux mechanism of resistance in strain. The efflux mechanism was further confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies. Moreover, three dimensional structure of modeled arsC from Bacillus cereus strain shares significant structural similarity with arsenate reductase protein of B.subtilis, consisting of, highly similar overall fold with single ?/? domain containing a central four stranded, parallel, open-twisted ?-sheet flanked by ?-helices on both sides. The structure harbors the arsenic binding motif AB loop or P-loop that is highly conserved in arsenate reductase family.
BibTeX:
@article{JainS2011,
  author = {Jain S, Saluja B, Gupta A, Marla SS, Goel R.},
  title = {Validation of arsenic resistance in Bacillus cereus strain AG27 by comparative protein modeling of arsC gene product.},
  journal = {Protein J.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {30(2)},
  pages = {91-101},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-011-9305-5}
}
Joshi DN, Patel JS, Flora SJ, Kalia K Arsenic accumulation by Pseudomonas stutzeri and its response to some thiol chelators. 2008 Environ Health Prev Med.
Vol. 13(5), pp. 257-63 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study is to examine arsenic accumulation by Pseudomonas stutzeri and its response to some thiol chelators, DMPS and MiADMSA.
METHODS:
Determination of arsenic accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, a TEM and an EDAX. Arsenate reductase enzyme assay was carried out from a cell-free extract of Pseudomonas sp. The effect of chelating agents on arsenite accumulation was analyzed. Total cellular proteins were analyzed using 1-D SDS-PAGE.
RESULTS:
Pseudomonas sp. exhibited a maximum accumulation of 4 mg As g(-1) (dry weight). TEM and EDAX analysis showed the presence of As-containing electron-dense particles inside the cells. Data on arsenate reductase enzyme kinetics yielded a K (m) of 0.40 mM for arsenate and a V (max) of 5,952 mumol arsenate reduced per minute per milligram of protein. The chelating agents MiADMSA and DMPS were found to reduce the arsenic accumulation by 60 and 35%, respectively, whereas the presence of both chelating agents in medium containing cells pretreated with arsenite reduced it by up to 90%. The total protein profile of the cellular extract, obtained by 1-D SDS-PAGE, indicated five upregulated proteins, and three of these proteins exhibited differential expression when the cells were grown with MiADMSA and DMPS.
CONCLUSION:
This study shows a new approach towards arsenic detoxification. A combination treatment with MiADMSA and DMPS may be useful for removing intracellular arsenic. The proteins that were found to be induced in this study may play an important role in the extrusion of arsenic from the cells, and this requires further characterization.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiDN2008,
  author = {Joshi DN, Patel JS, Flora SJ, Kalia K.},
  title = {Arsenic accumulation by Pseudomonas stutzeri and its response to some thiol chelators.},
  journal = {Environ Health Prev Med.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {13(5)},
  pages = {257-63},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12199-008-0038-9}
}
Joshi SK, Shrestha S Diabetes mellitus: a review of its associations with different environmental factors. 2010 Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ).
Vol. 8(29), pp. 109-15. 
article  
Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus is a global health problem with a worldwide prevalence of 2.8% in 2000. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an auto immune disorder genetically mediated, while type 2 is more of a life style induced disorder although the role of genetic susceptibility, infections are also equally strong. Many studies have backed up these statements. However, there have been very few researches that show association of diabetes with environmental factors like pollution, exposure to chemicals e.g. mercury, arsenic, psychological condition e.g. depression, stress, and socio-economic conditions e.g. occupation, earnings etc. Recently, the role of these factors in causation and progression of diabetes have received much attention. Thus, this review has been designed to explore more on association of diabetes with physical, socio-economic and psychological environment.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiSK2010,
  author = {Joshi SK, Shrestha S},
  title = {Diabetes mellitus: a review of its associations with different environmental factors.},
  journal = {Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ).},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {8(29)},
  pages = {109-15.}
}
Kaushal P, Dhar P, Shivaprasad SM, Mehra RD Postnatal Exposure to Sodium Arsenite (NaAsO(2)) Induces Long Lasting Effects in Rat Testes. 2012 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 19(2), pp. 215-22. 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of early postnatal exposure to sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2)) on rat testis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Wistar rat pups were administered aqueous solution of NaAsO(2,) 1.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) (experimental) and distilled water (control), respectively, by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 14. Testes were collected after 1, 7 and 36 days (at PND 15, 21 and 50) after the treatment period (PND1-14) from the animals and immersion fixed in Bouin's fluid followed by paraffin embedding. Seven micrometer thick serial sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for light microscopic observations. At PND 50, morphological features of sperms and their counting was carried out besides processing the perfusion-fixed testes for electron microscopy (EM).
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:
The observations revealed an altered morphology of the seminiferous tubules (ST) along with degeneration and dissociation of spermatogenic cells in the experimental animals at PND 15, 21 and 50. Also, increased number of sperms with abnormal morphology and decreased sperm count was noted in the experimental animals. These features together with electron microscopic observations of abnormal mitochondria and apoptotic nuclei of spermatogonia and spermatocytes could be indicative of long-lasting adverse effects on the rat testis induced by exposure to As during early postnatal period.
BibTeX:
@article{KaushalP2012,
  author = {Kaushal P, Dhar P, Shivaprasad SM, Mehra RD.},
  title = {Postnatal Exposure to Sodium Arsenite (NaAsO(2)) Induces Long Lasting Effects in Rat Testes.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {19(2)},
  pages = {215-22.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.97225}
}
Kaushik P, Rawat N, Mathur M, Raghuvanshi P, Bhatnagar P, Swarnkar H, Flora S Arsenic Hyper-tolerance in Four Microbacterium Species Isolated from Soil Contaminated with Textile Effluent. 2012 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 19(2):, pp. 188-94 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic-contaminated areas of Sanganer, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India were surveyed for the presence of metal resistant bacteria contaminated with textile effluent. Samples were collected from soil receiving regular effluent from the textile industries located at Sanganer area. The properties like pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, organic matter, exchangeable calcium, water holding capacity and metals like arsenic, iron, magnesium, lead and zinc were estimated in the contaminated soil. In total, nine bacterial strains were isolated which exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of arsenic ranging between 23.09 and 69.2mM. Four out of nine arsenic contaminated soil samples exhibited the presence of arsenite hyper-tolerant bacteria. Four high arsenite tolerant bacteria were characterized by 16S rDNA gene sequencing which revealed their similarity to Microbacterium paraoxydans strain 3109, Microbacterium paraoxydans strain CF36, Microbacterium sp. CQ0110Y, Microbacterium sp. GE1017. The above results were confirmed as per Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. All the four Microbacterium strains were found to be resistant to 100?g/ml concentration of cobalt, nickel, zinc, chromium selenium and stannous and also exhibited variable sensitivity to mercury, cadmium, lead and antimony. These results indicate that the arsenic polluted soil harbors arsenite hyper-tolerant bacteria like Microbacterium which might play a role in bioremediation of the soil.
BibTeX:
@article{KaushikP2012,
  author = {Kaushik P, Rawat N, Mathur M, Raghuvanshi P, Bhatnagar P, Swarnkar H, Flora S.},
  title = {Arsenic Hyper-tolerance in Four Microbacterium Species Isolated from Soil Contaminated with Textile Effluent.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {19(2):},
  pages = {188-94},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.97221}
}
Kesari VP, Kumar A, Khan PK Induction of sperm impairments in mice as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic toxicity. 2014 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 186(5):, pp. 3115-21. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The ubiquitous presence of arsenic (a toxic metalloid) in our environment, particularly in our drinking water, is a serious health hazard of global concern. The present work deals with the assessment of arsenic toxicity through the analysis of induced sperm impairments in sperm head morphology and sperm count in mice at low exposures compared to the magnitude of response at high exposure levels. The animals were exposed to four doses of arsenic, ranging from lowest dose of 0.3 ?g kg(-1) day(-1) (the human reference dose) to higher dose of 30 ?g kg(-1) day(-1) for 15 consecutive days. The epididymal sperms were harvested after one spermatogenic cycle on the 36th day and were scored for the presence of any abnormality in their head morphology as well as changes in their count. Exposure to arsenic significantly induced, in a dose-dependent manner, increases in the frequency of sperms with abnormal head morphology from 5.12 % in control to 9.23 % in lowest dose group and 23.02 % in highest dose group. In contrast, the mean sperm counts in the epididymal wash were decreased from 6.05 million per milliliter in the control to 4.95 million per milliliter in the lowest dose group and 3.07 million in the highest dose group. The analysis of sperm impairments in mice was, therefore, found to be a highly sensitive assay to assess arsenic toxicity, exhibiting a marked male reprotoxic effect ofarsenic even at its low exposure levels including the human reference dose.
BibTeX:
@article{KesariVP2014,
  author = {Kesari VP, Kumar A, Khan PK.},
  title = {Induction of sperm impairments in mice as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic toxicity.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {186(5):},
  pages = {3115-21.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3604-6}
}
Kesavan M, Sarath TS, Kannan K, Suresh S, Gupta P, Vijayakaran K, Sankar P, Kurade NP, Mishra SK,Sarkar SN Atorvastatin restores arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction in rats: Modulation of nitric oxide signaling and inflammatory mediators 2014 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
Vol. 280(1), pp. 107-116 
article DOI  
Abstract: We evaluated whether atorvastatin, an extensively prescribed statin for reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases, can reduce the risk of arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation in rats and whether the modulation could be linked to improvement in vascular NO signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for measuring serum C-reactive protein. Thoracic aorta was isolated for assessing reactivity to phenylephrine, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine; evaluating eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression and measuring NO production, while abdominal aorta was used for ELISA of cytokines, chemokine and vascular cell adhesion molecules. Histopathology was done in aortic arches. Arsenic did not alter phenylephrine-elicited contraction. Atorvastatin inhibited Emax of phenylephrine, but it augmented the contractile response in aortic rings from arsenic-exposed animals. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was not altered with any treatment. However, arsenicreduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and affected aortic eNOS at the levels of mRNA expression, protein concentration, phosphorylation and NO production. Further, it increased aortic iNOS mRNA expression, iNOS-derived NO synthesis, production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, VCAM, sICAM) and serum C-reactive protein and aortic vasculopathic lesions. Atorvastatin attenuated these arsenic-mediated functional, biochemical and structural alterations. Results show that atorvastatin has the potential to amelioratearsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation by restoring endothelial function with improvement in NO signaling and attenuating production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cell adhesion molecules.
BibTeX:
@article{KesavanM2014,
  author = {Kesavan M, Sarath TS, Kannan K, Suresh S, Gupta P, Vijayakaran K, Sankar P, Kurade NP, Mishra SK,Sarkar SN},
  title = {Atorvastatin restores arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction in rats: Modulation of nitric oxide signaling and inflammatory mediators},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {280(1)},
  pages = {107-116},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2014.07.008}
}
Khan PK, Kesari VP, Kumar A Mouse micronucleus assay as a surrogate to assess genotoxic potential of arsenicat its human reference dose. 2013 Chemosphere.
Vol. 90(3), pp. 993-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Exposure to high contents of arsenic (a genotoxic carcinogen) in humans through drinking water is one of the most serious concerns in many parts of the world including India. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended a permissible limit of daily exposure in humans to arsenic as its reference dose (0.3 ?g kg(-1) d(-1)) with almost no likelihood of any adverse effect. The present work was a quantitative assessment of the genotoxic potential of arsenic at the exposure level of its human reference dose through micronucleus (MN) assay in mice. The animals were exposed to various doses of arsenic through oral gavaging for 15 consecutive days. Significant increases in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes were observed in mice upon exposure to arsenic which occurred even at its human reference dose and in a dose-dependent manner. The study of the genotoxic potential of arsenic in humans at lower exposure levels (including its human reference dose) is, therefore, highly desirable for risk assessment and hazard identification.
BibTeX:
@article{KhanPK2013,
  author = {Khan PK, Kesari VP, Kumar A},
  title = {Mouse micronucleus assay as a surrogate to assess genotoxic potential of arsenicat its human reference dose.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {90(3)},
  pages = {993-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.07.021}
}
Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Banerjee A, Biswas SJ, Karmakar SR, Banerjee P, Pathak S, Guha B, Haque S, Das D, De A, Das D, Boujedaini N An initial report on the efficacy of a millesimal potency Arsenicum Album LM 0/3 in ameliorating arsenic toxicity in humans living in a high-risk arsenic village. 2011 Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao.
Vol. 9(6), pp. 596-604 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Millions of people are at risk of groundwater arsenic contamination, and there is no known remedy that can effectively remove the symptoms of prolonged arsenic poisoning. A potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album LM 0/3 (Ars Alb LM 0/3), is claimed in homeopathic literature to have the ability to treat symptoms similar to that of arsenic poisoning.
OBJECTIVE:
This study examines whether Ars Alb LM 0/3 could provide some degree of amelioration for the victims living in an arsenic-affected village where no arsenic-free drinking water is available.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS:
This study was carried out on volunteers living in an arsenic-affected village where no arsenic-free drinking water is available. Twenty-eight volunteers from the village of Dasdiya, in Haringhata block under Nadia District, West Bengal, India, an arsenic-contaminated village where wells contain 55 to 95 ?g/L arsenic, were selected to undertake a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. The subjects provided samples of blood and urine before and after 2 months of taking either "verum" or "placebo". Another 18 subjects living in an arsenic-free village, served as the negative controls.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Samples of blood and urine from the subjects were assayed for arseniccontent, according to various toxicity biomarkers and pathophysiological parameters.
RESULTS:
Out of the original 28 subjects, only 14 subjects provided samples while the other 14 dropped out. There were elevated levels of arsenic in the blood and urine, alkaline and acid phosphatases, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione activities and increased blood glucose, triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contents, whereas there were decreased levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, gamma glutamyl transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase contents, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and packed cell volume in the subjects. After 2 months of homeopathic remedy administration, the verum-fed subjects showed positive modulations within these parameters with slight lowering of matrix metalloproteinase activity as compared with the placebo group.
CONCLUSION:
Ars Alb LM 0/3 shows potential for use in high-risk arsenic villages as an interim treatment for amelioration of arsenic toxicity until more extensive medical treatment and facilities can be provided to the numerous victims of arsenic poisoning.
BibTeX:
@article{Khuda-BukhshAR2011,
  author = {Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Banerjee A, Biswas SJ, Karmakar SR, Banerjee P, Pathak S, Guha B, Haque S, Das D, De A, Das D, Boujedaini N.},
  title = {An initial report on the efficacy of a millesimal potency Arsenicum Album LM 0/3 in ameliorating arsenic toxicity in humans living in a high-risk arsenic village.},
  journal = {Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {9(6)},
  pages = {596-604}
}
Khuntia S, Majumder SK1, Ghosh P Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) using ozone microbubbles. 2014 Chemosphere
Vol. 97, pp. 120-4. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The use of ozone in the treatment of water and wastewater is rapidly increasing due to its high oxidizing power.Arsenic is one the most toxic elements found in water. As(III) and As(V) are the major sources of arsenicpoisoning. It is known that As(V) can be more easily removed from water by adsorptive methods than As(III). In this work, oxidation of more toxic As(III) to less toxic As(V) was studied in a pilot-plant by using ozone microbubbles. The microbubbles were effective in dissolving ozone in water. The oxidation was fast over a wide range of pH (e.g., 4-9). The role of hydroxyl radical in the oxidation of As(III) under acidic conditions was investigated by using 2-propanol as the hydroxyl radical scavenger. Under acidic conditions, the addition of 2-propanol slowed down the oxidation, which proves that hydroxyl radicals were involved in the oxidation process. The effect of carbonate ions on the rate of oxidation was investigated. It was found that the generation of carbonate ion radical from the carbonate ion accelerated the oxidation of As(III). The kinetics of oxidation of As(III) by ozone was studied
BibTeX:
@article{KhuntiaS2014,
  author = {Khuntia S, Majumder SK1, Ghosh P},
  title = {Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) using ozone microbubbles.},
  journal = {Chemosphere},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {97},
  pages = {120-4.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.046}
}
Krishna AK, Mohan KR Risk assessment of heavy metals and their source distribution in waters of a contaminated industrial site. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(5), pp. 3653-69. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Industrially contaminated sites with hazardous materials are a priority and urgent problem all over the world. Appropriate risk assessment is required to determine health risks associated with contaminated sites. The present study was conducted to investigate distribution of potentially hazardous, heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations in surface and groundwater samples collected during summer (pre-monsoon) and winter (post-monsoon) seasons from an industrially contaminated site, Hyderabad, India, with potential source of metal contamination because of industrial effluents and usage of pesticides in agriculture. Heavy metal (HM) concentrations were analysed by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and were compared with permissible limits set by the World Health Organisation. Data obtained was treated using multivariate statistical approaches like R-mode factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis, cluster analysis, geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor, contamination factor and the degree of contamination. Health risk assessment like chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were also calculated. Relatively high levels were noted in surface water with average concentrations during summer and winter seasons showing 16.13 and 11.83 for As, 7.91 and 1.64 for Cd, 88.33 and 32.90 for Cr, 58.11 and 28.26 for Cu, 53.62 and 69.96 for Ni, 173.8 and 118.6 for Pb, and 2,943 and 1,889 ?g/L for Zn. While in groundwater, the mean metal levels during two seasons were 18.18 and 3.76 for As, 1.67 and 0.40 for Cd, 29.40 and 5.15 for Cr, 17.03 and 4.19 for Cu, 25.4 and 6.09 for Ni, 81.7 and 2.87 for Pb and 953 and 989 ?g/L for Zn, respectively. FA identified two factors with cumulative loadings of F1-60.82 % and F2-76.55 % for pre-monsoon surface water and F1-48.75 % and F2-67.55 % for groundwater. Whereas, three factors with cumulative loadings of F1-39.13 %, F2-66.60 % and F3-81.01 % for post-monsoon surface water and F1-50.31 %, F2-66.18 % and F3-81.54 % for groundwater. The health risk assessment like CDI and HQ indices with increased levels of hazardous elements in the surface and groundwater were safe for drinking purposes provided some water treatment methodologies are adopted.
BibTeX:
@article{KrishnaAK2014,
  author = {Krishna AK, Mohan KR.},
  title = {Risk assessment of heavy metals and their source distribution in waters of a contaminated industrial site.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(5)},
  pages = {3653-69.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2359-5}
}
Kumar A, Kesari VP, Alok AK, Kazim SN, Khan PK Assessment of Arsenic-Induced DNA Damage in Goldfish by a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Technique Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers 2014 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.  article  
Abstract: Arsenic is a groundwater contaminant of global concern. It is a potent human carcinogen, and its marked genotoxic effects have been reported in several human and animal studies. The present work investigates the applicability of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to study the DNA-damaging effects ofarsenic at low-level exposure in goldfish Carassius auratus. Four experimental groups of fish, A, B, C and D, were exposed to 0, 10, 50, and 1,000 µg L-1 of arsenic, respectively, in aquaria water for 15 consecutive days. Genomic DNA extraction was followed by RAPD-polymerase chain reaction amplification for each fish separately. One arbitrary decamer primer (PUZ-19) of 33 primers used appeared as the most informative and was capable of exhibiting marked alterations in RAPD profiles between arsenic-exposed and unexposed (control) samples. Different sets of 11 loci were amplified in various experimental groups with four clear polymorphic bands by the primer PUZ-19. The X and XIII amplification loci, which were prominent in the unexposed group, failed to appear in the arsenic-exposed groups. In contrast, the I and XI RAPD bands appeared as new amplification loci in all of the exposed groups. Such alterations in genomic DNA, however, did not exhibit a clear dose-dependent tendency. The RAPD assay, because of its efficacy to unmask alterations in genomic DNA induced by arsenic at low exposure level of 10 µg L-1, appears to be a sensitive and potential tool for detecting arsenic genotoxicity
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2014,
  author = {Kumar A, Kesari VP, Alok AK, Kazim SN, Khan PK.},
  title = {Assessment of Arsenic-Induced DNA Damage in Goldfish by a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Technique Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2014}
}
Kumar A, Malhotra A, Nair P, Garg M, Dhawan DK Protective role of zinc in ameliorating arsenic-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in rat liver. 2010 J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol.
Vol. 29(2), pp. 91-100 
article  
Abstract: The aim of present work was to gain insight into the role of dietary zinc in ameliorating the adverse effects caused by arsenic on rat liver. Male Wistar rats received arsenic alone in the form of sodium arsenite in drinking water at a dose level of 100 ppm, zinc alone in the form of zinc sulfate in drinking water at a dose level of 227 mg/L, or arsenic + zinc treatments in the combined group for a total duration of 3 months. Arsenic treatment resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidase (LPO); however, glutathione (GSH) levels and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) were found to be significantly decreased following arsenic treatment. Furthermore, arsenic treatment resulted in a significant decrease in hepatic zinc levels. Histological studies showed well-differentiated signs of focal hepatitis, lobular inflammation, prominent hepatocyte degeneration, and severe periportal necrosis. Administration of zinc to arsenic-treated rats significantly decreased the level of LPO but increased the level of GSH compared with arsenic-treated rats. Further, the zinc level and activities of SOD, GPx, GR, and CAT were found to be significantly increased following zinc treatment. The administration of zinc to arsenic-treated rats caused signs of improvement in liver histoarchitecture, but a few focal areas of degeneration and necrosis were still occasionally seen. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that zinc can be beneficial againstarsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2010,
  author = {Kumar A, Malhotra A, Nair P, Garg M, Dhawan DK},
  title = {Protective role of zinc in ameliorating arsenic-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in rat liver.},
  journal = {J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29(2)},
  pages = {91-100}
}
Kumar A, Singh RP, Singh PK, Awasthi S, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK, Tripathi RD Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.). 2014 Ecotoxicology
Vol. 23(7), pp. 1153-63 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) contamination of rice is a major problem for South-East Asia. In the present study, the effect of selenium (Se) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to As was studied in hydroponic culture. Arsenicaccumulation, plant growth, thiolic ligands and antioxidative enzyme activities were assayed after single (As and Se) and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). The results indicated that the presence of Se (25 µM) decreased As accumulation by threefold in roots and twofold in shoots as compared to single As (25 µM) exposed plants. Arsenic induced oxidative stress in roots and shoots was significantly ameliorated by Se supplementation. The observed positive response was found associated with the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) and induced levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) in As + Se exposed plants as compared to single As treatment. Selenium supplementation modulated the thiol metabolism enzymes viz., ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15). Gene expression analysis of several metalloid responsive genes (LOX, SOD and MATE) showed upregulation during As stress, however, significant downregulation during As + Se exposure as compared to single As treatment. Gene expressions of enzymes of antioxidant and GSH and PC biosynthetic systems, such as APX, CAT, GPx, ?-ECS and PCS were found to be significantly positively correlated with their enzyme activities. The findings suggested that Se supplementation could be an effective strategy to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice plants.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2014a,
  author = {Kumar A, Singh RP, Singh PK, Awasthi S, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK, Tripathi RD.},
  title = {Selenium ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and thiols in rice (Oryza sativa L.).},
  journal = {Ecotoxicology},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {23(7)},
  pages = {1153-63},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-014-1257-z}
}
Kumar P, Kumar M, Ramanathan AL, Tsujimura M Tracing the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain, India: a source identification perspective. 2010 Environ Geochem Health.
Vol. 32(2), pp. 129-46 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in groundwater is of increasing concern because of its high toxicity and widespread occurrence. This study is an effort to trace the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain of India through major ion chemistry, arsenic speciation, sediment grain-size analyses, and multivariate statistical techniques. The study focuses on the distinction between the contributions of natural weathering and anthropogenic inputs of arsenic with its spatial distribution and seasonal variations in the plain of the state Bihar of India. Thirty-six groundwater and one sediment core samples were collected in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Various graphical plots and statistical analysis were carried out using chemical data to enable hydrochemical evaluation of the aquifer system based on the ionic constituents, water types, hydrochemical facies, and factors controlling groundwater quality. Results suggest that the groundwater is characterized by slightly alkaline pH with moderate to strong reducing nature. The general trend of various ions was found to be Ca(2+) > Na(+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) > NH(4) (+); and HCO(3) (-) > Cl(-) > SO(4) (2-) > NO(3) (-) > PO(4) (3-) > F(-) in both seasons. Spatial and temporal variations showed a slightly higher arsenicconcentration in the pre-monsoon period (118 microg/L) than in the post-monsoon period (114 microg/L). Results of correlation analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is strongly associated with high concentrations of Fe, PO(4) (3-), and NH(4) (+) but relatively low Mn concentrations. Further, the enrichment ofarsenic is more prevalent in the proximity of the Ganges River, indicating that fluvial input is the main source ofarsenic. Grain size analyses of sediment core samples revealed clay (fine-grained) strata between 4.5 and 7.5 m deep that govern the vertical distribution of arsenic. The weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals along with surface-groundwater interactions, ion exchange, and anthropogenic activities seem to be the processes governing groundwater contamination, including with arsenic. Although the percentage of wells exceeding the permissible limit (50 microg/L) was less (47%) than that reported in Bangladesh and West Bengal, the percentage contribution of toxic As(III) to total arsenic concentration is quite high (66%). This study is vital considering that groundwater is the exclusive source of drinking water in the region and not only makes situation alarming but also calls for immediate attention.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarP2010,
  author = {Kumar P, Kumar M, Ramanathan AL, Tsujimura M.},
  title = {Tracing the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain, India: a source identification perspective.},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {32(2)},
  pages = {129-46},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-009-9270-5}
}
Kundu M, Ghosh P, Mitra S, Das JK, Sau TJ, Banerjee S, States JC, Giri AK Precancerous and non-cancer disease endpoints of chronic arsenic exposure: the level of chromosomal damage and XRCC3 T241M polymorphism. 2011 Mutat Res.
Vol. 706(1-2), pp. 7-12. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Genetic variants are expected to play an important role in arsenic susceptibility. Our previous study revealed deficient DNA repair capacity to be a susceptibility factor for arsenicism. T241M polymorphism in XRCC3 (a homologous recombination repair pathway gene) is widely studied for its association with several cancers. We have investigated the association of XRCC3 T241M polymorphism with arsenic-induced precancerous and non-cancer disease outcomes. The present study evaluated the association of T241M polymorphism with arsenic-induced skin lesions, peripheral neuropathy (neurodegenerative changes), conjunctivitis and other ocular diseases. A case-control study was conducted in West Bengal, India, involving 206 cases with arsenic-induced skin lesions and 215 controls without arsenic-induced skin lesions having similar arsenic exposure. XRCC3 T241M polymorphism was determined using conventional PCR-sequencing method. Chromosomal aberration assay, arsenic-induced neuropathy and ocular diseases were also evaluated. The data revealed that presence of at least one Met allele (Met/Met or Thr/Met) was protective towards development of arsenic-induced skin lesions [OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.30-0.67], peripheral neuropathy [OR=0.49; 95%CI: 0.30-0.82] and conjunctivitis [OR=0.60; 95%CI: 0.40-0.92]. A significant correlation was also observed between protective genotype and decreased frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Thus the results indicate the protective role of Met allele against the arsenic-induced skin lesions, chromosomal instability, peripheral neuropathy and conjunctivitis.
BibTeX:
@article{KunduM2011,
  author = {Kundu M, Ghosh P, Mitra S, Das JK, Sau TJ, Banerjee S, States JC, Giri AK.},
  title = {Precancerous and non-cancer disease endpoints of chronic arsenic exposure: the level of chromosomal damage and XRCC3 T241M polymorphism.},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {706(1-2)},
  pages = {7-12.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2010.10.004}
}
Lavanya S, Ramesh M, Kavitha C, Malarvizhi A Hematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of Indian major carp Catla catla during chronic sublethal exposure to inorganic arsenic. 2011 Chemosphere.
Vol. 82(7), pp. 977-85 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the present study the acute toxicity of arsenic trioxide in fingerlings of Catla catla an Indian major carp was evaluated with renewal bioassay method. The median lethal concentration of arsenic trioxide to the fish C. catla for 96 h was found to be 20.41 ppm (with 95% confidence limits). From this a non-lethal dose of (2.041 ppm; 1/10th of LC 50 96 value) was selected and fingerlings were exposed to 35 d and hematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses were studied at days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Arsenic trioxide produced a significant increase in hemoglobin, hematocrit, WBC count, plasma GPT levels and reduction in RBC count, plasma sodium, chloride, potassium, glucose, protein, GOT, LDH levels as compared to the control group. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was influenced by arsenic trioxide exposure. A biphasic response was noted in the value of MCH and MCV. However the MCHC level was not altered in arsenic trioxide treated fish throughout the study period. Results of the present investigation suggest that arsenic trioxide affects the hematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory parameters of fish and alterations of these parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of arsenic contamination.
BibTeX:
@article{LavanyaS2011,
  author = {Lavanya S, Ramesh M, Kavitha C, Malarvizhi A.},
  title = {Hematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of Indian major carp Catla catla during chronic sublethal exposure to inorganic arsenic.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {82(7)},
  pages = {977-85},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.071}
}
Maiti A, Sharma H, Basu JK, De S Modeling of arsenic adsorption kinetics of synthetic and contaminated groundwater on natural laterite. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 172(2-3), pp. 928-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: A simple shrinking core model is applied to predict the adsorption kinetics of arsenite and arsenate species onto natural laterite (NL) in a stirred tank adsorber. The proposed model is a two-resistance model, in which two unknown parameters, external mass transfer coefficient (K(f)) and pore diffusion coefficient (D(e)) are estimated by comparing the simulation concentration profile with the experimental data using a nonlinear optimization technique. The model is applied under various operating conditions, e.g., initial arsenicconcentration, NL dose, NL particle size, temperature, stirring speed, etc. Estimated values of D(e) and K(f) are found to be in the range of 2.2-2.6 x 10(-11)m(2)/s and 1.0-1.4 x 10(-6)m/s at 305K for different operating conditions, respectively. D(e) and K(f) values are found to be increasing with temperature and stirrer speed, respectively. Calculated values of Biot numbers indicate that both external mass transfer and pore diffusion are important during the adsorption. The model is also applied satisfactorily to predict the arsenic adsorption kinetics of arsenic contaminated groundwater-NL system and can be used to scale up.
BibTeX:
@article{MaitiA2009,
  author = {Maiti A, Sharma H, Basu JK, De S.},
  title = {Modeling of arsenic adsorption kinetics of synthetic and contaminated groundwater on natural laterite.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {172(2-3)},
  pages = {928-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.140}
}
Majumdar KK, Ghose A, Ghose N, Biswas A, Mazumder DN Effect of Safe Water on Arsenicosis: A Follow-up Study 2014 J Family Med Prim Care.
Vol. 3(2), pp. 124-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Arsenic pollution in groundwater, used for drinking purposes, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Treatment options for the management symptoms of chronic arsenicosis are limited. Mitigation option available for dealing with the health problem of ground water arsenic contamination rests mainly on supply of arsenic safe water in arsenic-endemic region of Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. Limited information is available regarding the long-term effect of chronic arsenic toxicity after stoppage of consumption of arsenic-containing water.
OBJECTIVE:
The current study was, therefore, done to assess, objectively, the effect of drinking arsenic safe water (<50 ?g/L) on disease manifestation of arsenicosis.
RESULTS:
Manifestations of various skin lesions and systemic diseases associated with chronic arsenicexposure were ascertained initially by carrying on baseline study on 208 participants in Nadia (Cohort-I, with skin lesion and Cohort-II, without skin lesion) using a scoring system, as developed by us, and compared objectively at the end of each year for 3 year follow-up period. All the participants who had arseniccontaminated drinking water source in their houses were supplied with arsenic removal filters for gettingarsenic-free water during the follow-up period. In participants belonging to Cohort-I, the skin score was found to improve significantly at the end of each year, and it was found to be reduced significantly from 2.17 ± 1.09 to 1.23 ± 1.17; P < 0.001 at the end of 3 year's intervention study indicating beneficial effect of safe water on skin lesions. The systemic disease symptom score was also found to improve, but less significantly, at the end of 3 years in both the cohorts. Most important observation during the follow-up study was persistence of severe symptoms of chronic lung disease and severe skin lesion including Bowen's disease in spite of taking arsenic-safe water. Further, death could not be prevented to occur because of lung cancer and severe lung disease.
CONCLUSION:
It is, therefore, an urgent need to make arrangement for availability of safe water source among the arsenic-affected people in the district. Many of the people in the affected villages are not aware of contamination of their home tube wells with arsenic. Awareness generation and motivation of the people for testing their drinking water sources for arsenic and environmental interventions like rain water harvesting, ground water recharge, and restricting excessive use of ground water for domestic and agricultural purposes are also important to prevent further exposure of arsenic to these people
BibTeX:
@article{MajumdarKK2014,
  author = {Majumdar KK, Ghose A, Ghose N, Biswas A, Mazumder DN},
  title = {Effect of Safe Water on Arsenicosis: A Follow-up Study},
  journal = {J Family Med Prim Care.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {3(2)},
  pages = {124-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.137626}
}
Majumdar KK, Guha Mazumder DN, Ghose N, Ghose A, Lahiri S Systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic toxicity in absence of skin lesions in West Bengal. 2009 Indian J Med Res.
Vol. 129(1), pp. 75-82 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE:
Pigmentation and keratosis are the prerequisites to diagnose arsenicosis. However, many systemic manifestations occur in association with pigmentation and keratosis in people exposed to chronic drinking of arsenic contaminated water. The present study aim to find out whether systemic manifestations occur in significant number of cases in arsenic exposed people in the absence of skin lesions in an affected district in West Bengal, India.
METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was carried out in South 24 Parganas, an arsenic affected district of West Bengal, India. Both dermatological and systemic manifestations were recorded and water samples collected forarsenic analysis from 7683 participants. A correlation of systemic manifestations in relation to arsenic exposure was carried out in subjects having no arsenical skin lesion. Prevalence odds ratio (POR) was calculated for each outcome comparing those with high arsenic exposure with those with lowest exposure.
RESULTS:
The frequency of occurrence of various clinical manifestations like weakness, anaemia, diarrhoea, hepatomegaly and lung disease was found to be significantly higher among participants drinking water havingarsenic concentration > or = 50 microg/l in comparison to those taking water with arsenic content below this level. Further, there was increased occurrence of these manifestations with increasing concentration of arseniclevel in drinking water, and this followed a dose-response relationship.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION:
It appears that it is worthwhile to include people with systemic manifestations in absence of skin lesions with evidence of arsenic exposure as suspected cases of arsenicosis for case detection and in surveillance programme.
BibTeX:
@article{MajumdarKK2009,
  author = {Majumdar KK, Guha Mazumder DN, Ghose N, Ghose A, Lahiri S.},
  title = {Systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic toxicity in absence of skin lesions in West Bengal.},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {129(1)},
  pages = {75-82}
}
Majumdar S, Chanda S, Ganguli B, Mazumder DN, Lahiri S, Dasgupta UB Arsenic exposure induces genomic hypermethylation. 2010 Environ Toxicol
Vol. 25(3), pp. 315-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Gene-specific hypermethylation has previously been detected in Arsenic exposed persons. To monitor the level of whole genome methylation in persons exposed to different levels of Arsenic via drinking water, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 64 persons. Uptake of methyl group from (3)H labeled S-Adenosyl Methionine after incubation of DNA with SssI methylase was measured. Results showed statistically significant (P = 0.0004) decrease in uptake of (3)H methyl group in the persons exposed to 250-500 microg/Larsenic, indicating genomic hypermethylation.
BibTeX:
@article{MajumdarS2010,
  author = {Majumdar S, Chanda S, Ganguli B, Mazumder DN, Lahiri S, Dasgupta UB.},
  title = {Arsenic exposure induces genomic hypermethylation.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {25(3)},
  pages = {315-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.20497}
}
Majumdar S, Karmakar S, Maiti A, Choudhury M, Ghosh A, Das AS, Mitra C Arsenic-induced hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats and its amelioration by dietary phosphate. 2011 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 31(1), pp. 107-18 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that inorganic phosphate may reduce arsenic toxicity by decreasing its intestinal transference. Co-administration of inorganic phosphate (6.56 M) and arsenic (6.07 mM) in the intestinal loops of rats, in situ, caused significant reduction of arsenic transference. Short-term arsenicexposure (3mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) caused liver damage evidenced by activities of liver enzymes and necroinflammatory changes. These effects of arsenic were coupled with enhanced mitochondrial swelling, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, a decrease in mitochondrial calcium content, changes in indices of hepatic mitochondrial oxidative stress and iNOS expression. Arsenic also increased hepatic caspase 3 activity and DNA fragmentation. All these apoptosis-related molecular changes caused by arsenic could be alleviated by supplementation with inorganic phosphate, which likely suggests a protective role of phosphate against arsenic-induced hepatotoxic changes.
BibTeX:
@article{MajumdarS2011,
  author = {Majumdar S, Karmakar S, Maiti A, Choudhury M, Ghosh A, Das AS, Mitra C.},
  title = {Arsenic-induced hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats and its amelioration by dietary phosphate.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {31(1)},
  pages = {107-18},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2010.09.011}
}
Majumder A, Bhattacharyya K, Kole SC, Ghosh S Efficacy of indigenous soil microbes in arsenic mitigation from contaminated alluvial soil of India. 2013 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
Vol. 20(8), pp. 5645-53. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Selected arsenic-volatilizing indigenous soil bacteria were isolated and their ability to form volatile arsenicals from toxic inorganic arsenic was assessed. Approximately 37 % of AsIII (under aerobic conditions) and 30 % AsV (under anaerobic conditions) were volatilized by new bacterial isolates in 3 days. In contrast to genetically modified organism, indigenous soil bacteria was capable of removing 16 % of arsenic from contaminated soil during 60 days incubation period while applied with a low-cost organic nutrient supplement (farm yard manure).
BibTeX:
@article{MajumderA2013,
  author = {Majumder A, Bhattacharyya K, Kole SC, Ghosh S},
  title = {Efficacy of indigenous soil microbes in arsenic mitigation from contaminated alluvial soil of India.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {20(8)},
  pages = {5645-53.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1560-x}
}
Manimaran A, Sarkar SN, Sankar P Influence of repeated preexposure to arsenic on acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress in liver of male rats. 2010 Food Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 48(2), pp. 605-10 
article DOI  
Abstract: We evaluated whether repeated arsenic preexposure can increase acetaminophen-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Rats were exposed to arsenic (25 ppm; rat equivalent concentration of maximum groundwater contamination level) via drinking water for 28 days. Next day, they were given single oral administration of acetaminophen (420 or 1000 mg/kg b.w.). Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by assessing serum biomarkers, cytochrome-P450 (CYP) content, CYP3A4- and CYP2E1-dependent enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants. Arsenic or acetaminophen increased serum ALT and AST activities and depleted CYP. Arsenicdecreased, but acetaminophen increased CYP-dependent enzyme activities. These agents independently increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidants. Arsenic did not alter the effects of acetaminophen on serum biomarkers, caused further CYP depletion and decreased acetaminophen-mediated induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Arsenic enhanced the lower dose of acetaminophen-mediated lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion with no further alterations in enzymatic antioxidants. However, arsenic attenuated the higher dose-mediated lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion with improvement in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, further decrease in catalase and no alterations in superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities. Results show that arsenic preexposure increased the susceptibility of rats to hepatic oxidative stress induced by the lower dose of acetaminophen, but reduced the oxidative stress induced by the higher dose.
BibTeX:
@article{ManimaranA2010,
  author = {Manimaran A, Sarkar SN, Sankar P.},
  title = {Influence of repeated preexposure to arsenic on acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress in liver of male rats.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {48(2)},
  pages = {605-10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.039}
}
Mashalkar S, Pawar MG, Kolhe S, Jain DT Comparative evaluation of root canal disinfection by conventional method and laser: an in vivo study. 2014 Niger J Clin Pract
Vol. 17(1), pp. 67-74 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate in vivo the disinfecting ability of conventional method and lasers in root canals.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Study criteria included 60 single rooted teeth, which were indicated for root canal therapy followed to dental caries and trauma with intact crowns. Such selected patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, namely, Group A (30 teeth) and Group B (30 teeth). All clinical procedures were carried out under strict aseptic precautions. The teeth in Group A were subjected to biomechanical preparation followed by the treatment with the help of diode laser containing the gallium aluminum and arsenic, which emitted 980 nm wavelengths. The teeth in Group B were treated with routine method of biomechanical preparation along with irrigation using sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. The microbiological samples were taken immediately after the access preparation and after the completion of the root canal disinfection and were sent for microbiological analysis.
RESULTS:
The teeth in Group A showed presence of common strains of bacteria ranging from Streptococci, Staphylococci, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas. Reduction in the growth of microorganisms was found for all types of microorganisms. Only 8 samples exhibited the growth after treatment with laser. Results of Group B also showed the presence of common strains of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria as shown in earlier studies, predominantly Staphylococcus, Streptococci, and Pseudomonas. Statistical analysis showed non-significant P values for the microorganisms; however, only 3 samples showed the growth after treatment with conventional technique using sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide.
CONCLUSION:
Conventional method by using sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide as irrigating solutions is highly effective in disinfecting the root canal. Lasers when used can also reduce the bacterial load of the infected root canal.
BibTeX:
@article{MashalkarS2014,
  author = {Mashalkar S, Pawar MG, Kolhe S, Jain DT},
  title = {Comparative evaluation of root canal disinfection by conventional method and laser: an in vivo study.},
  journal = {Niger J Clin Pract},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {17(1)},
  pages = {67-74},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1119-3077.122846}
}
Mazumdar S, Mukherjee P, Gowsami S, Saha B, Ahmed A, Mukhopadhyay J Arsenicosis: unusual neurological presentation from West Bengal. 2010 J Assoc Physicians India.
Vol. 58, pp. 201-2 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{MazumdarS2010,
  author = {Mazumdar S, Mukherjee P, Gowsami S, Saha B, Ahmed A, Mukhopadhyay J.},
  title = {Arsenicosis: unusual neurological presentation from West Bengal.},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {58},
  pages = {201-2}
}
Mazumder DN, Ghosh A, Majumdar KK, Ghosh N, Saha C, Mazumder RN Arsenic contamination of ground water and its health impact on population of district of nadia, west bengal, India. 2010 Indian J Community Med
Vol. 35(2), pp. 331-8. 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
The global health impact and disease burden due to chronic arsenic toxicity has not been well studied in West Bengal.
OBJECTIVE:
To ascertain these, a scientific epidemiological study was carried out in a district of the state.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Epidemiological study was carried out by house-to-house survey of arsenicaffected villages in the district of Nadia. A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for this survey for the selection of the participants. A total number of 2297 households of 37 arsenic affected villages in all the 17 blocks were surveyed in the district.
RESULT:
Out of 10469 participants examined, prevalence rate of arsenicosis was found to be 15.43%. Out of 0.84 million people suspected to be exposed to arsenic, 0.14 million people are estimated to be suffering from arsenicosis in the district. Highest level of arsenic in drinking water sources was found to be 1362 ?g/l, and in 23% cases it was above 100 ?g/l. Majority of the population living in the arsenic affected villages were of low socio-economic condition, inadequate education and were farmers or doing physical labour. Chronic lung disease was found in 207 (12.81%) subjects among cases and 69 (0.78%) in controls. Peripheral neuropathy was found in 257 (15.9%) cases and 136 (1.5%) controls.
CONCLUSION:
Large number of people in the district of Nadia are showing arsenical skin lesion. However, insufficient education, poverty, lack of awareness and ineffective health care support are major factors causing immense plight to severely arsenic affected people.
BibTeX:
@article{MazumderDN2010,
  author = {Mazumder DN, Ghosh A, Majumdar KK, Ghosh N, Saha C, Mazumder RN.},
  title = {Arsenic contamination of ground water and its health impact on population of district of nadia, west bengal, India.},
  journal = {Indian J Community Med},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {35(2)},
  pages = {331-8.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.66897}
}
Mehta M, Hundal SS Assessment of genotoxic potential of arsenic in female albino rats at permissible dose levels. 2014 Toxicol Int
Vol. 21(1), pp. 24-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Arsenic is a wide spread environmental contaminant and has been recognized as a genotoxic element which is of major public health concern.
AIM:
The present study evaluates the genotoxic potential of arsenic at low permissible dose levels.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Forty-eight mature female rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. Group I animals received distilled water and served as control. Group II-IV animals received sodium arsenite dissolved in distilled water continuously for a period of 60 days at the dose of 10, 30 and 50 ?g/L (ppb) respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed after 30 days of arsenic exposure and the remaining animals were sacrificed after 60 days. Liver was excised from the sacrificed animals to study the probable advent signs of carcinogenicity measured through microsomal degranulation test. Assessment of mutagenic potential of arsenic was evaluated through chromosomal aberrations observed in the bone marrow cells.
RESULTS:
The levels of RNA and proteins decreased significantly (P ? 0.01) in all the three doses administered along with an increase in % microsomal degranulation in hepatic fraction when compared to control at both 30 and 60 days time period. A dose-dependent increase in chromosome aberrations like fragmentation, breakage has been observed in all the treated animals.
CONCLUSION:
The results of present study revealed that chronic exposure of arsenic even at its low permissible dose limits results in carcinogenic and mutagenic effects which emphasize its genotoxic possibility.
BibTeX:
@article{MehtaM2014,
  author = {Mehta M, Hundal SS},
  title = {Assessment of genotoxic potential of arsenic in female albino rats at permissible dose levels.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(1)},
  pages = {24-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.128787}
}
Miltonprabu S, Sumedha NC Arsenic-induced hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats and its amelioration by diallyl trisulfide. 2014 Toxicol Mech Methods
Vol. 24(2), pp. 124-35 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present investigation was aimed to investigate the possible protective role of diallyl trisulfide (DATS) against arsenic (As)-induced hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats. Mitochondria were isolated from the liver tissue of rats from all the groups. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, hepatic function enzymes, mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial Ca(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, mitochondrial calcium content and mitochondrial enzyme activities were measured. Short-term As exposure (5?mg/kg?bw/d for 28?d) caused liver damage as evidenced by changes in activities of liver enzymes. The effects of As were coupled with enhanced reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial swelling, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase, complex I-mediated electron transfer, decreased Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, a reduction in mitochondrial calcium content, changes in indices of hepatic mitochondrial oxidative stress, significant increase in mitochondrial lipid peroxidation products and alterations in mitochondrial lipid profile. Significant decreases in mitochondrial antioxidants and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes were also found in the liver mitochondria of As-induced hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats. As also increased hepatic caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation. All these apoptosis-related molecular changes caused by As could be alleviated by supplementation with DATS, which likely suggests a protective role against As-induced hepatotoxic changes and hepatic mitochondrial toxicity. The protective effect of DATS on the liver mitochondria was evidenced by altering all the changes induced by As. Free radical scavenging and metal chelating activities of DATS may be the mechanism, responsible for the protective action against As-induced mitochondrial damage in liver.
BibTeX:
@article{MiltonprabuS2014,
  author = {Miltonprabu S, Sumedha NC.},
  title = {Arsenic-induced hepatic mitochondrial toxicity in rats and its amelioration by diallyl trisulfide.},
  journal = {Toxicol Mech Methods},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {24(2)},
  pages = {124-35},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15376516.2013.869778}
}
Mishra D, Gupta R, Pant SC, Kushwah P, Satish HT, Flora SJ Co-administration of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid and Moringa oleifera seed powder protects arsenic-induced oxidative stress and metal distribution in mice. 2009 Toxicol Mech Methods.
Vol. 19(2), pp. 169-82 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the West Bengal basin in India is unfolding as one of the worst natural geo-environmental disasters to date. Chelation therapy with chelating agents is considered to be the best known treatment against arsenic poisoning; however, they are compromised with certain serious drawbacks/side-effects. Efficacy of combined administration of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) (English: Drumstick tree) seed powder, a herbal extract, with a thiol chelator monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) post-arsenic exposure in mice was studied. Mice were exposed to 100 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 6 months, followed by 10-days treatment with M. oleifera seed powder (500 mg/kg, orally through gastric gavage, once daily), MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) either individually or in combination. Arsenicexposure caused significant decrease in blood glutathione, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species in blood and soft tissues. Significant inhibition of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in tissues (liver in particular) along with significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and metallothionein levels in arsenic intoxicated mice was also noted. Combined administration of MiADMSA with M. oleifera proved better than all other treatments in the recovery of most of the above parameters accompanied by more pronounced depletion ofarsenic. The results suggest that concomitant administration of M. oleifera during chelation treatment with MiADMSA might be a better treatment option than monotherapy with the thiol chelator in chronic arsenictoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraD2009,
  author = {Mishra D, Gupta R, Pant SC, Kushwah P, Satish HT, Flora SJ.},
  title = {Co-administration of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid and Moringa oleifera seed powder protects arsenic-induced oxidative stress and metal distribution in mice.},
  journal = {Toxicol Mech Methods.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {19(2)},
  pages = {169-82},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376510701795751}
}
Mitra J, Pal K, Sarkar S Second order non-linear optical activity of arsenic and antimony dithiolene complexes. 2013 Dalton Trans.
Vol. 42(38), pp. 13905-11 
article DOI  
Abstract: Synthesis and characterization of dithiolene complexes of arsenic and antimony in trivalent state have been reported. A four coordinated structural motif results in a ladder like arrangement in the arsenic complex due to the inter-anionic As-S interaction which is replaced by Sb-? interaction with the counter cation in the solid state structure of the similar antimony complex. Electronic structure calculations on ground state geometries and the time-dependent density functional theoretical calculations were performed in order to characterize the absorption spectra incorporating solvent effects. Notably, both the complexes display intense second order optical non-linearity as has been determined using hyper-Rayleigh scattering technique in dichloromethane solution and the results are corroborated by DFT calculations.
BibTeX:
@article{MitraJ2013,
  author = {Mitra J, Pal K, Sarkar S.},
  title = {Second order non-linear optical activity of arsenic and antimony dithiolene complexes.},
  journal = {Dalton Trans.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {42(38)},
  pages = {13905-11},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3dt51585k}
}
Mukhopadhyay S, Mukherjee S, Hashim MA, Sen Gupta B Application of colloidal gas aphron suspensions produced from Sapindus mukorossi for arsenic removal from contaminated soil. 2014 Chemosphere
Vol. 119C., pp. 355-362 
article DOI  
Abstract: Colloidal gas aphron dispersions (CGAs) can be described as a system of microbubbles suspended homogenously in a liquid matrix. This work examines the performance of CGAs in comparison to surfactant solutions for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and saponin, a biodegradable surfactant, obtained from Sapindus mukorossi or soapnut fruit were used for generating CGAs and solutions for soil washing. Column washing experiments were performed in down-flow and up flow modes at a soil pH of 5 and 6 using varying concentration of SDS and soapnut solutions as well as CGAs. Soapnut CGAs removed more than 70% arsenic while SDS CGAs removed up to 55% arsenic from the soil columns in the soil pH range of 5-6. CGAs and solutions showed comparable performances in all the cases. CGAs were more economical since it contains 35% of air by volume, thereby requiring less surfactant. Micellar solubilization and low pH of soapnut facilitated arsenic desorption from soil column. FT-IR analysis of effluent suggested that soapnut solution did not interact chemically with arsenic thereby facilitating the recovery of soapnut solution by precipitating the arsenic. Damage to soil was minimal arsenic confirmed by metal dissolution from soil surface and SEM micrograph
BibTeX:
@article{MukhopadhyayS2014,
  author = {Mukhopadhyay S, Mukherjee S, Hashim MA, Sen Gupta B.},
  title = {Application of colloidal gas aphron suspensions produced from Sapindus mukorossi for arsenic removal from contaminated soil.},
  journal = {Chemosphere},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {119C.},
  pages = {355-362},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.06.087}
}
Nagvenkar GS, Ramaiah N Arsenite tolerance and biotransformation potential in estuarine bacteria. 2010 Ecotoxicology
Vol. 19(4), pp. 604-13 
article DOI  
Abstract: Bacterial isolates from water and sediment samples from freshwater, estuarine and marine regions were tested for their growth in the presence of different concentrations of arsenic. Despite the generation times being longer in case of all bacterial isolates tested in nutrient broth with 200 ppm Arsenite (As(3+)), many of them were able to attain log phase and substantial growth variously between 36 and 96 h. The isolates tolerating >or=200 ppmarsenic (As) were found to belong to Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Corynebaterium, Xanthomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavimonas and Micrococcus. Some of these environmental strains tolerant to 1,000 ppmarsenic were tested to realize their potential to detoxify arsenic. The rate of As biotransformation was faster by many of these strains. The percent of arsenite biotransformed/removed from the growth medium was the highest by a strain of Enterobacteriaceae (as much as 92% of the As in the growth medium by 120 h) followed by that of Corynebaterium and Acinetobacter strains. From these observations it is clear that many environmental strains are capable of quite rapid biotransformation of As. Contamination of drinking water by toxic metalloid arsenic affects thousands of people worldwide. Many environmental isolates of bacteria which detoxify this metalloid would serve beneficial in the depuration processes. We suggest that only such strains capable of high tolerance to toxic arsenite, would biotransform As in polluted estuarine environments and would prove useful in As bioremediation applications.
BibTeX:
@article{NagvenkarGS2010,
  author = {Nagvenkar GS, Ramaiah N.},
  title = {Arsenite tolerance and biotransformation potential in estuarine bacteria.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {19(4)},
  pages = {604-13},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-009-0429-8}
}
Nemade PD, Kadam AM, Shankar HS Wastewater renovation using constructed soil filter (CSF): a novel approach. 2009 J Hazard Mater
Vol. 170(2-3), pp. 657-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: Constructed soil filter (CSF) also known as Soil Biotechnology (SBT) is a process for water renovation which makes use of formulated media with culture of soil macro- and microorganisms. CSF combines sedimentation, infiltration and biodegradation processes to remove oxidizable organics and inorganics of wastewater in a single facility. Operating experience shows hydraulic loading in the range of 0.05-0.25 m(3)/m(2) h and organic loading up to 200-680 g/m(2) d. The results show increase in dissolved oxygen levels, COD removal (from 352 mg/l to 20 mg/l); BOD removal (from 211 mg/l to 7.0 mg/l); suspended solids removal (from 293 mg/l to 16 mg/l); turbidity reduction (from 145 NTU to 5.3 NTU); iron (from 5 mg/l to 0.3 mg/l); arsenic (from 500 microg/l to 10 microg/l); total coliform and fecal coliform removal (from 145 x 10(5) to 55 CFU/100 mL and 150 x 10(8) to 110 CFU/100 mL respectively), with desired pathogen levels as per WHO standards, i.e. < or =10(3) CFU/100 mL. CSF reveals advantages such as low HRT (0.5-2.0 h), low energy requirement (0.04 kWh/m(3)), no pre-treatment, high dissolved oxygen levels in the effluent, no biosludge production, no mechanical aeration and no odor, fish compatible water quality and evergreen ambience.
BibTeX:
@article{NemadePD2009,
  author = {Nemade PD, Kadam AM, Shankar HS.},
  title = {Wastewater renovation using constructed soil filter (CSF): a novel approach.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {170(2-3)},
  pages = {657-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.015}
}
Nemade PD, Kadam AM, Shankar HS Adsorption of arsenic from aqueous solution on naturally available red soil. 2009 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 30(4), pp. 499-504. 
article  
Abstract: In the present study arsenate and arsenite removal from naturally available red soil in and around Western Ghats of Maharashtra near Mumbai has been investigated. The parameters like adsorbent dose, operating pH, contact time, initial arsenite concentration, adsorbent particle size, etc. on the removal of arsenite and arsenate are examined. Kinetic study in centrifuge vessel reveals that uptake of As (III) ions is rapid in the first two hours and slows down thereafter. Maximum removal efficiency of As (III) achieved is 98% at an adsorbent dose of 45 g l(-1) with initial As (III) concentration of 1000 microg l(-1) in batch studies and 95% at 25 g l(-1) absorbent dose under the same conditions. Equilibrium time is almost independent of initial arsenite concentration. Equilibrium studies show that As (III) ions have high affinity towards red soil even at very low concentration of arsenite. In speciation study about 25% conversion to As (V) from As (III) is observed, with initial As (III) concentration of 1000 microg l(-1) and at 25 g l(-1) adsorbent dose. The results suggest that red soil could be used as effective filter medium for removal of arsenic from water.
BibTeX:
@article{NemadePD2009a,
  author = {Nemade PD, Kadam AM, Shankar HS.},
  title = {Adsorption of arsenic from aqueous solution on naturally available red soil.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(4)},
  pages = {499-504.}
}
Niazi NK, Singh B, Shah P Arsenic speciation and phytoavailability in contaminated soils using a sequential extraction procedure and XANES spectroscopy. 2011 Environ Sci Technol.
Vol. 45(17), pp. 7135-42 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this study, a sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were used to determine the solid-phase speciation and phytoavailability of arsenic (As) of historically contaminated soils from As containing pesticides and herbicides and soils spiked with As in the laboratory. Brassica juncea was grown in the contaminated soils to measure plant available As in a glasshouse experiment. Arsenic associated with amorphous Fe oxides was found to be the dominant phase using both SEP and XANES spectroscopy. Arsenic predominantly existed in arsenate (As(V)) form in the soils; in a few samples As was also present in arsenite (As(III)) form or in scorodite mineral. Arsenic concentration in shoots showed significant (p < 0.001-0.05) correlations with the exchangeable As (r = 0.85), and amorphous Fe oxides associated As evaluated by the SEP (r = 0.67), and As associated with amorphous Fe oxides as determined by XANES spectroscopy (r = 0.51). The results show that As in both fractions was readily available for plant uptake and may pose a potential risk to the environment. The combination of SEP and XANES spectroscopy allowed us the quantitative speciation of As in the contaminated soils and the identification of valence and mineral forms of As. Such detailed knowledge on As speciation and availability is vital for management and rehabilitation of As-contaminated soils.
BibTeX:
@article{NiaziNK2011,
  author = {Niazi NK, Singh B, Shah P},
  title = {Arsenic speciation and phytoavailability in contaminated soils using a sequential extraction procedure and XANES spectroscopy.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Technol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {45(17)},
  pages = {7135-42},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es201677z}
}
Pal A, Banerjee I, Sen S, Tripathi SK Non-healing Scalp Ulcer Accompanying Chronic Arsenicosis: A Case Report. 2014 J Clin Diagn Res.
Vol. 8(5) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic, an environmental toxin, significantly contributes to the development of several health problems. Epidemiological studies done across the globe have reported that a prolonged arsenic exposure has been associated with characteristic skin lesions, neuropathy and an increased risk of skin, lung, liver (angiosarcoma), bladder, kidney and colon cancers. In present study, we are reporting a case of a 60-year-old male, who presented with a large (5cm x 4cm) painless ulcer in fronto-parietal area of scalp, with occasional oozing of blood. X-ray of skull (AP and lateral view) revealed granular well-outlined osteolytic lesions in right fronto-parietal skull vault, which raised a suspicion of malignancy. An incisional biopsy was taken and histopathology revealed no evidence of malignancy. A benign, non-healing skin ulcer is rarely seen in a setting of chronic arsenicosis. His skin examination showed characteristic fine freckles of spotted pigmentary changes i.e. classic rain-drop pigmentations which were present all over the body, particularly on trunk, palms and soles. Arseniclevels seen in hair and nail of the patient were 1.23 micrograms/gram and 3.26 micrograms/gram respectively, which were in accordance with WHO suggested diagnostic criteria of chronic arsenicosis.
BibTeX:
@article{PalA2014,
  author = {Pal A, Banerjee I, Sen S, Tripathi SK.},
  title = {Non-healing Scalp Ulcer Accompanying Chronic Arsenicosis: A Case Report.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {8(5)},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/7471.4377}
}
Pal A, Chowdhury UK, Mondal D, Das B, Nayak B, Ghosh A, Maity S, Chakraborti D Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India. 2009 Environ Sci Technol.
Vol. 43(9), pp. 3349-55. 
article  
Abstract: Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenicburden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic <3 microg L(-1) for cooking, actual exposure to arsenicfrom rice would be much less.
BibTeX:
@article{PalA2009,
  author = {Pal A, Chowdhury UK, Mondal D, Das B, Nayak B, Ghosh A, Maity S, Chakraborti D.},
  title = {Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Technol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {43(9)},
  pages = {3349-55.}
}
Palaniappan PL, Vijayasundaram V The effect of arsenic exposure and the efficacy of DMSA on the proteins and lipids of the gill tissues of Labeo rohita. 2009 Food Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 47(8), pp. 1752-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic is a naturally occurring, highly toxic environmental pollutant. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a non-disturbing technique which provides quantitative information about the molecular composition of biological samples. The aim of this work is to study the compositional and structural changes at the molecular level occurring in gill tissues of Labeo rohita fingerlings due to arsenic exposure for various exposure periods by using FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The results of the present study suggest that arsenicexposure causes significant changes on the major biochemical constituents such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in the gill tissues of L. rohita. The changes are more pronounced as the period of exposure is increased. The significant decrease in the intensity and area of the amide I peak and CH(3) asymmetric stretching band suggests an alteration in the protein profile and lipid levels respectively, due to arsenic exposure. The amide A peak shifts suggests a change in the level of protein amide hydrogen bonding due to arsenic exposure. Further, the treatment with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) improves the levels of biochemical constituents significantly, which suggest that DMSA treatment reduces the toxic effects and helps the recovery of gill tissues and its return to the level of the control.
BibTeX:
@article{PalaniappanPL2009,
  author = {Palaniappan PL, Vijayasundaram V.},
  title = {The effect of arsenic exposure and the efficacy of DMSA on the proteins and lipids of the gill tissues of Labeo rohita.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {47(8)},
  pages = {1752-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.016}
}
Patel HV, Kalia K Role of hepatic and pancreatic oxidative stress in arsenic induced diabetic condition in Wistar rats. 2013 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 34(2), pp. 231-6 
article  
Abstract: Arsenic, a potent environmental toxicant has been reported to induce diabetes mellitus, but its potential biological mechanism(s) has not been much investigated. The present study was designed to correlate pancreatic and hepatic oxidative stress with arsenic induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals. Male albino Wistar rats were administered with low (1.5 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) and high (5.0 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) sodium arsenite orally for 4 week. Hyperglycemic condition was observed in arsenic exposed groups as indicated by increased (P < 0.001) fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), which were accompanied by an increase in the level of lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001), protein oxidation (P < 0.05 at low dose and P < 0.001 at high dose) and nitric oxide (NO) (P < 0.001) in hepatic and pancreatic tissue compared to control. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.001), catalase (CAT) (P < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P < 0.05 at low dose and P < 0.001 at high dose) activities were elevated, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (P < 0.05 at low dose and P < 0.001 at high dose) and GSH level showed significant (P < 0.001) depletion in both studied tissue of arsenic exposed rats compared to control. Arsenic induced hepatotoxicity was manifested by an increase (P < 0.001) in serum ALT, AST and ALP. Arsenic exposure leads to accumulation of arsenic (P < 0.05) and significant (P < 0.05) depletion of copper and zinc level in hepatic and pancreatic tissue as compared to control. Our data suggests that sub-chronic arsenic exposure induces diabetic condition which may be mediated due to increased oxidative stress in hepatic and pancreatic tissue.
BibTeX:
@article{PatelHV2013,
  author = {Patel HV, Kalia K},
  title = {Role of hepatic and pancreatic oxidative stress in arsenic induced diabetic condition in Wistar rats.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {34(2)},
  pages = {231-6}
}
Patra PH, Bandyopadhyay S, Kumar R, Datta BK, Maji C, Biswas S, Dash JR, Sar TK, Sarkar S, Manna SK,Chakraborty AK, Mandal TK Quantitative imaging of arsenic and its species in goat following long term oral exposure. 2012 Food Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 50(6), pp. 1946-50 
article DOI  
Abstract: Severity of arsenic toxicity was reported to vary depending on its species. The present study reflects the status of different species of arsenic in goat following long-term exposure of arsenic leading to hepatic damage. The experiment was conducted with six black Bengal goats, which were administered with sodium arsenite orally at a dose rate of 2 mgkg(-1) daily for 84 days. Faeces, urine, hair and blood samples were collected from those animals at 14 days interval. Excretion of total arsenic was reduced from 56 days onwards through both faeces and urine indicating higher accumulation of arsenic in body. The speciation study revealed that urinary arsenicwas mainly of organic type, whereas hair accumulated almost equal proportion of arsenite, arsenate and organo arsenicals. Goats excreted high proportion of organo arsenicals through faeces possibly due to hepatobiliary secretion of organo arsenic into the gut. Significantly elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities (p<0.05) along with histopathological changes in liver indicated hepatotoxicity. The arsenite fraction increased and organic proportion decreased in urine as the time progressed, which indicates that arsenite gets methylated in liver of goat. The study thus alluded that the toxicity of arsenic would aggravate if the animals were exposed for long time as the hepatotoxicity progressed resulting in decreased methylation and formation of organo arsenicals and decreased excretions through urine.
BibTeX:
@article{PatraPH2012,
  author = {Patra PH, Bandyopadhyay S, Kumar R, Datta BK, Maji C, Biswas S, Dash JR, Sar TK, Sarkar S, Manna SK,Chakraborty AK, Mandal TK.},
  title = {Quantitative imaging of arsenic and its species in goat following long term oral exposure.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {50(6)},
  pages = {1946-50},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.03.072}
}
Paul D, Poddar S, Sar P Characterization of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater of West Bengal. 2014 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 49(13, pp. 1481-92 
article DOI  
Abstract: Nine arsenic (As)-resistant bacterial strains isolated from As-rich groundwater samples of West Bengal were characterized to elucidate their potential in geomicrobial transformation and bioremediation aspects. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strains were affiliated with genera Actinobacteria, Microbacterium, Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. The strains exhibited high resistance to As [Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ? 10 mM As(3+) and MIC ? 450 mM As(5+)] and other heavy metals, e.g., Cu(2+), Cr(2+), Ni(2+), etc. (MIC ? 2 mM) as well as As transformation (As(3+) oxidation and As(5+) reduction) capabilities. Their ability to utilize diverse carbon source(s) including hydrocarbons and different alternative electron acceptor(s) (As(5+), SO4(2-), S2O3(2-), etc.) during anaerobic growth was noted. Growth at wide range of pH, temperature and salinity, production of siderophore and biofilm were observed. Together with these, growth pattern and transformation kinetics indicated a high As(3+) oxidation activity of the isolates Rhizobium sp. CAS934i, Microbacterium sp. CAS905i and Pseudomonas sp. CAS912i. A positive relation between high As(3+) resistance and As(3+) oxidation and the supportive role of As(3+) in bacterial growth was noted. The results highlighted As(3+) oxidation process and metabolic repertory of strains indigenous to contaminated groundwater and indicates their potential in As(3+) detoxification. Thus, such metabolically well equipped bacterial strains with highest As(3+) oxidation activities may be used for bioremediation of As contaminated water and effluents in the near future.
BibTeX:
@article{PaulD2014,
  author = {Paul D, Poddar S, Sar P},
  title = {Characterization of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater of West Bengal.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {49(13},
  pages = {1481-92},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2014.937162}
}
Paul S, Banerjee N, Chatterjee A, Sau TJ, Das JK, Mishra PK, Chakrabarti P, Bandyopadhyay A, Giri AK Arsenic-induced promoter hypomethylation and over-expression of ERCC2 reduces DNA repair capacity in humans by non-disjunction of the ERCC2-Cdk7 complex. 2014 Metallomics.
Vol. 6(4), pp. 864-73 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic in drinking water is of critical concern in West Bengal, India, as it results in several physiological symptoms including dermatological lesions and cancers. Impairment of the DNA repair mechanism has been associated with arsenic-induced genetic damage as well as with several cancers. ERCC2 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing rodent repair, complementation group 2), mediates DNA-repair by interacting with Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, which helps in DNA proof-reading during transcription. Arsenic metabolism alters epigenetic regulation; we tried to elucidate the regulation of ERCC2 in arsenic-exposed humans. Water, urine, nails, hair and blood samples from one hundred and fifty seven exposed and eighty eight unexposed individuals were collected. Dose dependent validation was done in vitro using HepG2 and HEK-293. Arseniccontent in the biological samples was higher in the exposed individuals compared with the content in unexposed individuals (p < 0.001). Bisulfite-modified methylation specific PCR showed a significant (p < 0.0001) hypomethylation of the ERCC2 promoter in the arsenic-exposed individuals. Densitometric analysis of immunoblots showed a nearly two-fold increase in expression of ERCC2 in exposed individuals, but there was an enhanced genotoxic insult as measured by micronuclei frequency. Immuno-precipitation and western blotting revealed an increased (p < 0.001) association of Cdk7 with ERCC2 in highly arsenic exposed individuals. The decrease in CAK activity was determined by observing the intensity of Ser(392) phosphorylation in p53, in vitro, which decreased with an increase in arsenic dose. Thus we infer that arsenicbiotransformation leads to promoter hypomethylation of ERCC2, which in turn inhibits the normal functioning of the CAK-complex, thus affecting DNA-repair; this effect was highest among the arsenic exposed individuals with dermatological lesions.
BibTeX:
@article{PaulS2014,
  author = {Paul S, Banerjee N, Chatterjee A, Sau TJ, Das JK, Mishra PK, Chakrabarti P, Bandyopadhyay A, Giri AK.},
  title = {Arsenic-induced promoter hypomethylation and over-expression of ERCC2 reduces DNA repair capacity in humans by non-disjunction of the ERCC2-Cdk7 complex.},
  journal = {Metallomics.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {6(4)},
  pages = {864-73},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3mt00328k}
}
Paul S, Bhattacharjee P, Mishra PK, Chatterjee D, Biswas A, Deb D, Ghosh A, Mazumder DN, Giri AK Human urothelial micronucleus assay to assess genotoxic recovery by reduction ofarsenic in drinking water: a cohort study in West Bengal, India. 2013 Biometals.
Vol. 26(5), pp. 855-62 
article DOI  
Abstract: Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water affects nearly 26 million individuals in West Bengal, India. Cytogenetic biomarkers like urothelial micronucleus (MN) are extensively used to monitor arsenic exposed population. In 2004-2005, 145 arsenic exposed individuals and 60 unexposed controls were surveyed of which 128 exposed individuals and 54 unexposed controls could be followed up in 2010-2011. In 2004-2005, the extent of arsenic content in the drinking water was 348.23 ± 102.67 ?g/L, which was significantly lowered to 5.60 ± 10.83 ?g/L in 2010-2011. Comparing the data obtained between 2004-2005 and 2010-2011, there was a significant decline in the MN frequency, when assayed in 2010-2011 compared to 2004-2005. Hence, we infer that urothelial MN can be utilized as a good biomarker in detecting remedial effects from toxicity of the low dose of arsenic through drinking water
BibTeX:
@article{PaulS2013,
  author = {Paul S, Bhattacharjee P, Mishra PK, Chatterjee D, Biswas A, Deb D, Ghosh A, Mazumder DN, Giri AK.},
  title = {Human urothelial micronucleus assay to assess genotoxic recovery by reduction ofarsenic in drinking water: a cohort study in West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Biometals.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {26(5)},
  pages = {855-62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-013-9652-0}
}
Paul S, Shakya K Arsenic, chromium and NaCl induced artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a valuable antimalarial plant. 2013 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 98, pp. 59-65 
article  
Abstract: Effect of As(III), Cr(VI) and NaCl on plant growth, antioxidant enzymes, SOD, TBRAS, protein, cDNA amplification of key genes of artemisinin pathway and artemisinin biosynthesis have been investigated to explore the actual changes in total herb and artemisinin yield in a crop cycle of Artemisia annua. Enhanced TBARS and SOD activity (4 U mg?¹), decreased catalase activity and total cholorophyll content were observed under metal(loid) and NaCl stress. Accumulation of As (III; µg mg?¹ DW) was higher in roots (10.75±0.00) than shoot (0.43±0.00) at 10 µg ml?¹. While Cr(VI; µg ml?¹ DW) accumulated more in shoots (37±9.6, 41.1±7.2 and 52.71±19.6). cDNA template of these treated plants along with control were amplified with HMGR, ADS and CYP71AV1 genes (artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes); showed very low expression with Cr(VI) while As(III) (5 and 7.5 µg ml?¹) showed higher expression than control. The results obtained from this study suggest that A. annua can grow well with favoring artemisinin biosynthesis with treatment of As(III) 5, 7.5 µg ml?¹ and NaCl, while 10 µg ml?¹ As(III) and all doses of Cr(VI) affect artemisinin synthesis. Finally some evidence also suggests that As(III), Cr(VI) and NaCl induces stress affects on total herb yield of plant.
BibTeX:
@article{PaulS2013a,
  author = {Paul S, Shakya K.},
  title = {Arsenic, chromium and NaCl induced artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a valuable antimalarial plant.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {98},
  pages = {59-65}
}
Prabu SM, Sumedha NC Ameliorative effect of diallyl trisulphide on arsenic-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes and DNA damage in lymphocytes. 2014 J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.
Vol. 25(2), pp. 181-97 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring semimetallic element that is classified as a toxicant and a human carcinogen. Diallyl trisulphide (DATS), an organosulphur compound, is an antioxidative substance that is extracted from garlic (Allium sativum). Erythrocytes are very expedient models to understand the susceptibility of membrane to oxidative damage induced by different xenobiotic compounds. Arsenic has been reported to induce oxidative stress to erythrocytes due to lipid peroxidation and alteration in defence mechanism as erythrocytes are the first target that arsenic compounds attack in the body after systemic absorption. In the light of this fact, the purpose of this study is to characterise the ameliorative effect of DATS on arsenic-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.
METHODS:
Experimental rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated orally for 28 days: control, As [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] treated, As+DATS (80 mg/kg BW) treated, DATS (80 mg/kg BW) treated and As+vitamin C (100 mg/kg BW) treated. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes was recorded by estimating plasma marker enzymes, plasma and erythrocyte membrane oxidative stress markers, erythrocyte membrane antioxidant enzymes and non-antioxidant enzymes, etc.
RESULTS:
Oral administration of arsenic at 5 mg/kg BW per day elevated the levels of plasma marker enzymes, namely, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ?-glutamyl transferase (?GT) (U/L) with significantly increased lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LH), conjugated dienes (CD), and protein carbonyl (PC) contents were also elevated in As-treated rat plasma and erythrocytes. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamins C and E) and enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) were also decreased in As-treated rats. The toxic effect of As significantly decreased the activities of membrane-bound ATPases (Na+/K+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase), with a significant increase in% tail DNA of rat lymphocytes measured by means of a single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Administration of DATS for 28 days significantly reduced the levels of plasma markers. The levels of TBARS, MDA, LH, CD, and PC were significantly decreased and there was a significant increase in ATPase activities and non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants on treatment with DATS in a dose-related manner.
CONCLUSIONS:
All these changes were supported by reduction of DNA damage in lymphocytes with DATS treatment. DATS at a dose of 80 mg/kg BW was found to be most effective and the results revealed the same. The results of the study showed that DATS shows a protective effect against As-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes and lymphocytes.
BibTeX:
@article{PrabuSM2014,
  author = {Prabu SM, Sumedha NC.},
  title = {Ameliorative effect of diallyl trisulphide on arsenic-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes and DNA damage in lymphocytes.},
  journal = {J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {25(2)},
  pages = {181-97},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2013-0047}
}
Prasad KS, Ramanathan AL, Paul J, Subramanian V, Prasad R Biosorption of arsenite (As(+3)) and arsenate (As(+5)) from aqueous solution by Arthrobacter sp. biomass. 2013 Environ Technol
Vol. 34(17-20), pp. 2701-8 
article  
Abstract: In this study we investigated the role of arsenic-resistant bacteria Arthrobacter sp. biomass for removal of arsenite as well as arsenate from aqueous solution. The biomass sorption characteristics were studied as a function of biomass dose, contact time and pH. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm. The Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The biosorption capacity of the biomass for As(+3) and As(+5) was found to be 74.91 mg/g (pH 7.0) and 81.63 mg/g (pH 3.0), respectively using 1 g/L biomass with a contact time of 30 min at 28 degrees C. The mean sorption energy values calculated from the D-R model indicated that the biosorption of As(+3) and As(+5) onto Arthrobacter sp. biomass took place by chemical ion-exchange. The thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption of As(+3) and As(+5) ions onto Arthrobacter sp. biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Kinetic evaluation of experimental data showed that biosorption of As(+3) and As(+5) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated the involvement of possible functional groups (-OH, -C=O and -NH) in the As(+3) and As(+5) biosorption process. Bacterial cell biomass can be used as a biosorbent for removal of arsenic from arsenic-contaminated water
BibTeX:
@article{PrasadKS2013,
  author = {Prasad KS, Ramanathan AL, Paul J, Subramanian V, Prasad R.},
  title = {Biosorption of arsenite (As(+3)) and arsenate (As(+5)) from aqueous solution by Arthrobacter sp. biomass.},
  journal = {Environ Technol},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {34(17-20)},
  pages = {2701-8}
}
Prasad KS, Selvaraj K Biogenic synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and their effect on As(III)-induced toxicity on human lymphocytes. 2014 Biol Trace Elem Res
Vol. 157(3), pp. 275-83 
article DOI  
Abstract: A bioreductive capacity of a plant, Terminalia arjuna leaf extract, was utilized for preparation of selenium nanoparticles. The leaf extract worked as good capping as well as stabilizing agent and facilitated the formation of stable colloidal nanoparticles. Resulting nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The colloidal solution showed the absorption maximum at 390 nm while TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicated the formation of polydispersed, crystalline selenium nanoparticles of size raging from 10 to 80 nm. FT-IR analysis suggested the involvement of O-H, N-H, C=O, and C-O functional group of the leaf extract in particle formation while EDAX analysis indicated the presence of selenium in synthesized nanoparticles. The effect of nanoparticles on human lymphocytes treated with arsenite, As(III), has been studied. Studies on cell viability using MTT assay and DNA damage using comet assay revealed that synthesized selenium nanoparticles showed protective effect against As(III)-induced cell death and DNA damage. Chronic ingestion of arsenicinfested groundwater, and prevalence of arsenicosis is a serious public health issue. The synthesized benign nanoselenium can be a promising agent to check the chronic toxicity caused due to arsenic exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{PrasadKS2014,
  author = {Prasad KS, Selvaraj K},
  title = {Biogenic synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and their effect on As(III)-induced toxicity on human lymphocytes.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {157(3)},
  pages = {275-83},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-9891-0}
}
Prasanna SV, Kamath PV Synthesis and characterization of arsenate-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs): prospects for arsenic mineralization. 2009 Prasanna SV1, Kamath PV.
Vol. 331(2), pp. 439-45 
article DOI  
Abstract: The arsenate-intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Mg and Al is synthesized by coprecipitation. The higher thermodynamic stability and the consequent lower solubility of the unitary arsenates preclude the formation of arsenate-intercalated LDHs of other metals directly from solution. However other M/Al-AsO(4) (M=Co, Ni, Zn) LDHs could be prepared by anion exchange, showing that arsenate intercalation proceeds topotactically. The intercalation of various species of As(V) into the interlayer of LDHs and the subsequent arsenate carrying capacity are dependent upon the pH of the solution. Upon thermal decomposition, the intercalated arsenate ion undergoes reductive deintercalation to give a mixture of As(III) and As(V) oxides. The product oxides revert back to the LDH upon soaking in water on account of the compositional and morphological metastability of the former. This is in contrast with the phosphate-intercalated LDHs, in which the reversibility is suppressed, consequent to the formation of stable metal phosphates.
BibTeX:
@article{PrasannaSV2009,
  author = {Prasanna SV, Kamath PV.},
  title = {Synthesis and characterization of arsenate-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs): prospects for arsenic mineralization.},
  journal = {Prasanna SV1, Kamath PV.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {331(2)},
  pages = {439-45},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2008.11.054}
}
Pyne S, Biswas J, Sinha D A new systems approach to combat arsenic induced carcinogenesis 2013 South Asian J Cancer
Vol. 2(2), pp. 82 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{PyneS2013,
  author = {Pyne S, Biswas J, Sinha D.},
  title = {A new systems approach to combat arsenic induced carcinogenesis},
  journal = {South Asian J Cancer},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {2(2)},
  pages = {82},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2278-330X.110498}
}
Rahaman S, Sinha AC, Mukhopadhyay D Effect of water regimes and organic matters on transport of arsenic in summer rice (Oryza sativa L.). 2011 J Environ Sci (China).
Vol. 23(4), pp. 633-9 
article  
Abstract: The arsenic contamination in soil-water-plant systems is a major concern of where, the groundwater is being contaminated with arsenic (above 0.01 mg/L) in the Indian subcontinent. The study was conducted with organic matter to find out the reducing effect on arsenic load to rice (cv. Khitish). It was observed that intermittent ponding reduced arsenic uptake (23.33% in root, 13.84% in shoot and 19.84% in leaf) at panicle initiation stage, instead of continuous ponding. A decreasing trend of arsenic accumulation (root > straw > husk > whole grain > milled grain) was observed in different plant parts at harvest. Combined applications of lathyrus + vermicompost + poultry manure reduced arsenic transport in plant parts (root, straw, husk, whole grains and milled grain) which was significantly at par (p > 0.05) with chopped rice straw (5 tons/ha) + lathyrus green manuring (5 tons/ha) in comparison to control and corresponding soils. A significant negative correlation ofarsenic with phosphorus (grain P with arsenic in different parts R2= 0.627-0.726 at p > 0.01) was observed. Similarly, soil arsenic had a negative correlation with soil available phosphorus (R2 = 0.822 at p > 0.001) followed by soil nitrogen (R2 = 0.762 at p > 0.01) and soil potassium (R2 = 0.626 at p > 0.01). Hence, effective management of contaminated irrigation water along with organic matter could reduce the arsenic build up to plants and soil.
BibTeX:
@article{RahamanS2011,
  author = {Rahaman S, Sinha AC, Mukhopadhyay D.},
  title = {Effect of water regimes and organic matters on transport of arsenic in summer rice (Oryza sativa L.).},
  journal = {J Environ Sci (China).},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {23(4)},
  pages = {633-9}
}
Rahaman S, Sinha AC, Pati R, Mukhopadhyay D Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India. 2013 Environ Geochem Health.
Vol. 35(1), pp. 119-32 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in groundwater is becoming more and more a worldwide problem. Nearing 50 million of people are at health risk from arsenic contamination at Ganga-Meghna-Bramhaputra basin. The experimental results of the five blocks under Malda district of West Bengal, India, showed that the arsenic concentration in groundwater (0.41-1.01 mg/l) was higher than the permissible limit for drinking water (0.01 mg/l) (WHO) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) permissible limit for irrigation water (0.10 mg/l). The soil arsenic level (13.12 mg/kg) crossed the global average (10.0 mg/kg), but within the maximum acceptable limit for agricultural soil (20.0 mg/kg) recommended by the European Union. The total arsenic concentration on food crops varied from 0.000 to 1.464 mg/kg of dry weight. The highest mean arsenic concentration was found in potato (0.456 mg/kg), followed by rice grain (0.429 mg/kg). The total mean arsenic content (milligrams per kg dry weight) in cereals ranged from 0.121 to 0.429 mg/kg, in pulses and oilseeds ranged from 0.076 to 0.168 mg/kg, in tuber crops ranged from 0.243 to 0.456 mg/kg, in spices ranged from 0.031 to 0.175 mg/kg, in fruits ranged from 0.021 to 0.145 mg/kg and in vegetables ranged from 0.032 to 0.411 mg/kg, respectively. Hence, arsenicaccumulation in cereals, pulses, oilseed, vegetables, spices, cole crop and fruits crop might not be safe in future without any sustainable mitigation strategies to avert the potential arsenic toxicity on the human health in the contaminated areas.
BibTeX:
@article{RahamanS2013,
  author = {Rahaman S, Sinha AC, Pati R, Mukhopadhyay D.},
  title = {Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {35(1)},
  pages = {119-32},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-012-9460-4}
}
Rahman S, Kim KH2, Saha SK3, Swaraz AM1, Paul DK Review of remediation techniques for arsenic (As) contamination: a novel approach utilizing bio-organisms. 2014 J Environ Manage.
Vol. 15;134., pp. 175-85 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) contamination has recently become a worldwide problem, as it is found to be widespread not only in drinking water but also in various foodstuffs. Because of the high toxicity, As contamination poses a serious risk to human health and ecological system. To cope with this problem, a great deal of effort have been made to account for the mechanisms of As mineral formation and accumulation by some plants and aquatic organisms exposed to the high level of As. Hence, bio-remediation is now considered an effective and potent approach to breakdown As contamination. In this review, we provide up-to-date knowledge on how biological tools (such as plants for phytoremediation and to some extent microorganisms) can be used to help resolve the effects of As problems on the Earth's environment.
BibTeX:
@article{RahmanS2014,
  author = {Rahman S, Kim KH2, Saha SK3, Swaraz AM1, Paul DK4.},
  title = {Review of remediation techniques for arsenic (As) contamination: a novel approach utilizing bio-organisms.},
  journal = {J Environ Manage.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {15;134.},
  pages = {175-85},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.027}
}
Rai A, Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Dubey S, Shri M, Kumar S, Tripathi PK, Dave R, Kumar A, Singh R, Adhikari B, Bag M,Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D, Tuli R Arsenic tolerances in rice (Oryza sativa) have a predominant role in transcriptional regulation of a set of genes including sulphur assimilation pathway and antioxidant system. 2011 Chemosphere.
Vol. 82(7), pp. 986-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: World wide arsenic (As) contamination of rice has raised much concern as it is the staple crop for millions. Four most commonly cultivated rice cultivars, Triguna, IR-36, PNR-519 and IET-4786, of the West Bengal region were taken for a hydroponic study to examine the effect of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on growth response, expression of genes and antioxidants vis-à-vis As accumulation. The rice genotypes responded differentially under As(V) and As(III) stress in terms of gene expression and antioxidant defences. Some of the transporters were up-regulated in all rice cultivars at lower doses of As species, except IET-4786. Phytochelatin synthase, GST and ?-ECS showed considerable variation in their expression pattern in all genotypes, however in IET-4786 they were generally down-regulated in higher As(III) stress. Similarly, most of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) increased significantly in Triguna, IR-36 and PNR-519 and decreased in IET-4786. Our study suggests that Triguna, IR-36 and PNR-519 are tolerant rice cultivars accumulating higher arsenic; however IET-4786 is susceptible to As-stress and accumulates less arsenic than other cultivars.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiA2011,
  author = {Rai A, Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Dubey S, Shri M, Kumar S, Tripathi PK, Dave R, Kumar A, Singh R, Adhikari B, Bag M,Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D, Tuli R.},
  title = {Arsenic tolerances in rice (Oryza sativa) have a predominant role in transcriptional regulation of a set of genes including sulphur assimilation pathway and antioxidant system.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {82(7)},
  pages = {986-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.070}
}
Rai A, Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Dubey S, Shri M, Kumar S, Tripathi PK, Dave R, Kumar A, Singh R, Adhikari B, Bag M,Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D, Tuli R Arsenic tolerances in rice (Oryza sativa) have a predominant role in transcriptional regulation of a set of genes including sulphur assimilation pathway and antioxidant system. 2011 Chemosphere.
Vol. 82(7), pp. 986-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: World wide arsenic (As) contamination of rice has raised much concern as it is the staple crop for millions. Four most commonly cultivated rice cultivars, Triguna, IR-36, PNR-519 and IET-4786, of the West Bengal region were taken for a hydroponic study to examine the effect of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on growth response, expression of genes and antioxidants vis-à-vis As accumulation. The rice genotypes responded differentially under As(V) and As(III) stress in terms of gene expression and antioxidant defences. Some of the transporters were up-regulated in all rice cultivars at lower doses of As species, except IET-4786. Phytochelatin synthase, GST and ?-ECS showed considerable variation in their expression pattern in all genotypes, however in IET-4786 they were generally down-regulated in higher As(III) stress. Similarly, most of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) increased significantly in Triguna, IR-36 and PNR-519 and decreased in IET-4786. Our study suggests that Triguna, IR-36 and PNR-519 are tolerant rice cultivars accumulating higher arsenic; however IET-4786 is susceptible to As-stress and accumulates less arsenic than other cultivars.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiA2011a,
  author = {Rai A, Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Dubey S, Shri M, Kumar S, Tripathi PK, Dave R, Kumar A, Singh R, Adhikari B, Bag M,Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D, Tuli R.},
  title = {Arsenic tolerances in rice (Oryza sativa) have a predominant role in transcriptional regulation of a set of genes including sulphur assimilation pathway and antioxidant system.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {82(7)},
  pages = {986-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.070}
}
Rajpoot DS, Prakash A, Mandil R, Rahal A, Garg SK Differential modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rats following single and concurrent exposure to chlorpyrifos, arsenic, and ascorbic acid. 2013 J Toxicol Environ Health A.
Vol. 76(24), pp. 1354-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the subacute toxicity of arsenic (As) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone or in combination. In addition, the ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid on As and/or CPF-induced hepatic microsomal xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rats was examined. Rats were divided into 9 groups of 6 animals each: control (deionized water), vehicle control (groundnut oil), ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg body weight), As (40 ppm in water), CPF (5 mg/kg body weight), As (40 ppm) + CPF (5 mg/kg body weight), As + ascorbic acid, CPF + ascorbic acid, and As + CPF + ascorbic acid. After 28 d of exposure, rats were sacrificed and liver was extracted for isolation of hepatic microsomes. Exposure to As or CPF alone as well as both of these in combination significantly altered microsomal proteins and activity of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b 5 levels and activities of aniline p-hydroxylase (APH) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) were significantly decreased in groups treated with As, CPF, and As plus CPF, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) was not markedly altered. Enzymatic activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase (ANDM) was also significantly reduced in As- and CPF-only groups. Co-administration of ascorbic acid effectively countered the As- and CPF-induced alterations in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.
BibTeX:
@article{RajpootDS2013,
  author = {Rajpoot DS, Prakash A, Mandil R, Rahal A, Garg SK},
  title = {Differential modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rats following single and concurrent exposure to chlorpyrifos, arsenic, and ascorbic acid.},
  journal = {J Toxicol Environ Health A.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {76(24)},
  pages = {1354-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2013.853005}
}
Rana T, Bera AK, Bhattacharya D, Das S, Pan D, Das SK Effect of Pleurotus florida lectin (PFL) on arsenic-induced activities of splenocytes in rat. 2014 Toxicol Ind Health
Vol. 30(4), pp. 336-46 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of Pleurotus florida lectin (PFL) againstarsenic-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative damages in freshly isolated splenocytes of rodents. Our finding indicated that arsenic caused reduction in cell adhesion, morphological alterations, cell proliferation, nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) index, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity and relative mRNA expression of SOD2 in relation to housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and increased production of nitric oxide (NO), protein carbonyl (PC) and lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) assembled to play key factors for cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. PFL normalized cellular damages and enhanced SOD production pathway relating to gene expression. Further studies are needed to address effective phytochemicals of the edible mushroom and their mechanism.
BibTeX:
@article{RanaT2014,
  author = {Rana T, Bera AK, Bhattacharya D, Das S, Pan D, Das SK.},
  title = {Effect of Pleurotus florida lectin (PFL) on arsenic-induced activities of splenocytes in rat.},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {30(4)},
  pages = {336-46},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233712456064}
}
Rana T, Bera AK, Das S, Pan D, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhattacharya D, De S, Sikdar S, Das SK Effect of ascorbic acid on blood oxidative stress in experimental chronic arsenicosis in rodents. 2010 Food Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 48(4), pp. 1072-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ascorbic acid is a sugar acid and an essential vital food nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ascorbic acid against arsenic induced oxidative stress in blood of rat. In rat, treatment with ascorbic acid prevented the increased serum enzymatic activity of AST, ALT, ALP, ACP and LDH. In addition, treatment with ascorbic acid prevented elevated production of LPO, PC and NO and restored the depletion of reduced SOD and CAT activities. Interestingly, ascorbic acid markedly upregulated lymphocytes relative mRNA expression of lymphocytes SOD2 gene corresponding to GAPDH, house keeping candidate gene in arsenic-treated rat, which might provide anti-oxidative activity in the blood.
BibTeX:
@article{RanaT2010,
  author = {Rana T, Bera AK, Das S, Pan D, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhattacharya D, De S, Sikdar S, Das SK},
  title = {Effect of ascorbic acid on blood oxidative stress in experimental chronic arsenicosis in rodents.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {48(4)},
  pages = {1072-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.01.027}
}
Rana T, Bera AK, Das S, Bhattacharya D, Pan D, Das SK Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India. 2014 Toxicol Ind Health.
Vol. 30(4), pp. 328-35 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenicconcentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings
BibTeX:
@article{RanaT12014,
  author = {Rana T1, Bera AK, Das S, Bhattacharya D, Pan D, Das SK.},
  title = {Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {30(4)},
  pages = {328-35},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233712456061}
}
Ranjan D, Talat M, Hasan SH Biosorption of arsenic from aqueous solution using agricultural residue 'rice polish'. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 166(2-3), pp. 1050-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: 'Rice polish' (an agricultural residue) was utilized successfully for the removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. Various parameters viz. pH, biosorbent dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were studied. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models were used and the system followed all three isotherms, showing sorption to be monolayer on the heterogeneous surface of the biosorbent. The maximum sorption capacity calculated using Langmuir model was 138.88 microg/g for As(III) at 20 degrees C and pH 7.0 and 147.05 microg/g at 20 degrees C and pH 4.0 for As(V). The mean sorption energy (E) calculated from D-R model indicated chemisorption nature of sorption. Study of thermodynamic parameters revealed the exothermic, spontaneous and feasible nature of sorption process in case of both As(III) and As(V). The pseudo-second-order rate equation described better the kinetics of arsenic sorption with good correlation coefficients than pseudo-first-order equation. Mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion, richenberg and elovich models were applied to the data and it was found that initially the sorption of arsenic was governed by film diffusion followed by intraparticle diffusion. Rice polish was found to be efficient in removing arsenic from aqueous solution as compared to other biosorbents already used for the removal of arsenic.
BibTeX:
@article{RanjanD2009,
  author = {Ranjan D, Talat M, Hasan SH.},
  title = {Biosorption of arsenic from aqueous solution using agricultural residue 'rice polish'.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {166(2-3)},
  pages = {1050-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.013}
}
Ranjan R, Rastogi NK, Thakur MS Development of immobilized biophotonic beads consisting of Photobacterium leiognathi for the detection of heavy metals and pesticide. 2012 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 225-226, pp. 114-23. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present communication deals with construction of immobilized robust biophotonic bead using P. leiognathi, a marine luminescent bacterium for their possible application in monitoring of environmental toxicants. Immobilization efficiency of agar, carrageenan and sodium alginate was evaluated separately in terms of luminescence response and was recorded as 30.3, 77.4 or 99.5%, respectively. Under optimized storage conditions, the luminescent response of P. leiognathi in the immobilized state was studied over a period of 30 days. These biophotonic beads were further used as a rapid and reliable optical biosensing tool for the detection of heavy metals [Hg(II), As(V) or Cd(II)] and pesticide [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] in water systems. The concentration range for the detection of Hg(II), As(V), Cd(II) and 2,4-D was 2-32ppm, 4-128ppm, 16-512ppm and 100-600ppm, respectively, while corresponding sensitivity threshold was 2.0ppm, 4.0ppm, 16.0ppm and 100ppm. A comparison of inhibition constant (K(d)) (or EC(20)) values indicated that the sensitivity thresholds rank as Hg(II)>As(V)>Cd(II)>2,4-D. Moreover, the time taken for the detection of heavy metals and pesticide was less than 30min. Using the bioluminescence inhibition method, the concentration of heavy metals and pesticide could be predicted
BibTeX:
@article{RanjanR2012,
  author = {Ranjan R, Rastogi NK, Thakur MS.},
  title = {Development of immobilized biophotonic beads consisting of Photobacterium leiognathi for the detection of heavy metals and pesticide.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {225-226},
  pages = {114-23.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.04.076}
}
Ray A, Chatterjee S, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya S Arsenic trioxide induced indirect and direct inhibition of glutathione reductase leads to apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. 2014 Biometals
Vol. 27(3), pp. 483-94. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Glutathione reductase (GR) is an essential enzyme which maintains the reduced state of a cell. Therefore GR malfunction is closely associated with several disorders related to oxidative damage. The present study reports toxic manifestation of arsenic trioxide in respect of GR leading to apoptosis. Isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to arsenic trioxide were analyzed for GR expression and activity. Arsenic resulted in a time dependent inhibition of GR mediated by the superoxide anion. The cellular demand of functional enzyme is achieved by concomitant rise in gene expression. However, direct inhibition of GR by arsenic trioxide was also evident. Furthermore,arsenic induced free radical mediated inhibition of GR was found to be partially uncompetitive and associated with time dependent decrease in the substrate binding rate. Externalization of phosphatidylserine, nuclear degradation, apoptosis inducing factor leakage, apoptosome formation, caspase activation, DNA damage and break down of PARP suggest consequential induction of apoptosis due to inhibition of GR. The implication of GR was further established from the reduced rate of caspase activation in the arsenic trioxide treated cell, supplemented with complete and incomplete enzyme systems.
BibTeX:
@article{RayA2014,
  author = {Ray A, Chatterjee S, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya S.},
  title = {Arsenic trioxide induced indirect and direct inhibition of glutathione reductase leads to apoptosis in rat hepatocytes.},
  journal = {Biometals},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {27(3)},
  pages = {483-94.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-014-9722-y}
}
Roy DR, Giri S, Chattaraj PK Arsenic toxicity: an atom counting and electrophilicity-based protocol. 2009 Mol Divers.
Vol. 13(4), pp. 551-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: The atomic number (Z) and electrophilicity index (omega) have been utilized to explain the toxicity of various alkali and transition-metal ions as well as to predict that of the arsenic ions. The toxicity of two different training sets of arsenic derivatives is described using the global electrophilicity (omega) and number of nonhydrogenic atoms (N (NH)) along with the local philicity (omega(As)+) and the atomic charge (Q (As)) on the arsenic atom. Applying the regression models from the training sets, toxicity of some unknown arsenic derivatives is predicted.
BibTeX:
@article{RoyDR2009,
  author = {Roy DR, Giri S, Chattaraj PK.},
  title = {Arsenic toxicity: an atom counting and electrophilicity-based protocol.},
  journal = {Mol Divers.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {13(4)},
  pages = {551-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-009-9133-0}
}
Saha D, Shukla RR Genesis of arsenic-rich groundwater and the search for alternative safe aquifers in the Gangetic Plain, India. 2014 Int J Prev Med.
Vol. 5(1), pp. 89-98. 
article  
Abstract: Distribution and mobilization of groundwater arsenic from a 1580-km(2) area in the Gangetic Plain was studied. A two-tier aquifer system made up of Quaternary sand layers exists within 300 m below ground. Arsenicconcentration exceeding >50 microg/L is confined within the active floodplain of the Ganga River, affecting the top aquitard and upper 5- to 20-m slice of the underlying shallow aquifer. The genesis of arsenic was investigated by principal component analyses involving total dissolved solids, Ca(+2), Mg(+2), Na(+), K(+), HCO3-, Cl(-1), SO4(-2), NO3-, Fetotal, and Astotal and analyzed for 57 groundwater samples, hydrochemical facies analyses, aquifer-aquitard configuration, and water-level behaviour. A 20- to 25-m thick deeper aquifer, appearing at 190 to 205 m below ground and separated from the shallow aquifer by a thick clay sequence, was low in arsenic load (<2 microg/L). Hydrostratigraphy and pumping tests revealed that the deeper aquifer can be used for community drinking in contaminated areas.
BibTeX:
@article{SahaD2014,
  author = {Saha D, Shukla RR2.},
  title = {Genesis of arsenic-rich groundwater and the search for alternative safe aquifers in the Gangetic Plain, India.},
  journal = {Int J Prev Med.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {5(1)},
  pages = {89-98.}
}
Saikia J, Saha B, Das G Efficient removal of chromate and arsenate from individual and mixed system by malachite nanoparticles. 2011 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 186(1), pp. 575-82 
article DOI  
Abstract: Malachite nanoparticles of 100-150 nm have been efficiently and for the first time used as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic arsenate and chromate. We report a high adsorption capacity for chromate and arsenate on malachite nanoparticle from both individual and mixed solution in pH ?4-5. However, the adsorption efficiency decreases with the increase of solution pH. Batch studies revealed that initial pH, temperature, malachite nanoparticles dose and initial concentration of chromate and arsenate were important parameters for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that adsorption of chromate and arsenate on malachite nanoparticles is endothermic and spontaneous. The adsorption of these anions has also been investigated quantitatively with the help of adsorption kinetics, isotherm, and selectivity coefficient (K) analysis. The adsorption data for both chromate and arsenate were fitted well in Langmuir isotherm and preferentially followed the second order kinetics. The binding affinity of chromate is found to be slightly higher than arsenate in a competitive adsorption process which leads to the comparatively higher adsorption of chromate on malachite nanoparticles surface.
BibTeX:
@article{SaikiaJ2011,
  author = {Saikia J, Saha B, Das G.},
  title = {Efficient removal of chromate and arsenate from individual and mixed system by malachite nanoparticles.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {186(1)},
  pages = {575-82},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.036}
}
Sankar MS, Vega MA, Defoe PP, Kibria MG, Ford S, Telfeyan K, Neal A, Mohajerin TJ, Hettiarachchi GM,Barua S, Hobson C, Johannesson K, Datta S Elevated arsenic and manganese in groundwaters of Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. 2014 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 488-489, pp. 570-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: High levels of geogenic arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in drinking water has led to widespread health problems for the population of West Bengal, India. Here we delineate the extent of occurrences of As and Mn in Murshidabad, where the contaminated aquifers occur at shallow depths between 35 and 40 m and where access to safe drinking water is a critical issue for the local population. A total of 78 well-water samples were taken in 4 blocks on either side of the river Bhagirathi: Nabagram and Kandi (west, Pleistocene sediments), Hariharpara and Beldanga (east, Holocene sediments). High As, total iron (FeT) and low Mn concentrations were found in waters from the Holocene gray sediment aquifers east of the river Bhagirathi, while the opposite was found in the Pleistocene reddish-brown aquifer west of the river Bhagirathi in Murshidabad. Speciation of As in water samples from Holocene sediments revealed the dominant species to be As(III), with ratios of As(III):AsT ranging from 0.55 to 0.98 (average 0.74). There were indications from saturation index estimations that Mn solubility is limited by the precipitation of MnCO3. Tubewells from high As areas in proximity to anthropogenic waste influx sources showing high molar Cl/Br ratios, low SO4(2-) and low NO3(-) demonstrate relatively lower As concentrations, thereby reducing As pollution in those wells. Analyses of core samples (2 in each of the blocks) drilled to a depth of 45 m indicate that there is no significant variation in bulk As (5-20mg/kg) between the Holocene and Pleistocene sediments, indicating that favorable subsurface redox conditions conducive to mobilization are responsible for the release of As. The same applies to Mn, but concentrations vary more widely (20-2000 mg/kg). Sequential extraction of Holocene sediments showed As to be associated with 'specifically sorbed-phosphate-extractable' phases (10-15%) and with 'amorphous and well crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxide' phases (around 37%) at As-contaminated well depths, suggesting that the main As release mechanisms could be either competitive ion exchange with PO4(3-), or the dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides. In the Pleistocene sediments Mn is predominantly found in the easily exchangeable fraction.
BibTeX:
@article{SankarMS2014,
  author = {Sankar MS, Vega MA, Defoe PP, Kibria MG, Ford S, Telfeyan K, Neal A, Mohajerin TJ, Hettiarachchi GM,Barua S, Hobson C, Johannesson K, Datta S.},
  title = {Elevated arsenic and manganese in groundwaters of Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {488-489},
  pages = {570-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.077}
}
Sankar P, Gopal Telang A, Kalaivanan R, Karunakaran V, Manikam K, Sarkar SN Effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on arsenic-induced liver toxicity in rats. 2013 Environ Toxicol  article DOI  
Abstract: We investigated the therapeutic effectiveness of the nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (CUR-NP) against sodium arsenite-induced hepatic oxidative damage in rats. The CUR-NP prepared by emulsion technique was spherical in shape with an encapsulation efficiency of 86.5%. The particle size ranged between 120 and 140 nm with the mean particle size being 130.8 nm. Rats were divided into five groups of six each. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (25 ppm) daily through drinking water for 42 days. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with arsenic as in group 2, however, they were administered, empty nanoparticles, curcumin (100 mg/kg bw) and CUR-NP (100 mg/kg bw), respectively, by oral gavage during the last 14 days of arsenic exposure. Arsenic increased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and caused histological alterations in liver indicating hepatotoxicity. Arsenicincreased lipid peroxidation, depleted reduced glutathione and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver. All these effects of arsenic were attenuated with both curcumin and CUR-NP. However, the magnitude of amelioration was more pronounced with CUR-NP. The results indicate that curcumin given in nano-encapsulated form caused better amelioration than free curcumin
BibTeX:
@article{SankarP2013,
  author = {Sankar P, Gopal Telang A, Kalaivanan R, Karunakaran V, Manikam K, Sarkar SN.},
  title = {Effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on arsenic-induced liver toxicity in rats.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.21940}
}
Sarkar D, Mandal K, Mandal M Detail study on ac-dc magnetic and dye absorption properties of Fe3O4 hollow spheres for biological and industrial application. 2014 J Nanosci Nanotechnol.
Vol. 14(3)., pp. 2307-16 
article  
Abstract: Here solvo-thermal technique has been used to synthesize hollow-nanospheres of magnetite. We have shown that PVP plays an important role to control the particle size and also helps the particles to take the shape of hollow spheres. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements like SEM and TEM were performed to confirm the hollow type spherical particles formation and their shape and sizes were also investigated. The detail ac-dc magnetic measurements give an idea about the application of these nano spheres for hyperthermia therapy and spontaneous dye adsorption properties (Gibbs free energy deltaG0 = -0.526 kJ/mol for Eosin and -1.832 kJ/mol for MB) of these particles indicate its use in dye manufacturing company. Being hollow in structure and magnetic in nature such materials will also be useful in other application fields like in drug delivery, arsenic and heavy metal removal by adsorption technique, magnetic separation etc.
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarD2014,
  author = {Sarkar D, Mandal K, Mandal M},
  title = {Detail study on ac-dc magnetic and dye absorption properties of Fe3O4 hollow spheres for biological and industrial application.},
  journal = {J Nanosci Nanotechnol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {14(3).},
  pages = {2307-16}
}
Sarkar S, Mukherjee S, Chattopadhyay A, Bhattacharya S Low dose of arsenic trioxide triggers oxidative stress in zebrafish brain: Expression of antioxidant genes. 2014 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 107, pp. 1-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Occurrence of arsenic in the aquatic environment of West Bengal (India), Bangladesh and other countries are of immediate environmental concern. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used as a model to investigate oxidative stress related enzyme activities and expression of antioxidant genes in the brain to 50µg/Larsenic trioxide for 90 days. In treated fish, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene (CD) showed a triphasic response attaining a peak at the end of the exposure. In addition, a gradual increase in GSH level was noted until 60 days and at 90 days, a sudden fall was recorded which heightened arsenic toxicity. However, GSH level does not correlate well with the glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Generation of ROS in zebrafish brain due to As2O3 exposure was further evidenced by significant alteration of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity, which converts H2O2 to water and helps in detoxication. Moreover, enhanced mRNA level of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in As2O3 exposed zebrafish indicates a protective role of Nrf2. kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), a negative regulator of Nrf2, inversely correlates with the mRNA expression of Nrf2. As2O3 induced toxicity was also validated by the alteration in NRF2 and NRF2 dependent expression of proteins such as heme oxygenase1 (HO1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone1 (NQO1). The mRNA expression of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1), catalase (Cat), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-Sod), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn Sod) and cytochrome c oxidase1 (Cox1) were also up regulated. The expression of uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2), an important mitochondrial enzyme was also subdued in arsenic exposed zebrafish. The oxidative stress induced by arsenic also cause reduced mRNA expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) present in the inner mitochondrial membrane and thereby indicating onset of apoptosis in treated fish. It is concluded that even a low dose of arsenic trioxide is toxic enough to induce significant oxidative stress in zebrafish brain.
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarS2014,
  author = {Sarkar S, Mukherjee S, Chattopadhyay A, Bhattacharya S},
  title = {Low dose of arsenic trioxide triggers oxidative stress in zebrafish brain: Expression of antioxidant genes.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {107},
  pages = {1-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.05.012}
}
Saxena PN, Anand S, Saxena N, Bajaj P Effect of arsenic trioxide on renal functions and its modulation by Curcuma aromatica leaf extract in albino rat. 2009 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 30(4), pp. 527-31. 
article  
Abstract: The protective effects of Curcuma aromatica leaf extract were studied on nehrotoxicity induced by arsenictrioxide in albino rats. LD50 estimated for arsenic trioxide was 14.98 mg kg(-1) body weight. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by estimating the serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine, the markers of renal dysfunctioning. The applied doses of arsenic trioxide administered orally were 0.007, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.15 mg 100 g(-1) body weight for sub acute (21,14 and 7 days) and acute (1 day) treatments respectively. Arsenic trioxide intoxication significantly increased the serum level of urea, uric acid and creatinine in comparison to control due to renal dysfunctioning. Pretreatment with dose of 50 mg kg(-1) body weight of leaf extract of Curcuma aromatica restored the increased serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine to normal. The results reveal that Curcuma aromatica leaf extract has a potential to modulate the renal dysfunctioning caused by arsenic trioxide.
BibTeX:
@article{SaxenaPN2009,
  author = {Saxena PN, Anand S, Saxena N, Bajaj P.},
  title = {Effect of arsenic trioxide on renal functions and its modulation by Curcuma aromatica leaf extract in albino rat.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(4)},
  pages = {527-31.}
}
Sen Gupta B, Chatterjee S, Rott U, Kauffman H, Bandopadhyay A, DeGroot W, Nag NK, Carbonell-Barrachina AA,Mukherjee S A simple chemical free arsenic removal method for community water supply--a case study from West Bengal, India. 2009 Environ Pollut.
Vol. 157(12), pp. 3351-3 
article DOI  
Abstract: This report describes a simple chemical free method that was successfully used by a team of European and Indian scientists (www.qub.ac.uk/tipot) to remove arsenic (As) from groundwater in a village in West Bengal, India. Six such plants are now in operation and are being used to supply water to the local population (www.insituarsenic.org). The study was conducted in Kasimpore, a village in North 24 Parganas District, approximately 25 km from Kolkata. In all cases, total As in treated water was less than the WHO guideline value of 10 microg L(-1). The plant produces no sludge and the operation cost is 1.0 US$ per day for producing 2000 L of potable water.
BibTeX:
@article{SenGuptaB2009,
  author = {Sen Gupta B, Chatterjee S, Rott U, Kauffman H, Bandopadhyay A, DeGroot W, Nag NK, Carbonell-Barrachina AA,Mukherjee S.},
  title = {A simple chemical free arsenic removal method for community water supply--a case study from West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Pollut.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {157(12)},
  pages = {3351-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.09.014}
}
Sharma A, Sharma MK, Kumar M Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. 2009 Chem Biol Interact.
Vol. 180(1), pp. 20-30 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic, an important human toxin, is naturally occurring in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of the world, particularly Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between chronic arsenic exposure and various adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological defects and cancer of lung, skin, bladder, liver and kidney. The protective role of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (500 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic induced hepatopathy. Arsenic treated group (NaAsO(2), 4 mg/kg b.wt.) had a significant increase in serum transaminases and lipid peroxidation (LPO) content in liver, whereas significant decrease was recorded in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Combined treatment of Emblica and arsenic (pre and post) declined the serum transaminases and LPO content in liver whereas significant increase was noticed in SOD, CAT, GST and serum alkaline phosphatase activities. Liver histopathology showed that Emblica fruit extract had reduced karyolysis, karyorrhexis, necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization induced by NaAsO(2) intoxication. Thus it can be concluded that pre- and post-supplementation of E. officinalis fruit extract significantly reduced arsenicinduced oxidative stress in liver.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaA2009,
  author = {Sharma A, Sharma MK, Kumar M.},
  title = {Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.},
  journal = {Chem Biol Interact.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {180(1)},
  pages = {20-30},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2009.01.012}
}
Sharma B, Singh S, Siddiqi NJ Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems. 2014 Biomed Res Int.  article  
Abstract: Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaB2014,
  author = {Sharma B, Singh S, Siddiqi NJ.},
  title = {Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems.},
  journal = {Biomed Res Int.},
  year = {2014}
}
Sharma M, Sharma S, Arora M, Kaul D Regulation of cellular Cyclin D1 gene by arsenic is mediated through miR-2909. 2013 Gene.
Vol. 522(1), pp. 60-4 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic through its ability to regulate genes that link cell cycle control with apoptosis has been widely recognized to play a crucial role in oncogenomics. However, the molecular event by which arsenic affects such genes is far from clear. Here we provide reasonably good evidence to support the view that arsenic exposure to human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) at low concentrations results in the over-expression of miR-2909 within these cells. This over-expressed miR-2909 was found to regulate CCND1 (Cyclin D1) gene expression, within these cells by inducing splice-switching of tumor suppresser CYLD (Cylindromatosis) gene as well as modulation of SP1 (Specificity Protein 1) activity through the repression of KLF4 (Kruppel-like factor4) expression at the translational level. Arsenic dependent regulation of AATF (Apoptosis Antagonizing Transcription factor) and BCL3 (B-cell Lymphoma 3) were also found to be modulated through its capacity to induce miR-2909 expression. Based upon these observations, a novel epigenomic pathway was proposed which may not only be useful in understanding the paradoxical role of arsenic in oncogenomics but also may even be useful in devising various strategies for the treatment/prevention of tumors induced by arsenic.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaM2013,
  author = {Sharma M, Sharma S, Arora M, Kaul D.},
  title = {Regulation of cellular Cyclin D1 gene by arsenic is mediated through miR-2909.},
  journal = {Gene.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {522(1)},
  pages = {60-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.03.058}
}
Sharma P, Asad S, Ali A Bioluminescent bioreporter for assessment of arsenic contamination in water samples of India. 2013 J Biosci
Vol. 38(2), pp. 251-8. 
article  
Abstract: In the present study the most efficient R-factor controlling the ars operon was selected after screening of 39 Escherichia coli isolates by minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC) studies from water samples of different geographical locations of India. Among all, strain isolated from Hooghly River (West Bengal) was found to have maximum tolerance towards arsenic and was further used for the development of bioreporter bacteria. Cloning of the ars regulatory element along with operator-promotor and luxCDABE from Photobacteria into expression vector has been accomplished by following recombinant DNA protocols. The bioreporter sensor system developed in this study can measure the estimated range of 0.74-60 mu g of As/L and is both specific and selective for sensing bioavailable As. The constructed bacterial biosensor was further used for the determination of arsenic ion concentration in different environmental samples of India
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaP2013,
  author = {Sharma P, Asad S, Ali A.},
  title = {Bioluminescent bioreporter for assessment of arsenic contamination in water samples of India.},
  journal = {J Biosci},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {38(2)},
  pages = {251-8.}
}
Sharma T, Banerjee BD, Yadav CS, Gupta P, Sharma S Heavy metal levels in adolescent and maternal blood: association with risk of hypospadias. 2014 ISRN Pediatr.  article DOI  
Abstract: Background. Hypospadias is a part of testicular digenesis syndrome (TDS) which includes infertility, cryptorchidism, and spermatogenesis. Heavy metals act as endocrine disrupting compounds. Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and lead have been associated with male infertility, cryptorchidism, spermatogenesis, cancer, reproductive disorder, and neurological disorder. However, it remains an important issue to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that the role of heavy metals in male reproductive tract disorders. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the possible association of heavy metal and risk of hypospadias by estimating the blood heavy metal levels. Methods. In this case control study, 50 hypospadias boys diagnosed and confirmed by a pediatric urologist and 50 randomly selected age-matched (1-5 years) healthy control boys not suffering from any clinically detectible illness and their mothers have been included and heavy metal levels in the blood of these subjects have been estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Result. Significantly high levels of cadmium and lead have been observed in hypospadias cases; however, all heavy metal levels were present in higher concentration. Conclusion. Higher blood levels of cadmium and lead may be associated with the increased risk of hypospadias.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaT2014,
  author = {Sharma T, Banerjee BD, Yadav CS, Gupta P, Sharma S.},
  title = {Heavy metal levels in adolescent and maternal blood: association with risk of hypospadias.},
  journal = {ISRN Pediatr.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/714234}
}
Shen H, Dasgupta PK Electrochemical arsine generators for arsenic determination. 2014 Anal Chem
Vol. 86(15), pp. 7705-11 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsine generation is the gateway for several sensitive and selective methods of As determination. An electrochemical arsine generator (EAG) is especially green: we report here the use of two electrode materials, aluminum and highly oriented (ordered) pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) never before used for this purpose. The first is operated on a novel constant voltage mode: current flows only when the sample, deliberately made highly conductive with acid, is injected. As a result, the cathode, despite being a highly active metal that will self-corrode in acid, lasts a long time. This EAG can be made to respond to As(III) and As(V) in an equivalent fashion and is fabricated with two readily available chromatographic T-fittings. It permits the use of a wire roll as the cathode, permitting rapid renewal of the electrode. The HOPG-based EAG is easily constructed from ion chromatography suppressor shells and can convert As(III) to AsH3 quantitatively but has significantly lower response to As(V); this difference can be exploited for speciation. The success of Al, an active metal, also dispels the maxim that metals with high hydrogen overpotential are best for electrochemical hydride generation. We report construction, operation, and performance details of these EAGs. Using gas phase chemiluminescence (GPCL) with ozone as a complementary green analytical technique, we demonstrate attractive limits of detection (LODs) (S/N = 3) of 1.9 and 1.0 ?g/L As(V) and As(III) for the HOPG-based EAG and 1.4 ?g/L As(V) or As(III) for the Al-based EAG, respectively. Precision at the ?20 ?g/L As(V) level was 2.4% and 2.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for HOPG- and Al-based EAGs, respectively. Both HOPG- and Al-based EAGs permitted a sample throughput of 12/h. For groundwater samples from West Texas and West Bengal, India, very comparable results were obtained with parallel measurements by induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.
BibTeX:
@article{ShenH2014,
  author = {Shen H, Dasgupta PK.},
  title = {Electrochemical arsine generators for arsenic determination.},
  journal = {Anal Chem},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {86(15)},
  pages = {7705-11},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac501636u}
}
Shinde RN, Pandey AK, Acharya R, Guin R, Das SK, Rajurkar NS, Pujari PK Chitosan-transition metal ions complexes for selective arsenic(V) preconcentration. 2013 Water Res.
Vol. 47(10), pp. 3497-506. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Chitosan is naturally occurring bio-polymer having strong affinity towards transition metal ions. Chitosan complexed with transition metal ions takes up inorganic arsenic anions from aqueous medium. In present work, As(V) sorption in the chitosan complexed with different metal ions like Cu(II), Fe(III), La(III), Mo(VI) and Zr(IV) were studied. Sorptions of As(V) in CuS embedded chitosan, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) embedded chitosan, epichlorohydrin (ECH) crosslinked chitosan and pristine chitosan were also studied. (74)As radiotracer was prepared specifically for As(V) sorption studies by irradiation of natural germanium target with 18 MeV proton beam. The sorption studies indicated that Fe(III) and La(III) complexed with chitosan sorbed 95 ± 2% As(V) from aqueous samples in the pH range of 3-9. However, Fe(III)-chitosan showed better sorption efficiency (91 ± 2%) for As(V) from seawater than La(III)-chitosan (80 ± 2%). Therefore, Fe(III)-chitosan was selected to prepare the self-supported membrane and poly(propylene) fibrous matrix supported sorbent. The experimental As(V) sorption capacities of the fibrous and self-supported Fe(III)-chitosan sorbents were found to be 51 and 109 mg g(-1), respectively. These materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDXRF, and used for preconcentration of As(V) in aqueous media like tap water, ground water and seawater. To quantify the As(V) preconcentrated in Fe(III)-chitosan, the samples were subjected to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons. As(V) separations were carried out using a two compartments permeation cell for the self-supported membrane and flow cell using the fibrous sorbent. The total preconcentration of arsenic content was also explored by converting As(III) to As(V).
BibTeX:
@article{ShindeRN2013,
  author = {Shinde RN, Pandey AK, Acharya R, Guin R, Das SK, Rajurkar NS, Pujari PK.},
  title = {Chitosan-transition metal ions complexes for selective arsenic(V) preconcentration.},
  journal = {Water Res.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {47(10)},
  pages = {3497-506.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.03.059}
}
Shri M, Dave R, Diwedi S, Shukla D, Kesari R, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D Heterologous expression of Ceratophyllum demersum phytochelatin synthase, CdPCS1, in rice leads to lower arsenic accumulation in grain. 2014 Sci Rep
Vol. 22;4, pp. 5784 
article DOI  
Abstract: Recent studies have identified rice (Oryza sativa) as a major dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As) and poses a significant human health risk. The predominant model for plant detoxification of heavy metals is complexation of heavy metals with phytochelatins (PCs), synthesized non-translationally by PC synthase (PCS) and compartmentalized in vacuoles. In this study, in order to restrict As in the rice roots as a detoxification mechanism, a transgenic approach has been followed through expression of phytochelatin synthase, CdPCS1, from Ceratophyllum demersum, an aquatic As-accumulator plant. CdPCS1 expressing rice transgenic lines showed marked increase in PCS activity and enhanced synthesis of PCs in comparison to non-transgenic plant. Transgenic lines showed enhanced accumulation of As in root and shoot. This enhanced metal accumulation potential of transgenic lines was positively correlated to the content of PCs, which also increased several-fold higher in transgenic lines. However, all the transgenic lines accumulated significantly lower As in grain and husk in comparison to non-transgenic plant. The higher level of PCs in transgenic plants relative to non-transgenic presumably allowed sequestering and detoxification of higher amounts of As in roots and shoots, thereby restricting its accumulation in grain.
BibTeX:
@article{ShriM2014,
  author = {Shri M, Dave R, Diwedi S, Shukla D, Kesari R, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D.},
  title = {Heterologous expression of Ceratophyllum demersum phytochelatin synthase, CdPCS1, in rice leads to lower arsenic accumulation in grain.},
  journal = {Sci Rep},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {22;4},
  pages = {5784},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep05784}
}
Shukla D, Kesari R, Mishra S, Dwivedi S, Tripathi RD, Nath P, Trivedi PK Expression of phytochelatin synthase from aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum L. enhances cadmium and arsenic accumulation in tobacco. 2012 Plant Cell Rep.
Vol. 31(9), pp. 1687-99. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Phytochelatin synthase (PCS), the key enzyme involved in heavy metal detoxification and accumulation has been used from various sources to develop transgenic plants for the purpose of phytoremediation. However, some of the earlier studies provided contradictory results. Most of the PCS genes were isolated from plants that are not potential metal accumulators. In this study, we have isolated PCS gene from Ceratophyllum demersum cv. L. (CdPCS1), a submerged rootless aquatic macrophyte, which is considered as potential accumulator of heavy metals. The CdPCS1 cDNA of 1,757 bp encodes a polypeptide of 501 amino acid residues and differs from other known PCS with respect to the presence of a number of cysteine residues known for their interaction with heavy metals. Complementation of cad1-3 mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in PC (phytochelatin) biosynthesis by CdPCS1 suggests its role in the synthesis of PCs. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing CdPCS1 showed several-fold increased PC content and precursor non-protein thiols with enhanced accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) without significant decrease in plant growth. We conclude that CdPCS1 encodes functional PCS and may be part of metal detoxification mechanism of the heavy metal accumulating plant C. demersum.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaD2012,
  author = {Shukla D, Kesari R, Mishra S, Dwivedi S, Tripathi RD, Nath P, Trivedi PK.},
  title = {Expression of phytochelatin synthase from aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum L. enhances cadmium and arsenic accumulation in tobacco.},
  journal = {Plant Cell Rep.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {31(9)},
  pages = {1687-99.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-012-1283-3}
}
Signes A, Mitra K, Burlo F, Carbonell-Barrachina AA Effect of cooking method and rice type on arsenic concentration in cooked rice and the estimation of arsenic dietary intake in a rural village in West Bengal, India. 2008 Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess.
Vol. 25(11), pp. 1345-52 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) contamination of rice plants can result in high total As concentrations (t-As) in cooked rice, especially if As-contaminated water is used for cooking. This study examines two variables: (1) the cooking method (water volume and inclusion of a washing step); and (2) the rice type (atab and boiled). Cooking water and raw atab and boiled rice contained 40 microg As l(-1) and 185 and 315 microg As kg(-1), respectively. In general, all cooking methods increased t-As from the levels in raw rice; however, raw boiled rice decreased its t-As by 12.7% when cooked by the traditional method, but increased by 15.9% or 23.5% when cooked by the intermediate or contemporary methods, respectively. Based on the best possible scenario (the traditional cooking method leading to the lowest level of contamination, and the atab rice type with the lowest As content), t-As daily intake was estimated to be 328 microg, which was twice the tolerable daily intake of 150 microg.
BibTeX:
@article{SignesA2008,
  author = {Signes A, Mitra K, Burlo F, Carbonell-Barrachina AA.},
  title = {Effect of cooking method and rice type on arsenic concentration in cooked rice and the estimation of arsenic dietary intake in a rural village in West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {25(11)},
  pages = {1345-52},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030802189732}
}
Singh AL, Singh VK, Srivastava A Effect of arsenic contaminated drinking water on human chromosome: a case study. 2013 Indian J Clin Biochem
Vol. 28(4), pp. 422-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic contamination of ground water has become a serious problem all over the world. Large number of people from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal of India are suffering due to consumption of arseniccontaminated drinking water. Study was carried out on 30 individuals residing in Ballia District, UP where the maximum concentration of arsenic was observed around 0.37 ppm in drinking water. Blood samples were collected from them to find out the problem related with arsenic. Cytogenetic study of the blood samples indicates that out of 30, two persons developed Klinefelter syndrome.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghAL2013,
  author = {Singh AL, Singh VK, Srivastava A.},
  title = {Effect of arsenic contaminated drinking water on human chromosome: a case study.},
  journal = {Indian J Clin Biochem},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {28(4)},
  pages = {422-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12291-013-0330-3}
}
Singh MK, Dwivedi S, Yadav SS, Sharma P, Khattri S Arsenic-Induced Hepatic Toxicity and Its Attenuation by Fruit Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla) in Mice. 2014 Indian J Clin Biochem
Vol. 29(1), pp. 29-37 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic a metalloid and environmental contaminated has been found to be associated with public health problems in the affected areas. It is naturally occurred in groundwater and its accumulation in plant and animals leads to toxicity in several tissues most notably hepatic organ. Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) in mice exhibited increased arsenic and Zn levels in hepatocytes associated with enhanced oxidative stress in hepatocytes while there were no significantly changes were observed in Cu level. An increase in the lipid peroxidation and decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were observed in arsenic treated mice as compared to controls. Arsenicexposure in mice also caused a significant change in serum biomarkers in the SGOT, SGPT and creatinine as compared to the controls. There were no significant changes in the serum levels of total protein in these mice. Co-administration of arsenic and fruit extract of amla (500 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) caused a significant reduction of arsenic transference associated with significantly decreases hepatic arsenic levels and balanced the antioxidant enzyme and levels of serum hepatic enzymes like SGOT and SGPT. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the antioxidant property of amla that could be responsible for its protective efficacy in arsenic induced hepatic toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghMK2014,
  author = {Singh MK, Dwivedi S, Yadav SS, Sharma P, Khattri S.},
  title = {Arsenic-Induced Hepatic Toxicity and Its Attenuation by Fruit Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla) in Mice.},
  journal = {Indian J Clin Biochem},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {29(1)},
  pages = {29-37},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12291-013-0353-9}
}
Singh MK, Yadav SS, Yadav RS, Singh US, Shukla Y, Pant KK, Khattri S Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice. 2014 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 21(1), pp. 8-17 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
Arsenic, an environmental contaminant naturally occurred in groundwater and has been found to be associated with immune-related health problems in humans.
OBJECTIVE:
In view of increasing risk of arsenic exposure due to occupational and non-occupational settings, the present study has been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla against arsenic-induced spleenomegaly in mice.
RESULTS:
Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice caused an increase production of ROS (76%), lipid peroxidation (84%) and decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (53%) and catalase (54%) in spleen as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure to mice also caused a significant increase in caspases-3 activity (2.8 fold) and decreases cell viability (44%), mitochondrial membrane potential (47%) linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis (subG1-28.72%) and annexin V/PI binding in spleen as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (33%), ROS production (24%), activity of caspase-3 (1.4 fold), apoptosis (subG1 12.72%) and increased cell viability (63%), levels superoxide dismutase (80%), catalase (77%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (66%) as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone.
CONCLUSIONS:
Results of the present study indicate that the effect of arsenic is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione in liver associated with enhanced oxidative stress that has been found to be protected following simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghMK2014a,
  author = {Singh MK, Yadav SS, Yadav RS, Singh US, Shukla Y, Pant KK, Khattri S.},
  title = {Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(1)},
  pages = {8-17},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.128784}
}
Singh N, Kumar D, Lal K, Raisuddin S, Sahu AP Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: modification by dietary supplementation of jaggery in mice. 2010 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 242(3), pp. 247-55 
article DOI  
Abstract: Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed toarsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghN2010,
  author = {Singh N, Kumar D, Lal K, Raisuddin S, Sahu AP},
  title = {Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: modification by dietary supplementation of jaggery in mice.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {242(3)},

  pages = {247-55},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.10.014}
}
Singh N, Rana SV Effect of insulin on arsenic toxicity in diabetic rats—liver function studies. 2009 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 132(1-3), pp. 215-26 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (iAs)-induced diabetic mellitus has been debated by several workers. However, role of insulin in iAs-induced diabetes is yet to be investigated. Present report suggests that iAs promotes insulin secretion in diabetic rats and inhibits hyperglycemia. Whereas, reverse effects were recorded after insulin treatment to diabetic and iAs-treated rats. These conditions affect accumulation of iAs in liver. It decreased in diabetic and iAs-treated rats but increased after insulin treatment. Reciprocal effects were observed on serum transaminases and total bilirubin. Nevertheless, activity of glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver was stimulated by insulin treatment to diabetic and arsenic-fed rats. These results suggest that manifestations of arsenic-induced diabetes mellitus are not modulated or reversed by insulin. Observations on liver function further suggest that iAs is less toxic in diabetic rats. This protective effect has been attributed to noninsulin-dependent carbohydrate regulatory mechanisms. Diabetes certainly alters the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of iAs in rat.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghN2009,
  author = {Singh N, Rana SV.},
  title = {Effect of insulin on arsenic toxicity in diabetic rats—liver function studies.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {132(1-3)},
  pages = {215-26},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-009-8396-8}
}
Singh S, Shrivastava AK, Singh VK Arsenic and cadmium are inhibitors of cyanobacterial dinitrogenase reductase (nifH1) gene. 2014 Funct Integr Genomics
Vol. 14(3)., pp. 571-80 
article DOI  
Abstract: The enzyme nitrogenase complex is a key component conferring nitrogen fixation in all known diazotrophs. This study for the first time examines the impact of As, Na, Cd, Cu and butachlor on component II (dinitrogenase reductase, nifH1) of nitrogenase from diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 using in silico and wet lab approaches. The nifH1 of Anabaena is a glycine-rich stable protein having DNA-binding properties and shows close similarity with free living compared with symbiotic diazotrophs. Phylogenetic tree revealed an adverse effect of the selected stresses on close homologs across the diazotroph community. The protein interaction network demonstrated the presence of nirA, glnA, glnB, alr4255 and alr2485 proteins besides nif proteins, suggesting their involvement in nitrogen fixation along with nifH1. Homology modelling and docking under As, Na, Cd, Cu and butachlor revealed an interaction between stressors and nifH1 protein which was further validated by a transcript of the gene through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Presence of binding sites for As, Na, Cd and Cu on oxyR promoter attested their adverse affects on nifH1. Maximum down-regulation of nifH1 in Cd and As followed by salt, copper and butachlor revealed that arsenic and cadmium were most potential inhibitors of nitrogenase of diazotrophic community, which might negatively affect crop yield.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghS2014,
  author = {Singh S, Shrivastava AK, Singh VK},
  title = {Arsenic and cadmium are inhibitors of cyanobacterial dinitrogenase reductase (nifH1) gene.},
  journal = {Funct Integr Genomics},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {14(3).},
  pages = {571-80},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-014-0375-2}
}
Singh V, Mitra S, Sharma AK, Gera R, Ghosh D Isolation and characterization of microglia from adult mouse brain: selected applications for ex vivo evaluation of immunotoxicological alterations following in vivo xenobiotic exposure. 2014 Chem Res Toxicol.
Vol. 27(5), pp. 895-903 
article DOI  
Abstract: Microglia play a dual role in neuroprotection as well as in neurodegeneration and thus occupy the focal interest in neurodegenerative disease research. In vitro studies either by using cell lines or neonatal mouse primary microglia correlated xenobiotic induced microglial activation and neuronal death. However, these in vitro studies cannot portray the in vivo scenario. Therefore, environmental pollutant induced in vivo alteration in microglial function can be best assessed by ex vivo analysis, which is not in use because of limitations in the isolation procedure. Therefore, in the first part of the study we describe an optimized isolation procedure and characterization of isolated cells. The second part of the study demonstrates the utility of the isolated cells in evaluation of immunotoxicological alterations following arsenic, as a model xenobiotic, exposure. Purity of the isolated microglia was checked by immunostaining of microglial (CD11b and CD68) and nonmicroglial (GFAP) markers. Immunostaining of activation marker Iba1 proves that cells were not activated during the isolation procedure. Microglia yield and viability from the treated group shows no significant alterations compared to that of the control group. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-?) were upregulated following arsenic treatment as in the case of the LPS stimulated group without alterations in anti-inflammatory IL-10. Phagocytic potential was affected significantly following arsenic exposure without alteration in viability. Thus, our protocol can be proficiently used for quick isolation of primary microglia from adult mouse brain without altering their activation status, and most importantly, the isolated cells can be of aid to the ex vivo evaluation of immunotoxicological alterations.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghV2014,
  author = {Singh V, Mitra S, Sharma AK, Gera R, Ghosh D.},
  title = {Isolation and characterization of microglia from adult mouse brain: selected applications for ex vivo evaluation of immunotoxicological alterations following in vivo xenobiotic exposure.},
  journal = {Chem Res Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {27(5)},
  pages = {895-903},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx500046k}
}
Singha U, Pandey N, Boro F, Giri S, Giri A, Biswas S Sodium arsenite induced changes in survival, growth, metamorphosis and genotoxicity in the Indian cricket frog (Rana limnocharis). 2014 Chemosphere.
Vol. 112, pp. 333-9. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic contamination of the environment is a matter of great concern. Understanding the effects of arsenic on aquatic life will act as biological early warning system to assess how arsenic could shape the biodiversity in the affected areas. Rapid decline in amphibian population in recent decades is a cause of major concern. Over the years, amphibians have been recognized as excellent bio-indicators of environmental related stress. In the present study, we examined the toxic and genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite in the tadpoles of the Indian cricket frog (Rana limnocharis). Sodium arsenite at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 ?g L(-1)) neither induced lethality nor significantly altered body weight at metamorphosis. However, it accelerated the rate of metamorphosis at higher concentrations, reduced body size (snout-vent length) and induced developmental deformities such as loss of limbs. Besides, at concentration ranges between 100 and 400 ?g L(-1), sodium arsenite induced statistically significant genotoxicity at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of the exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. However, it did not show time effects as the highest frequency was found between 48 and 72 h which remained steady subsequently. The genotoxicity was confirmed by comet assay in the whole blood cells. These findings suggest that arsenic at environmentally relevant concentrations has significant sub-lethal effects on R.limnocharis, which may have long-term fitness consequence to the species and may have similar implications in other aquatic life too
BibTeX:
@article{SinghaU2014,
  author = {Singha U, Pandey N, Boro F, Giri S, Giri A, Biswas S.},
  title = {Sodium arsenite induced changes in survival, growth, metamorphosis and genotoxicity in the Indian cricket frog (Rana limnocharis).},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {112},
  pages = {333-9.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.076}
}
Sinha B, Bhattacharyya K Arsenic toxicity in rice with special reference to speciation in Indian grain and its implication on human health. 2014 J Sci Food Agric.  article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Rice is a potentially important route of human exposure to arsenic, especially in populations with rice-based diets. However, arsenic toxicity varies greatly with species. The initial purpose of the present study was to evaluate arsenic speciation in rice.
RESULTS:
It appeared very clear from the present study that inorganic arsenic shared maximum arsenic load in rice straw while in grains it is considerably low. As species recovered from rice grain and straw are principally As(III) and As(V) with a small amount of dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) and almost non-detectable monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and arsenobetain (AsB). Discussion of the health risk of As in rice has largely been based on its inorganic arsenic content because these species have generally been considered to be more toxic than MMA and DMA and can be directly compared to As in drinking water, assuming equal bioavailability of inorganic As in the rice matrix and in water. The maximum dietary risk of exposure to inorganic arsenicthrough transplanted boro paddy in the present experiment was calculated to be almost 1706% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake for an adult of 60?kg body weight.
CONCLUSION:
As species recovered from boro rice grain and straw are principally As(III) and As(V) with a small amount of DMA and almost non-detectable MMA and AsB. Reductions in total As load through organic amendments in boro rice grain and straw samples were manifested predominately through reduced accumulations of inorganic As species [As(III) and As(V)], between which As(V) accounted for the larger share. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaB2014,
  author = {Sinha B, Bhattacharyya K.},
  title = {Arsenic toxicity in rice with special reference to speciation in Indian grain and its implication on human health.},
  journal = {J Sci Food Agric.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6839}
}
Sinha S, Giri AK, Chowdhury R, Ray K Mitochondrial genome variations among arsenic exposed individuals and potential correlation with apoptotic parameters. 2014 Environ Mol Mutagen.
Vol. 55(1), pp. 70-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: Exposure to arsenic (As) causes serious health hazards. Therefore, there is a sustained effort to understand the molecular basis of the risk posed by the toxicant. It has been reported that apoptotic changes ensue on exposure to As. To investigate the molecular basis of such changes, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial (mt) genome from PBMC of a subset of these individuals (As-exposed=16 and unexposed=18) using Affymetrix platform. Our analysis revealed that As exposure does not induce large-scale mt-DNA variations, but that specific deleterious changes could induce mt dysfunction. A Glu115Ter mutation as well as 17 other in silico predicted deleterious variants were identified exclusively in exposed individuals. The number of variants in mt Complex I in As-exposed individuals was positively correlated with their respective intracellular ROS level. In addition, the extent of potentially damaging variants in As-exposed individuals had significant positive correlation to the degree of G0 /G1 cell cycle arrest.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaS2014,
  author = {Sinha S, Giri AK, Chowdhury R, Ray K.},
  title = {Mitochondrial genome variations among arsenic exposed individuals and potential correlation with apoptotic parameters.},
  journal = {Environ Mol Mutagen.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {55(1)},
  pages = {70-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.21828}
}
Smith E, Naidu R Chemistry of inorganic arsenic in soils: kinetics of arsenic adsorption-desorption. 2009 Environ Geochem Health.
Vol. Suppl 1, pp. 49-59 
article DOI  
Abstract: The influence of ionic strength, index cations and competing anions on arsenate (As(V)) adsorption-desorption kinetics was studied in an Alfisol soil. A flow-through reactor system similar to that developed by Carski and Sparks (Soil Sci Soc Am J 49:1114-1116, 1985) was constructed for the experiments. Arsenate adsorption kinetics for all the treatments were initially fast with 58-91% of As(V) adsorbed in the first 15 min. Beyond 15 min, As(V) adsorption continued at a slower rate for the observation period of the experiments. Changes in the solution composition had differing effects on the cumulative amount of As(V) adsorbed by the soil. Ionic strength and different index cations had little effect on the amount of As(V) adsorbed, while the presence of phosphate decreased the amount of As(V) adsorbed from 169 to 89 and 177 to 115 g As(V) microg(-1) in 0.03 M sodium nitrate and 0.01 M calcium nitrate, respectively. Considerably less As(V) was desorbed than was adsorbed, with only between 2 to 17% of the adsorbed As(V) desorbed. The presence of phosphate increased the amount of As(V) desorbed by 17%, but other changes in the solution ionic strength or index cation had little effect on the amount of As(V) desorbed.
BibTeX:
@article{SmithE2009,
  author = {Smith E, Naidu R.},
  title = {Chemistry of inorganic arsenic in soils: kinetics of arsenic adsorption-desorption.},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {Suppl 1},
  pages = {49-59},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-008-9228-z}
}
Srivastava A, Bains GS, Acharya R, Reddy AV Study of seleniferous soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis. 2011 Appl Radiat Isot.
Vol. 69(5), pp. 818-21 
article DOI  
Abstract: Soil samples from the seleniferous region of Punjab State in India were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons and high resolution ?-ray spectrometry. Samples were collected from three different depths namely surface, root and geological bed zones. Concentrations of 15 elements including selenium and arsenic were determined by relative method. For comparison purposes, soil samples collected from a non-seleniferous region were also analyzed.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaA2011,
  author = {Srivastava A, Bains GS, Acharya R, Reddy AV.},
  title = {Study of seleniferous soils using instrumental neutron activation analysis.},
  journal = {Appl Radiat Isot.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {69(5)},
  pages = {818-21},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.01.027}
}
Srivastava AK, Bhargava P, Thapar R, Rai LC Differential response of antioxidative defense system of Anabaena doliolum under arsenite and arsenate stress. 2009 J Basic Microbiol.
Vol. Suppl 1:S63-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study offers first hand information on the arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V))-induced oxidative stress and changes in antioxidative defense system of Anabaena doliolum. A requirement of 58 mM As(V) as compared to only 11 mM As(III) to cause 50% reduction in growth rate suggests that As(III) is more toxic than As(V) in the test cyanobacterium. In contrast to above, oxidative damage measured in terms of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage and peroxide content were significantly higher after As(V) than As(III) treatment as compared to control. Similarly all the studied enzymatic parameters of antioxidative defense system except glutathione reductase (GR) and non-enzymatic parameters except glutathione reduced (GSH) showed greater induction against As(V) than As(III). Interestingly, higher increase in non-enzymatic counterpart than enzymatic in both the stresses suggests that detoxification is mainly managed by former than the later. This confirms the belief of pronounced stimulation of the antioxidative defense system by As(V) than As(III). In conclusion, the cyanobacterium may survive better in As(V) than As(III) contaminated fields because of its low toxicity and pronounced induction of antioxidative defense system.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaAK2009,
  author = {Srivastava AK, Bhargava P, Thapar R, Rai LC},
  title = {Differential response of antioxidative defense system of Anabaena doliolum under arsenite and arsenate stress.},
  journal = {J Basic Microbiol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {Suppl 1:S63-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.200800301}
}
Srivastava AK, Srivastava S, Mishra S, D'Souza SF, Suprasanna P Identification of redox-regulated components of arsenate (As(V)) tolerance through thiourea supplementation in rice. 2014 Metallomics.
Vol. 20;6(9), pp. 1718-30 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitously present environmental carcinogen that enters into the human food chain through rice grains. In our previous research, the application of thiourea (TU; a non-physiological thiol based ROS scavenger) has been demonstrated to enhance salt and UV stress tolerance as well as the crop yield under field conditions. These effects were associated with the ability of TU to maintain plant redox homeostasis. Since As stress also induces redox imbalance, the present research was initiated to evaluate the efficiency of TU in regulating As tolerance/accumulation in rice. The supplementation of TU (75 ?M) to As(V) (25 ?M) improved the root growth and also reduced the As concentration by 56% in the aerial parts, which could be attributed to significant downregulation of the Lsi2 transporter responsible for the translocation of As from root to shoot. The fact that these effects were not due to direct interaction between As and TU was confirmed from complexation studies using HPLC-(ICP-MS)-(ESI-MS). Short-term kinetic studies of GSH levels and the GSH/GSSG ratio confirmed the establishment of differential redox states in As and As + TU treated seedlings. The real-time RT-PCR based comparative expression profiling under As with/without TU treatment identified Sultr1;1 and Sultr1;2 as major redox-regulated sulfate transporters. Their specific induction in shoots coupled with enhanced root-to-shoot sulfate translocation (analyzed using (35)S-sulfate as a radiotracer) was observed under TU supplementation. Furthermore, the level of thiolic metabolites (PC2 in roots and GSH and PC3 in shoots) and activities of sulfur metabolism enzymes (ATP sulfurylase and cysteine synthase in roots and 5'-adenylylsulfate reductase in shoot) were also increased with As + TU as compared to As treatment. Thus, this study utilizes the interaction between As and TU to identify the critical redox regulated components of As tolerance in rice.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaAK2014,
  author = {Srivastava AK, Srivastava S, Mishra S, D'Souza SF, Suprasanna P.},
  title = {Identification of redox-regulated components of arsenate (As(V)) tolerance through thiourea supplementation in rice.},
  journal = {Metallomics.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {20;6(9)},
  pages = {1718-30},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4mt00039k}
}
Srivastava S, D'Souza SF Increasing sulfur supply enhances tolerance to arsenic and its accumulation in Hydrilla verticillata (Lf.) Royle. 2009 Environ Sci Technol.
Vol. 43(16), pp. 6308-13 
article  
Abstract: The present study was aimed to analyze the effects of variable S supply on arsenic (As) accumulation potential of Hydrilla verticillata (Lf.) Royle. Plants were exposed to either arsenate (AsV; 50 microM) or arsenite (AsIII; 5 microM) for 4 h and 1 day while S supply was varied as deficient (2 microM, -S), normal (1 mM, +S) and excess (2 mM, +HS). The level of As accumulation (microg g(-1) dw) after 1 day was about 2-fold higher upon exposure to either AsV (30) or AsIII (50) in +HS plants than that being in +S (12 and 24) and -S (14 and 26) plants. The +HS plants showed a significant stimulation of the thiol metabolism upon As exposure. Besides, they did not experience significant toxicity, measured in terms of malondialdehyde accumulation; an indicator of oxidative stress. By contrast, -S plants suffered from oxidative stress probably due to negative impact to thiol metabolism. Variable S supply also modulated the activity of enzymes of glycine and serine biosynthesis indicating an interconnection between S and N metabolism. In conclusion, an improved supply of S to plants was found to augment their ability for As accumulation through stimulated thiol metabolism.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaS2009,
  author = {Srivastava S, D'Souza SF},
  title = {Increasing sulfur supply enhances tolerance to arsenic and its accumulation in Hydrilla verticillata (Lf.) Royle.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Technol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {43(16)},
  pages = {6308-13}
}
Srivastava S, Sharma YK Impact of arsenic toxicity on black gram and its amelioration using phosphate. 2013 ISRN Toxicol.  article DOI  
Abstract: The toxicity of arsenic in soil and ground water is one of the most important environmental problems particularly in South-East Asia. Arsenic-polluted irrigation water creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) to arsenic with or without phosphate application was investigated. Arsenic-treated plants showed reduction in their growth and pigment content. Arsenicsignificantly enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and level of proline showing oxidative stress.Arsenic toxicity was associated with an increase in the activities of antioxidative enzymes like superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase whereas catalase activity decreased at higher arsenic dose. Joint application of phosphate with arsenic resulted in significant alterations in most of the parameters tested under the purview of arsenic treatment alone which lead to better growth in black gram.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaS2013,
  author = {Srivastava S, Sharma YK.},
  title = {Impact of arsenic toxicity on black gram and its amelioration using phosphate.},
  journal = {ISRN Toxicol.},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/340925}
}
Srivastava S, Suprasanna P, D'Souza SF Mechanisms of arsenic tolerance and detoxification in plants and their application in transgenic technology: a critical appraisal. 2012 Int J Phytoremediation.
Vol. 14(5), pp. 506-17 
article  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) contamination of the environment has emerged as a serious problem. Consequently, there is an urge to understand plants' responses to As. The analysis of various hypertolerant and hyperaccumulator plants and comparison of their responses with non-tolerant and nonaccumulators have provided valuable information about the mechanisms of As tolerance and detoxification. Therefore, we understand why most of the pteridophytes are able to hyperacumulate As, why it is difficult to find hyperaccumulators among angiosperms and why rice is able to translocate As to its grains more efficiently than any other cereal crop. This information can be employed to generate As hyperaccumulators in angiosperms and to develop safe cultivars of rice for human consumption through biotechnological approaches. Although measurable success, in terms of application in the field, has so far not been achieved, transgenic research has yielded promising results, which shed light on the approaches to be taken up in future endeavor. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of As tolerance and detoxification in plants and transgenic research conducted.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaS2012,
  author = {Srivastava S, Suprasanna P, D'Souza SF.},
  title = {Mechanisms of arsenic tolerance and detoxification in plants and their application in transgenic technology: a critical appraisal.},
  journal = {Int J Phytoremediation.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {14(5)},
  pages = {506-17}
}
Rana SV Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review. 2014 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 160(1), pp. 1-14 
article DOI  
Abstract: An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.
BibTeX:
@article{SV.2014,
  author = {Rana SV.},
  title = {Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {160(1)},
  pages = {1-14},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-0023-7}
}
Tandan N, Roy M, Roy S Ameliorative Potential of Psidium guajava on Hemato-biochemical Alterations inArsenic-exposed Wistar Rats. 2012 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 19(2), pp. 121-4 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study attempts to investigate the effects of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) when administered in combination with sodium arsenite @ 20 ppm in drinking water with the aim of achieving normalization of altered biochemical, hematological parameters suggestive of hepatic damage and depletion of inorganic arsenicfollowing chronic arsenic exposure. Thirty adult Wistar rats were given 20 ppm arsenic for eight weeks along with hydro alcoholic leaf extract of P. guajava at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight wt. (orally) (once daily for eight weeks). Arsenic exposure led to significant depletion of hemoglobin, red blood cells (RBC) and packed cell volume (PCV) but elevated leucocyte count (TLC). There was a significant increase (P<0.01/P<0.05) in serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphotase (ALP), acid phosphotase (ACP) and blood glucose whereas decrease in total protein level in arsenic-exposed untreated animals. The changes were accompanied by a significant elevation in blood and soft-tissue arsenicconcentration. Co-administration of P. guajava was most effective not only in reducing arsenic-induced hematological and biochemical alterations but also in depleting arsenic from blood and soft tissues followingarsenic exposure. We thus recommend combined leaf extract of P. guajava for achieving optimum effects of chelation therapy.
BibTeX:
@article{TandanN2012,
  author = {Tandan N, Roy M, Roy S.},
  title = {Ameliorative Potential of Psidium guajava on Hemato-biochemical Alterations inArsenic-exposed Wistar Rats.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {19(2)},
  pages = {121-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.97199}
}
Thirugnanam R, George B, Chendamarai E, Lakshmi KM, Balasubramanian P, Viswabandya A, Srivastava A, Chandy M, Mathews V Comparison of clinical outcomes of patients with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia induced with arsenic trioxide and consolidated with either an autologous stem cell transplant or an arsenic trioxide-based regimen. 2009 Biol Blood Marrow Transplant
Vol. 15(11), pp. :1479-84 
article DOI  
Abstract: In patients with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the best consolidation regimen following induction of remission with arsenic trioxide (ATO) remains to be defined. Since January 2000, 37 patients with relapsed APL were treated at our center. The median age was 34 years (range, 6-57 years), and there were 20 males (54.1%). The median duration of first remission was 20.3 months (range, 2.9-81.2 months). Relapse was treated with single-agent ATO in 22 patients (59.5%), ATO+ATRA in 5 patients (13.5%), and ATO+ATRA + anthracycline in 10 patients (27%). Thirty-three patients (89%) achieved molecular remission after induction and a consolidation course. Fourteen patients opted to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT), and the remaining 19 patients received monthly cycles of ATO as a single agent (n=13) or ATO+ATRA (n=6) for 6 months. At a median follow-up of 32 months, the 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of event-free survival (EFS) was 83.33% +/- 15.21% in those who underwent autologous SCT versus 34.45% +/- 11.24% in those who did not (P=.001; log-rank test). Following remission induction with ATO-based regimens in patients with relapsed APL, consolidation with autologous SCT is associated with a significantly superior clinical outcome compared with ATO- and ATO+ATRA-based maintenance regimens.
BibTeX:
@article{ThirugnanamR2009,
  author = {Thirugnanam R, George B, Chendamarai E, Lakshmi KM, Balasubramanian P, Viswabandya A, Srivastava A, Chandy M, Mathews V.},
  title = {Comparison of clinical outcomes of patients with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia induced with arsenic trioxide and consolidated with either an autologous stem cell transplant or an arsenic trioxide-based regimen.},
  journal = {Biol Blood Marrow Transplant},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {15(11)},
  pages = {:1479-84},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.07.010}
}
Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Mishra A, Kumar A, Dave R, Srivastava S, Shukla MK, Srivastava PK, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK,Tripathi RD Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants. 2012 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 184(5), pp. 2617-31 
article DOI  
Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah (Hoogly), Porbosthali (Bardhman), and Birnagar (Nadia)] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1) dw) in total number of 13 (8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial) collected plants. SAU was higher in aquatic plants (5-60 mg kg(-1) dw) than in terrestrial species (4-19 mg kg(-1) dw). The level of As was lower in medicinal plants (MPs) than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit (1 mg kg(-1) dw). The concentration of other elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb) was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants (MP). Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU (avg. 45 mg kg(-1) dw), however, transfer factor (TF) of As was the maximum in Centella asiatica (MP, avg. 1). Among the terrestrial plants, the maximum SAU and TF were demonstrated by Alternanthera ficoidea (avg. 15) and Phyllanthus amarus (MP, avg. 1.27), respectively. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species (Marsilea) and some aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis) might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields
BibTeX:
@article{TripathiP2012,
  author = {Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Mishra A, Kumar A, Dave R, Srivastava S, Shukla MK, Srivastava PK, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK,Tripathi RD.},
  title = {Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {184(5)},
  pages = {2617-31},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2139-y}
}
Upadhyaya D, Survaiya MD, Basha S, Mandal SK, Thorat RB, Haldar S, Goel S, Dave H, Baxi K, Trivedi RH, Mody KH Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals and boron in groundwater of the Gulf of Khambhat region, Gujarat, India. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(5), pp. 3880-90 
article DOI  
Abstract: The concentration of selected heavy metals, like As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn as well as B, was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in groundwater samples from various locations in the Gulf of Khambhat (GoK), an inlet of the Arabian Sea in the state of Gujarat, India, during post-monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon seasons in a year. Most heavy elements are characterized by low mobility under slightly alkaline and reducing conditions; concentrations in confined aquifers are smaller than the maximum permissible values for drinking water. The temporal changes indicate that a majority of metals is entering the aquifer during monsoon. Principle component analysis of the heavy metal data suggests that Co, Cu, Cd, and Zn are interrelated with each other and derived significantly from anthropogenic route, while input of Pb and Cr may be due to atmospheric deposition in the study area. Both weathering of rocks and anthropogenic input were found to be main sources of elements in the groundwater. The heavy metal levels in groundwaters of the GoK region in comparison with some of the European and Asian sites were higher; however, these metal levels were found to be comparable with few urban sites in the world.
BibTeX:
@article{UpadhyayaD2014,
  author = {Upadhyaya D, Survaiya MD, Basha S, Mandal SK, Thorat RB, Haldar S, Goel S, Dave H, Baxi K, Trivedi RH, Mody KH.},
  title = {Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals and boron in groundwater of the Gulf of Khambhat region, Gujarat, India.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(5)},
  pages = {3880-90},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2376-4}
}
Vijayakaran K, Kannan K, Kesavan M, Suresh S, Sankar P, Tandan SK, Sarkar SN Arsenic reduces the antipyretic activity of paracetamol in rats: modulation of brain COX-2 activity and CB? receptor expression 2014 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 37(1), pp. 438-47 
article DOI  
Abstract: We examined whether subacute arsenic exposure can reduce paracetamol-mediated antipyretic activity by affecting COX pathway and cannabinoid CB1 receptor regulation. Rats were preexposed to elemental arsenic(4 ppm) as sodium arsenite through drinking water for 28 days. Next day pyrexia was induced with lipopolysaccharide and paracetamol's (200 mg/kg, oral) antipyretic activity was assessed. The activities of COX-1 and COX-2, the levels of PGE?, TNF-? and IL-1? and expression of CB? receptors were assessed in brain. Arsenic inhibited paracetamol-mediated antipyretic activity. COX-1 activity was not affected by any treatments. Paracetamol decreased COX-2 activity, levels of PGE?, TNF-? and IL-1? and caused up-regulation of CB1 receptors. Arsenic caused opposite effects on these parameters. In the arsenic-preexposed rats, paracetamol-mediated effects were attenuated, while CB? receptor up-regulation was reversed to down-regulation. Results suggest that elevated COX-2 activity and reduced CB? expression could be involved in thearsenic-mediated attenuation of the antipyretic activity of paracetamol.
BibTeX:
@article{VijayakaranK2014,
  author = {Vijayakaran K, Kannan K, Kesavan M, Suresh S, Sankar P, Tandan SK, Sarkar SN},
  title = {Arsenic reduces the antipyretic activity of paracetamol in rats: modulation of brain COX-2 activity and CB? receptor expression},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {37(1)},
  pages = {438-47},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2013.12.015}
}
Vijayakaran K, Kesavan M, Kannan K, Sankar P, Tandan SK, Sarkar SN Arsenic decreases antinociceptive activity of paracetamol: Possible involvement of serotonergic and endocannabinoid receptors. 2014 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 38(2)., pp. 397-405 
article DOI  
Abstract: We assessed whether repeated arsenic exposure can decrease paracetamol-mediated antinociception by modulating serotonergic and endocannabinoid pathways. Rats were preexposed to elemental arsenic (4ppm) as sodium arsenite through drinking water for 28 days. Next day paracetamol's (400mg/kg, oral) antinociceptive activity was assessed through formalin-induced nociception. Serotonin content and gene expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and CB1 receptors were evaluated in brainstem and frontal cortex. Arsenic decreased paracetamol-mediated analgesia. Paracetamol, but not arsenic, increased serotonin content in these regions. Arsenicattenuated paracetamol-mediated increase in serotonin level. Paracetamol did not alter 5-HT1A expression, but caused down-regulation of 5-HT2A and up-regulation of CB1 receptors. Arsenic down-regulated these receptors. However, paracetamol-mediated down-regulation of 5-HT2A was more pronounced. Arsenic did not modify paracetamol's effect on 5-HT1A expression, but reduced paracetamol-mediated down-regulation of 5-HT2A and reversed up-regulation of CB1 receptors. Results suggest arsenic reduced paracetamol-induced analgesia possibly by interfering with pronociceptive 5-HT2A and antinociceptive CB1 receptors
BibTeX:
@article{VijayakaranK2014a,
  author = {Vijayakaran K, Kesavan M, Kannan K, Sankar P, Tandan SK, Sarkar SN.},
  title = {Arsenic decreases antinociceptive activity of paracetamol: Possible involvement of serotonergic and endocannabinoid receptors.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {38(2).},
  pages = {397-405},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2014.07.001}
}
Vineetha VP, Girija S, Soumya RS, Raghu KG Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity. 2014 Food Funct
Vol. 5(3), pp. 502-11 
article DOI  
Abstract: Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 ?M) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.
BibTeX:
@article{VineethaVP2014,
  author = {Vineetha VP, Girija S, Soumya RS, Raghu KG.},
  title = {Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.},
  journal = {Food Funct},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {5(3)},
  pages = {502-11},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3fo60470e}
}
Yadav A, Mathur R, Samim M, Lomash V, Kushwaha P, Pathak U, Babbar AK, Flora SJ, Mishra AK, Kaushik MP Nanoencapsulation of DMSA monoester for better therapeutic efficacy of the chelating agent against arsenic toxicity. 2014 Nanomedicine (Lond).
Vol. 9(4), pp. 465-81 
article DOI  
Abstract: AIMS:
Exposure to toxic metals remains a widespread occupational and environmental problem in world. Chelation therapy is a mainstream treatment used to treat heavy metal poisoning. This paper describes the synthesis, characterization and therapeutic evaluation of monoisoamyl 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA)-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles as a detoxifying agent for arsenic poisoning. Materials &
METHODS:
Polymeric nanoparticles entrapping the DMSA monoester, which can evade the reticulo-endothelial system and have a long circulation time in the blood, were prepared. Particle characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. An in vivo study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of MiADMSA-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles (nano- MiADMSA; 50 mg/kg orally for 5 days) and comparison drawn with bulk MiADMSA. Swiss albino mice exposed to sodium arsenite for 4 weeks were treated for 5 days to evaluate alterations in blood, brain, kidney and liver oxidative stress variables. The study also evaluated the histopathological changes in tissues and the chelating potential of the nanoformulation.
RESULTS:
Our results show that nano-MiADMSA have a narrow size distribution in the 50-nm range. We observed an enhanced chelating potential of nano-MiADMSA compared with bulk MiADMSA as evident in the reversal of biochemical changes indicative of oxidative stress and efficient removal of arsenic from the blood and tissues. Histopathological changes and urinary 8-OHdG levels also prove better therapeutic efficacy of the novel formulation for arsenic toxicity.
CONCLUSION:
The results from our study show better therapeutic efficacy of nano-MiADMSA in removingarsenic burden from the brain and liver.
BibTeX:
@article{YadavA2014,
  author = {Yadav A, Mathur R, Samim M, Lomash V, Kushwaha P, Pathak U, Babbar AK, Flora SJ, Mishra AK, Kaushik MP.},
  title = {Nanoencapsulation of DMSA monoester for better therapeutic efficacy of the chelating agent against arsenic toxicity.},
  journal = {Nanomedicine (Lond).},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {9(4)},
  pages = {465-81},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/NNM.13.17}
}
Yadav G, Srivastava PK, Singh VP, Prasad SM Light intensity alters the extent of arsenic toxicity in Helianthus annuus L. seedlings. 2014 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 158(3), pp. 410-21 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study is aimed at assessing the extent of arsenic (As) toxicity under three different light intensities-optimum (400 ?mole photon m(-2) s(-1)), sub-optimum (225 ?mole photon m(-2) s(-1)), and low (75 ?mole photon m(-2) s(-1))-exposed to Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 seedlings by examining various physiological and biochemical parameters. Irrespective of the light intensities under which H. annuus L. seedlings were grown, there was an As dose (low, i.e., 6 mg kg(-1) soil, As1; and high, i.e., 12 mg kg(-1) soil, As2)-dependent decrease in all the growth parameters, viz., fresh mass, shoot length, and root length. Optimum light-grown seedlings exhibited better growth performance than the sub-optimum and low light-grown seedlings; however, low light-grown plants had maximum root and shoot lengths. Accumulation of As in the plant tissues depended upon its concentration used, proximity of the plant tissue, and intensity of the light. Greater intensity of light allowed greater assimilation of photosynthates accompanied by more uptake of nutrients along with As from the medium. The levels of chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids declined with increasing concentrations of As. Seedlings acquired maximum Chl a and b under optimum light which were more compatible to face As1 and As2 doses of As, also evident from the overall status of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT, and GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (Pro).
BibTeX:
@article{YadavG2014,
  author = {Yadav G, Srivastava PK, Singh VP, Prasad SM.},
  title = {Light intensity alters the extent of arsenic toxicity in Helianthus annuus L. seedlings.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {158(3)},
  pages = {410-21},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-9950-6}
}
Dutta A, Chaudhuri M Removal of arsenic from groundwater by lime softening with powdered coal additive 1991 Aqua
Vol. 41(1), pp. 25-29 
article
Abstract: High levels of arsenic in tubewell drinking-water in West Bengal, India, have been linked to arsenical dermatosis and skin cancer. A laboratory lime softening test was carried out to remove arsenic from groundwater samples collected from one of the affected areas. At a lime dose of 1250 mg/l and pH 11.8, maximum removal was 90% whereby arsenic concentration was reduced from 0.68-0.70 mg/l (arsenic (III) 0.59-0.60 mg/l) to 0.07 mg/l. With powdered bituminous coal additive (2 g/l), residual arsenic level below the WHO guideline level of 0.05 mg/l was achieved at a lime dose of 800 mg/l and pH 11.5. The magnesium-hydroxide precipitate played a more significant role in removing arsenic, particularly arsenic (III) than calcium carbonate
BibTeX:
@article{A1991,
  author = {Dutta A and Chaudhuri M},
  title = {Removal of arsenic from groundwater by lime softening with powdered coal additive},
  journal = {Aqua},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {41(1)},
  pages = {25-29}
}
Acharya SK, Shah BA Risk of arsenic contamination in groundwater affecting the Ganga alluvial plain 2004 Environmental Health Perspective
Vol. 112(1), pp. 19-20 
article
BibTeX:
@article{AcharyaSK2004,
  author = {Acharya SK, Shah BA},
  title = {Risk of arsenic contamination in groundwater affecting the Ganga alluvial plain},
  journal = {Environmental Health Perspective},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {112(1)},
  pages = {19-20}
}
Acharyya SK, Chakraborty P, Lahiri S, Raymahashay BC, Guha S, Bhowmik A, Roy Chowdhury T, Basu GK, Mandal BK, Biswas BK, Samanta G, Chowdhury UK, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Sagar LR Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta (Brief Communication) 1999 Nature
Vol. 401, pp. 545-547 
article
BibTeX:
@article{AcharyyaSK1999,
  author = {Acharyya SK, Chakraborty P, Lahiri S, Raymahashay BC, Guha S, Bhowmik A, Roy Chowdhury T, Basu GK, Mandal BK, Biswas BK, Samanta G, Chowdhury UK, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Sagar LR},
  title = {Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta (Brief Communication)},
  journal = {Nature},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {401},
  pages = {545-547}
}
Acharyya SK, Shah BA Groundwater arsenic contamination affecting different geologic domains in India - a review: influence of geological setting, fluvial geomorphology and Quaternary stratigraphy 2007 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
Vol. 42(12), pp. 1795-805 
article
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in groundwater is pervasive within lowland organic-rich Bengal Delta and narrow entrenched channels in the Middle Ganga floodplains. Local areas of Damodar fan-delta and isolated areas within the Dongargarh Proterozoic rift-zone in central India are also contaminated. In this rift-zone, arsenic is enriched in felsic magmatic rocks and weathered rocks and soils from local areas are enriched further in arsenic and iron. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, geomorphology and sedimentation have influenced groundwater arsenic contamination in alluvium that aggraded during the Holocene sea-level rise. No specific source of arsenic could be identified, although Himalaya is the main provenance for the Ganga floodplain and the Bengal Delta. Gondwana coal seams and other Peninsular Indian rocks might be sources for arsenic in the Damodar fan-delta. As-bearing pyrite or any As-mineral is nearly absent in the aquifer sediments. Arsenic mainly occurs adsorbed on hydrated-iron-oxide (HFO), which coat sediment grains and minerals. Arsenic and iron are released to groundwater by bio-mediated reductive dissolution of HFO with corresponding oxidation of organic matter.
BibTeX:
@article{AcharyyaSK2007,
  author = {Acharyya SK, Shah BA},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination affecting different geologic domains in India - a review: influence of geological setting, fluvial geomorphology and Quaternary stratigraphy},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {42(12)},
  pages = {1795-805}
}
Ahamed S, Das B, Hossain MA, Nayak B, Pal A, Singh EJ, Sengupta MK, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Saha KC, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D Groundwater Arsenic Contamination And Its Health Effects In Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (Gmb) Plain And Its Surroundings 2007 Trace elements in medicine
Vol. 7(4), pp. 15-28 
article
Abstract: Based on our last 19 years survey on groundwater arsenic contamination in Ganga-Meghna- Brahmaputra (GMB) plain [an area of 569,749 km2, with a population of over 500 million], we predict a good portion of GMB plain is arsenic affected. During last 19 years we analyzed 219,584 hand tubewell water samples for arsenic from GMB plain by flow injection - hydride generation - atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). We undertook medical survey with a group comprising of experienced dermatologists, neurologists, and gynecologists in the arsenic affected regions of GMB plain. So far our medical team had screened 120,000 individuals from GMB plain for arsenical health effects and registered 13,793 of them having arsenical skin lesions. Dermatological symptoms due to arsenic toxicity included melanosis, keratosis, ulcer, gangrene, and skin cancer. The prevalence of clinical neuropathy was ascertained in cases already showing arsenical dermal effects by diagnosing typical neurological items. A probable relation between arsenic exposure and adverse pregnancy outcome was established through judging different reproductive end points including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, stillbirths, neonatal and perinatal mortality. Analyses of 7 52,427 biological samples (hair, nail, urine, and skin scales) collected 60% from arsenic patients and rest non-patients but living in the same village and 85% of them had arsenic above normal level. Thus many villagers are subclinically affected. Screening around 19,000 children from, arsenic affected areas we identified 1100 with arsenical skin lesions. Our studies show that children are more vulnerable to arsenic toxicity compared to adults. In these circumstances as no medicine is known for chronic arsenic toxicity, successful safe water should be provided involving one or more of the options: surface water with proper watershed management and purification, deep tubewells, dugwells, rainwater harvesting, and arsenic removal plants. Awareness program and role of better nutrition in combating the problem should be stressed. Community involvement especially participation of women should be integral part of any approach.
BibTeX:
@article{AhamedS2007,
  author = {Ahamed S, Das B, Hossain MA, Nayak B, Pal A, Singh EJ, Sengupta MK, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Saha KC, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Groundwater Arsenic Contamination And Its Health Effects In Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (Gmb) Plain And Its Surroundings},
  journal = {Trace elements in medicine},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {7(4)},
  pages = {15-28}
}
Ahamed S, Sengupta MK, Mukherjee A, Hossain MA, Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Chatterjee G, Mukherjee A, Srivastava R, Chakraborti Da Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in upper and middle Ganga plain, India: A severe danger 2006 Science of The Total Environment
Vol. 370(2-3), pp. 310-322 
article
Abstract: This communication presents results of our 2-year survey on groundwater arsenic contamination in three districts Ballia, Varanasi and Gazipur of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in the upper and middle Ganga plain, India. Analyses of 4780 tubewell water samples revealed that arsenic concentrations in 46.5% exceeded 10 ìg/L, in 26.7%, 50 ìg/L and in 10% 300 ìg/L limits. Arsenic concentrations up to 3192 ìg//L were observed. The age of tubewells (n = 1881) ranged from less than a year to 32 years, with an average of 6.5 years. Our study shows that older tubewells had a greater chance of contamination. Depth of tubewells (n = 3810) varied from 6 to 60.5 m with a mean of 25.75 m. A detailed study in three administrative units within Ballia district, i.e. block, Gram Panchayet, and village was carried out to assess the magnitude of the contamination. Before our survey the affected villagers were not aware that they were suffering from arsenical toxicity through contaminated drinking water. A preliminary clinical examination in 11 affected villages (10 from Ballia and 1 from Gazipur district) revealed typical arsenical skin lesions ranging from melanosis, keratosis to Bowens (suspected). Out of 989 villagers (691 adults, and 298 children) screened, 137 (19.8%) of the adults and 17 (5.7%) of the children were diagnosed to have typical arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical neuropathy and adverse obstetric outcome were also observed, indicating severity of exposure. The range of arsenic concentrations in hair, nail and urine was 137?10,900, 764?19,700 ìg/kg, and 23?4030 ìg/L, respectively. The urine, hair and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.76, 0.61, and 0.55, respectively) with drinking water arsenic concentrations. The similarity to previous studies on arsenic contamination in West Bengal, Bihar and Bangladesh indicates that people from a significant part of the surveyed areas in UP are suffering and this will spread unless drives to raise awareness of arsenic toxicity are undertaken and an arsenic safe water supply is immediately introduced.
BibTeX:
@article{AhamedS2006,
  author = {Ahamed S, Sengupta MK, Mukherjee A, Hossain MA, Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Chatterjee G, Mukherjee A, Srivastava R, Chakraborti Da},
  title = {Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in upper and middle Ganga plain, India: A severe danger},
  journal = {Science of The Total Environment},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {370},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {310-322}
}
Ahamed, S, Hossain MA, Mukharjee A, Sengupta MK, Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Saha KC, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain and its surroundings: nineteen years study report 2007 Chin. J. Epidemiol.
Vol. 26(1), pp. 43-47 
article
Abstract: Based on our last 19 years survey on groundwater arsenic contamination in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) plain (an area of 569 749 km super(2), with a population of over 500 million), we predict a good portion of all the states in Ganga-Brahmaputra plain in India (Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Assam) and Bangladesh in Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra are arsenic affected. Our recent study also indicates out of 7 North-Eastern-Hill states, except Mizoram groundwater of all states are to some extent arsenic contaminated. In last 19 years we analyzed 175 000 hand tubewell water samples for arsenic from all states of India and 50 808 from Bangladesh so far. We undertook medical survey with a group comprising of experienced dermatologists, neurologists, and gynaecologists in the arsenic affected regions of GMB plain. So far our medical team had screened 125 000 individuals from affected villages and registered 9% of them having arsenical skin lesions. So far we have analyzed 60 000 biological samples (hair, nail, urine, and skin scales) collected from arsenic affected villages. In average 80% of samples contain arsenic above the permissible limit in biological samples. Thus many people in affected villages are subclinically affected. Screening around 19 000 children from arsenic affected areas of GMB plain we found nearly 1 100 affected with arsenical skin lesions. Our studies show that children are more vulnerable to arsenical toxicity compared to adults. In these circumstances a successful mitigation strategy should involve safe drinking water supply using all possible sources.
BibTeX:
@article{Ahamed2007,
  author = {Ahamed, S, Hossain MA, Mukharjee A, Sengupta MK, Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Saha KC, Quamruzzaman Q, and Chakraborti D},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain and its surroundings: nineteen years study report},
  journal = {Chin. J. Epidemiol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {26},
  number = {1},
  pages = {43-47}
}
Singh AK Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of North Eastern India 2004   article
Abstract: Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people have been reported in 20 countries in different parts of the world. The magnitude is considered highest in five Asian countries and the severity is in order of Bangladesh>India>Mangolia>China> Taiwan. In all these countries, more and more groundwater withdrawal is taking place because of increase in agricultural irrigation. In India after West Bengal and the bordering districts of Bangladesh, arsenic in groundwater was detected in part of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura. Maximum arsenic content was observed in Jorhat (Titabor,
Dhakgorah, Selenghat and Moriani Block), Dhemaji (Sissiborgoan and Dhemaji Block), Golaghat district (Podumani Block) and Lakhimpur (Boginodi, Lakhimpur Block) in Assam; 48 West Tripura (Triania Block), Dhalai (Salema Block) and North Tripura (Dharmanagar Block) districts in Tripura, Thuobal (Kakching Block) in Manipur and Dibang valley (Midland) in Arunachal Pradesh. The groundwater of these blocks of five states is affected with arsenic
contamination. A long-term environmental planning is essential to blunt the danger from such pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{AK2004,
  author = {Singh AK},
  title = {Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of North Eastern India},
  year = {2004}
}
Allen T, Awasthi A, Rana SVS Fish Cromatophores as Biomarkers of Arsenic Exposure 2004 Environmental Biology of Fishes
Vol. 7(11), pp. 7-11(5) 
article
Abstract: We examined the possibility of using fish chromatophores as markers of arsenic exposure. Our results not only favor their suitability but also suggest an adaptive mechanism in fish against arsenic toxicity. We also compare results between arsenic accumulation, melanophore index and neurosecretory cells. Chromatophores can be used as a quick and reliable biomarker of aquatic metal pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{AllenT2004,
  author = {Allen T, Awasthi A, Rana SVS},
  title = {Fish Cromatophores as Biomarkers of Arsenic Exposure},
  journal = {Environmental Biology of Fishes},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {7(11)},
  pages = {7-11(5)}
}
Andou M, Hiroshi SPM West Bengal State of India’s worst arsenic contamination took place in the world - and the health effects of arsenic contamination of underground water in West Bengal 1997 Resources and Environment measures
Vol. 33(2), pp. 113-122 
article
BibTeX:
@article{AndouM1997,
  author = {Andou M, Hiroshi SPM},
  title = {West Bengal State of India’s worst arsenic contamination took place in the world - and the health effects of arsenic contamination of underground water in West Bengal},
  journal = {Resources and Environment measures},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {33(2)},
  pages = {113-122}
}
Avani G, Rao MV In vitro genotoxicity assays to evaluate the role of vitamin A on arsenic in human lymphocytes 2008 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.  article
Abstract: Ground water contamination of arsenic in drinking water is a burning problem worldwide; especially in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh. The main endeavor in this study was to assess the role of vitamin A (2.72muM/7ml culture), a naturally occurring antioxidant upon arsenic-induced genotoxicity; with respect to chromosomal aberrations (structural and numerical) and micronuclei. Whole blood cultures set for 72h were exposed to test chemicals for a period of 24h ahead of harvesting. Arsenic concentrations tested in the present study are 0.36, 0.72 and 1.4muM/7ml culture. Mitomycin C (MMC), the direct acting mutagen was used as positive control. Our data indicates that at concentrations tested, arsenic-induced increase in the mean frequencies of these genotoxic indices were diminished by vitamin A, indicating its protective role towards cells from arsenic exerted injury.
BibTeX:
@article{AvaniG2008,
  author = {Avani G, Rao MV},
  title = {In vitro genotoxicity assays to evaluate the role of vitamin A on arsenic in human lymphocytes},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2008}
}
Shah BA Role of Quaternary stratigraphy on arsenic-contaminated ground water from parts of Middle Ganga Plain, UP?Bihar, India 2008 Environmental Geology
Vol. 53(7), pp. 1553-61 
article
Abstract: Late Quaternary stratigraphy and sedimentation in the Middle Ganga Plain (MGP) (Uttar Pradesh?Bihar) have influenced groundwater arsenic contamination. Arsenic contaminated aquifers are pervasive within narrow entrenched channels and flood plains (T0-Surface) of fine-grained grey to black coloured argillaceous organic rich Holocene sediments (Newer Alluvium). Contaminated aquifers are often located close to distribution of abandoned or existing channels and swamps. The Pleistocene Older Alluvium upland terraces (T2-Surface) 5 made up of oxidized yellowish brown sediments with calcareous and ferruginous concretions and the aquifers within it are free of arsenic contamination. MGP sediments are mainly derived from the Himalaya with minor inputs from the Peninsular India. The potential source of arsenic in MGP is mainly from the Himalaya. The contaminated aquifers in the Terai belt of Nepal are closely comparable in nature and age to those of the MGP. Arsenic was
transported from disseminated sources as adsorbed on dispersed phases of hydrated-ironoxidea and later on released to groundwater mainly by reductive dissolution of hydrated-ironoxide and corresponding oxidation of organic matter in aquifer. Strong reducing nature of groundwater is indicated by high concentration of dissolved iron (11.06 mg/l). Even within the arsenic-affected areas, dugwells are found to be arsenic safe due to oxyginated nature.
BibTeX:
@article{BA12008,
  author = {Shah BA1},
  title = {Role of Quaternary stratigraphy on arsenic-contaminated ground water from parts of Middle Ganga Plain, UP?Bihar, India},
  journal = {Environmental Geology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {53},
  number = {7},
  pages = {1553-61}
}
Banerjee M, Sarma N, Biswas R, Roy J, Mukherjee A, Giri AK DNA repair deficiency leads to susceptibility to develop arsenic-induced premalignant skin lesions. 2008 Int J Cancer
Vol. 123(2), pp. 283-287 
article
Abstract: In West Bengal, India, although more than 6 million people are exposed to arsenic through drinking water, only 15-20% showed arsenic-induced skin lesions, including premalignant hyperkeratosis. This indicates toward some factors that confer susceptibility to arsenicinduced carcinogenicity. In this work, we wanted to explore whether differences in DNA repair capacity could impart arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, through Comet assay, chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and challenge assay. Sixty arsenic exposed (30 individuals with arsenic-induced premalignant hyperkeratosis and 30 without skin lesion, but drinking similar arsenic contaminated water) and 30 arsenic unexposed individuals were recruited as study participants. Alkaline comet assay, and challenge assay were carried out in whole blood and CA study in lymphocytes to find out the DNA damage and DNA repair capacity in both hyperkeratotic and without skin lesion individuals. DNA damage as well as CA were found to be significantly higher in the arsenic-exposed individuals compared to unexposed individuals (p < 0.001). Within the exposed group, there was no significant difference as far as the level of DNA damage is concerned (p > 0.05), but CA was significantly higher in exposed individuals with hyperkeratosis than exposed individuals without hyperkeratosis (p < 0.01). Challenge assay showed that upon induction of DNA damage, the repair capacity in the exposed individuals with premalignant hyperkeratosis is significantly less (p < 0.001) than that of individuals without skin lesion, although the basal level of DNA damage was similar in both. Thus, the deficiency in DNA repair capacities in the hyperkeratotic individuals emerges as a prime contender for arsenic carcinogenicity.
BibTeX:
@article{BanerjeeM2008,
  author = {Banerjee M, Sarma N, Biswas R, Roy J, Mukherjee A, Giri AK},
  title = {DNA repair deficiency leads to susceptibility to develop arsenic-induced premalignant skin lesions.},
  journal = {Int J Cancer},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {123(2)},
  pages = {283-287}
}
Banerjee N, Banerjee M, Ganguly S, Bandyopadhyay S,Das JK, Bandyopadhay A, Chatterjee M, Giri AK Arsenic-induced mitochondrial instability leading to programmed cell death in the exposed individuals. 2008 Toxicology
Vol. 246(2-3), pp. 101-11 
article
Abstract: In West Bengal, India, more than 6 million people in nine districts are exposed to arsenic through drinking water. It is regarded as the greatest arsenic calamity in the world. Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen, which does not induce cancer in any other animal model. Interestingly, at lower concentrations, arsenic is known to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines in vitro. We have studied apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear
cells (PBMC) of 30 arsenic exposed skin lesion individuals by annexin V-FITC staining and compared with 28 unexposed individuals. The percentage of apoptotic cells in individuals with skin lesions was significantly higher (p<0.001) in comparison to unexposed individuals. In the exposed individuals with skin lesions, there were elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased cytochrome c release, leading to increased downstream caspase activity. Arsenic-induced DNA damage was confirmed by DNA ladder formation and confocal microscopy. We also
observed that chronic arsenic exposure reduced Bcl-2/Bax ratio and also resulted in cell cycle arrest of PBMC in G0/G1 phase. All these observations indicate that mitochondriamediated pathway may be responsible for arsenic-induced apoptosis.
BibTeX:
@article{BanerjeeN2008,
  author = {Banerjee N, Banerjee M, Ganguly S, Bandyopadhyay S,Das JK, Bandyopadhay A, Chatterjee M, Giri AK},
  title = {Arsenic-induced mitochondrial instability leading to programmed cell death in the exposed individuals.},
  journal = {Toxicology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {246(2-3)},
  pages = {101-11}
}
Basu A, Mahata J, Roy AK, Sarkar JN, Poddar G, Nandi A, Sarkar PK, Dutta PK, Banerjee A, Das DM, Raya K, Roy Chaudhury S, Natarajan AT, Nilsson R, Giri AK Enhanced frequency of micronuclei in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India 2002 Mutation Research, pp. 1-12  article
Abstract: In West Bengal, India arsenic in ground water has been found to be above the maximum permissible limit in seven districts covering an area of 37,493 km2. In the present study, 61 evaluation of the micronuclei (MN) formation in oral mucosa cells, urothelial cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes was carried out in the symptomatic individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Forty five individuals with cutaneous signs of arsenicism from four affected districts (368.11ìg/l of As in drinking water) were considered as the exposed group and 21 healthy individuals with no symptoms of arsenic poisoning and residing in two unaffected districts (5.49uìg/l of As) were considered as controls. The exposed and control groups had similar age distribution and socioeconomic status. Standardised questionnaires were utilised and medical examination was conducted to ascertain exposure history, sociodemographic characteristics, diet, health, medication, addiction and chief symptoms in the study participants. Arsenic exposure was confirmed by measuring the arsenic content in the drinking water, nails, hair and urine samples from the volunteers. Arsenic contents in the urine, nail and hair in the exposed group were 24.45ìg/l, 12.58 [sic], 6.97ìg/g, respectively which were significantly high in comparison to corresponding control group values of 4.88ìg/l, 0.51 [sic] and 0.34 g/g, respectively. Exposed individuals showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of MN in oral mucosa, urothelial cells and lymphocytes (5.15, 5.74 and 6.39/1000 cells, respectively) when compared with the controls (0.77, 0.56 and 0.53/1000 cells, respectively). Thus, the above results indicate that the symptomatic individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in this region have significant cytogenetic damage.
BibTeX:
@article{BasuA2002,
  author = {Basu A, Mahata J, Roy AK, Sarkar JN, Poddar G, Nandi A, Sarkar PK, Dutta PK, Banerjee A, Das DM, Raya K, Roy Chaudhury S, Natarajan AT, Nilsson R, Giri AK},
  title = {Enhanced frequency of micronuclei in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Mutation Research},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {1-12}
}
Basu A, Soma A, Ghoshal S, Mondal L, Chaubey RC, Bhilwade HN, Rahmand MdM, Giri AK Assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals susceptible to arsenic induced toxicity in West Bengal, India 2005 Toxicology Letters
Vol. 159(1), pp. 100-112 
article
Abstract: Assessment of DNA damage was carried out using alkaline comet assay in lymphocytes of 30 individuals exposed to high levels of arsenic (247.12 ± 18.93 ìg/l) through contaminated groundwater in North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India. All of them exhibited high arsenic contents in nail (4.20 ± 0.67 ìg/g), hair (2.06 ± 0.20 ìg/g) and urine (259.75 ± 33.89 ìg/l) samples and manifested various arsenical skin lesions. Unexposed samples were collected from 30 residents of the unaffected East Midnapur district with very little or no exposure to arsenic (7.69 ± 0.49 ìg/l) in drinking water. The results were evaluated principally by manual analysis of comets and partly by computerized image analysis. Both the analytical methods exhibited a high degree of agreement in results. The exposed participants expressed significantly higher DNA damage (p<0.01) in their lymphocytes than the unexposed participants. Alkaline comet assay was also combined with formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase enzyme digestion to confirm that arsenic induced oxidative base damage in the lymphocytes. Significant positive trend effects of comet lengths in relation to arsenic levels in water prove that DNA damage can be used as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic exposure. This study demonstrates that arsenic induced significant DNA damage in the exposed participants, which could correspond to a higher susceptibility to arsenic induced toxicity and carcinogenicity.
BibTeX:
@article{BasuA2005,
  author = {Basu A, Soma A, Ghoshal S, Mondal L, Chaubey RC, Bhilwade HN, Rahmand MdM, Giri AK},
  title = {Assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals susceptible to arsenic induced toxicity in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Toxicology Letters},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {159(1)},
  pages = {100-112}
}
Bhattacharjee S, Chakravarty S, Maity S, Dureja V, Gupta KK Metal contents in the groundwater of Sahebgunj district, Jharkhand, India, with special reference to arsenic 2005 Chemosphere  article
Abstract: A detailed study has been presented on groundwater metal contents of Sahebgunj district in the state of Jharkhand, India with special reference to arsenic. Both tubewell and well waters have been studied separately with greater emphasis on tubewell waters. Groundwaters of all the nine blocks of Sahebgunj district have been surveyed for iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium, copper and zinc in addition to arsenic. Normal distribution statistic, exploratory data analysis and robust Z-score analysis have been employed to find out the distribution pattern, localisation of data, outliers and other related information. Groundwaters of three blocks of Sahebgunj, namely, Sahebgunj, Rajmahal and Udhawa have been found to be alarmingly contaminated with arsenic present at or above 10 ppb. Arsenic distribution patterns in these blocks are highly asymmetric in nature with the common feature of increasing width from first to fourth quartile. A very broad fourth quartile in each case represents a long asymmetric tail on the right of the median. Tubewell waters of at least two more blocks require regular monitoring to identify the outbreak of arsenic at the onset. Groundwaters of Sahebgunj district in general contain high iron and manganese. It is by and large soft in nature. Well waters have been found to be better with regard to arsenic but iron 31 and manganese contents do not vary significantly. Normal distribution analysis (NDA), box and whisker (BW) plot and Z-score analysis together can provide a reasonably complete statistical picture of metal contents in Sahebgunj district groundwaters
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharjeeS2005,
  author = {Bhattacharjee S, Chakravarty S, Maity S, Dureja V, Gupta KK},
  title = {Metal contents in the groundwater of Sahebgunj district, Jharkhand, India, with special reference to arsenic},
  journal = {Chemosphere},
  year = {2005}
}
Bhattacharyya R, Chatterjee D, Nath B, Jana JG High arsenic groundwater: Mobilization, metabolism and mitigation?an overview in the Bengal Delta plain 2003 Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Vol. 253 (1-2), pp. 347-355 
article
Abstract: The widespread occurrence of high inorganic arsenic in natural waters is attributed to human carcinogen and is identified as a major global public health issue. The scale of the problem in terms of population exposure (36 million) and geographical area coverage (173 × 103 Km2) to high arsenic contaminated groundwater (50?3200 ?gL?1) compared to the National drinking water standard (50 ?gL?1) and WHO recommended provisional limit (10 ?gL?1) is greatest in the Holocene alluvium and deltaic aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain (Bangladesh and West Bengal, India). This large-scale ’natural’ high arsenic groundwater poses a great threat to human health via drinking water. Mobilization, metabolism and mitigation issues of high arsenic groundwater are complex and need holistic approach for sustainable development of the resource. Mobilization depends on the redox geo-chemistry of arsenic that plays a vital role in the release and subsequent transport of arsenic in groundwater. Metabolism narrates the biological response vis-à-vis clinical manifestations of arsenic due to various chemical and biological factors. Mitigation includes alternative source for safe drinking water supply. Drinking water quality regulatory standards as well as guidelines are yet to cover risk assessments for such metal toxicity. Lowering of the ingested inorganic arsenic level and introduction of newer treatment options (implementation of laterite, the natural material) to ensure safe water supply (arsenic free and/or low arsenic within permissible limit) are the urgent need to safe guard the mass arsenic poisoning and internal arsenic related health problems.
high arsenic groundwater - arsenic exposure and metabolism - health effects and drinking water standard - alternative source
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyyaR2003,
  author = {Bhattacharyya R, Chatterjee D, Nath B, Jana JG},
  title = {High arsenic groundwater: Mobilization, metabolism and mitigation?an overview in the Bengal Delta plain},
  journal = {Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {253 (1-2)},
  pages = {347-355}
}
Biswas BK., Dhar RK., Basu GK, Saha KC Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta 1998 Current Science
Vol. 74(4), pp. 346-355 
article
BibTeX:
@article{BiswasBK.1998,
  author = {Biswas BK., Dhar RK., Basu GK, Saha KC},
  title = {Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {74(4)},
  pages = {346-355}
}
Biswas D, Banerjee M, Sen G, Das JK, Banerjee A, Sau TJ, Pandit S, Giri AK, Biswas T Mechanism of erythrocyte death in human population exposed to arsenic through drinking water 2008 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol  article
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in drinking water is one of the biggest natural calamities, which has become an imperative threat to human health throughout the world. Abbreviation of erythrocyte lifespan leading to the development of anemia is a common sequel in arsenic exposed population. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanism of cell death in human erythrocytes during chronic arsenic exposure. Results revealed transformation of smooth discoid red cells into evaginated echinocytic form in the exposed individuals. Further distortion converted reversible echinocytes to irreversible spheroechinocytes. Arsenic toxicity
increased membrane microviscosity along with an elevation of cholesterol/ phospholipid ratio,which hampered the flexibility of red cell membrane and made them less deformable. Significant increase in the binding of merocyanine 540 with erythrocyte membrane due to arsenic exposure indicated disruption of lipid packing in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane resulting from altered transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry. Arsenic induced eryptosis was 3 characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface. Furthermore, metabolic starvation with depletion of cellular ATP triggered apoptotic removal of erythrocytes from circulation. Significant decrease in reduced glutathione content indicating defective antioxidant capacity was coupled with enhancement of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, which pointed to oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane. Arsenic toxicity intervened into red cell membrane integrity eventually leading to membrane destabilization and hemoglobin release. The study depicted the involvement of both erythrophagocytosis and hemolysis in the destruction of human erythrocytes during chronic arsenic exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{BiswasD2008,
  author = {Biswas D, Banerjee M, Sen G, Das JK, Banerjee A, Sau TJ, Pandit S, Giri AK, Biswas T},
  title = {Mechanism of erythrocyte death in human population exposed to arsenic through drinking water},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol},
  year = {2008}
}
Chakraborti D, Ahamed S, Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Das B, Hossain MA, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, De NK Risk of Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater affecting the Ganga Alluvial Plain, India 2004 Environmental Health Perspectives
Vol. 112(1), pp. A19-A21 
article
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD2004,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Ahamed S, Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Das B, Hossain MA, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, De NK},
  title = {Risk of Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater affecting the Ganga Alluvial Plain, India},
  journal = {Environmental Health Perspectives},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {112(1)},
  pages = {A19-A21}
}
Chakraborti D, Basu GK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury UK, Rahman MdM, Paul K, Roy Chowdhury T, Chanda CR, Lodh D Characterization of arsenic bearing sediments in Gangetic delta of West Bengal-India 2001 (27-52)  book
BibTeX:
@book{ChakrabortiD2001,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Basu GK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury UK, Rahman MdM, Paul K, Roy Chowdhury T, Chanda CR, Lodh D},
  title = {Characterization of arsenic bearing sediments in Gangetic delta of West Bengal-India},
  publisher = {Elsevier science,},
  year = {2001},
  number = {27-52}
}
Chakraborti D, Biswas BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Basu GK, Mandal BK, Chowdhury UK, Mukherjee SC, Gupta JP, Chowdhury SR, Rathore KC Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in Rajnandgaon district, Madhya Pradesh, India. 1999 Current Science
Vol. 77(4), pp. 502-504 
article
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD1999,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Biswas BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Basu GK, Mandal BK, Chowdhury UK, Mukherjee SC, Gupta JP, Chowdhury SR, Rathore KC},
  title = {Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in Rajnandgaon district, Madhya Pradesh, India.},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {77(4)},
  pages = {502-504}
}
Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Chakraborti AK, Basu GK Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger? 2003 Environ Health Perspect
Vol. 111(9), pp. 1194-1201 
article
Abstract: The pandemic of arsenic poisoning due to contaminated groundwater in West Bengal, India, and all of Bangladesh has been thought to be limited to the Ganges Delta (the Lower Ganga Plain), despite early survey reports of arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and its surroundings in the northwestern Upper Ganga Plain and recent findings in the Terai area of Nepal. Anecdotal reports of arsenical skin lesions in
villagers led us to evaluate arsenic exposure and sequelae in the Semria Ojha Patti village in the Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, where tube wells replaced dug wells about 20 years ago. Analyses of the arsenic content of 206 tube wells (95% of the total) showed that 56.8% exceeded arsenic concentrations of 50 micro g/L, with 19.9% > 300 micro g/L, the 50 concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions. On medical examination of a selfselected sample of 550 (390 adults and 160 children), 13% of the adults and 6.3% of the children had typical skin lesions, an unusually high involvement for children, except in
extreme exposures combined with malnutrition. The urine, hair, and nail concentrations of arsenic correlated significantly (r = 0.72-0.77) with drinking water arsenic concentrations up to 1,654 micro g/L. On neurologic examination, arsenic-typical neuropathy was diagnosed in 63% of the adults, a prevalence previously seen only in severe, subacute exposures. We also observed an apparent increase in fetal loss and premature delivery in the women with the highest concentrations of arsenic in their drinking water. The possibility of contaminated groundwater at other sites in the Middle and Upper Ganga Plain merits investigation.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD2003,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Chakraborti AK, Basu GK},
  title = {Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger?},
  journal = {Environ Health Perspect},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {111(9)},
  pages = {1194-1201}
}
Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Chowdhury UK, Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK Arsenic toxicity from homeopathic treatment 2003 Journal of Toxicology. Clinical toxicology
Vol. 4(7), pp. 963-967 
article
Abstract: Homeopathic medicine is commonly believed to be relatively harmless. However, treatment with improperly used homeopathic preparations may be dangerous. Case Reports. Case 1 presented with melanosis and keratosis following short-term use of Arsenic Bromide 1-X followed by long-term use of other arsenic-containing homeopathic preparations. Case 2 developed melanotic arsenical skin lesions after taking Arsenicum Sulfuratum Flavum-1-X
(Arsenic S.F. 1-X) in an effort to treat his white skin patches. Case 3 consumed Arsenic Bromide 1-X for 6 days in an effort to treat his diabetes and developed an acute gastrointestinal illness followed by leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and diffuse dermal melanosis with patchy desquamation. Within ?2 weeks, he developed a toxic polyneuropathy resulting in quadriparesis. Arsenic concentrations in all three patients were significantly elevated in integument tissue samples. In all three cases, arsenic concentrations in drinking water were normal but arsenic concentrations in samples of the homeopathic medications
were elevated. Conclusion. Arsenic used therapeutically in homeopathic medicines can cause clinical toxicity if the medications are improperly used.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD2003a,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Chowdhury UK, Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK},
  title = {Arsenic toxicity from homeopathic treatment},
  journal = {Journal of Toxicology. Clinical toxicology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {4(7)},
  pages = {963-967}
}
Chakraborti D, Rahman MdM, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Quamruzzaman Q Groundwater arsenic contamination 2003 Encyclopedia of Water Science  article
Abstract: Arsenic is an element with atomic number 33 and atomic weight 74.92. It exists throughout the earth’s crust and is the 20th abundant element in nature. For centuries, arsenic has been 51 used as a drug and as a poison. Arsenic is thought to exert its toxicity by combining with certain enzymes and thereby interfering with cellular metabolism.
Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people have been reported in 20 countries in different parts of the world. The magnitude is considered highest in four Asian countries, and the severity order is Bangladesh>West Bengal-India>PR China> Taiwan.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD2003b,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Rahman MdM, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Quamruzzaman Q},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination},
  journal = {Encyclopedia of Water Science},
  year = {2003}
}
Chakraborti D, Rahman MdM, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Mukherjee SC Arsenic calamity in the Indian subcontinent What lessons have been learned? 2002 Talanta
Vol. 58(16), pp. 3-22 
article
Abstract: Groundwater arsenic (As) contamination in West Bengal (WB, India) was first reported in December 1983, when 63 people from three villages of two districts were identified by health officials as suffering from As toxicity. As of October 2001, the authors from the School of Environmental Studies (SOES) have analyzed >105 000 water samples, >25 000 urine/hair/nail/skin-scale samples, screened approximately 86 000 people in WB. The results show that more than 6 million people in 2700 villages from nine affected districts (total population approximately 42 million) of 18 total districts are drinking water containing ?50 ìg l?1 As and >300 000 people may have visible arsenical skin lesions. The As content of the physiological samples indicates that many more may be sub-clinically affected. Children in As-affected villages may be in special danger. In 1995, we had found three villages in two 62 districts of Bangladesh where groundwater contained ?50 ìg l?1 As. The present situation is that in 2000 villages in 50 out of total 64 districts of Bangladesh, groundwater contains As above 50 ìg l?1 and more than 25 million people are drinking water above ?50 ìg l?1 As. After years of research in WB and Bangladesh, additional affected villages are being identified on virtually every new survey. The present research may still reflect only the tip of iceberg in identifying the extent of As contamination. Although the WB As problem became public almost 20 years ago, there are still few concrete plans, much less achievements, to solve the problem. Villagers are probably in worse condition than 20 years ago. Even now, many who are drinking As-contaminated water are not even aware of that fact and its consequences. 20 years ago when the WB government was first informed, it was a casual matter, without the realization of the magnitude this problem was to assume. At least up to 1994, one committee after another was formed but no solution was forthcoming. None of the expert reports has suggested solutions that involve awareness campaigns, education of the villagers and participation of the people. Initially, international aid agencies working in the subcontinent simply did not consider that As could be present in groundwater. Even now, while As in drinking water is being highlighted, there have been almost no studies on how additional As is introduced through the food chain, as large amounts of As are present in the agricultural irrigation water. Past mistakes, notably the ceaseless exploitation of groundwater for irrigation, continue unabated today; at this time, more groundwater is being withdrawn than ever before. No efforts have been made to adopt effective watershed management to harness the extensive surface water and rainwater resources of this region. Proper watershed management and participation by villagers are needed for the proper utilization of water resources and to combat the As calamity. As in groundwater may just be nature’s initial warning about more dangerous toxins yet to come. What lessons have we really learned?
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD2002,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Rahman MdM, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Mukherjee SC},
  title = {Arsenic calamity in the Indian subcontinent What lessons have been learned?},
  journal = {Talanta},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {58},
  number = {16},
  pages = {3-22}
}
Chakraborti D, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Chanda CR, Biswas BK, Dhar RK, Basu GK, Saha KC Calcutta’s industrial pollution: Groundwater arsenic contamination in a residential area and sufferings of people due to industrial effluent discharge - An eight-year study report 1998 Current Science
Vol. 74(4), pp. 346-355 
article
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD1998,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Chanda CR, Biswas BK, Dhar RK, Basu GK, Saha KC},
  title = {Calcutta’s industrial pollution: Groundwater arsenic contamination in a residential area and sufferings of people due to industrial effluent discharge - An eight-year study report},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {74(4)},
  pages = {346-355}
}
Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Hossain MA, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Saha KC, Dutta RN, Quamruzzaman Q Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain 2004 J Environ Monit
Vol. 6(6), pp. 74N-83N 
article
Abstract: This article reports recent findings regarding groundwater contamination and its health effects (i.e., arsenical skin lesions, arsenic neuropathy, increased rates of spontaneous abortions, preterm birth, stillbirth and low birth weight in pregnant women) in all the states and countries in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain (i.e., Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam, West Bengal of India and Bangladesh). The source of arsenic and
various ways to combat present arsenic crisis are also discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD2004a,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Hossain MA, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Saha KC, Dutta RN and Quamruzzaman Q},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain},
  journal = {J Environ Monit},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {6(6)},
  pages = {74N-83N}
}
Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Basu GK, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC Groundwater arsenic exposure in India 2002 Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects, pp. 14-18  article
Abstract: The first report on arsenic in hand tube wells, dugwells and spring water was published in 1976 from India. It was reported that people were drinking arsenic-contaminated water in Chandigarh and different villages of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh in northern India. High arsenic was found in the liver of those suffering from non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) and drinking arsenic-contaminated water. Arsenic groundwater contamination in the state of West Bengal first came to notice during July 1983. The problem first came to international attention after the international conference held in Calcutta during February 1995. Before Bangladesh’s arsenic episode was discovered, West Bengal’s arsenic problem was known as the world’s biggest arsenic calamity. During July 1983, sixteen patients with arsenical skin lesions were identified from one village in the district of 24-Parganas where people were
drinking arsenic-contaminated water from their hand tube wells in West Bengal. The current arsenic situation from 38 865 km2 of affected area with a population of 50 million in West Bengal up to August 2002 is as follows: 3150 villages from 9 districts, 78 blocks/police stations have been identified where groundwater contains arsenic concentrations above 50 µg/litre. On the basis of 125 000 water analyses by a laboratory method from the arsenicaffected areas, it was estimated that more than 6 million people are drinking arseniccontaminated water above 50 µg/litre. So far, from our preliminary survey, 8500 patients with arsenical skin lesions have been registered from 250 villages, and extrapolation of available data indicates that may be 300 000 people are suffering from arsenical skin lesions from 9 arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal. The source of arsenic was geologic. The
mechanism of arsenic contamination from the source to the aquifer has not yet been established. Groundwater arsenic contamination from industrial effluent discharge by a company producing paris-green (copper-aceto-arsenite) and the suffering of people in Behala-Calcutta came to notice during 1989. The highest arsenic concentration in soil near the effluent discharged point was found to be 10 000 µg/gm and the highest arsenic concentration in hand tubewell water was 38 000 µg/litre. The total number of people using arsenic-contaminated water was 7000, and ~200 people were identified with arsenical skin lesions. In the Rajnandgaon district of the state of Chattisgarh in India, a few villages were found where both dugwells and hand tubewells were arsenic contaminated. The source of arsenic was also geologic. The highest concentrations of arsenic found in the dugwells and hand tube wells were 520 and 880 µg/litre, respectively. Approximately 130 people were affected with arsenic poisoning. The number of people estimated to be at risk was 10 000. Approximately 1000 people are suspected to be suffering from arsenical skin lesions from the Semria Ojha Patty village of Sahapur police station in Bhojpur district of Bihar in the middle Ganga Plain. The magnitude of the problem in Bhojpur district hence in Bihar is unknown.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD2002a,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Basu GK, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic exposure in India},
  journal = {Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {14-18}
}
Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Basu GK, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC Groundwater Arsenic Exposure in India 2003   book
BibTeX:
@book{ChakrabortiD2003c,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Basu GK, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC},
  title = {Groundwater Arsenic Exposure in India},
  publisher = {Elsevier science},
  year = {2003}
}
Chakraborty AK, Saha KC Arsenical dermatosis from tubewell water in West Bengal 1987 Indian J Med Res
Vol. 85, pp. 326-334 
article
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyAK1987,
  author = {Chakraborty AK, Saha KC},
  title = {Arsenical dermatosis from tubewell water in West Bengal},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {326-334}
}
Chandrasekharam D, Karmakar J, Berner Z, Stuben D Arsenic contamination in groundwater, Murshidabad district, West Bengal 2001 Water-Rock Interaction  article
Abstract: Arsenic content in groundwater and surface waters from Murshidabad district of West Bengal varies from 0.05 to 3.7 mg/l. Arsenic was scavenged by Fe(III) minerals (primarily as iron oxyhydroxides), and to a lesser extent by Mn(IV) phases and is released into the groundwater due to lowering of the redox conditions in the aquifer system. Similarities in some trace element ratios of the Rajmahal traps with those of the arsenic contaminated groundwaters in this areas designates the Rajmahal traps as a possible primary source for the arsenic contamination.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandrasekharamD2001,
  author = {Chandrasekharam D, Karmakar J, Berner Z, Stuben D},
  title = {Arsenic contamination in groundwater, Murshidabad district, West Bengal},
  journal = {Water-Rock Interaction},
  year = {2001}
}
Chatterjee A, Das D, Chakraborti D A Study of Ground Water Contamination by Arsenic in the Residential Area of Behala, Calcutta due to Industrial Pollution. 1993 Environmental Pollution
Vol. 80(1), pp. 57-65 
article
Abstract: Due to the discharge of industrial effluent after production of the insecticide Paris-Green [Copper acetoarsenite Cu(CH(3)COO)(2).3Cu(AsO(2))(2)] by a local factory at the P. N. Mitra Lane, Behala, ground water has become contaminated with arsenic. More than seven thousand people were using this arsenic contaminated tube-well water for drinking and house-hold purposes. Many people of the area were hospitalised and symptoms of arsenic
toxicity were visible amongst a large number of the population. Analytical study reveals that soil around the area of effluent dumping point, which is at the middle of the locality, contains a very high concentration of arsenic and copper. For the last 20 years this factory had been producing 20 tons of Paris-Green per year and had been dumping its effluent in that area. It seems, the effluent treatment for arsenic removal was not adequate and finally arsenic
percolated to the underground aquifers. Consequently, arsenic concentration in the ground water is very high. Both arsenite and arsenate are present in ground water. An alternate source of water other than the ground water is immediately necessary for the people of P. N. Mitra Lane.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeA1993,
  author = {Chatterjee A, Das D, Chakraborti D},
  title = {A Study of Ground Water Contamination by Arsenic in the Residential Area of Behala, Calcutta due to Industrial Pollution.},
  journal = {Environmental Pollution},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {80(1)},
  pages = {57-65}
}
Chatterjee A, Das D, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Chakraborti D Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part I. Arsenic species in drinking water and urine of the affected people 1995 Analyst
Vol. 120, pp. 643-650 
article
Abstract: Arsenic in ground water has been found above the maximum permissible limit in six districts of West Bengal covering an area of 34 000 km2 with a population of 30 million. At present 37 blocks of these six districts by the side of the River Ganga are affected and about 800 000 people from 312 villages/wards are drinking arsenic contaminated water and amongst them at least 175 000 people are showing arsenical skin lesions. The source of arsenic is geological. We have analysed thousands of tube-well water samples from these six districts for four arsenic species namely, arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). We could detect no MMAA or DMAA in any of these samples. In urine, DMAA and MMAA are the predominant species along with arsenite and arsenate. The techniques we used for the determination and speciation of arsenic are: (i) separation of arsenite and arsenate from water by sodium diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform followed by FI-HGAAS; (ii) spectrophotometry using Ag?DDTC in chloroform with hexamethylenetetramine as absorbing solution; (iii) ion-exchange separation of arsenite and arsenate from water followed by FI-HGAAS; and (iv) for analysis of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine, FI-HGAAS was used after separation of the species by a combined cation?anion-exchange column. Total arsenic in urine was determined by FI-HGAAS after acid decomposition. The most toxic species, arsenite, is present in ground water at about 50% of the total arsenic level, and more than 90% of the total arsenic in urine is inorganic arsenic and its metabolites.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeA1995,
  author = {Chatterjee A, Das D, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part I. Arsenic species in drinking water and urine of the affected people},
  journal = {Analyst},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {120},
  pages = {643-650}
}
Chatterjee A, Mukherjee A Hydrogeological investigation of ground water arsenic contamination in south Calcutta 1999 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 225(3), pp. 249-62 
article
Abstract: Typical clinical symptoms of acute arsenic poisoning have been detected in 1000 residents near a factory in P.N. Mitra Lane, Behala, South Calcutta, located in a thickly populated area manufacturing copper acetoarsenite (Paris-Green) an arsenical pesticide for the past 25 years. Soil around the effluent dumping point of the factory was exceptionally contaminated, with arsenic, copper and chromium concentrations of 20,100-35,500 mg kg-1, 33,900-51,100mg kg-1 and 5300- 5510 mg kg-1. Arsenic and copper concentrations in borehole soils collected up to a depth of 24.4 m at the effluent dumping point, decreased with depth. Arsenous acid, arsenic acid, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were detected in bore-hole soils up to a depth of 1.37 m, after which only inorganic arsenical compounds were present. A positive correlation was established between arsenic and
copper authenticated the Paris-Green waste disposal site as the source of contamination. Mechanism of ground water contamination from this disposal site had been probed by a systematic hydrogeological survey and the arsenic content of the tube-well waters in the surrounding areas. Hydraulic conductivity was maximum in the central part. The site for disposal of the effluent was a ditch located in the zone of discharge. Sparingly soluble Paris
Green cumulatively deposited in the waste disposal site is decomposed by microorganisms to water- soluble forms and finally percolated to underground aquifers along with rain water through the discharge zone. The contaminant is currently moving towards WNW with ground water flow and the residents in the direction of encroaching contamination are insecure due to penetration of the contaminant.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeA1999,
  author = {Chatterjee A, Mukherjee A},
  title = {Hydrogeological investigation of ground water arsenic contamination in south Calcutta},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {225(3)},
  pages = {249-62}
}
Chaudhuri SD, Kundu M, Banerjee M, Das JK, Majumdar P, Basu S, Roy Choudhury S, Singh KK, Giri AK Arsenic-induced health effects and genetic damage in keratotic individuals: Involvement of p53 arginine variant and chromosomal aberrations in arsenic susceptibility 2007 Mutat Res  article
Abstract: In West Bengal, India, more than 6million people are exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Chronic arsenic exposure results in several multisystemic non-cancerous as well as cancerous effects in humans. Among non-cancerous effects, arsenic-specific skin lesions, conjunctivitis, peripheral neuropathy and respiratory diseases are prominent. One of the major consequences of chronic arsenic exposure is keratosis, the precancerous state of skin cancer. The tumor suppressor protein p53 consists of a polymorphism proline72arginine reported to be associated with various types of cancers. Previously we have reported that the p53 codon 72 arginine (Arg) homozygous genotype is associated with the development of arsenic-induced keratosis. In the present study we have investigated the distribution of health effects and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in the individuals with keratosis. We have compared individuals with keratosis with those without arsenic-induced skin lesions but
drinking similar level of arsenic-contaminated water. Attempts have also been made to find out the association of the p53 risk genotype with health effects and chromosomal aberrations. This study comprises of 349 unrelated exposed individuals (162 individuals with keratosis and 187 individuals without arsenic-specific skin lesions) from highly arsenicaffected districts of West Bengal, India. The results showed that health effects (i.e. peripheral neuropathy, conjunctivitis and respiratory illness) and chromosomal aberrations were significantly higher in the keratotic group compared to individuals with no skin lesions. Moreover, individuals with the arginine homozygous genotype showed increased levels of chromosomal aberrations compared to individuals with other genotypes; however, we did not find any significant association of the risk genotype with health effects. This study suggests 8 that individuals with keratosis are more susceptible to arsenic-induced health effects and genetic damage and that the arginine variant of p53 can further influence the repair capacity of arsenic-exposed individuals, leading to increased accumulation of chromosomal aberrations.
BibTeX:
@article{ChaudhuriSD2007,
  author = {Chaudhuri SD, Kundu M, Banerjee M, Das JK, Majumdar P, Basu S, Roy Choudhury S, Singh KK, Giri AK},
  title = {Arsenic-induced health effects and genetic damage in keratotic individuals: Involvement of p53 arginine variant and chromosomal aberrations in arsenic susceptibility},
  journal = {Mutat Res},
  year = {2007}
}
Chinoy NJ, Shah SD Biochemical Effects Of Sodium Fluoride And Arsenic Trioxide Toxicity And Their Reversal In The Brain Of Mice 80 2004 Fluoride
Vol. 37(2), pp. 80-87 
article
Abstract: Summary: Sodium fluoride (NaF) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3), singly or combined, at doses of 5 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively, were administered orally to mice for 30 days to investigate their biochemical effects on the brain (cerebral hemisphere). The effects of withdrawal of the treatment and ingestion of vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium (as phosphate) were also investigated. During treatment, levels of dehydroascorbic acid and lipid peroxides increased, but the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the levels of glutathione, total ascorbic acid, and reduced ascorbic acid decreased. The data suggest that metabolic changes associated with the treatments could be the result of free radical toxicity rendering the brain more susceptible to injury. Withdrawal of the NaF + As2O3 treatment resulted in incomplete recovery after 30 days. However, administration of the antidotes alone or in combination during the withdrawal period provided almost complete recovery, possibly due to their antioxidant properties and/or synergistic action.
BibTeX:
@article{ChinoyNJ2004,
  author = {Chinoy NJ, Shah SD},
  title = {Biochemical Effects Of Sodium Fluoride And Arsenic Trioxide Toxicity And Their Reversal In The Brain Of Mice 80},
  journal = {Fluoride},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {37},
  number = {2},
  pages = {80-87}
}
Chowdhury U, Biswas B, Roy Chowdhury T, Mandal B, Samanta G, Basu G, Chanda C, Lodh D, Saha K, Chakraborti D, Mukherjee S, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q Arsenic Groundwater Contamination and Sufferings of People in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh 2006 Trace Elements in Man and Animals, pp. 645-650  article
Abstract: Working on West Bengal?s arsenic calamity for last 10 years & in Bangladesh for last 4 years even now we feel we are at the tip of the iceberg. Thus we need to know as early as possible the real magnitude of the arsenic calamity. According to WHO, the possibility of getting skin lesions exists among those drinking 1,000ìg of arsenic per day for several years. & our analytical report on water indicates that a large sum of population are consuming above 1,000ìg of arsenic per day. Our thousands of hair, nail & urine analyses from the affected villages indicate that more than 80% of population have higher arsenic body burden. Thus many may not be showing arsenical skin lesions but may be sub-clinically affected. Further if it is true that arsenic toxicity appears after several years of exposure, then the picture may actually be far more grim than it appears at present, & children our future generations are at a greater risk
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryU2006,
  author = {Chowdhury U, Biswas B, Roy Chowdhury T, Mandal B, Samanta G, Basu G, Chanda C, Lodh D, Saha K, Chakraborti D, Mukherjee S, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q},
  title = {Arsenic Groundwater Contamination and Sufferings of People in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh},
  journal = {Trace Elements in Man and Animals},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {645-650}
}
Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Mandal BK, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Saha KC, Chakraborti D Mukherjee SC, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh 2001   book
BibTeX:
@book{ChowdhuryUK2001,
  author = {Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Mandal BK, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Saha KC, Chakraborti D Mukherjee SC, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q},
  title = {Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh},
  publisher = {Plenum Publishing Corporation},
  year = {2001}
}
Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Basu GC, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Saha KC, Mukherjee SK, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India 2000 Environ Health Perspect  article
Abstract: Nine districts in West Bengal, India, and 42 districts in Bangladesh have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization maximum permissible limit of 50 µg/L. The area and population of the 42 districts in Bangladesh and the 9 districts in West Bengal are 92,106 km2 and 79.9 million and 38,865 km2 and 42.7 million, respectively. In our preliminary study, we have identified 985 arsenic-affected villages in 69 police stations/blocks of nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. In Bangladesh, we have identified 492 affected villages in 141 police stations/blocks of 42 affected districts. To date, we have collected 10,991 water samples from 42 arsenic-affected districts in Bangladesh for analysis, 58,166 water samples from nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. Of the water 69 samples that we analyzed, 59 and 34%, respectively, contained arsenic levels above 50 µg/L. Thousands of hair, nail, and urine samples from people living in arsenic-affected villages have been analyzed to date; Bangladesh and West Bengal, 93 and 77% samples, on an average, contained arsenic above the normal/toxic level. We surveyed 27 of 42 districts in Bangladesh for arsenic patients; we identified patients with arsenical skin lesions in 25 districts. In West Bengal, we identified patients with lesions in seven of nine districts. We examined people from the affected villages at random for arsenical dermatologic features (11,180 and 29,035 from Bangladesh and West Bengal, respectively); 24.47 and 15.02% of those examined, respectively, had skin lesions. After 10 years of study in West Bengal and 5 in Bangladesh, we feel that we have seen only the tip of iceberg
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryUK2000,
  author = {Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Basu GC, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Saha KC, Mukherjee SK, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Environ Health Perspect},
  year = {2000}
}
Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Dhar RK, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Roy S, Kabir S, Chakraborti D Groundwater arsenic calamity in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh 2000   book
BibTeX:
@book{ChowdhuryUK2000a,
  author = {Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Dhar RK, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Roy S, Kabir S, and Chakraborti D},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic calamity in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh},
  publisher = {John Wiley},
  year = {2000},
  edition = {Bioavailability and its potential role in risk assessment}
}
Chowdhury UK, Rahman MdM, Biswas BK, Samanta G, Lodh D, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Roy S, Quamruzzaman Q and Chakraborti D Groundwater arsenic calamity in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh 2003   book
BibTeX:
@book{ChowdhuryUK2003,
  author = {Chowdhury UK, Rahman MdM, Biswas BK, Samanta G, Lodh D, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Roy S, Quamruzzaman Q and Chakraborti D},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic calamity in West Bengal-India and Bangladesh},
  publisher = {India. Science Publishers Inc.},
  year = {2003}
}
Chowdhury UK, Rahman MdM, Mondal BK, Paul K, Lodh D, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Mukherjee SC, Roy S, Das R, Kaies I, Ki A Groundwater Arsenic Contamination and Human Suffering in West Bengal - India and Bangladesh 2001 Environmental Sciences
Vol. 8(5), pp. 393-415 
article
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryUK2001a,
  author = {Chowdhury UK, Rahman MdM, Mondal BK, Paul K, Lodh D, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Mukherjee SC, Roy S, Das R, Kaies I, Ki A},
  title = {Groundwater Arsenic Contamination and Human Suffering in West Bengal - India and Bangladesh},
  journal = {Environmental Sciences},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {8(5)},
  pages = {393-415}
}
Jain CK Arsenic contamination in ground water: Indian scenario 2002 Indian J Environ Health
Vol. 44(3), pp. 238-43 
article
Abstract: The ground water in a huge alluvial tract along the river Hooghly covering a stretch of about 470 km., encompassing eight districts in the state of West Bengal (India) is affected by arsenic pollution of ground water. The probable source of arsenic has been reported to be through geological formations. Occurrence of iron-pyrite and the change of geo-chemical environment due to over-exploitation of ground water or excessive fluctuation of ground water table are the possible reasons of decomposition of pyrite to ferrous sulphate, ferric sulphate and sulfuric acid. However, no definite explanation regarding the source of arsenic could be established so far. Keeping in view the severity of the problem, an attempt has been made to bring out the nature and extent of arsenic problem in ground water of West Bengal, India, as well as need for watershed management to combat the situation.
BibTeX:
@article{CK2002,
  author = {Jain CK},
  title = {Arsenic contamination in ground water: Indian scenario},
  journal = {Indian J Environ Health},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {44(3)},
  pages = {238-43}
}
Chakraborti D Arsenic Orphans 2001 Science Reporter  article
BibTeX:
@article{D2001,
  author = {Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic Orphans},
  journal = {Science Reporter},
  year = {2001}
}
Chakraborti D Arsenic Orphans 1999 Environmental Special Issue, Department of Environment & Forest, Government of West Bengal, pp. 7-16  article
BibTeX:
@article{D1999,
  author = {Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic Orphans},
  journal = {Environmental Special Issue, Department of Environment & Forest, Government of West Bengal},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {7-16}
}
Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM., Maity S, Saha KC, Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Mukherjee A, Pati S, Dutta RN, Quamruzzaman Q Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain 2007   book
BibTeX:
@book{DasB2007,
  author = {Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Sengupta MK, Rahman MdM., Maity S, Saha KC, Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Mukherjee A, Pati S, Dutta RN, Quamruzzaman Q},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain},
  publisher = {ISGSD Special Publication 1, Groundwater for Sustainable Development-Problems, Perspectives and Challenges.},
  year = {2007}
}
Das D, Chatterjee A, Mandal BK, Samanta G, Chakraborti D, Chanda B Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part 2. Arsenic concentration in drinking water, hair, nails, urine, skin-scale and liver tissue (biopsy) of the affected people 1995 Analyst
Vol. 120(3), pp. 917-24 
article
Abstract: In six districts of West Bengal arsenic has been found in ground water above the maximum permissible limit recommended by the WHO of 0.05 mg l-1. This water is used by the villagers for drinking, cooking and other household purposes. These six districts have an area of 34,000 km2 and hold a population of 30 million. Over the last five years we have surveyed only a few small areas of these six affected districts and our survey revealed that,
at present, at least 800,000 people from 312 villages in 37 blocks are drinking contaminated water and more than 175,000 people are showing arsenical skin lesions that are the late stages of manifestation of arsenic toxicity. Most of the three stages of arsenicrelated clinical manifestations are observed amongst the affected people. The common symptoms are conjunctivitis, melanosis, depigmentation, keratosis and hyperkeratosis; cases of gangrene and malignant neoplasms are also observed. The source of arsenic is geological. We have analysed thousands of arsenic contaminated water samples. Most of the water samples contain a mixture of arsenite and arsenate and in none of them could we detect methylarsonic or dimethylarsenic acid. We have also analysed a large number of urine, hair and nail samples, several skin-scales and some liver tissues (biopsy samples) of the people drinking the arsenic contaminated water and showing arsenical skin lesions. Flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HGAAS) was used for
the analysis of hair, nails, urine and skin-scale after decomposition by various techniques. The liver tissues were analysed by Zeeman corrected-ETAAS using a few milligrams of the biopsy samples.
BibTeX:
@article{DasD1995,
  author = {Das D, Chatterjee A, Mandal BK, Samanta G, Chakraborti D, Chanda B},
  title = {Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part 2. Arsenic concentration in drinking water, hair, nails, urine, skin-scale and liver tissue (biopsy) of the affected people},
  journal = {Analyst},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {120(3)},
  pages = {917-24}
}
Das D, Chatterjee A, Samanta G, Mandal B, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Chowdhury PP, Chanda C, Basu G, Lodh D, Nndi S, Chakraborty T, Mandal S, Bhattacharyua SM, Chakraborti D Report: Arsenic contamination in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world 1994 Analyst  article
BibTeX:
@article{DasD1994,
  author = {Das D, Chatterjee A, Samanta G, Mandal B, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Chowdhury PP, Chanda C, Basu G, Lodh D, Nndi S, Chakraborty T, Mandal S,
Bhattacharyua SM, Chakraborti D}, title = {Report: Arsenic contamination in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world}, journal = {Analyst}, year = {1994} }
Das D, Samanta G, Mondal BK, Chanda CR, Chowdhury PP, Basu GK, Chakraborti D Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India 1996 Environmental Geochemistry & Health
Vol. 18(1), pp. 5-15 
article
BibTeX:
@article{DasD1996,
  author = {Das D, Samanta G, Mondal BK, Chanda CR, Chowdhury PP, Basu GK, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Environmental Geochemistry & Health},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {18(1)},
  pages = {5-15}
}
Datta DV, Kaul MK Arsenic content of drinking water in villages in northern India. A concept of arsenicosis 1976 J Assoc Physicians India
Vol. 24, pp. 599-605 
article
BibTeX:
@article{DattaDV1976,
  author = {Datta DV, Kaul MK},
  title = {Arsenic content of drinking water in villages in northern India. A concept of arsenicosis},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {599-605}
}
De BK, Majumdar D, Sen S, Guru S, Kundu S Pulmonary involvement in chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking contaminated ground water 2004 J Assoc Physicians India
Vol. 52, pp. 395-400 
article
Abstract: Objectives: Chronic arsenic poisoning, due to ingestion of contaminated ground-water, is a major public health problem in West Bengal. It causes multiorgan damage. The present study attempts to objectively investigate the pulmonary involvement by examining the lung function. The nature of lung changes was also evaluated.
Material And Methods: One hundred and seven subjects with (cases) and 52 subjects without (controls) chronic arsenic poisoning were examined by spirometry. Forced expiratory volume-I second (FEVI), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in five cases with and five cases without pulmonary involvement.
Results: Thirty-three (30.8%) cases and four (7.6%) controls (p<0.01) had respiratory involvement. The pattern of involvement in cases was: obstructive- 20(68.9%) (including three (10%) with bronchiectasis), restrictive- 1(3.5%), mixed- 8(27.6%), malignancy-4(12.1%) (adenocarcinoma-I, squamous cell- 2, undifferentiated- I). FEVI (69.7+/-25.9 [n=105] vs 83.7+/-15.19 [n=51], p=0.0005), FVC (77.4+/-22.7 [n=105] vs 85.6+/-18.23 [n=51], p=0.025), FEVI/FVC (73.6+/-13.38 [n=105] vs 79.1+/-18.65 [n=52], p=0.007) and PEFR (53.9+/-21.52 [n= 103] vs 67.3+/-18.36 [n=51], p=0.0002) (percent of predicted) were all reduced more in cases compared to controls. Worsening of these parameters correlated with increasing degree of arsenic toxicity. Markers of inflammation (macrophage, lactate dehydrogenase, nitric oxide) were apparently more in the BAL fluid of those with lung involvement than in those without, though the arsenic content did not differ significantly.
Conclusion: Chronic arsenic poisoning causes pulmonary involvement, predominantly obstructive, the degree of which worsens with increasing degree of arsenic toxicity. Inflammation, rather than direct toxicity, appears to be the underlying mechanism
BibTeX:
@article{DeBK2004,
  author = {De BK, Majumdar D, Sen S, Guru S and Kundu S},
  title = {Pulmonary involvement in chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking contaminated ground water},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {395-400}
}
Deb MK, Thakur M, Mishra RK, Bodhankar N Assessment of Atmospheric Arsenic Level in Airborne Dust Particulates of an Urban City of Central India 2002 Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
Vol. 140(1-4), pp. 57-71 
article
Abstract: An assessment of arsenic contamination in Raipur city (21°14 N, 18°38 E) of Chhattisgarh in the central part of India is reported here, for a monitoring period between November 1996 to June 1997, in airborne dust particulates. The concentration level of As were higher in the 64 industrial site, followed by heavy traffic as compared to other sites. The monthly atmospheric arsenic deposition, in ?g As per g of dust fall, of 6 sites are in the range of 0.100(?0.020)? 4.00(?0.020); site no. 1 industrial area, 0.100(?0.020)?0.320(?0.020); site no. 2 residential area, 0.044(?0.070)?0.337(?0.030); site no. 3 commercial area, 0.093(?0.068)?1.870(?0.020); site no. 4 residential area, 0.111(?0.020)?1.912(?0.010); site no. 5 residential area and 0.068(?0.040)?3.037(?0.060); site no. 6 heavy traffic area. The total annual flux of As in the fall-out at different zones is in the range 0.033?1.12 kg km-2 yr-1. The month wise collection and analysis of dust fall out rate between 3.0(?0.10)?91.3(?1.4) mt (metric tonnes) km-2 month-1 were observed at all 6 sampling sites. Anthropogenic and
environmental factors play important roles in the contribution of arsenic in airborne particulate matters.
BibTeX:
@article{DebMK2002,
  author = {Deb MK, Thakur M, Mishra RK, Bodhankar N},
  title = {Assessment of Atmospheric Arsenic Level in Airborne Dust Particulates of an Urban City of Central India},
  journal = {Water, Air, & Soil Pollution},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {140},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {57-71}
}
Dey S, Chatterjee S, Sarkar S Direct and indirect arsenic release fromsoaps by unhygienic
use in tubewells
2005 Curr Sci
Vol. 89(11), pp. 1913-17 
article
Abstract: Microorganisms have been implicated in the release of arsenic into drinking water involving bio-electrochemical reactions. Iron reducer has been shown to release captive arsenic from insoluble ferric oxyhydroxide-arsenic oxide adduct. Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and Enterobacteriaceae may play a similar role by releasing hydrogen sulphide. The case of arsenic mobilization in water may be complex and varied. Arsenic contamination in Kanpur, northern India, 1000 km upstream of the Gangetic delta, added a new dimension to understanding the cause of its release in water. We propose that passive arsenic carried by the Ganges in the soil for centuries may be activated by unhygienic use of tubewells during the past three decades. We modelled the soil redox-chemistry prevalent under such conditions. We show that SRB grow in the vicinity of tubewells due to the availability of abundant food as fatty acids and sulphate as electron acceptors from soaps and detergents to release arsenic. In the absence of soap, Enterobacteriaceae play the same role. We also show that 26 commonly used soaps and detergents in India contain alarmingly high concentration of soluble arsenic, contaminating surface water
BibTeX:
@article{DeyS2005,
  author = {Dey S, Chatterjee S, Sarkar S},
  title = {Direct and indirect arsenic release fromsoaps by unhygienic
use in tubewells}, journal = {Curr Sci}, year = {2005}, volume = {89(11)}, pages = {1913-17} }
Mazumder DNG Arsenic and non-malignant lung disease 2007 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 42(12), pp. 1859-1867 
article
Abstract: Many aquifers in various parts of the world have been found to be contaminated with arsenic at concentration above 0.05 mg/L. However reports of large number of affected people in India and Bangladesh are unprecedented. Characteristic skin lesions (pigmentation, depigmentation and keratosis) are the hallmark signs of chronic arsenic toxicity. Emerging evidences show that ingestion of arsenic through drinking water may also lead to nonmalignant respiratory effects. Early report of non-malignant pulmonary effect of chronic ingestion of arsenic was available from studies in children in Chile as early as 1970. However on the basis of case studies, respiratory effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in adults following dinking of arsenic contaminated water in West Bengal was first reported in 1997. Epidemiological studies carried out in West Bengal on a population of 7683 showed that the prevalence odds ratio (POR) estimates were markedly increased for participants with arsenic induced skin lesions who also had high levels of arsenic in their current drinking water source (?0.5 mg/L) compared with individuals who had normal skin and were exposed to low levels of arsenic (< 0.05 mg/L). In participants with skin lesions, age-adjusted POR estimates for
chronic cough were 7.8 for females (95% CI:3.1-19.5) and 5.0 for males (95% CI:2.6-9.9). In Bangladesh, similar study carried out on a population of 218 showed that the crude prevalence ratio for chronic bronchitis was found to be 10.3 (95% CI:2.4-43.1) for females and 1.6 (95% CI:0.8-3.1) for males. Reports of lung function tests were available from both hospital and population based studies. Results show evidences of restrictive, obstructive and combined obstructive and restrictive lung disease in different people having chronic lung disease associated with chronic arsenic toxicity. On the basis of clinical study, chest X-ray
and HRCT done in Arsenicosis patients with features of chronic lung disease, the abnormalities observed were varied. Evidences of obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD) and bronchiectasis were found in some of the cases. Results of studies carried out on people showing features of Arsenicosis due to drinking arsenic contaminated water provide evidence that arsenic is a potent respiratory toxicant, even following ingestion.
BibTeX:
@article{DNG2007,
  author = {Mazumder DNG},
  title = {Arsenic and non-malignant lung disease},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {42(12)},
  pages = {1859-1867}
}
Mazumder DNG Effect of drinking arsenic contaminated water in children 2007 Indian Pediatr
Vol. 44(12), pp. 925-7 
article
Abstract: Objective: Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic contaminated water is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world including India. Though lot of information is available on health effects due to chronic arsenic toxicity in adults, knowledge of such effect on children is scanty. A review of available literature has been made to highlight the problem in children.
Review Methods: Scientific publication in journals, monograph, thesis and proceedings of conferences on arsenic in regard to epidemiological, clinical and psychometric studies were reviewed.
Results: Skin abnormalities including pigmentation change and keratosis are the diagnostic signs of chronic arsenic toxicity in adults. Incidence of skin manifestations vary between 1.9-12 37.1% in various arsenic exposed children populations in different regions of the world. Occurrence of chronic lung disease including pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was described in arsenic exposed children in Chile. Affection of intellectual function is also reported from Thailand, Bangladesh and India.
Conclusion: Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic contaminated water causes
significant morbidity in children in different parts of the world
BibTeX:
@article{DNG2007a,
  author = {Mazumder DNG},
  title = {Effect of drinking arsenic contaminated water in children},
  journal = {Indian Pediatr},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {44(12)},
  pages = {925-7}
}
Mazumder DNG Arsenic and non-malignant lung disease 2007 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
Vol. 42(12), pp. 1859-67 
article
Abstract: Many aquifers in various parts of the world have been found to be contaminated with arsenic at concentration above 0.05 mg/L. However reports of large number of affected people in India and Bangladesh are unprecedented. Characteristic skin lesions (pigmentation, depigmentation and keratosis) are the hallmark signs of chronic arsenic toxicity. Emerging evidences show that ingestion of arsenic through drinking water may also lead to nonmalignant respiratory effects. Early report of non-malignant pulmonary effect of chronic ingestion of arsenic was available from studies in children in Chile as early as 1970. However on the basis of case studies, respiratory effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in adults following drinking of arsenic contaminated water in West Bengal was first reported in 1997. Epidemiological studies carried out in West Bengal on a population of 7683 showed that the prevalence odds ratio (POR) estimates were markedly increased for participants with arsenic induced skin lesions who also had high levels of arsenic in their current drinking water source (> or = 0.5 mg/L) compared with individuals who had normal skin and were exposed to low levels of arsenic (< 0.05 mg/L). In participants with skin lesions, age-adjusted POR estimates for chronic cough were 7.8 for females (95% CI:3.1-19.5) and 5.0 for males (95% CI:2.6-9.9). In Bangladesh, similar study carried out on a population of 218 showed that the crude prevalence ratio for chronic bronchitis was found to be 10.3 (95% CI:2.4-43.1) for females and 1.6 (95% CI:0.8-3.1) for males. Reports of lung function tests were available from both hospital and population based studies. Results show evidences of restrictive, obstructive and combined obstructive and restrictive lung disease in different people having chronic lung disease associated with chronic arsenic toxicity. On the basis of clinical study, chest X-ray and HRCT done in Arsenicosis patients with features of chronic lung disease, the abnormalities observed were varied. Evidences of obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD) and bronchiectasis were found in some of the cases. Results of studies carried out on people showing features of Arsenicosis due to drinking arsenic contaminated water provide evidence that arsenic is a potent respiratory toxicant, even following ingestion.
BibTeX:
@article{DNG2007b,
  author = {Mazumder DNG},
  title = {Arsenic and non-malignant lung disease},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {42(12)},
  pages = {1859-67}
}
Mazumder DNG Chronic arsenic toxicity: clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment: experience in West Bengal 2003 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 8(1), pp. 141 - 163 
article
Abstract: Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking arsenic- contaminated water has been one of the worst environmental health hazards affecting eight districts of West Bengal since the early eighties. Detailed clinical examination and investigation of 248 such patients revealed protean clinical manifestations of such toxicity. Over and above hyperpigmentation and keratosis, weakness, anaemia, burning sensation of eyes, solid swelling of legs, liver fibrosis, chronic lung disease, gangrene of toes, neuropathy, and skin cancer are some of the other manifestations. A cross-sectional survey involving 7683 participants of all ages was conducted in an arsenic-affected region between 04 1995 and 03 1996. Out of a population of 7683 surveyed, 3467 and 4216 people consumed water containing As below and above 0.05 mg/L, respectively. Except pain abdomen the prevalence of all other clinical manifestations tested (e.g., pigmentation, keratosis, Hepatomegaly, weakness, nausea, lung disease and neuropathy) were found to be significantly higher in As exposed people (water As>0.05 mg/L) compared to control population (water As level<0.05 mg/L). The prevalence of pigmentation and keratosis, hepatomegaly, chronic respiratory disease and weakness rose significantly with increasing arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The respiratory effects were most pronounced in individuals with high arsenic water concentrations who also had skin lesion. Therapy with chelating agent DMSA was not found to be superior to placebo effect. However, therapy with DMPS caused significant improvement of clinical condition of chronic arsenicosis patients as evidenced by significant reduction of total clinical scores from 8.90 ± 2.84 to 3.27 ± 1.73; p<0.0001. Efficacy of specific chelation therapy for patients suffering from chronic As toxicity has further need to be fully substantiated. However, supportive treatment could help in reducing many symptoms of the patients. Treatment in hospital with good nutritious diet has been found to reduce symptom score in a subset of placebo treated patients in West Bengal during the course of DMSA and DMPS trial. People should be advised to stop drinking As contaminated water or exposure to As from any other source. The various clinical manifestations should be treated symptomatically.
BibTeX:
@article{DNG2003,
  author = {Mazumder DNG},
  title = {Chronic arsenic toxicity: clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment: experience in West Bengal},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {8(1)},
  pages = {141 - 163}
}
Mazumder DNG Chronic Arsenic Toxicity: Clinical Features, Epidemiology, and Treatment: Experience in West Bengal 2003 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 38(1), pp. 141-163 
article
Abstract: Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking arsenic-contaminated water has been one of the worst environmental health hazards affecting eight districts of West Bengal since the early eighties. Detailed clinical examination and investigation of 248 such patients revealed protean clinical manifestations of such toxicity. Over and above hyperpigmentation and keratosis, weakness, anaemia, burning sensation of eyes, solid swelling of legs, liver fibrosis, chronic lung disease, gangrene of toes, neuropathy, and skin cancer are some of the other manifestations. A cross-sectional survey involving 7683 participants of all ages was conducted in an arsenic-affected region between 04 1995 and 03 1996. Out of a population of 7683 surveyed, 3467 and 4216 people consumed water containing As below and above 0.05 mg/L, respectively. Except pain abdomen the prevalence of all other clinical manifestations tested (e.g., pigmentation, keratosis, Hepatomegaly, weakness, nausea, lung disease and neuropathy) were found to be significantly higher in As exposed people (water As>0.05 mg/L) compared to control population (water As level<0.05 mg/L). The prevalence of pigmentation and keratosis, hepatomegaly, chronic respiratory disease and weakness rose significantly with increasing arsenic concentrations in drinking water. The respiratory effects were most pronounced in individuals with high arsenic water concentrations who also had skin lesion. Therapy with chelating agent DMSA was not found to be superior to placebo effect. However, therapy with DMPS caused significant improvement of clinical condition of 56 chronic arsenicosis patients as evidenced by significant reduction of total clinical scores from 8.90 ± 2.84 to 3.27 ± 1.73; p<0.0001. Efficacy of specific chelation therapy for patients suffering from chronic As toxicity has further need to be fully substantiated. However, supportive treatment could help in reducing many symptoms of the patients. Treatment in hospital with good nutritious diet has been found to reduce symptom score in a subset of placebo treated patients in West Bengal during the course of DMSA and DMPS trial. People should be advised to stop drinking As contaminated water or exposure to As from any other source. The various clinical manifestations should be treated symptomatically.
BibTeX:
@article{DNG2003a,
  author = {Mazumder DNG},
  title = {Chronic Arsenic Toxicity: Clinical Features, Epidemiology, and Treatment: Experience in West Bengal},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {38(1)},
  pages = {141-163}
}
Ehrenstein Osv, Mazumder DNG, Smith MH, Ghosh N, Yuan Y, Windham G, Ghosh A, Haque R, Lahiri S, Kalman D, Das S, Smith AH Pregnancy Outcomes, Infant Mortality, and Arsenic in Drinking Water in West Bengal, India 2006 American Journal of Epidemiology
Vol. 163(7), pp. 662-669 
article
Abstract: Between 2001 and 2003, the authors studied pregnancy outcomes and infant mortality among 202 married women in West Bengal, India. Reproductive histories were ascertained using structured interviews. Arsenic exposure during each pregnancy, including all water sources used, was assessed; this involved measurements from 409 wells. Odds ratios for 24 spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal mortality, and infant mortality were estimated with logistic regression based on the method of generalized estimating equations. Exposure to high concentrations of arsenic ( 200 µg/liter) during pregnancy was associated with a sixfold increased risk of stillbirth after adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratio (OR) = 6.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54, 24.0; p = 0.01). Arsenic-related skin lesions were found in 12 women who had a substantially increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 13.1, 95% CI: 3.17, 54.0; p = 0.002). The odds ratio for neonatal death was 2.81 (95% CI: 0.73, 10.8). No association was found between arsenic exposure and spontaneous abortion (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.38, 2.70) or overall infant mortality (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.43, 4.04). This study adds to the limited evidence that exposure to high concentrations of arsenic during pregnancy increases the risk of stillbirth. However, there was no indication of the increased rates of spontaneous abortion and overall infant mortality that have been reported in some studies.
BibTeX:
@article{EhrensteinOsv2006,
  author = {Ehrenstein Osv, Mazumder DNG, Smith MH, Ghosh N, Yuan Y, Windham G, Ghosh A, Haque R, Lahiri S, Kalman D, Das S, Smith AH},
  title = {Pregnancy Outcomes, Infant Mortality, and Arsenic in Drinking Water in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {163(7)},
  pages = {662-669}
}
Ehrenstein Osv, Mazumder DNG, Yuan Y, Samanta S, Balmes J, Sil A, Ghosh N, Smith MH, Haque R, Purushothamam R, Lahiri S, Das S, Smith AH Decrements in Lung Function Related to Arsenic in Drinking
Water in West Bengal, India
2005 Am. J. Epidemiol
Vol. 162(6), pp. 533- 541 
article
Abstract: During 1998?2000, the authors investigated relations between lung function, respiratory symptoms, and arsenic in drinking water among 287 study participants, including 132 with 32 arsenic-caused skin lesions, in West Bengal, India. The source population involved 7,683 participants who had been surveyed for arsenic-related skin lesions in 1995?1996. Respiratory symptoms were increased among men with arsenic-caused skin lesions (versus those without lesions), particularly "shortness of breath at night" (odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 7.6) and "morning cough" (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 6.6) in smokers and "shortness of breath ever" (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 20.6) in nonsmokers. Among men with skin lesions, the average adjusted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was reduced by 256.2 ml (95% CI: 113.9, 398.4; p < 0.001) and the average adjusted forced vital capacity (FVC) was reduced by 287.8 ml (95% CI: 134.9, 440.8; p < 0.001). In men, a 100-
µg/liter increase in arsenic level was associated with a 45.0-ml decrease (95% CI: 6.2, 83.9) in FEV1 (p = 0.02) and a 41.4-ml decrease (95% CI: ?0.7, 83.5) in FVC (p = 0.054). Women had lower risks than men of developing skin lesions and showed little evidence of respiratory effects. In this study, consumption of arsenic-contaminated water was associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function in men, especially among those with arsenic-related skin lesions
BibTeX:
@article{EhrensteinOsv2005,
  author = {Ehrenstein Osv, Mazumder DNG, Yuan Y, Samanta S, Balmes J, Sil A, Ghosh N, Smith MH, Haque R, Purushothamam R, Lahiri S, Das S, Smith AH},
  title = {Decrements in Lung Function Related to Arsenic in Drinking
Water in West Bengal, India}, journal = {Am. J. Epidemiol}, year = {2005}, volume = {162(6)}, pages = {533- 541} }
Garai R, Chakraborty AK, Dey SB, Saha KC Chronic arsenic poisoning from tube-well water 1984 J. Indian MA
Vol. 82(1), pp. 34-35 
article
BibTeX:
@article{GaraiR1984,
  author = {Garai R, Chakraborty AK, Dey SB, Saha KC},
  title = {Chronic arsenic poisoning from tube-well water},
  journal = {J. Indian MA},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {82(1)},
  pages = {34-35}
}
Ghosh P, Banerjee M, Chaudhuri SD, Das JK, Sarma N, Basu A, Giri AK Increased chromosome aberration frequencies in the Bowen’s patients compared to non-cancerous skin lesions individuals
exposed to arsenic
2007 Mutat Res  article
Abstract: Cytogenetic biomarkers are essential for assessing environmental exposure that can predict adverse human health effects such as cellular damage. Chromosomal aberrations are the most important cytogenetic end-points successfully used for the cancer risk assessment of populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to different toxic chemicals. Previous reports suggest that, increased frequency of chromosomal aberration (CA), in peripheral blood lymphocytes, is a predictor of cancer. Arsenic is a paradoxical human carcinogen, clastogen and aneugen. Despite of exposure at similar extent, only 15-20% of individuals show arsenic induced skin lesions including Bowen’s disease (BD). Previously we have reported the significant increase in CA in the individuals with arsenic induced skin lesions when compared to individuals without any skin lesions, drinking arsenic contaminated water at similar extent. Presently, a matched case-control study was performed to examine whether biomarkers such as chromosomal aberrations can predict the development of arsenic induced Bowen’s (in situ carcinoma) diseases. Chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome and chromatid types) and mitotic index were analyzed from the lymphocytes of 25 cases of Bowen’s patient which was compared to matched control from the individuals with arsenic induced non-cancerous skin lesions such as raindrop pigmentation, keratosis of palm and sole, hypo and hyper pigmentation. Chromosomal aberrations/cell, chromosome type aberrations and total percentage of aberrant cells were significantly higher in cases compared to control (p<0.01). These results suggest that chromosomal aberrations can be used for cancer risk assessment of the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshP2007,
  author = {Ghosh P, Banerjee M, Chaudhuri SD, Das JK, Sarma N, Basu A, Giri AK},
  title = {Increased chromosome aberration frequencies in the Bowen’s patients compared to non-cancerous skin lesions individuals
exposed to arsenic}, journal = {Mutat Res}, year = {2007} }
Ghosh P, Banerjee M, De Chaudhuri S, Chowdhury R, Das JK, Mukherjee A, Sarkar AK, Mondal L, Baidya K, Sau TJ, Banerjee A, Basu A, Chaudhuri K, Ray K, Giri AK Comparison of health effects between individuals with and without skin lesions in the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India 2007 J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
Vol. 17(3)(215-23) 
article
Abstract: A study was conducted to explore the effect of arsenic causing conjunctivitis, neuropathy and respiratory illness in individuals, with or without skin lesions, as a result of exposure through drinking water, contaminated with arsenic to similar extent. Exposed study population belongs to the districts of North 24 Parganas and Nadia, West Bengal, India. A total of 725 exposed (373 with skin lesions and 352 without skin lesions) and 389 unexposed individuals were recruited as study participants. Participants were clinically examined and interviewed. Arsenic content in drinking water, urine, nail and hair was estimated. Individuals with skin lesion showed significant retention of arsenic in nail and hair and lower amount of urinary arsenic compared to the group without any skin lesion. Individuals with skin lesion also showed higher risk for conjunctivitis ((odd’s ratio) OR: 7.33, 95% CI: 5.05-10.59), peripheral neuropathy (OR: 3.95, 95% CI: 2.61-5.93) and respiratory illness (OR: 4.86, 95% CI: 3.16- 7.48) compared to the group without any skin lesion. The trend test for OR of the three diseases in three groups was found to be statistically significant. Again, individuals without skin lesion in the exposed group showed higher risk for conjunctivitis (OR: 4.66, 95% CI:2.45-8.85), neuropathy (OR: 3.99, 95% CI: 1.95-8.09), and respiratory illness (OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.65-6.26) when compared to arsenic unexposed individuals. Although individuals with skin lesions were more susceptible to arsenic-induced toxicity, individuals without skin lesions were also subclinically affected and are also susceptible to arsenic-induced toxicity
and carcinogenicity when compared to individuals not exposed to arsenic
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshP2007a,
  author = {Ghosh P, Banerjee M, De Chaudhuri S, Chowdhury R, Das JK, Mukherjee A, Sarkar AK, Mondal L, Baidya K, Sau TJ, Banerjee A, Basu A, Chaudhuri K, Ray K, Giri AK},
  title = {Comparison of health effects between individuals with and without skin lesions in the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {17(3)},
  number = {215-23}
}
Ghosh P, Basu A, Mahata J, Basu S, Sengupta M, Das JK, Mukherjee A, Sarkar AK, Mondal L, Ray K,Giri AK Cytogenetic damage and genetic variants in the individuals susceptible to arsenic-induced cancer through drinking water 2006 Int J Cancer
Vol. 118(10), pp. 2470-8 
article
Abstract: In West Bengal, India, more than 300,000 arsenic-exposed people are showing symptoms of arsenic toxicity, which include cancers of skin and different internal organs. Since only 15-20% of the exposed population manifest arsenic-induced skin lesions, it is thought that genetic variation might play an important role in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. A total of 422 unrelated arsenic-exposed subjects (244 skin-symptomatic and 178 asymptomatic) were recruited for this study. Cytogenetic damage, as measured by chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes and micronuclei formation in oral mucosa cells, urothelial cells and binucleated lymphocytes, was studied in unexposed, skin-symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals with similar socioeconomic status. Identification of null mutations in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes were carried out by PCR amplification. GSTP1 SNPs, implicated in susceptibility to various cancers, were assessed by PCR-RFLP method. Symptomatic individuals had higher level of cytogenetic damage compared to asymptomatic individuals and asymptomatic individuals had significantly higher genotoxicity than unexposed individuals. No difference in allelic variants in GSTT1 and GSTP1 was observed between these 2 groups. Incidence of GSTM1 null gene frequencies was significantly higher in the asymptomatic group. Individuals
with GSTM1-positive (at least one allele) had significantly higher risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.22). These results show a protective role of GSTM1 null in arsenic toxicity. This study also indicates that asymptomatic individuals are sub clinically affected and are also significantly susceptible to arsenic-induced genotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshP2006,
  author = {Ghosh P, Basu A, Mahata J, Basu S, Sengupta M, Das JK, Mukherjee A, Sarkar AK, Mondal L, Ray K,Giri AK},
  title = {Cytogenetic damage and genetic variants in the individuals susceptible to arsenic-induced cancer through drinking water},
  journal = {Int J Cancer},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {118(10)},
  pages = {2470-8}
}
Govil PK, Sorlie JE, Murthy NN, Sujatha D, Reddy GL, Rudolph-Lund K, Krishna AK, Rama Mohan K Soil contamination of heavy metals in the Katedan Industrial Development Area, Hyderabad, India 2008 Environ Monit Assess;
Vol. 140(1-3), pp. 313-23 
article
Abstract: Studies on quantitative soil contamination due to heavy metals were carried out in Katedan Industrial Development Area (KIDA), south of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India under the Indo-Norwegian Institutional Cooperation Programme. The study area falls under a semi-arid type of climate and consists of granites and pegmatite of igneous origin belonging to the Archaean age. There are about 300 industries dealing with dyeing, edible oil production, battery manufacturing, metal plating, chemicals, etc. Most of the industries discharge their untreated effluents either on open land or into ditches. Solid waste from industries is randomly dumped along roads and open grounds. Soil samples were collected throughout the industrial area and from downstream residential areas and were analysed by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for fourteen trace metals and ten major oxides. The analytical data shows very high concentrations of lead, chromium, nickel, zinc, arsenic and cadmium through out the industrial area. The random dumping of hazardous waste in the industrial area could be the main cause of the soil contamination spreading by rainwater and wind. In the residential areas the local dumping is expected to be the main source as it is difficult to foresee that rain and wind can transport the contaminants from the industrial area. If emission to air by the smokestacks is significant, this may contribute to considerable spreading of contaminants like As, Cd and Pb throughout the area. A comparison of the results with the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (SQGL) show that most of the industrial area is heavily contaminated by As, Pb and Zn and local areas by Cr, Cu and Ni. The residential area is also contaminated by As and some small areas by Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The Cd contamination is detected over large area but it is not exceeding the SQGL value. Natural background values of As and Cr exceed the SQGL values and contribute significantly to the contamination in the residential area. However, the availability is considerably less than anthropogenic contaminants and must therefore be assessed differently. The pre- and postmonsoon sampling over two hydrological cycles in 2002 and 2003 indicate that the As, Cd and Pb contaminants are more mobile and may expect to reach the groundwater. The other 4 contaminants seem to be much more stable. The contamination is especially serious in the industrial area as it is housing a large permanent residing population. The study not only aims at determining the natural background levels of trace elements as a guide for future
pollution monitoring but also focuses on the pollution vulnerability of the watershed. A plan of action for remediation is recommended.
BibTeX:
@article{GovilPK2008,
  author = {Govil PK, Sorlie JE, Murthy NN, Sujatha D, Reddy GL, Rudolph-Lund K, Krishna AK, Rama Mohan K},
  title = {Soil contamination of heavy metals in the Katedan Industrial Development Area, Hyderabad, India},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess;},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {140(1-3)},
  pages = {313-23}
}
Guillot S, Charlet L Bengal arsenic, an archive of Himalaya orogeny and paleohydrology 2007 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
Vol. 42(12), pp. 1785-94 
article
Abstract: Holocene groundwater in many districts of the West Bengal and parts of Bangladesh are enriched in arsenic enhancing poisoning effect on humans. One of the main problems to depict the source of arsenic is that this element is very mobile and can be easily removed and recombined from the source during alteration processes, transport and mobilization in sediments. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system mainly contributed to the buildup of the Bengal fan, which is considered one of the largest modern deltas of the world, then the possible source of the As has probably to be search within the Himalayan belt. We propose that the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone dominated by arc-related rocks and more particularly by large volume of serpentinites enriched in arsenic could be one of the primary source of arsenic. The fact that, the present day arsenic concentration in the main Himalayan river, and particularly the Siang-Brahmaputra river system is not so high as expected can be explained
by strong aridic conditions present day prevailing in the Indus-Suture zone and do not favored the weathering of serpentinites into As rich-smectite and Fe-hydroxydes. For the Ganga basin, the original source of arsenic has to be search in the weathering of arc related rocks in the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone followed by its intermediate storage into the sediments of the Siwalik foreland basin, playing the role of arsenic reservoir from Miocene to 10 Pleistocene. Intense tectonic activity in the front of the Himalayan belt associated with high rainfall conditions during the Holocene allowed the arsenic to be remobilized and transported toward the Bay of Bengal.
BibTeX:
@article{GuillotS2007,
  author = {Guillot S, Charlet L},
  title = {Bengal arsenic, an archive of Himalaya orogeny and paleohydrology},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {42(12)},
  pages = {1785-94}
}
Haque R, Mazumder DNG, Samanta S, Ghosh N, Kalman D, Smith MM, Mitra S, Santra A, Lahiri S, Das S, De BK, Smith AH Arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions: dose-response data from West Bengal, India 2003 Epidemiology
Vol. 14(2), pp. 174-182 
article
Abstract: Background: Over 6 million people live in areas of West Bengal, India, where groundwater sources are contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. The key objective of this nested case-control study was to characterize the dose-re- sponse relation between low arsenic concentrations in drinking water and arsenic-induced skin keratoses and hyperpigmentation.
Methods. We selected cases (persons with arsenic-induced skin lesions) and age- and sexmatched controls from partici- pants in a 1995?1996 cross-sectional survey in West Bengal. We used a detailed assessment of arsenic exposure that covered at least 20 years. Participants were reexamined between 1998 and 2000. Consensus agreement by four physicians reviewing the skin lesion photographs confirmed the diagnosis in 87% of cases
clinically diagnosed in the field.
Results. The average peak arsenic concentration in drinking water was 325 g/liter for cases and 180 g/liter for controls. The average latency for skin lesions was 23 years from first exposure. We found strong dose-response gradients with both peak and average arsenic water concentrations.
Conclusions. The lowest peak arsenic ingested by a confirmed case was 115 g/liter. Confirmation of case diagnosis and intensive longitudinal exposure assessment provide the basis for a detailed dose-response evaluation of arsenic-caused skin lesions.
BibTeX:
@article{HaqueR2003,
  author = {Haque R, Mazumder DNG, Samanta S, Ghosh N, Kalman D, Smith MM, Mitra S, Santra A, Lahiri S, Das S, De BK, Smith AH},
  title = {Arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions: dose-response data from West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Epidemiology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {14(2)},
  pages = {174-182}
}
Hossain MA, Mukherjee A, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Das B, Nayak B, Rahman MdM, Chakraborti D Million Dollar Arsenic Removal Plants in West Bengal-India, Useful or Not? 2006 Water Quality Research Journal of Canada
Vol. 41(2), pp. 216-225 
article
Abstract: The effectiveness of arsenic removal plants (ARPs) to provide safe water was evaluated based on a study of 577 ARPs out of 1900 installed in 5 arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Out of 577, 145 (25.1%) were found in defunct condition. Both raw and filtered water from 305 ARPs were analyzed for total arsenic concentration. Forty-eight ARPs were installed despite raw water arsenic concentrations below the Indian standard (50 pg/L) and in 22 cases even below the WHO guideline value (10 pg/L). Among the 264 ARPs having raw water arsenic above 50 pg/L, 140 (53.1%) and 73 (27.7%) failed to remove arsenic below the WHO guideline value and Indian standard, respectively. The highest arsenic concentration in treated water was 705 pg/L. Analysis of 217 treated water samples for iron showed that 175 (80.6%) failed to remove iron below 300 pg/L. The treated water became coloured on standing 6 to 8 h, for 191 (44.2%) ARPs and 25 (5.8%) produced bad-odoured water. Overall, the study showed that 475 (82.3%) of the ARPs were not useful. The reasons for ineffectiveness and poor performance of these ARPs include improper maintenance, sand gushing problems, a lack of user-friendliness and absence of community participation. A comparative study of ARPs in two different blocks (Domkol in Murshidabad district and Swarupnagar in North 24 Parganas) showed that 39 (80%) and 38 (95%) ARPs, respectively, were not useful. Further study in Gram Panchayet Kolsur, Deganga block, North 24 Parganas, showed that 14 (87.5%) ARPs were not useful. Proper watershed management with active participation from the villagers is urgently required for successful mitigation.
BibTeX:
@article{HossainMA2006,
  author = {Hossain MA, Mukherjee A, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Das B, Nayak B, Rahman MdM, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Million Dollar Arsenic Removal Plants in West Bengal-India, Useful or Not?},
  journal = {Water Quality Research Journal of Canada},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {41(2)},
  pages = {216-225}
}
Hossain MA, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Rahman MdM, Mondal D, Lodh D, Das B, Nayak B, Roy BK, Mukherjee A, Chakraborti D Ineffectiveness and Poor Reliability of Arsenic Removal Plants in West Bengal, India 2005 Environmental Science & Technology
Vol. 39 (11):, pp. 4300-4306 
article
Abstract: In the recent past, arsenic contamination in groundwater has emerged as an epidemic in different Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, India, and China. Arsenic removal plants (ARP) are one possible option to provide arsenic-safe drinking water. This paper evaluates the efficiency of ARP projects in removing arsenic and iron from raw groundwater, on the basis of our 2-year-long study covering 18 ARPs from 11 manufacturers, both from home and abroad, installed in an arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India, known as the Technology Park Project (TP project). Immediately after installation of ARPs on August 29, 2001, the villagers began using filtered water for drinking and cooking, even though our first analysis on September 13, 2001 found that 10 of 13 ARPs failed to remove arsenic below the WHO provisional guideline value (10 ?g/L), while six plants could not achieve the Indian Standard value (50 ?g/L). The highest concentration of arsenic in filtered water was observed to be 364 ?g/L. Our 2-year study showed that none of the ARPs could maintain arsenic in filtered water below the WHO provisional guideline value and only two could meet the Indian standard value (50 ?g/L) throughout. Standard statistical techniques showed that ARPs from the same manufacturers were not equally efficient. Efficiency of the ARPs was 33 evaluated on the basis of point and interval estimates of the proportion of failure. During the study period almost all the ARPs have undergone minor or major modifications to improve their performance, and after our study, 15 (78%) out of 18 ARPs were no longer in use. In this study, we also analyzed urine samples from villagers in the TP project area and found that 82% of the samples contained arsenic above the normal limit.
BibTeX:
@article{HossainMA2005,
  author = {Hossain MA, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Rahman MdM, Mondal D, Lodh D, Das B, Nayak B, Roy BK, Mukherjee A, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Ineffectiveness and Poor Reliability of Arsenic Removal Plants in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Environmental Science & Technology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39 (11):},
  pages = {4300-4306}
}
Roy J Economic benefits of arsenic removal from ground water - A case study from West Bengal, India 2008 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 397(1-3), pp. 1-12 
article
Abstract: People living in almost 50% of the districts in West Bengal are exposed to arsenic contaminated water. This paper seeks to estimate the economic costs imposed by arsenicrelated health problems. We use data from a primary survey of 473 households carried out in the districts of North 24 Parganas and Midnapore. We take into account household actions to either decrease the exposure of family members to unsafe water or to alleviate the health effects of consuming arsenic-contaminated water. This allows us to assess the benefits of arsenic-safe water by estimating a three equation system that includes averting actions, medical expenditures and a sickness function. We find that by reducing arsenic concentration to the safe limit of 50 microg/l, a representative household will benefit by Rs 297 ($7) per month. The current cost of supplying filtered piped water by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation to households is Rs 127 ($3) per month per household. Thus, investing in safe drinking water is economically feasible and households are willing to pay for such investments if made aware of the effective gain in welfare. Poor households, who make up the highest proportion of arsenic-affected households and incur the largest number of sick
days, will be major beneficiaries of such investments.
BibTeX:
@article{J2008,
  author = {Roy J},
  title = {Economic benefits of arsenic removal from ground water - A case study from West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {397(1-3)},
  pages = {1-12}
}
Joshi H, Ghosh AK, Singhal DC, Kumar S Arsenic contamination in parts of Yamuna sub-basin, West Bengal 2003 Indian J Environ Health
Vol. 45(4), pp. 265-74 
article
Abstract: Arsenic rarely occurs in free state and is generally found in combination with Sulphur, Oxygen and Iron. In the environment, Arsenic occurs as a result of several inputs that contain this element in organic and inorganic forms. Arsenic is present in Coal, Lead, Zinc, Gold and 52 Copper ores in the form of several minerals viz. Arsenopyrite (FeAsS), Orpiment (As2S3), Realgar (AsS), Arsenolite (As2O3) and Lollingite (FeAs2). The commonly existing species in groundwater are in two forms viz. Arsenite [As(III)] which is the reduced state of inorganic Arsenic and Arsenate [As(V)], which is the oxidized state of inorganic Arsenic, The As(III) form is more mobile and toxic for living organisms. Recently, the symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning have been observed in many parts of West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh. In the present study, an integrated evaluation of hydrogeology and hydrochemistry has been carried out by processing the available data of Yamuna sub-basin (Part of Nadia and North 24 Parganas district) of West Bengal in order to understand the possible reason of arsenic pollution in the ground water. Arsenic has generally been observed in higher concentration in shallow aquifer. Northwestern region of the study area has been observed to be the most effected with premonsoon periods exhibiting higher concentration. Transmissivity values have been observed to vary inversely with arsenic concentrations. Arsenic values have not indicated any well defined association with many other constituents. Arsenic buildup could also not be conclusively related to lowering of ground water table of the study area.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiH2003,
  author = {Joshi H, Ghosh AK, Singhal DC, Kumar S},
  title = {Arsenic contamination in parts of Yamuna sub-basin, West Bengal},
  journal = {Indian J Environ Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {45(4)},
  pages = {265-74}
}
Kalia K, Flora SJ Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning 2005 J Occup Health
Vol. 47(1), pp. 1-21 
article
Abstract: Exposure to toxic metals remains a widespread occupational and environmental problem in world. There have been a number of reports in the recent past suggesting an incidence of childhood lead poisoning and chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated drinking water in many areas of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh has become a national calamity. Low-level metal exposure in humans is caused by air, food and water intake. Lead and arsenic generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the central nervous system (CNS), the haematopoietic system, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there has been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at a lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research, we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic plumbism and arsenicosis. Medical treatment of acute and chronic lead and arsenic toxicity is furnished by chelating agents. Chelating agents are organic compounds capable of linking together metal ions to form complex ring-like structures called chelates. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL) has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been tried successfully in animals as well as in a few cases of human lead and arsenic poisoning. DMSA could be a safe and effective method for treating lead or arsenic poisoning, but one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove lead from the
intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy is to use combined treatment. This includes the use of structurally different chelators or a combination of an adjuvant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to lead mobilization. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being adopted for a safe, effective and specific treatment for two major toxic metals or metalloid
BibTeX:
@article{KaliaK2005,
  author = {Kalia K, Flora SJ},
  title = {Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning},
  journal = {J Occup Health},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {47(1)},
  pages = {1-21}
}
Saha KC Diagnosis of arsenicosis 2003 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 38(1), pp. 255-272 
article
Abstract: Arsenicosis is chronic subclinical or clinical toxicity due to high level of arsenic in body. Diagnosis of arsenicosis was derived by chronological establishment of facts: (a) arsenic as the cause of malady, (b) drinking water (tubewell water) as the vehicle of arsenic, (c) soil as the source of arsenic, (d) mechanism of leaching of arsenic from soil, and (e) cause of prevalence in particular areas of the country. Arsenicosis has been classified by the author into 4 stages, 7 grades and 20 subgrades. Stage I is pre-clinical or grade O. While clinical features were not found at this stage, high level of arsenic metabolites was observed in urine. As disease progressed to stable phase of grade O, high level of arsenic was also found in nails, hair, and skin scales. Stage II or clinical stage is divided into 4 grades, (1) Melanosis, (2) Spotted keratosis in palms/soles, (3) Diffuse keratosis in palms/soles, and (4) Dorsal keratosis. Clinical complications are grouped in stage III and grade 5. Malignancy is considered in stage IV and grade 6. There is a concern of both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis. Therefore, cases of arsenicosis should be cautiously evaluated. Melanosis was the earliest cutaneous sign of clinical arsenicosis. Mild cases of melanosis could only be revealed by a thorough comparison with normal palms. Similarly mild cases of keratosis might not be visible and could only be revealed by careful palpation of palms and soles. Combination of melanosis and keratosis in adults indicated clinical diagnosis of arsenical dermatosis (ASD) that should be confirmed by showing high arsenic concentration in body tissues e.g., nails, hair, skin scales. Isolated melanosis or keratosis in newborn or children 60 below 2 years almost negated the diagnosis of arsenicosis. Genetic melanosis or keratosis is often present since birth. Isolated melanosis or keratosis in adults should be differentiated from non-arsenical dermatosis and proven by absence of high arsenic level in nails and hair. Non-arsenical causes of diffuse melanosis, spotted melanosis or leucomelanosis and localized or generalized keratosis can be clinically differentiated from arsenicosis by absence of pigmentation and keratosis in palms/soles.
BibTeX:
@article{KC2003,
  author = {Saha KC},
  title = {Diagnosis of arsenicosis},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {38(1)},
  pages = {255-272}
}
Saha KC Chronic arsenical dermatoses from tube-well water in West Bengal during 1983-87 1996 Ind. J. Dermatol
Vol. 41(1), pp. 1-12 
article
Review: One thousand two hundred and fourteen cases (152 in OPD and 1062 in field study) of chronic arsenical dermatoses from drinking arsenic contaminated tube-well water were detected in 61 villages of 7 districts of West Bengal during 1983-87. The first case was diagnosed at STM Skin OPD in July 1983 by the author. The districts involved are Murshidabad-652 cases (53.71 percent), North 24-Parganas-318 cases (26.19 percent), South 24-Parganas-60 cases (4.94 percent), Nadia 151 cases (12.44 percent), Burdwan-30 cases (2.47 percent), Malda-2 cases (0.16 percent) and Midnapore 1 case (0.08 percent). 24 Parganas (N) & 24-Parganas (S) together comprised 378 (31.14 percent) cases. Melanosis (diffuse and spotted in palms, soles, trunk) and keratosis (punctate plus minus diffuse in palms, soles and limbs) are the salient feaures of the diseases. Cutaneous malignancy (Sq.C.C.) was detected as complication in 6 cases. Severity of dermatoses correlated well with the concentration of arsenic in the consumed water and the duration of consumption. Significant concentration of arsenic in nails, hair and skin scales not only confirmed the clinical diagnosis but also helped in confirming doubtful and subclinical cases in unaffected members of the affected family. Histology of liver showed NCPF. Depths of affected tubewells varied from 110 to 150 ft. Mean concentration of arsenic in water consumed by affectedpeople was 0.32 mg/1 (0.06-1.25) and the duration of drinking contaminated water for the symptoms to develop varied from 6 months to 2 years or more, depending on arsenic concentration and period of arsenic contamination of tube-well water. High arsenic contents of some strainers in affected tube-wells are likely to be due to contamination from the soil. Treatment by BAL is superior to penicillamine. Prolonged use of chelating agent BAL with mechanical scrapping of water soaked keratotic soles and palms give encouraging results. Urea (20 percent) in cream or vaseline, followed by 6-10 percent salicylic acid, also helps for smoothening of skin. Follow-up of treated patients at monthly interval for clinical and
chemical assessment is helpful for final assessment of the treatment given.
BibTeX:
@article{KC1996,
  author = {Saha KC},
  title = {Chronic arsenical dermatoses from tube-well water in West Bengal during 1983-87},
  journal = {Ind. J. Dermatol},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {41(1)},
  pages = {1-12}
}
Saha KC Melanokeratosis from arsenic contaminated tubewell water 1983 Ind J. Dermatol
Vol. 29(4), pp. 37-46 
article
BibTeX:
@article{KC1983,
  author = {Saha KC},
  title = {Melanokeratosis from arsenic contaminated tubewell water},
  journal = {Ind J. Dermatol},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {29(4)},
  pages = {37-46}
}
Khuda Bukhsh AR, Pathak S, Guha B, Karmakar SR, Das JK, Banerjee P, Biswas SJ, Mukherjee P, Bhattacharjee N, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Bhadra S, Mallick P, Chakrabarti J, Mandal B Can Homeopathic Arsenic Remedy Combat Arsenic Poisoning in Humans Exposed to Groundwater Arsenic Contamination?:
A Preliminary Report on First Human Trial
2005 Evid Based Complement Alternat Med  article
Abstract: Groundwater arsenic (As) has affected millions of people globally distributed over 20 countries. In parts of West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh alone, over 100 million people are at risk, but supply of As-free water is grossly inadequate. Attempts to remove As by using orthodox medicines have mostly been unsuccessful. A potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album-30, was administered to a group of As affected people and thereafter the As contents in their urine and blood were periodically determined. The activities of various toxicity marker enzymes and compounds in the blood, namely aspartate amino transferase,
alanine amino transferase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione, were also periodically monitored up to 3 months. The results are highly encouraging and suggest that the drug can alleviate As poisoning in humans.
BibTeX:
@article{KhudaBukhshAR2005,
  author = {Khuda Bukhsh AR, Pathak S, Guha B, Karmakar SR, Das JK, Banerjee P, Biswas SJ, Mukherjee P, Bhattacharjee N, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Bhadra S, Mallick P, Chakrabarti J, Mandal B},
  title = {Can Homeopathic Arsenic Remedy Combat Arsenic Poisoning in Humans Exposed to Groundwater Arsenic Contamination?:
A Preliminary Report on First Human Trial}, journal = {Evid Based Complement Alternat Med}, year = {2005} }
Lalwani S, Dogra TD, Bhardwaj DN, Sharma RK, Murty OP, Vij A Study On Arsenic Level In Ground Water Of Delhi Using Hydride Generator Accessory Coupled With Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer 2004 Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry
Vol. 19(2), pp. 135-140 
article
Abstract: Surveillance of drinking water is essentially a health measure intended to protect the public from water borne diseases. Hydride generator accessory coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to analyze arsenic level in 49 ground water samples collected from different areas of Delhi. Arsenic level in ground water samples was in the range of 44 0.0170 to 0.100 ppm (Mean-0.0431, Standard Deviation-0.0136, Std. error of Mean-0.00194) with minimum concentration at Raney Well No. 7 (0.0170 ppm) and maximum at Kotla Mubarak Pur (0.100 ppm). Arsenic containing sediments and percolation of chemicals into soil as the result of dumping of garbage rich in chemicals into open landfills could be the possible source of arsenic in ground water of Delhi. Extensive survey and continuous monitoring is required to be made to assess the magnitude of problem and earlier intervention.
BibTeX:
@article{LalwaniS2004,
  author = {Lalwani S, Dogra TD, Bhardwaj DN, Sharma RK, Murty OP, Vij A},
  title = {Study On Arsenic Level In Ground Water Of Delhi Using Hydride Generator Accessory Coupled With Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {19(2)},
  pages = {135-140}
}
Sengupta M Does Arsenic Consumption Influence the age at Menarche of Woman 2004 Indian Pediatr
Vol. 41(9), pp. 960-1 
article
Abstract: The people of nine districts of West Bengal surrounding 38,865-km/2 are facing several problems due to the consumption of arsenic, as arsenic contaminated groundwater is being used for drinking purpose, agriculture, cooking of food and washing of utensils. It is established by several authors that constant exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer of skin, lungs, bones, kidneys, liver, bladder etc.. It also depletes body stores of iron, vitamin C
and other essential nutrients leading to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased immune defenses and disabilities associated with malnutrition. Therefore, theoretically there arises a possibility that the use of arsenic poisoning water for a long time may affect the age at menarche (AGM) as it has a definite correlation with malnutrition. Therefore, the present communication attempts to determine whether an association exists between arsenic and AGM. (Excerpt)
BibTeX:
@article{M2004,
  author = {Sengupta M},
  title = {Does Arsenic Consumption Influence the age at Menarche of Woman},
  journal = {Indian Pediatr},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {41(9)},
  pages = {960-1}
}
Mahata J, Basu A, Ghoshal S, Sarkar JN, Roy AK, Poddar G, Nandy AK, Banerjee A, Ray K, Natarajan AT, Nilsson R, Giri AK Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India 2003 Mutat Res
Vol. 534(1-2), pp. 133-43 
article
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in groundwater has become a worldwide problem. Currently an unprecedented number of people in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh are exposed to the ubiquitous toxicant via drinking water in exposure levels far exceeding the maximum recommended limit laid down by WHO. This arsenic epidemic has devastated nine districts of West Bengal encompassing an area of 38,865 km(2) leading to various clinical 53 manifestations of chronic arsenicosis. We conducted a human bio-monitoring study using chromosomal aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) as end points to explore the cytogenetic effects of chronic arsenic toxicity in the population of North 24 Parganas, one of the arsenic affected districts in West Bengal. Study participants included 59 individuals residing in this district where the mean level (+/-S.E.) of arsenic in drinking water (microg/l) was 211.70+/-15.28. As age matched controls with similar socio-economic status we selected 36 healthy, asymptomatic individuals residing in two unaffected districts--Midnapur and Howrah where the mean arsenic content of water (microg/l) was 6.35+/-0.45. Exposure was assessed by standardized questionnaires and by detecting the levels of arsenic in drinking water, nails, hair and urine samples. In the exposed group the mean arsenic concentrations in nails (microg/g), hair (microg/g) and urine (microg/l) samples were 9.04+/-0.78, 5.63+/-0.38 and 140.52+/-8.82, respectively, which were significantly high (P<0.01) compared to the corresponding control values of 0.44+/-0.03, 0.30+/-0.02 and 5.91+/-0.49, respectively. Elevated mean values (P<0.01) of the percentage of aberrant cells (8.08%) and SCEs per cell (7.26) were also observed in the exposed individuals in comparison to controls (1.96% and 5.95, respectively). The enhanced rates of CAs and SCEs among the residents of North 24 Parganas are indicative of the cytogenetic damage due to long term exposure to arsenic through consumption of contaminated water.
BibTeX:
@article{MahataJ2003,
  author = {Mahata J, Basu A, Ghoshal S, Sarkar JN, Roy AK, Poddar G, Nandy AK, Banerjee A, Ray K, Natarajan AT, Nilsson R, Giri AK},
  title = {Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Mutat Res},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {534(1-2)},
  pages = {133-43}
}
Mahata J, Ghosh P, Sarkar JN, Ray K, Natarajan AT, Giri AK Effect of sodium arsenite on peripheral lymphocytes in vitro: individual susceptibility among a population exposed to arsenic through the drinking water 2004 Mutagenesis
Vol. 19(3), pp. 223-229 
article
Abstract: Arsenic (As) contamination in ground water has affected more than 19 countries. Approximately 36 million people in the Bengal delta alone are exposed to this toxicant via drinking water (>50 µg/l) and are at potential health risk. Chronic ingestion of As via drinking water is associated with occurrence of skin lesions, cancer and other arsenic-induced diseases in West Bengal, India. An in vitro cytogenetic study was performed utilizing chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes treated with sodium arsenite (0?5 µM) in six symptomatic (having arsenic-related skin lesions) individuals, six age- and sex-matched Asexposed asymptomatic (no arsenic-related skin lesions) individuals and six control individuals with similar socio-economic status residing in non-affected districts of West Bengal with no evidence of As exposure. The mean As content in nails and hair was 9.61 and 5.23 µg/g in symptomatic, 3.48 and 2.17 µg/g in asymptomatic and 0.42 and 0.33 µg/g in the control individuals, respectively. The main aim of our study was to determine whether genotoxic effects differed in the lymphocytes of the control (no exposure to arsenic), asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals after in vitro treatment with sodium arsenite. Although both the exposed groups had chronic exposure to As through the drinking water, individuals with skin lesions accumulated more As in their nails and hair and excreted less in urine (127.80 versus 164.15 µg/l). The results show that sodium arsenite induced a significantly higher percentage of aberrant cells in the lymphocytes of control individuals than in the lymphocytes of both the exposed groups. Within the two exposed groups As induced higher incidences of CA in the symptomatic than the asymptomatic individuals. These results suggest that asymptomatic 45 individuals have relatively lower sensitivity and susceptibility to induction of genetic damage by As compared with the symptomatic individuals.
BibTeX:
@article{MahataJ2004,
  author = {Mahata J, Ghosh P, Sarkar JN, Ray K, Natarajan AT, Giri AK},
  title = {Effect of sodium arsenite on peripheral lymphocytes in vitro: individual susceptibility among a population exposed to arsenic through the drinking water},
  journal = {Mutagenesis},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {19(3)},
  pages = {223-229}
}
Mandal BK, Biswas BK, Dhar RK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Kabir S, Roy S, Chakraborti D Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh: status report up to March 1998 1999   book
BibTeX:
@book{MandalBK1999,
  author = {Mandal BK, Biswas BK, Dhar RK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Kabir S, Roy S and Chakraborti D},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination and sufferings of people in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh: status report up to March 1998},
  publisher = {Metals and Genetics},
  year = {1999}
}
Mandal BK, Ogra Y, Suzuki KT Speciation of arsenic in human nail and hair from arsenicaffected area by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry 2003 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
Vol. 189(2), pp. 73-83 
article
Abstract: Nail and hair are rich in fibrous proteins, i.e., alpha-keratins that contain abundant cysteine residues (up to 22% in nail and 10-14% in hair). Although they are metabolically dead materials in the epidermis, the roots are highly influenced by the health status of the living beings and their analyses are used as a tool to monitor occupational and environmental exposure to toxic elements. The aims of the present study are to speciate arsenicals in human nail and hair and also to judge whether they should be used as a biomarker to arsenic (As) exposure and/or toxicity. All human fingernail and hair samples (n = 47) were collected from the As-affected area of West Bengal, India. Speciation of arsenicals in water extracts of fingernails and hair at 90 degrees C was carried out by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP MS). Fingernails contained iAs(III) (58.6%), iAs(V) (21.5), MMA(V) (7.7), DMA(III) (9.2), and DMA(V) (3.0), and hair contained iAs(III) (60.9%), iAs(V) (33.2), MMA(V) (2.2), and DMA(V) (3.6). Fingernails contained DMA(III), but hair did not. The higher percentage of iAs(III) both in fingernails and hair than that of iAs(V) suggests more affinity of iAs(III) to keratin. Although all arsenicals in fingernails and hair correlate to As exposure positively, As speciation in fingernails seems to be more correlated with arsenism than that in hair. Exogenous contamination is a confounding factor for hair to consider it as a biomarker, whereas this is mostly absent in fingernails, which recommends it to be a better 54 biomarker to arsenic exposure. DMA(III) content in fingernails and DMA(V) contents in both fingernails and hair could be the biomarker to As exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{MandalBK2003,
  author = {Mandal BK, Ogra Y, Suzuki KT},
  title = {Speciation of arsenic in human nail and hair from arsenicaffected area by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {189(2)},
  pages = {73-83}
}
Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chowdhury PP, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Karan NK, Dhar RK, Tamili DT, Das D, Saha KC, Chakraborti D Chronic arsenic toxicity in West Bengal 1997 Current Science
Vol. 72(2), pp. 114-117 
article
BibTeX:
@article{MandalBK1997,
  author = {Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chowdhury PP, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Karan NK, Dhar RK, Tamili DT, Das D, Saha KC, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Chronic arsenic toxicity in West Bengal},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {72(2)},
  pages = {114-117}
}
Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chowdhury PP, Chanda CR, Lodh NK, Karan NK, Dhar RK, Tamili DK, Saha KC, Chakraborti D Arsenic in groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India - the biggest arsenic calamity in the world 1996 Current Science
Vol. 70(11), pp. 976-987 
article
Abstract: The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has sought an updated and detailed report on arsenic poisoning in six districts - Nadia, Murshidabad, Malda, Burwan and the 24 Parganas (North and South). This came in response to a petition filed by a Delhi-based advocate and a British human rights activist who have asked the Commission to look into reported incidents of hundreds of thousands of people getting disabled or dying because they
have to drink water from contaminated wells as no other source has been provided by the government.
BibTeX:
@article{MandalBK1996,
  author = {Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chowdhury PP, Chanda CR, Lodh NK, Karan NK, Dhar RK, Tamili DK, Saha KC and Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic in groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India - the biggest arsenic calamity in the world},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {70(11)},
  pages = {976-987}
}
Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Mukherjee DP, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Chakraborti D Impact of safe water for drinking and cooking on five arsenicaffected families for 2 years in West Bengal, India 1998 Science of the Total Environment
Vol. 218(2-3), pp. 185-201 
article
Abstract: The groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India, covering an area of 37 000 km2 with a population of 34 million, has been contaminated with arsenic. In 830 villages/wards more than 1.5 million people, out of the total population, drink the arsenic-contaminated 72 water. Safe water from a source having <0.002 mg l?1 arsenic has been supplied for 2 years to five affected families comprising 17 members (eight of them with arsenical skin-lesions) of
different age groups for impact assessment study in terms of loss of arsenic through urine, hair and nail. The study indicates random observable fluctuations of arsenic concentration in urine among members on different scheduled sampling days with a declining trend, particularly during the first 6 months. Furthermore, the investigation showed that despite having safe water for drinking and cooking, the study group could not avoid an intake of
arsenic, time and again, through edible herbs grown in contaminated water, food materials contaminated through washing, and the occasional drinking of contaminated water. After minimizing the level of contamination, a noteworthy declining trend after 8 months was observed in urine, hair and nails in all the cases, but not to that level observed in a normal population, due to prevailing elevated background level of arsenic in the area. The eight members, who had already developed skin lesion, are far from recovering completely, indicating a long-lasting damage. Statistical interpretation of the data are considered.
BibTeX:
@article{MandalBK1998,
  author = {Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Samanta G, Mukherjee DP, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Impact of safe water for drinking and cooking on five arsenicaffected families for 2 years in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Science of the Total Environment},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {218},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {185-201}

}
Mandal BK, Suzuki KT, Anzai K Impact of arsenic in foodstuffs on the people living in the arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India 2007 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
Vol. 42(12), pp. 1741-52 
article
Abstract: Although the accumulation of arsenic (As) in human blood is linked with some diseases and with occupational exposure, there are few reports on speciation of As in blood. On the basis of our earlier article,[1] elevated level of arsenicals in human urine and blood were found in the ex-exposed population via As-containing drinking water. The aim of the present study was to get an insight on impact of As in foodstuffs on the people living in the As-affected areas. Moreover, speciation of arsenicals in urine, and water-samples found in arsenobetaine (AsB). Since sampling population (n = 25) was not taking any seafood, As in foodstuffs was thought to be the prime source for this discrepancy. So, speciation of methanol extract of freeze-dried red blood cells (RBCs) and foodstuffs, and trichloro acetic acid (TCA) treated plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-ICP MS) collected from the study population (n = 33) was carried out to support our hypothesis. Results showed that urine contained AsB (1.7%), arsenite (iAsIII) (14.3), arsenate (iAsV) (4.9), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) (0.64), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) (13.6), dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) (7.7), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) (65.4). Blood contained 21.3 ?g L- 1 (mean) As and of which 27.3% was in plasma and 72.7%
in RBCs. RBCs contained AsB (21.6%) and DMAV (78.4) and blood plasma contained AsB (12.4%), iAsIII (25.9), MMAV (30.3), and DMAV (31.4). Furthermore, speciation of As in foodstuffs showed that most of them contained AsB (3.54-25.81 ?g kg- 1) (25.81-312.44 ?g kg- 1) along with iAsIII (9.62-194.93), iAsV (17.63-78.33), MMAV (9.47-73.22) and DMAV (13.43-101.15) that supported the presence of AsB and elevated As in urine and blood samples of the present study group. Inorganic As (iAs) predominates in rice (67.17-86.62%) and in spices (40-90.35%), respectively over organic As. So, As in the food chain is a real
threat to human health.
BibTeX:
@article{MandalBK2007,
  author = {Mandal BK, Suzuki KT, Anzai K},
  title = {Impact of arsenic in foodstuffs on the people living in the arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {42(12)},
  pages = {1741-52}
}
Mandal NK, Biswas R A study on arsenical dermatosis in rural community of West Bengal 2004 Indian J Public Health
Vol. 48(1), pp. 30-3 
article
Abstract: The spatial distribution of chronic arsenicosis due to consumption of arsenic contaminated tube well water in different districts of West Bengal was gradually unfolding since 1983. Arsenical dermatosis was found to be the commonest and earliest manifestation of chronic arsenic toxicity. This study was conduct in Baruipur block of South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. Total 313 people selected from three randomly selected villages with reported arsenic contamination in tube well water and 342 people living three randomly selected villages without such evidence of contamination were examined as control population. 5.97% of exposed population and 2.05% of unexposed population showed melanosis (p < 0.01). Moreover, 5.11% of exposed population and 0.88% of unexposed population showed keratosis (p < 0.01). The prevalence of dermatosis among exposed population was also seen to have increased with increasing age, from 7.19% in 0-19 year age group to 37.50% in above 40 year group (p < 0.001). Prevalence was also found to be more with increase in
level of contamination. The prevalence rate of dermatosis among unexposedgroup was 2.92%. But age adjusted prevalence rate among exposed group was 19.08% at arsenic contamination level of 0.487 ppm. Mean arsenic concentration in nail and hair samples of exposed group was also found higher than the prescribed limit.
BibTeX:
@article{MandalNK2004,
  author = {Mandal NK, Biswas R},
  title = {A study on arsenical dermatosis in rural community of West Bengal},
  journal = {Indian J Public Health},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {48(1)},
  pages = {30-3}
}
Mazumder DNG, Chakroborty AK, Ghose A, Gupta JD, Chakroborti D, Dey SB, Chattopadhaya N Chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking tubewell water in rural West Bengal 1988 Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Vol. 64(4), pp. 499-506 
article
BibTeX:
@article{MazumderDNG1988,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Chakroborty AK, Ghose A, Gupta JD, Chakroborti D, Dey SB, Chattopadhaya N},
  title = {Chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking tubewell water in rural West Bengal},
  journal = {Bulletin of the World Health Organization},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {64(4)},
  pages = {499-506}
}
Mazumder DNG, De BK, Santra A, Dasgupta J, Ghosh N, Roy BK, Ghoshal UC, Saha J, Chatterjee A, Dutta S, Haque R, Smith AH, Chakraborty D, Angle CR, Centeno JA Chronic Arsenic Toxicity: Epidemiology, Natural History and Treatment 1999   book
BibTeX:
@book{MazumderDNG1999,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, De BK, Santra A, Dasgupta J, Ghosh N, Roy BK, Ghoshal UC, Saha J, Chatterjee A, Dutta S, Haque R, Smith AH, Chakraborty D, Angle CR, Centeno JA},
  title = {Chronic Arsenic Toxicity: Epidemiology, Natural History and Treatment},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {1999},
  edition = {Arsenic: Exposure and health effects}
}
Mazumder DNG, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Das S, Lahiri S, Haque R, Smith AH, Chakraborti D Epidemiological study on various non-carcinomatous manifestations of chronic arsenic toxicity in a District of West Bengal 2001   book
BibTeX:
@book{MazumderDNG2001,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Das S, Lahiri S, Haque R, Smith AH, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Epidemiological study on various non-carcinomatous manifestations of chronic arsenic toxicity in a District of West Bengal},
  publisher = {Elsevier science},
  year = {2001}
}
Mazumder DNG, Ghoshal UC, Saha J, Santra A, De BK, Chatterjee A, Dutta S, Angle CR, Centeno JA Randomized placebo-controlled trial of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in therapy of chronic arsenicosis due to drinking arsenic-contaminated subsoil water 1998 J Toxicol Clin Toxicol
Vol. 36(7), pp. 683-90 
article
Abstract: Introduction: Chronic arsenic toxicity producing various clinical manifestations is currently epidemic in West Bengal, India, Bangladesh, and other regions of the world. Animal studies have indicated that 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid can be used as an oral chelating agent. A prospective, double blind, randomized controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for chronic arsenicosis due to drinking arseniccontaminated (> or = 50 micrograms/L) subsoil water in West Bengal. Method: Twenty-one consecutive patients with chronic arsenicosis were individually randomized (random number; assignment made by individual not evaluating patients) into 2 groups: 11 patients (10 male, age 25.5 +/- 8 years) received 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid 1400 mg/d (1000 mg/m2) in the first week and 1050 mg/d (750 mg/m2) during the next 2 weeks with a repeat course 3 weeks later. The other 10 patients (all male, age 32.2 +/- 9.7 years) were given placebo capsules for the same schedule. The clinical features were evaluated by an objective scoring system before and after treatment. Routine investigations including liver function tests, arsenic concentrations in urine, hair, and nails, and skin biopsy evaluations were also completed. Results: Though there was improvement in the clinical score of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acidtreated patients, similar improvement was observed in the placebo- treated group. There were no statistical differences in the clinical scores between the 2 groups at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Similarly, no differences were found for the other investigated parameters. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid was not effective in producing any clinical or biochemical benefit or any histopathological improvement of skin lesions in patients with chronic arsenicosis.
BibTeX:
@article{MazumderDNG1998,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Ghoshal UC, Saha J, Santra A, De BK, Chatterjee A, Dutta S, Angle CR, Centeno JA},
  title = {Randomized placebo-controlled trial of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in therapy of chronic arsenicosis due to drinking arsenic-contaminated subsoil water},
  journal = {J Toxicol Clin Toxicol},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {36(7)},
  pages = {683-90}
}
Mazumder DNG, Gupta JD, Chakraborty AK, Chatterjee A, Das D, Chakraborti D Environmental Pollution & Chronic Arsenicosis in South Calcutta, West Bengal 1992 Bulletin of World Health Organization
Vol. 70(4), pp. 481-485 
article
BibTeX:
@article{MazumderDNG1992,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Gupta JD, Chakraborty AK, Chatterjee A, Das D, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Environmental Pollution & Chronic Arsenicosis in South Calcutta, West Bengal},
  journal = {Bulletin of World Health Organization},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {70(4)},
  pages = {481-485}
}
Mazumder DNG, Gupta JD, Santra A, Pal A, Ghose A, Sarkar S Chronic arsenic toxicity in west Bengal--the worst calamity in the world 1998 J Indian Med Assoc
Vol. 96(1), pp. 4-7 
article
Abstract: Since 1983 large number of people are being encountered with arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic contaminated water (0.05-3.2 mg/l) in 6 districts of West Bengal. Clinical and various laboratory investigations were carried out on 156 patients to ascertain the nature and degree of morbidity and mortality that occurred due to chronic arsenic toxicity. All the patients studied had typical rain drop like skin pigmentation (being inclusion criteria) while thickening of palm and sole were found in 65.5% patients. Other features included weakness (70%), gastro-intestinal symptoms (58.6%), involvement of respiratory system (57.08%) and nervous system (50.6%). Lung function tests showed restrictive lung disease in 53% (9/17) and combined obstructive and restrictive lung disease in 41% (7/17) of patients. Abnormal electromyography was found in 34.8% (10/29) and altered nerve conduction velocity in 34.8% (10/29) of cases. Enlargement of liver was found in 120 cases (76.9%) while splenomegaly in 31.4% cases. Liver function test showed elevated globulin level in 15.8% and alkaline phosphatase in 51.3%, alanine amino transferase (ALT) in 11.8% and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in 27.6% of cases. Evidence of portal hypertension was found in 33.3% patients. Liver biopsy reports of 45 patients showed non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis in 41, cirrhosis in 2 and normal histology in 2 cases. There was no correlation between the quantity of arsenic taken through water and the level of arsenic in hair, nail, liver tissues and the
degree of fibrosis. There were 5 deaths of which one had skin cancer. The various noncancer manifestations which were observed in these patients were much severe than those reported in similar cases in other parts of the world.
BibTeX:
@article{MazumderDNG1998a,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Gupta JD, Santra A, Pal A, Ghose A, Sarkar S},
  title = {Chronic arsenic toxicity in west Bengal--the worst calamity in the world},
  journal = {J Indian Med Assoc},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {96(1)},
  pages = {4-7}
}
Mazumder DNG, Gupta JD, Santra A, Pal A, Ghose A, Sarkar S, Cattopadhaya N, Chakraborti D Non-cancer Effects of Chronic Arsenicosis with Special Reference to Liver Damage 1997
Vol. 10 
book
BibTeX:
@book{MazumderDNG1997,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Gupta JD, Santra A, Pal A, Ghose A, Sarkar S, Cattopadhaya N, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Non-cancer Effects of Chronic Arsenicosis with Special Reference to Liver Damage},
  publisher = {Chapman & Hall},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {10},
  edition = {Arsenic: Exposure and health effects,}
}
Mazumder DNG, Haque R, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Chakraborti D, Smith AH Arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of respiratory effects in West Bengal, India 2000 International Journal of Epidemiology
Vol. 29, pp. 1047-1052 
article
Abstract: Background A large population in West Bengal, India has been exposed to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic through their drinking water. A cross-sectional survey involving 7683 participants of all ages was conducted in an arsenic-affected region between April 1995 and March 1996. The main focus of the study was skin keratoses and pigmentation alterations, two characteristic signs of ingested inorganic arsenic. Strong exposure-response gradients were found for these skin lesions. The study also collected limited information concerning respiratory system signs and symptoms, which we report here because increasing evidence suggests that arsenic ingestion also causes pulmonary effects. Methods Participants were clinically examined and interviewed, and the arsenic content in their current primary drinking water source was measured. There were few smokers and analyses were confined to non-smokers (N = 6864 participants). Results Among both males and females, the prevalence of cough, shortness of breath, and chest sounds (crepitations and/or rhonchi) in the lungs rose with increasing arsenic concentrations in drinking water. These respiratory effects were most pronounced in individuals with high arsenic water concentrations who also had skin lesions. Prevalence odds ratio (POR) estimates were markedly increased for participants with arsenic-induced 70 skin lesions who also had high levels of arsenic in their current drinking water source (?500 µg/l) compared with individuals who had normal skin and were exposed to low levels of arsenic (<50 µg/l). In participants with skin lesions, the age-adjusted POR estimates for cough were 7.8 for females (95% CI : 3.1?19.5) and 5.0 for males (95% CI : 2.6?9.9); for chest sounds POR for females was 9.6 (95% CI : 4.0?22.9) and for males 6.9 (95% CI : 3.1? 15.0). The POR for shortness of breath in females was 23.2 (95% CI : 5.8?92.8) and in males 3.7 (95% CI : 1.3?10.6).
BibTeX:
@article{MazumderDNG2000,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Haque R, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Chakraborti D, Smith AH},
  title = {Arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of respiratory effects in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {International Journal of Epidemiology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {1047-1052}
}
Mazumder DNG, Haque R, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Chakraborty D, Smith AH Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India 1998 International Journal of Epidemiology
Vol. 27(5), pp. 871-877 
article
Abstract: Background: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between April 1995 and March 1996 to investigate arsenic-associated skin lesions of keratosis arid hyperpigmentation in West Bengal, India, and to determine their relationship to arsenic water levels.
Methods: In all, 7683 participants were examined and interviewed, and the arsenic levels in their drinldng water measured.
RESULTS: Although water concentrations ranged up to 3400 µg/l of arsenic, over 80% of participants were consuming water containing <500 µg/l. The age-adjusted prevalence of 75 keratosis was strongly related to water arsenic levels, rising from zero in the lowest exposure level (<50 µg/l) to 8.3 per 100 for females drinking water containing >800 µg/l, and increasing from 0.2 per 100 in the lowest exposure category to I0.7 per 100 for males in the highest
exposure level (?800 µg/l). However, 12 cases with keratosis (2 females and 10 males) were drinking water containing <100 µg/l of arsenic. Findings were similar for hyperpigmentation, with strong dose-response relationships. Among those with hyperpigmentation, 29 cases were exposed to drinking water containing <100 µg/l. Calculation by dose per body weight showed that men had roughly two to three times the prevalence of both keratosis and hyperpigmentation compared to women apparently ingesting the same dose of arsenic from drinking water. Subjects who were below 80% of the standard body weight for their age and sex had a 1.6 fold increase in the prevalence of keratoses, suggesting that malnutrition may play a small role in increasing susceptibility.
Conclusion: The surprising finding of cases who had arsenic-associated skin lesions with apparently low exposure to arsenic in drinking water needs to be confirmed in studies with more detailed exposure assessment. Further research is also needed concerning susceptibility factors, which might be present in the exposed population.
BibTeX:
@article{MazumderDNG1998b,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Haque R, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Chakraborty D, Smith AH,},
  title = {Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {International Journal of Epidemiology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {27},
  number = {5},
  pages = {871-877}
}
Mazumder DNG, Haque R, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Chakraborty D, Smith AH Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India 1998 International Journal of Epidemiology
Vol. 27(5), pp. 871-877 
article
Abstract: Background: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between April 1995 and March 1996 to investigate arsenic-associated skin lesions of keratosis arid hyperpigmentation in West Bengal, India, and to determine their relationship to arsenic water levels.
Methods: In all, 7683 participants were examined and interviewed, and the arsenic levels in their drinldng water measured.
Results: Although water concentrations ranged up to 3400 µg/l of arsenic, over 80% of participants were consuming water containing <500 µg/l. The age-adjusted prevalence of keratosis was strongly related to water arsenic levels, rising from zero in the lowest exposure level (<50 µg/l) to 8.3 per 100 for females drinking water containing >800 µg/l, and increasing from 0.2 per 100 in the lowest exposure category to I0.7 per 100 for males in the highest
exposure level (?800 µg/l). However, 12 cases with keratosis (2 females and 10 males) were drinking water containing <100 µg/l of arsenic. Findings were similar for hyperpigmentation, with strong dose-response relationships. Among those with hyperpigmentation, 29 cases were exposed to drinking water containing <100 µg/l. Calculation by dose per body weight 73 showed that men had roughly two to three times the prevalence of both keratosis and hyperpigmentation compared to women apparently ingesting the same dose of arsenic from drinking water. Subjects who were below 80% of the standard body weight for their age and sex had a 1.6 fold increase in the prevalence of keratoses, suggesting that malnutrition may play a small role in increasing susceptibility.
BibTeX:
@article{MazumderDNG1998c,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Haque R, Ghosh N, De BK, Santra A, Chakraborty D, Smith AH},
  title = {Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {International Journal of Epidemiology},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {27},
  number = {5},
  pages = {871-877}
}
Mazumder DNG, Samanta S, Ghosh N, Kalman D, Smith MM, Mitra S, Santra A, Lahiri S, Das S, De BK, Smith AH, Haque R Arsenic in drinking water and skin lesions: dose-response data from West Bengal, India 2003 Epidemiology
Vol. 14(2), pp. 174-82 
article
Abstract: Background: Over 6 million people live in areas of West Bengal, India, where groundwater sources are contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. The key objective of this nested case-control study was to characterize the dose-response relation between low arsenic concentrations in drinking water and arsenic-induced skin keratoses and hyperpigmentation.
Methods: We selected cases (persons with arsenic-induced skin lesions) and age- and sexmatched controls from participants in a 1995-1996 cross-sectional survey in West Bengal. We used a detailed assessment of arsenic exposure that covered at least 20 years. Participants were reexamined between 1998 and 2000. Consensus agreement by four physicians reviewing the skin lesion photographs confirmed the diagnosis in 87% of cases
clinically diagnosed in the field.
Results: The average peak arsenic concentration in drinking water was 325 microg/liter for cases and 180 microg/liter for controls. The average latency for skin lesions was 23 years from first exposure. We found strong dose-response gradients with both peak and average arsenic water concentrations.
Conclusions: The lowest peak arsenic ingested by a confirmed case was 115 microg/liter. Confirmation of case diagnosis and intensive longitudinal exposure assessment provide the basis for a detailed dose-response evaluation of arsenic-caused skin lesions.
BibTeX:
@article{MazumderDNG2003,
  author = {Mazumder DNG, Samanta S, Ghosh N, Kalman D, Smith MM, Mitra S, Santra A, Lahiri S, Das S, De BK, Smith AH, Haque R},
  title = {Arsenic in drinking water and skin lesions: dose-response data from West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Epidemiology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {14(2)},
  pages = {174-82}
}
Meera M, Smith H, Hore T, Chakraborty P, Chakraborty DK, Savarimuthu X, Smith AH Dugwell program to provide arsenic-safe water in West Bengal, India - preliminary results. 2003 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 38(1), pp. 289-299 
article
Abstract: In 1982, Dr. K. C. Saha, a dermatologist of Calcutta, West Bengal, identified patients with skin lesions from the district of 24 Parganas, leading him and others to search for a cause. The cause was soon identified to be arsenic in drinking water, but even today, 20 years later, large number of people continue to drink arsenic contaminated water and patients are increasing in number. Project Well is a program chosen for implementation in some villages of North 24 Parganas. Arsenic safe drinking water is provided for adopted villages by constructing shallow, concrete dugwells designed to tap the water of the unconfined aquifer, 20-30 feet below ground level, that contains low levels (<0.05 mg/L) of arsenic in the target region. The traditional dugwell design is modified by use of tube well hand pumps to withdraw water. The project includes community involvement, programs to increase awareness of the need to drink arsenic safe water, and training in monitoring of dugwell water for arsenic and harmful pathogens. Disinfecting of the water and regulating the water hazard diagram are also included in the training program. The plan is to make the system sustainable at the village level using indigenous labor and materials.
BibTeX:
@article{MeeraM2003,
  author = {Meera M, Smith H, Hore T, Chakraborty P, Chakraborty DK, Savarimuthu X, Smith AH},
  title = {Dugwell program to provide arsenic-safe water in West Bengal, India - preliminary results.},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {38(1)},
  pages = {289-299}
}
Mitra SR, Mazumder DNG, Basu A, Block G, Haque R, Samanta S, Ghosh N, Smith MM, Ehrenstein, Osv, Smith AH Nutritional factors and susceptibility to arsenic-caused skin lesions in West Bengal, India 2004 Environ Health Perspect
Vol. 112(10), pp. 1104-9 
article
Abstract: There has been widespread speculation about whether nutritional deficiencies increase the susceptibility to arsenic health effects. This is the first study to investigate whether dietary micronutrient and macronutrient intake modulates the well-established human risk of arsenicinduced skin lesions, including alterations in skin pigmentation and keratoses. The study was conducted in West Bengal, India, which along with Bangladesh constitutes the largest population in the world exposed to arsenic from drinking water. In this case-control study design, cases were patients with arsenic-induced skin lesions and had < 500 microg/L arsenic in their drinking water. For each case, an age- and sex-matched control was selected from participants of a 1995-1996 cross-sectional survey, whose drinking water at that time also contained < 500 microg/L arsenic. Nutritional assessment was based on a 24-hr recall 46
for major dietary constituents and a 1-week recall for less common constituents. Modest increases in risk were related to being in the lowest quintiles of intake of animal protein [odds ratio (OR) = 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-3.59], calcium (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.04-3.43), fiber (OR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.15-4.21), and folate (OR = 1.67; 95% CI, 0.87-3.2). Conditional logistic regression suggested that the strongest associations were with low calcium, low animal protein, low folate, and low fiber intake. Nutrient intake was not related to arsenic exposure. We conclude that low intake of calcium, animal protein, folate, and fiber may increase susceptibility to arsenic-caused skin lesions. However, in light of the small magnitude of increased risks related to these dietary deficiencies, prevention should focus on reducing exposure to arsenic.
BibTeX:
@article{MitraSR2004,
  author = {Mitra SR, Mazumder DNG, Basu A, Block G, Haque R, Samanta S, Ghosh N, Smith MM, Ehrenstein, Osv and Smith AH},
  title = {Nutritional factors and susceptibility to arsenic-caused skin lesions in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Environ Health Perspect},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {112(10)},
  pages = {1104-9}
}
Adel MM The background state leading to arsenic contamination of Bengal basin groundwater 2005 J Water Health
Vol. 3(4), pp. 435-52 
article
Abstract: The Bengal basin has the world’s densest water diversion constructions on the natural courses of rivers. The most damaging water diversion construction is the Farakka Barrage upon the international River Ganges. The diversion of water through this barrage and other constructions upstream of it has reduced the Ganges flow rate by 2.5 times. The resulting downstream effects are the depletion of surface water resources, more withdrawal than recharge of groundwater, sinking groundwater table, spread in depth and extension of the vadose zone, changes in surface features, climatic changes, etc. An investigation was carried out to find the contributions of water diversion to the arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Bengal basin. The reasonable scenario for arsenic contamination is the oxygen deficiency in groundwater and aeration of arsenopyrites buried in the sediment that would remain under water prior to 1975. The mineral forms water-soluble compounds of arsenic when react with atmospheric oxygen. These soluble arsenic compounds infiltrates to the groundwater. This article summarizes the short time and incomplete study-based quick conclusions reached by investigators that have totally avoided the vital issue of water diversion. It then shows the depleting condition of the water resources under continuing diversions, the generation of favorable condition for arsenic release, the reasons for low sulfur concentration, the reason for first contamination in the Hugly basin, and the hindrance to water’s self-purification. The articles advocates that the restoration of the virgin wetland ecosystems in the Bengal basin following the stoppage of the inordinate amount of unilateral upstream water withdrawals can remove the catastrophe
BibTeX:
@article{MM2005,
  author = {Adel MM},
  title = {The background state leading to arsenic contamination of Bengal basin groundwater},
  journal = {J Water Health},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {3(4)},
  pages = {435-52}
}
Mohan D, Pittman CU Jr Arsenic removal from water/waste-water using adsorbents: A critical review 2007 J Hazard Mater
Vol. 142(1-2), pp. 1-53 
article
Abstract: Arsenic’s history in science, medicine and technology has been overshadowed by its notoriety as a poison in homicides. Arsenic is viewed as being synonymous with toxicity. Dangerous arsenic concentrations in natural waters is now a worldwide problem and often referred to as a 20th-21st century calamity. High arsenic concentrations have been reported recently from the USA, China, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Mexico, Argentina, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Japan and India. Among 21 countries in different parts of the world affected by groundwater arsenic contamination, the largest population at risk is in Bangladesh followed by West Bengal in India. Existing overviews of arsenic removal include technologies that have traditionally been used (oxidation, precipitation/ coagulation/membrane separation) with far less attention paid to adsorption. No previous review is available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of both available and developed sorbents used for arsenic remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on arsenic remediation by adsorption (approximately 600 references). Existing purification methods for drinking water; wastewater; industrial effluents, and technological solutions for arsenic have been listed. Arsenic sorption by commercially available carbons and other lowcost adsorbents are surveyed and critically reviewed and their sorption efficiencies are compared. Arsenic adsorption behavior in presence of other impurities has been discussed. Some commercially available adsorbents are also surveyed. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. Some low-cost adsorbents are superior including treated slags, carbons developed from agricultural waste (char carbons and coconut husk carbons), biosorbents (immobilized biomass, orange juice residue), goethite and some commercial adsorbents, which include resins, gels, silica, treated silica tested for arsenic removal come out to be superior. Immobilized biomass adsorbents offered
outstanding performances. Desorption of arsenic followed by regeneration of sorbents has been discussed. Strong acids and bases seem to be the best desorbing agents to produce arsenic concentrates. Arsenic concentrate treatment and disposal obtained is briefly addressed. This issue is very important but much less discussed
BibTeX:
@article{MohanD2007,
  author = {Mohan D, Pittman CU Jr},
  title = {Arsenic removal from water/waste-water using adsorbents: A critical review},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {142(1-2)},
  pages = {1-53}
}
Mohapatra D, Mishra D, Roy Chaudhury G, Das RP An investigation into the prospects of arsenic(V) removal from contaminated groundwater using untreated bauxite ore 2007 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 42(6), pp. 831-838 
article
Abstract: Steady-state experiments were conducted on arsenic (V) removal from contaminated groundwater using two different grades of bauxite ore. The materials considered were refractory grade bauxite (RB) with high alumina and low iron content and feed bauxite (FB) with moderate alumina and high iron content. Adsorption studies were carried out for different parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, As(V) concentration and reaction time to establish optimum conditions. RB was found to be the better adsorbent compared to FB with a maximum As(V) adsorption capacity of 1.49 mg As(V)/g compared to 1.26 mg As(V)/g of FB. Both the adsorbents showed similar type of behavior with varying magnitude. As(V) adsorption was independent of the ionic strength suggesting an inner-sphere surface complexion mechanism. The kinetics of the As(V) adsorption could be best explained by pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption was found strongly pH dependent, with maximum adsorption over a wide range of pH ?4.0 to 7.5. The column study results showed that at a adsorbent bed depth of 30 cm and feed flow rate of 50 ml/h, the RB was capable of treating 256 bed volumes of As(V) contaminated water (Co = 1.79 mg/L) before breakthrough
(Ce = 0.01 mg/L).
BibTeX:
@article{MohapatraD2007,
  author = {Mohapatra D, Mishra D, Roy Chaudhury G, Das RP},
  title = {An investigation into the prospects of arsenic(V) removal from contaminated groundwater using untreated bauxite ore},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {42(6)},
  pages = {831-838}
}
Mondal P, Majumder CB, Mohanty B Laboratory based approaches for arsenic remediation from contaminated water: Recent developments 2006 J Hazard Mater
Vol. 137(1), pp. 464-79 
article
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in water has posed severe health problems around the world. In spite of the availability of some conventional techniques for arsenic removal from contaminated water, development of new laboratory based techniques along with enhancement and cost reduction of conventional techniques are essential for the benefit of common people. This paper provides an overview of the arsenic issue in water such as modes of contamination of ground water as well as surface water by arsenic, its metabolism and health impacts, factors influencing arsenic poisoning, fundamentals of arsenic poisoning 26 mechanism and world scenario of arsenic poisoning. It discusses and compares the conventional laboratory based techniques, like precipitation with alum, iron, Fe/Mn, lime softening, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis, ion exchanges, adsorption on activated alumina/carbon, etc., for arsenic removal from contaminated water. It also discusses the best available techniques and mentions the cost comparison among these techniques too. Recent developments in the research on the laboratory based arsenic removal techniques, like improvement of conventional techniques and advances in removal technology along with its scopes and limitations have also been reviewed.
BibTeX:
@article{MondalP2006,
  author = {Mondal P, Majumder CB and Mohanty B},
  title = {Laboratory based approaches for arsenic remediation from contaminated water: Recent developments},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {137(1)},
  pages = {464-79}
}
Mukherjee A, Sengupta MK, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, Das B, Nayak B, Lodh D, Rahman MdM,Chakraborti D Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater: A Global Perspective with Emphasis on the Asian Scenario 2006 Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition
Vol. 24(2), pp. 142-163 
article
Abstract: The incidence of high concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water has emerged as a major public-health problem. With newer-affected sites discovered during the last decade, a significant change has been observed in the global scenario of arsenic contamination, especially in Asian countries. This communication presents an overview of the current scenario of arsenic contamination in countries across the globe with an emphasis on Asia. Along with the present situation in severely-affected countries in Asia, such as Bangladesh, India, and China, recent instances from Pakistan, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Cambodia, etc. are presented.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeA2006,
  author = {Mukherjee A, Sengupta MK, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, Das B, Nayak B, Lodh D, Rahman MdM,Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater: A Global Perspective with Emphasis on the Asian Scenario},
  journal = {Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {24},
  number = {2},
  pages = {142-163}
}
Mukherjee S, Roy M, Dey S, Bhattacharya RK A Mechanistic Approach for Modulation of Arsenic Toxicity in Human Lymphocytes by Curcumin, an Active Constituent of Medicinal Herb Curcuma longa Linn 2007 J Clin Biochem Nutr
Vol. 41(1), pp. 32-42 
article
Abstract: Chronic exposure of humans to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with skin lesions, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, blackfoot disease and a high risk of cancer. Arsenic induces single strand breaks, DNA-protein crosslinks and apurinic sites in DNA, which are prerequisites for induction of cancer. Amelioration of such damages with natural compounds could be an effective strategy to combat arsenic toxicity. Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric, a common household spice, which is a rich source of polyphenols and this compound has been extensively studied as a chemopreventive agent against many types of cancer. The present study investigates whether curcumin could counteract the DNA damage caused by arsenic as assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) using peripheral blood lymphocytes, from healthy donors. It was observed that DNA damage induced by arsenic could be efficiently reduced by curcumin and the effect was more pronounced when lymphocytes were pre-incubated with curcumin prior to arsenic insult. Arsenic caused DNA damage by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhancement of lipid peroxidation levels. Curcumin counteracted the damage by quenching ROS, decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation and increasing the level of phase II 15 detoxification enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Curcumin also enhanced the DNA repair activity against arsenic induced damage. The expression of polymerase, a repair enzyme, was found to be highly elevated when arsenite induced damaged cells were allowed to repair in presence of curcumin. Results indicate that curcumin has significant role in confronting the deleterious effect caused by arsenic, which could be an economic mode of arsenic mitigation among rural population in West Bengal, India.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeS2007,
  author = {Mukherjee S, Roy M, Dey S, Bhattacharya RK},
  title = {A Mechanistic Approach for Modulation of Arsenic Toxicity in Human Lymphocytes by Curcumin, an Active Constituent of Medicinal Herb Curcuma longa Linn},
  journal = {J Clin Biochem Nutr},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {41(1)},
  pages = {32-42}
}
Mukherjee SC, Rahman MdM, Chowdhury UK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Chakraborti D Neuropathy in Arsenic Toxicity from Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in West Bengal, India 2003 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 38(1), pp. 165-183 
article
Abstract: Large number of people from 9 out of 18 districts of West Bengal, India are endemically exposed to arsenic contaminated groundwater due to drinking of tubewell water containing arsenic level above World Health Organization’s maximum permissible limit of 50 µg/L. From our ongoing studies on neurological involvement in patients of arsenicosis from different districts of West Bengal, we report our findings in a total of 451 patients of three districts (Murshidabad, Nadia, and Burdwan), comprising 267 males and 184 females with age ranging from 11 to 79 years. They all had arsenical skin lesions, positive biomarkers and identified source of arsenic contaminated water drinking. Peripheral neuropathy was the predominant neurological complication in these patients affecting 154 (37.3%) of 413 patients of Group 1 and 33 (86.8%) of 38 patients of Group 2. Other possible causes and alternative explanations of neuropathy were excluded. The temporal profile in most of the cases (154 of Group 1) were of chronic affection while the 33 patients of Group 2 developed both neuropathy and dermopathy subacutely. Subacutely affected Group 2 patients had much higher incidence of neuropathy. Paresthesias and pains in the distal parts of extremities were much higher in incidence in Group 2 (73.7% and 23.7% respectively) than in Group 1 (18.4% and 11.1%). Distal limb weakness or atrophy was evident in 7.3% in Group 1 and 10.5% in Group 2. Overall, sensory features were more common than motor features in patients of neuropathy and sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in 30% and 76.3% and sensorimotor in 7.3% and 10.5% respectively in Group 1 and Group 2 subjects. Nerve conduction and electromyographic studies performed in 88 cases revealed dysfunction of sensory nerve in 45% and 27% and of motor nerve in 20% and 16.7% of patients with moderate degree and mild degree of clinical neuropathies respectively. Evoked potential studies performed in 20 patients were largely normal except for two instances each of abnormal visual evoked potential and brainstem auditory evoked potential findings. Prognosis was favorable in mild and early diagnosed cases of neuropathy whereas most of the other more severe and late diagnosed cases showed slow and partial recovery or even deterioration. Outcome in neuropathic patients of arsenicosis and long term toxic neurologic effects yet unexplored and unknown remain as matters of future concern requiring close monitoring.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeSC2003,
  author = {Mukherjee SC, Rahman MdM, Chowdhury UK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Neuropathy in Arsenic Toxicity from Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {38(1)},
  pages = {165-183}
}
Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Lodh D, Das B, Hossain MA, Nayak B, Mukherjee A, Chakraborti D, Dulta SK, Palit SK, Kaies I, Barua AK, Asad KA Murshidabad - One of the Nine Groundwater Arsenic-Affected Districts of West Bengal, India. Part II: Dermatological, Neurological, and Obstetric Findings 2005 Journal of Toxicology:Clinical Toxicology
Vol. 43 (7), pp. 835- 848 
article
Abstract: Introduction: To understand the severity of related health effects of chronic arsenic exposure in West Bengal, a detailed 3-year study was carried out in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal.
Methods: We screened 25,274 people from 139 arsenic-affected villages in Murshidabad to identify patients suffering from chronic arsenic toxicity for evidence of multisystemic features and collected biological samples such as head hair, nail, and spot urine from the patients along with the tubewell water they were consuming.
Results: Out of 25,274 people screened, 4813 (19%) were registered with arsenical skin lesions. A case series involving arsenical skin lesions resulting in cancer and gangrene were noted during this study. Representative histopathological pictures of skin biopsy of different types of lesions were also presented. Out of 2595 children we examined for arsenical skin
lesions, 122 (4%) were registered with arsenical skin lesions, melanosis with or without keratosis. Different clinical and electrophysiological neurological features were noticed among the arsenic-affected villagers. Both the arsenic content in the drinking water and duration of exposure may be responsible in increasing the susceptibility of pregnant women to spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, preterm births, low birth weights, and neonatal deaths. Some additional multisystemic features such as weakness and lethargy, chronic respiratory problems, gastrointestinal symptoms, and anemia were also recorded in the affected population.
Discussion: The findings from this survey on different health effects of arsenic exposure were compared to those from previous studies carried out on arsenic-affected populations in India and Bangladesh as well as other affected countries. Conclusion. Multisystemic disorders, including dermal effects, neurological complications, and adverse obstetric outcomes, were observed to be associated with chronic arsenic exposure in the study population in Murshidabad, West Bengal. The magnitude of severity was related to the concentration of arsenic in water as well as duration of the exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeSC2005,
  author = {Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Pati S, Dutta RN, Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Lodh D, Das B, Hossain MA, Nayak B, Mukherjee A, Chakraborti D, Dulta SK, Palit SK, Kaies I, Barua AK, Asad KA},
  title = {Murshidabad - One of the Nine Groundwater Arsenic-Affected Districts of West Bengal, India. Part II: Dermatological, Neurological, and Obstetric Findings},
  journal = {Journal of Toxicology:Clinical Toxicology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43 (7)},
  pages = {835- 848}
}
Nayak B, Das B, Mukherjee SC, Pal A, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Maity P, Dutta RN, Dutta S, Chakraborti D Groundwater arsenic contamination in the Sahibganj district of Jharkhand state, India in the middle Ganga plain and adverse health effects 2007 Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry
Vol. 99999(1), pp. 1-22 
article
Abstract: A detailed study in the Sahibganj district of Jharkhand state in the middle Ganga plain was carried out to determine the severity of groundwater arsenic contamination and related adverse health effects due to chronic arsenic exposure. Arsenic was analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) in water and biological samples in both contaminated and noncontaminated areas. Health effects in three villages where tubewells (n = 178) were highly contaminated (91, 79.8, and 42% above 10, 50, and 300 µg L-1) were determined. Analyses of a total of 367 biological samples (nail, hair, and urine) from affected villages revealed that an average 88% of samples contained arsenic above normal level. Out of 522 people screened from these three villages, 71 were registered with arsenical skin lesions. A case involving arsenical skin lesions resulting in cancer was noted during the study. A representative histopathological picture of skin biopsy was presented. Out of 40 children examined, nine were registered with arsenical skin lesions. A child of 18 months drinking arsenic concentration water 1150 µg L-1 displayed arsenical skin lesions, indicating arsenical skin lesions may appear earlier if arsenic concentration is high in drinking water. Different clinical and electrophysiological neurological features and abnormal quantitative sensory perception thresholds were noted amongst patients. Provision of safe water, better nutrition, and proper awareness about the arsenic danger to exposed population may save lives and avoid sufferings.
BibTeX:
@article{NayakB2007,
  author = {Nayak B, Das B, Mukherjee SC, Pal A, Ahamed S, Hossain MA, Maity P, Dutta RN, Dutta S, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination in the Sahibganj district of Jharkhand state, India in the middle Ganga plain and adverse health effects},
  journal = {Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {99999(1)},
  pages = {1-22}
}
Nickson Ra, Sengupta Cb, Mitra Pa, Dave SNa, Banerjee AKc, Bhattacharya Ac, Basu Sd, Kakoti Ne, Moorthy NSf, Wasuja Mf, Kumar Mg, Mishra DSg, Ghosh Ah, Vaish DPi, Srivastava AKj, Tripathi RMj, Singh SNk, Prasad Rl, Bhattacharya Sm, Deverill Pn Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India 2007 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
Vol. 42(12), pp. 1707-18 
article
Abstract: Testing of groundwater used for drinking for arsenic has been undertaken more widely by state governments in several states of India in recent years with the support of UNICEF. Available data for five states are collated in this paper and this provides the most up-to-date picture of areas known to be affected by arsenic in groundwater in the Indian portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin. In West Bengal, water from 132,262 government installed handpumps in 8 districts has been tested and overall 25.5% of samples were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50?gL-1 and 57.9% at concentrations greater than 10 ?gL-1. On the banks of the Brahmaputra in Assam, to date, samples from 5,729 government handpump sources in 22 districts have been tested for arsenic. Overall, samples from 6.3% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50?gL-1 and 26.1% at concentrations greater than 10?gL-1. In Bihar, on the River Ganges upstream of West Bengal, 66,623 sources from 11 districts have been tested and water samples from 10.8% of sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50?gL-1 and 28.9% at concentrations greater than 10 ?gL-1. Upstream of Bihar in Uttar Pradesh, home of the Taj Mahal, to date water samples from 20,126 government-installed handpump sources have been tested. As a result 2.4% of the samples tested were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50?gL-1 and 21.5% at concentrations greater than 10 ?gL-1. Finally in one district of Jharkhand, lying on the Ganges alluvial plain between Bihar and West Bengal, 9,007 sources have been tested and water samples from 3.7% of sources 17 were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 ?gL-1 and 7.5% at concentrations greater than 10 ?gL-1. State governments have adopted different sampling strategies and these are described in this paper. Testing is ongoing in several states and the complete picture is yet to emerge in some areas.
BibTeX:
@article{NicksonRa2007,
  author = {Nickson Ra, Sengupta Cb, Mitra Pa, Dave SNa, Banerjee AKc, Bhattacharya Ac, Basu Sd, Kakoti Ne, Moorthy NSf, Wasuja Mf, Kumar Mg, Mishra DSg, Ghosh Ah, Vaish DPi, Srivastava AKj, Tripathi RMj, Singh SNk, Prasad Rl, Bhattacharya Sm, Deverill Pn},
  title = {Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in groundwater in five states of India},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {42(12)},
  pages = {1707-18}
}
Pal A, Nayak B, Das B, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, Chakraborti D Additional danger of arsenic exposure through inhalation from burning of cow dung cakes laced with arsenic as a fuel in arsenic affected villages in Ganga?Meghna?Brahmaputra plain 2007 J. Environ. Monit
Vol. 9(1067-1070) 
article
Abstract: In arsenic contaminated areas of the Ganga?Meghna?Brahmaputra (GMB) plain (area 569 749 sq. km; population over 500 million) where traditionally cow dung cake is used as a fuel in unventilated ovens for cooking purposes, people are simply exposed to 1859.2 ng arsenic per day through direct inhalation, of which 464.8 ng could be absorbed in respiratory tract.
BibTeX:
@article{PalA2007,
  author = {Pal A, Nayak B, Das B, Hossain MA, Ahamed S and Chakraborti D},
  title = {Additional danger of arsenic exposure through inhalation from burning of cow dung cakes laced with arsenic as a fuel in arsenic affected villages in Ganga?Meghna?Brahmaputra plain},
  journal = {J. Environ. Monit},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {9},
  number = {1067-1070}
}
Pande SP, Deshpande LS, Kaul SN Laboratory and field assessment of arsenic testing field kits in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India 2001 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 68(1), pp. 1-18 
article
Abstract: High concentrations of arsenic in ground waters in West Bengal and Bangladesh have become a major cause for concern in recent years. Given the enormity and the severity of the problem of arsenic poisoning, a task of evaluating the commercially available arsenic detection field kits for their capabilities was undertaken. In the light of the findings, generic specifications were recommended which could form the basis for indigenous manufacture of
these kits in the arsenic affected countries. This article presents the results of the laboratory and field evaluation conducted in Bangladesh and West Bengal of five arsenic testing field kits. The salient features of the kits, their merits and limitations have been brought out. Based on the criteria of kit design, quality of chemicals used, colour comparator charts, detection range, time required for analysis, cost etc., a comparative ranking of the kits has been made
to facilitate the choice of the kit to meet specific requirements.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeSP2001,
  author = {Pande SP, Deshpande LS, Kaul SN},
  title = {Laboratory and field assessment of arsenic testing field kits in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {68(1)},
  pages = {1-18}
}
Pandey PK, Sharma R, Roy M, Roy S, Pandey M Arsenic contamination in the Kanker district of central-east India: geology and health effects 2006 Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Vol. 28(5) 
article
Abstract: This paper identifies newer areas of arsenic contamination in the District Kanker, which adjoins the District Rajnandgaon where high contamination has been reported earlier. A correlation with the mobile phase episodes of arsenic contamination has been identified, which further hinges on the complex geology of the area. Arsenic concentrations in both surface and groundwater, aquatic organisms (snail and water weeds) soil and vegetation of Kanker district and its adjoining area have been reported here. The region has been found to contain an elevated level of arsenic. All segments of the ecoysystem are contaminated with arsenic at varying degrees. The levels of arsenic vary constantly depending on the season and location. An analysis of groundwater from 89 locations in the Kanker district has shown high values of arsenic, iron and manganese (mean: 144, 914 and 371 ìg L?1, respectively). The surface water of the region shows elevated levels of arsenic, which is influenced by the
geological mineralised zonation. The most prevalent species in the groundwater is As(III), whereas the surface water of the rivers shows a significant contamination with the As(V) species. The analysis shows a bio-concentration of the toxic metals arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. Higher arsenic concentrations (groundwater concentrations greater than 50 ìg L?1) are associated with sedimentary deposits derived from volcanic rocks, hence mineral leaching appears to be the source of arsenic contamination. Higher levels of arsenic and manganese in the Kanker district have been found to cause impacts on the flora and fauna. A case study of episodic arsenical diarrhoea is presented.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyPK2006,
  author = {Pandey PK, Sharma R, Roy M, Roy S, Pandey M},
  title = {Arsenic contamination in the Kanker district of central-east India: geology and health effects},
  journal = {Environmental Geochemistry and Health},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {28(5)}
}
Pandey PK, Yadav S, Nair S, Bhui A Arsenic contamination of the environment: a new perspective from central-east India 2002 Environ Int
Vol. 28(4), pp. 235-45 
article
Abstract: This paper reports a regional contamination of the environment in central-east India that does not share geology or boundary with the Bengal Delta Plain. About 30,000 people residing in 30 villages and towns are directly exposed to arsenic and more than 200,000 people are "at risk." Complete geographical extent of this contamination is being established, and this newly reported contaminated area could be quite large. This paper further reports that the
mechanisms involved in arsenic mobilisation are complex and the two theories of arsenic mobilisation, i.e., pyrite oxidation and oxyhydroxides reduction, do not fully explain the high levels of arsenic contamination. This paper also proposes the "oxidation-reduction theory" for arsenic mobilisation where the arsenic originates from the arsenopyrite oxidation and the arsenic thus mobilised forms the minerals and gets reduced underground in favourable Eh
conditions. The stoppage of water withdrawal from the contaminated sources did not result in lowering of arsenic levels as expected according to the heavy groundwater extraction theory (pyrite oxidation theory). Cases of arsenicosis in the region are on the rise and the switchover to less contaminated water has not reversed the arsenicosis progression in the affected persons even after 2 years. Surface water of the rivers is also being contaminated because of the probable dislocation of contaminated groundwater due to the heavy rains in monsoon season, which indicates that the river water could be a major carrier of arsenic in dissolved or adsorbed forms that may be a cause of contamination of the delta plains.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyPK2002,
  author = {Pandey PK, Yadav S, Nair S, Bhui A},
  title = {Arsenic contamination of the environment: a new perspective from central-east India},
  journal = {Environ Int},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {28(4)},
  pages = {235-45}
}
Pandey PK, Yadav S, Pandey M Human arsenic poisoning issues in central-east Indian locations: biomarkers and biochemical monitoring 2007 Int J Environ Res Public Health
Vol. 4(1), pp. 15-22 
article
Abstract: The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of 18 complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyPK2007,
  author = {Pandey PK, Yadav S, Pandey M},
  title = {Human arsenic poisoning issues in central-east Indian locations: biomarkers and biochemical monitoring},
  journal = {Int J Environ Res Public Health},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4(1)},
  pages = {15-22}
}
Patel KS, Shrivas K, Brandt R, Jakubowski N, Corns W, Hoffmann P Arsenic contamination in water, soil, sediment and rice of central India 2005 Environ Geochem Health
Vol. 27(2), pp. 131-45 
article
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in the environment (i.e. surface, well and tube-well water, soil, sediment and rice samples) of central India (i.e. Ambagarh Chauki, Chhattisgarh) is reported. The concentration of the total arsenic in the samples i.e. water (n = 64), soil (n = 30), sediment (n = 27) and rice grain (n = 10) were ranged from 15 to 825 microg L(-1), 9 to 390 mg kg(-1), 19 to 489 mg kg(-1) and 0.018 to 0.446 mg kg(-1), respectively. In all type of waters, the arsenic levels exceeded the permissible limit, 10 microg L(-1). The most toxic and mobile inorganic species i.e. As(III) and As(V) are predominantly present in water of this
36 region. The soils have relatively higher contents of arsenic and other elements i.e. Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ga, Zr, Sn, Sb, Pb and U. The mean arsenic contents in soil of this region are much higher than in arsenic soil of West Bengal and Bangladesh. The lowest level of arsenic in the soil of this region is 3.7 mg kg(-1) with median value of 9.5 mg kg(-1). The arsenic contents in the sediments are at least 2-folds higher than in the soil. The sources of arsenic contamination in the soil of this region are expected from the rock weathering as well as the atmospheric deposition. The environmental samples i.e. water, soil dust, food, etc. are expected the major exposure for the arsenic contamination. The most of people living in this region are suffering with arsenic borne diseases (i.e. melanosis, keratosis, skin cancer, etc.)
BibTeX:
@article{PatelKS2005,
  author = {Patel KS, Shrivas K, Brandt R, Jakubowski N, Corns W, and Hoffmann P},
  title = {Arsenic contamination in water, soil, sediment and rice of central India},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {27(2)},
  pages = {131-45}
}
Rahman MdM, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Basu GK, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Chakraborti D Arsenic Groundwater Contamination and Sufferings of People in North 24-Parganas, One of the Nine Arsenic Affected Districts of West Bengal, India 2003 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 38(1), pp. 25-59 
article
Abstract: To understand the magnitude of the arsenic calamity in West Bengal, a detailed study spanning 7 years was made in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts. Area and population of North 24-Parganas district are 4093.82 sq. km and 7.3 million, respectively. Fourty eight thousand and thirty water samples were analyzed from hand tubewells of North 24-Parganas in use for drinking, cooking and 29.2% of the tubewells were found to have arsenic above 50 µg/L, the maximum permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO) and 52.8% have arsenic above 10 µg/L, WHO recommended value of arsenic in drinking water. Out of the 22 blocks of North 24-Parganas, in 20 blocks arsenic has been found above the maximum permissible limit and so far in 16 blocks people have been identified as suffering from arsenical skin lesions. From the generated data, it is estimated that about 2.0 million and 1.0 million people are drinking arsenic contaminated water above 10 µg/L and 50 µg/L level, respectively in North 24-Parganas alone. So far, in our preliminary study 33,000 people have been examined at random from arsenic affected villages in North 24-Parganas and 2274 people have been registered with arsenical skin lesions. Extrapolation of the available data indicates about 0.1 million people may be suffering from arsenical skin lesions from North 24-Parganas alone. A sum of 21,000 hair, nail, and urine samples analyses from arsenic affected villages show 56%, 80%, and 87% people have arsenic in biological specimen more than normal/toxic (hair) level, respectively. Thus, many may be subclinically affected. Due to use of arsenic contaminated groundwater for agricultural irrigation, rice and vegetable are getting arsenic contaminated. Hence there is an additional arsenic burden from food chain. People from arsenic affected villages are also suffering from arsenical neuropathy. A followup study indicates that many of the victims suffering from severe arsenical skin lesions for several years are now suffering from cancer or have already died of cancer.
BibTeX:
@article{RahmanMdM2003,
  author = {Rahman MdM, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Chanda CR, Basu GK, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic Groundwater Contamination and Sufferings of People in North 24-Parganas, One of the Nine Arsenic Affected Districts of West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {38(1)},
  pages = {25-59}
}
Rahman MdM, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D Groundwater arsenic contamination 2003   manual
BibTeX:
@manual{RahmanMdM2003a,
  author = {Rahman MdM, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Quamruzzaman Q and Chakraborti D},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination},
  year = {2003},
  edition = {Encyclopedia of Water Science}
}
Rahman MdM, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Roy S, Das R, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D Groundwater Arsenic Contamination and Human Suffering in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Strategic Management of Environmental and Socio-economic Issues. 2003   book
BibTeX:
@book{RahmanMdM2003b,
  author = {Rahman MdM, Paul K, Chowdhury UK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Roy S, Das R, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Groundwater Arsenic Contamination and Human Suffering in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Strategic Management of Environmental and Socio-economic Issues.},
  publisher = {Science and Technology Publishing House},
  year = {2003},
  edition = {102-111}
}
Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Hossain MA, Das B, Lodh D, Saha KC, Pati S, Kaies I, Barua AK, Chakraborti D The magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its health effects to the inhabitants of the Jalangi--one of the 85 arsenic affected blocks in West Bengal, India 2005 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 338(3), pp. 189-200 
article
Abstract: To better understand the magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on human beings, a detailed study was carried out in Jalangi, one of the 85 arsenic affected blocks in West Bengal, India. Jalangi block is approximately 122 km2 in size and has a population of 215538. Of the 1916 water samples analyzed (about 31% of the total hand tubewells) from the Jalangi block, 77.8% were found to have arsenic above 10 microg l(-1) [the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended level of arsenic in drinking water], 51% had arsenic above 50 microg l(-1) (the Indian standard of permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water) and 17% had arsenic at above 300 microg l(-1) (the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions). From our preliminary medical screening, 1488 of the 7221 people examined in the 44 villages of Jalangi block exhibit definite arsenical skin lesions. An estimation of probable population that may suffer from arsenical skin lesions and cancer in the Jalangi block has been evaluated comparing along with international data. A total of 1600 biologic samples including hair, nail and urine have been analyzed from the affected villages of Jalangi block and on an average 88% of the biologic samples contain arsenic above the normal level. Thus, a vast population of the block may have arsenic body burden. Cases of Bowen’s disease and cancer have been identified among adults who also show arsenical skin lesions and children in this block are also seriously affected. Obstetric examinations were also carried out in this block
BibTeX:
@article{RahmanMdM2005,
  author = {Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Hossain MA, Das B, Lodh D, Saha KC, Pati S, Kaies I, Barua AK, Chakraborti D},
  title = {The magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its health effects to the inhabitants of the Jalangi--one of the 85 arsenic affected blocks in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {338(3)},
  pages = {189-200}
}
Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Hossain A, Das B, Roy N, Saha KC, Palit SK, Chakraborti D Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its health impact on residents in a village in West Bengal, India 2005 Bull World Health Organ
Vol. 83(1 Genebra) 
article
Abstract: An in-depth study was carried out in Rajapur, an arsenic-affected village in West Bengal, India, to determine the degree of groundwater contamination with arsenic and the impact of this contamination on residents. The flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) method was used to measure arsenic concentrations in water and biological samples. Dermatologists recorded the dermatological features of arsenicosis. Out of a total of 336 hand-pumped tube-wells in Rajapur, 91% (307/336) contained arsenic at concentrations > 10 µg/l, and 63% (213/336) contained arsenic at > 50 µg/l. The type of arsenic in groundwater, the variation in concentrations of arsenic as the depth of tube-wells changed, and the iron concentration in the wells were also measured. Altogether 825 of 3500 residents were examined for skin lesions; of these, 149 had lesions caused by exposure to arsenic. Of the 420 biological samples collected and analysed, 92.6% (389) contained 38 arsenic at concentrations that were above normal. Thus many villagers might be subclinically affected. Although five arsenic-filtering devices had been installed in Rajapur, it appears that villagers are still exposed to raised concentrations of arsenic in their drinking-water. Detailed village-level studies of arsenic-affected areas in West Bengal are required in order to understand the magnitude of contamination and its effects on people. Villagers are illinformed about the dangers of drinking arsenic-contaminated water. The contamination could be brought under control by increasing community awareness of the dangers and implementing proper watershed management techniques that involve local people.
BibTeX:
@article{RahmanMdM2005a,
  author = {Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Hossain A, Das B, Roy N, Saha KC, Palit SK, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its health impact on residents in a village in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Bull World Health Organ},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {83},
  number = {1 Genebra}
}
Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Hossain MA, Das B, Saha KC, Kaies I, Barua AK, Chakraborti D Status of groundwater arsenic contamination and human suffering in a Gram Panchayet (cluster of villages) in 37 Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic affected districts in West Bengal, India 2005 J Water Health
Vol. 3(3), pp. 283-96 
article
Abstract: A detailed study was carried out in a cluster of villages known as Sagarpara Gram Panchayet (GP), covering an area of 20 km2 and population of 24,419 to determine the status of groundwater arsenic contamination and related health effects. The arsenic analysis of all hand tubewells (n = 565) in working condition showed, 86.2% and 58.8% of them had arsenic above 10, and 50 microgl(-1), respectively. The groundwater samples from all 21 villages in Sagarpara GP contained arsenic above 50 microgl(-1). In our preliminary clinical survey across the 21 villages, 3,302 villagers were examined and 679 among them (20.6%) were registered with arsenical skin lesions. A total of 850 biological samples (hair, nail and urine) were analysed from the affected villages and, on average, 85% of them contained arsenic above the normal level. Thus, many people of Sagarpara might be sub-clinically affected. Our data was compared with the international one to estimate population in Sagarpara GP at risk from arsenical skin lesions and cancer. Proper watershed management and economical utilization of available surface water resources along with the villagers’ participation is urgently required to combat the present arsenic crisis
BibTeX:
@article{RahmanMdM2005b,
  author = {Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Hossain MA, Das B, Saha KC, Kaies I, Barua AK, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Status of groundwater arsenic contamination and human suffering in a Gram Panchayet (cluster of villages) in 37 Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic affected districts in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {J Water Health},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {3(3)},
  pages = {283-96}
}
Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Lodh D, Das B, Hossain MA, Nayak B, Mukherjee A, Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Saha KC, Palit SK, Kaies I, Barua AK, Asad KA Murshidabad - One of the Nine Groundwater Arsenic- Affected Districts of West Bengal, India. Part I: Magnitude of Contamination and Population at Risk 2005 Journal of Toxicology  article
Abstract: Introduction. To understand the severity of the arsenic crisis in West Bengal, India, a detailed, 3-year study was undertaken in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. The district covers an area of 5324 km2 with a population of 5.3 million. Methods. Hand tubewell water samples and biologic samples were collected from Murshidabad and analyzed for arsenic by FI-HG-AAS method. Inter laboratory analysis and analyses of standards were undertaken for quality assurance. Results. During our survey we analyzed 29,612 hand tubewell water samples for arsenic from both contaminated and noncontaminated areas, and 26% of the tubewells were found to have arsenic above 50 µg/L while 53.8% had arsenic above 10 µg/L. Of the 26 blocks in Murshidabad, 24 were found to have arsenic above 50 µg/L. Based on our generated data we estimated that approximately 0.2 million hand tubewells are installed in all 26 blocks of Murshidabad and 1.8 million in nine arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal. It was estimated on the basis of our data that about 2.5 million and 1.2 million people were drinking arsenic-contaminated water with concentrations above 10 and 50 µg/L levels respectively in this district. The analysis of total 3800 biologic (nail, urine, and hair) samples from arsenic-affected villages revealed that 95% of the nail and 94% of the urine samples contained arsenic above the normal levels and 75% of the hair samples were found to have arsenic above the toxic level. Thus, many villagers in 39 the affected areas of Murshidabad might be subclinically affected. Discussion and Conclusion. Comparing our extrapolated data with international dose response results, we estimated how many people may suffer from arsenical skin lesions and cancer. Finally, if the exposed population is provided safe water, better nutrition, and proper awareness about the arsenic problem, lives can be saved and countless suffering of the affected population can be avoided
BibTeX:
@article{RahmanMdM2005c,
  author = {Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S, Lodh D, Das B, Hossain MA, Nayak B, Mukherjee A, Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Saha KC, Palit SK, Kaies I, Barua AK, Asad KA},
  title = {Murshidabad - One of the Nine Groundwater Arsenic- Affected Districts of West Bengal, India. Part I: Magnitude of Contamination and Population at Risk},
  journal = {Journal of Toxicology},
  year = {2005}
}
Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Das B, Ahamed S, Mandal D, Hossain MA, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Saha KC, Chakraborti D Arsenic contamination incidents around the world 2006   book
BibTeX:
@book{RahmanMdM2006,
  author = {Rahman MdM, Sengupta MK, Chowdhury UK, Lodh D, Das B, Ahamed S, Mandal D, Hossain MA, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Saha KC, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic contamination incidents around the world},
  publisher = {CSIRO publishing},
  year = {2006}
}
Rahman MdM; Chowdhury UK; Mukherjee SC; Mondal BK; Paul K; Lodh D; Biswas BK; Chanda CR; Basu GK; Saha KC; Roy S; Das R, Palit SK, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D Chronic Arsenic Toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India?A Review and Commentary 2001 Journal of Toxicology:Clinical Toxicology
Vol. 39(7), pp. 683-700 
article
Abstract: Fifty districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal, India have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization’s maximum permissible limit of 50 ?g/L. The area and population of 50 districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal are 118,849 km2 and 104.9 million and 38,865 km2 and 42.7 million, respectively. Our current data show arsenic levels above 50 ?g/L in 2000 villages, 178 police stations of 50 affected
districts in Bangladesh and 2600 villages, 74 police stations/blocks of 9 affected districts in West Bengal. We have so far analyzed 34,000 and 101,934 hand tube-well water samples from Bangladesh and West Bengal respectively by FI-HG-AAS of which 56% and 52%, respectively, contained arsenic above 10 ?g/L and 37% and 25% arsenic above 50 ?g/L. In our preliminary study 18,000 persons in Bangladesh and 86,000 persons in West Bengal
were clinically examined in arsenic-affected districts. Of them, 3695 (20.6% including 6.11% children) in Bangladesh and 8500 (9.8% including 1.7% children) in West Bengal had arsenical dermatological features. Symptoms of chronic arsenic toxicity developed insidiously after 6 months to 2 years or more of exposure. The time of onset depends on the concentration of arsenic in the drinking water, volume of intake, and the health and nutritional
status of individuals. Major dermatological signs are diffuse or spotted melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Chronic arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder. Apart from generalized weakness, appetite and weight loss, and anemia, our patients had symptoms relating to involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, liver, spleen, genitourinary system, hemopoietic system, eyes, nervous system, and cardiovascular system. We found
evidence of arsenic neuropathy in 37.3% (154 of 413 cases) in one group and 86.8% (33 of 38 cases) in another. Most of these cases had mild and predominantly sensory neuropathy. Central nervous system involvement was evident with and without neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic studies proved helpful for the diagnosis of neurological involvement. Advanced neglected cases with many years of exposure presented with cancer of skin and of
the lung, liver, kidney, and bladder. The diagnosis of subclinical arsenicosis was made in 83%, 93%, and 95% of hair, nail and urine samples, respectively, in Bangladesh; and 57%, 83%, and 89% of hair, nail, and urine samples, respectively in West Bengal. Approximately 90% of children below 11 years of age living in the affected areas show hair and nail arsenic above the normal level. Children appear to have a higher body burden than adults despite fewer dermatological manifestations. Limited trials of 4 arsenic chelators in the treatment of chronic arsenic toxicity in West Bengal over the last 2 decades do not provide any clinical, biochemical, or histopathological benefit except for the accompanying preliminary report of clinical benefit with dimercaptopropanesulfonate therapy. Extensive efforts are needed in both countries to combat the arsenic crisis including control of tube-wells, watershed management with effective use of the prodigious supplies of surface water, traditional water management, public awareness programs, and education concerning the apparent benefits of optimal nutrition.
BibTeX:
@article{RahmanMdM;ChowdhuryUK;MukherjeeSC;MondalBK;PaulK;LodhD;BiswasBK;ChandaCR;BasuGK;SahaKC;RoyS;DasR2001,
  author = {Rahman MdM; Chowdhury UK; Mukherjee SC; Mondal BK; Paul K; Lodh D; Biswas BK; Chanda CR; Basu GK; Saha KC; Roy S; Das R, Palit SK, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Chronic Arsenic Toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India?A Review and Commentary},
  journal = {Journal of Toxicology:Clinical Toxicology},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {39(7)},
  pages = {683-700}
}
Ray I, Sur PK Treatment of Chronic Arsenic Toxicity as Observed in West Bengal 1996 Journal of the Indian Medical Association
Vol. 94(2), pp. 41-42 
article
BibTeX:
@article{RayI1996,
  author = {Ray I, Sur PK},
  title = {Treatment of Chronic Arsenic Toxicity as Observed in West Bengal},
  journal = {Journal of the Indian Medical Association},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {94(2)},
  pages = {41-42}
}
Roy Chowdhury T, Basu GK, Mandal BK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury UK, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Roy SL, Saha KC, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q and Chakraborti D Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta 1999 Nature
Vol. 401(6753), pp. 545-546 
article
BibTeX:
@article{RoyChowdhuryT1999,
  author = {Roy Chowdhury T, Basu GK, Mandal BK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury UK, Chanda CR, Lodh D, Roy SL, Saha KC, Roy S, Kabir S, Quamruzzaman Q and Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta},
  journal = {Nature},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {401(6753)},
  pages = {545-546}
}
Roy Chowdhury T, Mandal BK, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chowdhury PP, Chanda CR, Karan NK, Lodh D, Dhar RK, Das D, Saha KC, Chakraborti D Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, Indiathe biggest arsenic calamity in the world: the status report up to August, 1995 1997   book
BibTeX:
@book{RoyChowdhuryT1997,
  author = {Roy Chowdhury T, Mandal BK, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chowdhury PP, Chanda CR, Karan NK, Lodh D, Dhar RK, Das D, Saha KC and Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, Indiathe biggest arsenic calamity in the world: the status report up to August, 1995},
  publisher = {Chapman & Hall},
  year = {1997},
  edition = {Arsenic - Exposure and Health Effects}
}
Roy Chowdhury T, Tokunaga H, Ando M Survey of arsenic and other heavy metals in food composites and drinking water and estimation of dietary intake by the villagers from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India 2003 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 308(1-3), pp. 15-35 
article
Abstract: An investigation of arsenic, copper, nickel, manganese, zinc and selenium concentration in foodstuffs and drinking water, collected from 34 families and estimation of the average daily dietary intake were carried out in the arsenic-affected areas of the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, Murshidabad district, West Bengal where arsenic-contaminated groundwater (mean: 0.11 mg/l, n=34) is the main source for drinking. The shallow large diameter tubewells,
installed for agricultural irrigation contain an appreciable amount of arsenic (mean: 0.094 mg/l, n=10). So some arsenic can be expected in the food chain and food cultivated in this area. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of arsenic. The 59 mean arsenic levels in food categories are vegetables (20.9 and 21.2 &mgr;g/kg), cereals and bakery goods (130 and 179 &mgr;g/kg) and spices (133 and 202 &mgr;g/kg) for the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. For all other heavy metals, the observed mean concentration values are mostly in good agreement with the reported values around the world (except higher zinc in cereals). The provisional tolerable daily intake value of inorganic arsenic (&mgr;g/kg body wt./day) is: for adult males (11.8 and 9.4); adult females (13.9 and 11); and children (15.3 and 12) in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively (according to FAO/WHO report, the value is 2.1 &mgr;g/kg body wt./day). According to WHO, intake of 1.0 mg of inorganic arsenic per day may give rise to skin lesions within a few years. The average daily dietary intake of copper, nickel and manganese is high, whereas for zinc, the value is low (for adult males: 8.34 and 10.2 mg/day; adult females: 8.26 and 10.3 mg/day; and children: 4.59 and 5.66 mg/day) in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively, compared to the recommended dietary allowance of zinc for adult males, adult females and children (15, 12 and 10 mg/day, respectively). The average daily dietary intake of selenium (&mgr;g/kg body wt./day) is on the lower side for the children (1.07 and 1.22), comparable for the adult males (0.81 and 0.95) and slightly on the higher side for the adult females (1.08 and 1.26), compared to the recommended value (1.7 and 0.9 &mgr;g/kg body wt./day for infants and adults, respectively).
BibTeX:
@article{RoyChowdhuryT2003,
  author = {Roy Chowdhury T, Tokunaga H, Ando M},
  title = {Survey of arsenic and other heavy metals in food composites and drinking water and estimation of dietary intake by the villagers from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {308(1-3)},
  pages = {15-35}
}
Roy Chowdhury T, Uchino T, Tokunaga H, Ando M Survey of arsenic in food composites from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India 2002 Food Chem Toxicol
Vol. 40(11), pp. 1611-21 
article
Abstract: An investigation of total arsenic in food composites, collected from the villagers, was carried out in arsenic-affected areas of the Murshidabad district, West Bengal where the agricultural system is mostly groundwater dependent. The shallow, large-diameter tubewells installed for agricultural irrigation contain an appreciable amount of arsenic (mean 0.085 mg/l, n=6). Even the soil is arsenic-contaminated (mean 11.35 mg/kg, n=36), so some arsenic can be expected in the food chain from crops cultivated in this area. The results revealed that the 65 individual food composite and food groups containing the highest mean arsenic concentrations (ìg/kg) are potato skin (292.62 and 104), leaf of vegetables (212.34 and 294.67), arum leaf (331 and 341), papaya (196.50 and 373), rice (226.18 and 245.39), wheat (7 and 362), cumin (47.86 and 209.75), turmeric powder (297.33 and 280.9), cereals and bakery goods (156.37 and 294.47), vegetables (91.73 and 123.22), spices (92.22 and 207.60) and miscellaneous items (138.37 and 137.80) for the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively. Arsenic is absorbed by the skin of most of the vegetables. The arsenic concentration in fleshy vegetable material is low (mean 2.72 ìg/kg, n=45). Higher levels of arsenic were observed in cooked items compared with raw. Daily dietary intakes of arsenic (ìg) from the foodstuffs for adults are 171.20 and 189.13 and for children are 91.89 and
101.63 in the Jalangi and Domkal blocks, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{RoyChowdhuryT2002,
  author = {Roy Chowdhury T, Uchino T, Tokunaga H, Ando M},
  title = {Survey of arsenic in food composites from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {40(11)},
  pages = {1611-21}
}
Kumar S Millions more at risk of arsenic poisoning than previously thought 2003 British Medical Journal, pp. 326-466  article
Abstract: "The number of people at risk of arsenic poisoning from drinking water from sunken wells may be considerably higher than previously thought, a new report from the University of Calcutta has said? "Almost 330 million people may be at risk in India and Bangladesh compared to 150 million as believed earlier," says Dipankar Chakraborti of the School of Environmental Sciences, Jadavpur University, Calcutta?. "
BibTeX:
@article{S2003,
  author = {Kumar S},
  title = {Millions more at risk of arsenic poisoning than previously thought},
  journal = {British Medical Journal},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {326-466}
}
Saha KC, Chakraborti D Seventeen Years Experience of Arsenicosis in West Bengal, India 2001   book
BibTeX:
@book{SahaKC2001,
  author = {Saha KC, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Seventeen Years Experience of Arsenicosis in West Bengal, India},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {2001}
}
Samanta G, Das D, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Chakraborti D, Pal A, Ahamed S Arsenic in the breast milk of lactating women in arsenicaffected areas of West Bengal, India and its effect on infants 2007 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 42(12), pp. 1815-1825 
article
Abstract: Two hundred and twenty-six breast milk samples were collected from lactating women from 3 blocks of North-24 Paragans, one of the arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Out of 226 samples, only in 39 samples arsenic was detected. Urine, hair, and nail samples were also analyzed to know the arsenic body burden of the lactating women. Arsenic in drinking water was also analyzed. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that hair and nail arsenic was highly correlated with water arsenic concentrations, whereas arsenic in urine and breast milk did not cluster with water arsenic. Our present study indicated that among the lactating women who had high arsenic body burden and arsenical skin lesions, they had elevated level of arsenic in their breast milk. Arsenic in hair, nails, and urine samples of infants were analyzed, and the results showed significantly high-body burden of infants in those areas. PCA showed the age-dependent relationship between the hair and nail arsenic
concentrations of the mothers and their babies.
BibTeX:
@article{SamantaG2007,
  author = {Samanta G, Das D, Mandal BK, Roy Chowdhury T, Chakraborti D, Pal A, Ahamed S},
  title = {Arsenic in the breast milk of lactating women in arsenicaffected areas of West Bengal, India and its effect on infants},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {42(12)},
  pages = {1815-1825}
}
Samanta G, Roy Chowdhury T, Mandal BK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury UK, Basu GK, Chanda R, Lodh D, Chakraborti D Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for determination of arsenic in water and 71 biological samples from arsenic affected districts of west Bengal, India and Bangladesh. 1999 Microchemical Journal
Vol. 62, pp. 174-191 
article
Abstract: The increasing concern over human exposure to arsenic in West Bengal and Bangladesh has necessitated the development of a rapid method for determination of trace levels of arsenic in water and biological samples. We have developed a simple indigenous flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) system for the determination of arsenic in parts per billion levels in water and biological samples. The technique is fast, simple, and highly sensitive. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated by spiking known amounts of arsenic and analyzing different types of environmental and biological standard reference materials. The organic matter in a biological sample was destroyed by acid digestion and dry ashing technique. We analyzed thousands of tubewell water samples from the affected districts of West Bengal and Bangladesh. Most of the water samples contained a mixture of arsenite and arsenate and in none of them could we detect methylated arsenic. We also analyzed thousands of urine (inorganic arsenic and its metabolites), hair, and nail samples and hundreds of skin-scale and blood samples of people drinking arsenic-contaminated water and showing arsenical skin lesions. Quality control was assessed by interlaboratory analysis of hair samples. An understanding of arsenic toxicity and metabolism requires quantitation of individual arsenic species. The techniques we used for the determination and speciation of arsenic are (i) separation of arsenite and arsenate from water by sodium diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform followed by FI-HG-AAS; (ii) determination of arsenite in citrate/citric buffer at pH 3 and total arsenic in water in 5 M HCl by FI-HG-AAS. Thus, arsenate is obtained from the difference; (iii) for analysis of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine FI-HG-AAS was used after separation of the species with a combined cation-anion exchange column. Total arsenic in urine was also determined by FI-HG-AAS after acid decomposition. The species arsenite and arsenate are present in groundwater in about a 1:1 ratio and about 90% of the total arsenic in urine is present as inorganic arsenic and its metabolites.
BibTeX:
@article{SamantaG1999,
  author = {Samanta G, Roy Chowdhury T, Mandal BK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury UK, Basu GK, Chanda R, Lodh D, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for determination of arsenic in water and 71 biological samples from arsenic affected districts of west Bengal, India and Bangladesh.},
  journal = {Microchemical Journal},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {174-191}
}
Samanta G, Sharma R, Roy chowdhury T, Chakraborti D Arsenic and other elements in hair, nails, and skin-scales of arsenic victims in West Bengal, India 2004 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 326, pp. 33-47 
article
Abstract: For the first time, biological tissues (hair, nails, and skin-scales) of arsenic victims from an arsenic affected area of West Bengal (WB), India were analyzed for trace elements. Analysis was carried out by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for 10 elements (As, Se, Hg, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Fe). A microwave digester was used for digestion of the tissue samples. To validate the method, certified reference materials?human hair (GBW
07601) and bovine muscle (CRM 8414)?were analyzed for all elements. The W test was used to study the normal/log normal distribution for each element in the tissue samples. For hair (n=44) and nails (n=33), all elements show log?normal distribution. For skin-scale samples (n=11), data are not sufficient to provide the information about the trend. Geometric mean, standard error, and range for each element were presented and compared with literature values for other populations. This study reveals the higher levels of toxic elements As, Mn, Pb, and Ni in the tissue samples compared with available values in the literature. The elevated levels of these toxic metals in the tissues may be due to exposure of these elements through drinking water and food. The correlations of Mn and Ni with other essential elements, e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, suggest that Mn and Ni may substitute for those elements in hair, nails, and skin-scales. However, correlation represents the relation between two elements only and does not take into consideration of the presence of other elements. Principle
component analysis was applied to explain the behavior among the elements present in hair and nails. This study reveals that in the arsenic-affected areas of WB, the concentrations of other toxic elements in drinking water and foodstuff should be monitored to evaluate the arsenic poisoning.
BibTeX:
@article{SamantaG2004,
  author = {Samanta G, Sharma R, Roy chowdhury T, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Arsenic and other elements in hair, nails, and skin-scales of arsenic victims in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {326},
  pages = {33-47}
}
Sanz E, Olivas RM, Cámara C, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S Arsenic speciation in rice, straw, soil, hair and nails samples from the arsenic-affected areas of Middle and Lower Ganga plain 2007 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 42(12), pp. 1695-1705 
article
Abstract: In the present study, pressurised liquid extraction and ultrasound probe sonication, for the latter in combination with a mixed enzymatic treatment in case of rice and straw samples, 19 were applied as sample preparation prior to arsenic speciation analysis by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-ICP-MS). A significant number of samples as different as rice, straw, soil, nail and hair, all coming from the heavily arsenic-contaminated Middle and Lower Ganga plain area, could be investigated with validated methods, supported by high speed extraction methods. For rice and paddy samples, inorganic arsenic counted up to 70-98% of the total arsenic content, being the major species As (III). The levels of arsenic obtained from straw and soil samples are significantly higher than the background levels, being the major species As (V), thus increasing human exposure to arsenic via the soil-plant-animal-human pathway. Concentrations found in hair and nails were significantly higher than their background levels: 39- and 20-fold for hair and nails, respectively. These samples contained mainly inorganic arsenic in its tri- and pentavalent forms. Results indicate that, under the local frame conditions, arsenic mainly enters into the food chain via its more problematic inorganic forms. Arsenic speciation analysis proves to be a powerful tool for a complete analytical assessment in epidemiological studies covering the endemic areas.
BibTeX:
@article{SanzE2007,
  author = {Sanz E, Olivas RM, Cámara C, Sengupta MK, Ahamed S},
  title = {Arsenic speciation in rice, straw, soil, hair and nails samples from the arsenic-affected areas of Middle and Lower Ganga plain},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {42(12)},
  pages = {1695-1705}
}
Sarkar A, Mehrotra R Social Dimensions Of Chronic Arsenicosis In West Bengal (India) 2005 Epidemiology
Vol. 16(5), pp. 68 
article
Abstract: Introduction:
It has been estimated that around 6 million people living in West Bengal (India) are at risk of consuming arsenic contaminated water. Various epidemiological studies have provided evidence of the adverse effects of arsenic on health. However, studies dealing with social dimensions of the arsenic problem are few and scattered.
Aim:
We conducted a study in West Bengal to explore the social determinants and distribution of arsenic exposure and manifestations.
Methods:
A cross sectional survey comprising 9427 people was conducted. The study subjects were screened (based on presence of melanosis and leucomelanosis - the earliest manifestation of chronic arsenicosis) in five arsenic affected villages. The social epidemiological approach was adopted to examine the social determinants influencing the extent and distribution of arsenicosis and interlinkages. Field test kits were used for measurement of arsenic level in water. Nutritional status was measured by using Body Mass Index (BMI).
Results:
Out of a total of 7678 arsenic exposed individuals, 410 were found to have single or multiple manifestations and association between arsenic exposure level and the severity of manifestation was found (p<0.05). Severe manifestations, prevalence and mortality rate were found more among lower socio-economic status (SES) (p<0.005 to 0.05). Lower age group was mostly found among poorer sections of the community (95%CI, 17.8-25.7 & 36.3-48.9, lowermost and uppermost SES respectively). Households from higher SES could afford to shift to an alternative arsenic-free water source, and many had experienced an improvement in symptoms. Landless agricultural labourers were exposed to higher levels of arsenic. Severe form of manifestations were found to be associated with low BMI (p<0.05). Low BMI was associated with lower SES (p<0.005), which was in turn associated with quality and quantity of food intake. Males had higher exposure levels prevalence and mortality rate, severity and duration of manifestations (95%CI, 4.1-6.8 & 2.8-4.3, males & females respectively), younger age group (95%CI, 33.5-37.8 & 37.1-39.4, males & females 40 respectively). Marriage was found to be another important determinant of the gender differential in arsenicosis. Higher SES had easier accessibility to health services. There was a gender disparity regarding treatment seeking.
Discussion:
This study of chronic arsenic poisoning revealed a number of issues, which had either not been highlighted before or had never been articulated ata macro level. The nature of findings of research was not confined to symptoms of chronic arsenicosis; it included all kinds of relevant determinants (local ecological, social, political and cultural context) & complex relationships. The research revealed multi-dimensional perspectives, over and above the
mainstream epidemiological issues
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarA2005,
  author = {Sarkar A, Mehrotra R},
  title = {Social Dimensions Of Chronic Arsenicosis In West Bengal (India)},
  journal = {Epidemiology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {16(5)},
  pages = {68}
}
Sarkar S, Gupta A, Biswas RK, Deb AK, Greenleaf JE, SenGupta AK Well-head arsenic removal units in remote villages of Indian subcontinent: Field results and performance evaluation 2005 Water Research
Vol. 39(10), pp. 2196-2206 
article
Abstract: Since 1997, over 135 well-head arsenic removal units have been installed in remote villages in the Indian state of West Bengal bordering Bangladesh. Every component of the arsenic removal treatment system including activated alumina sorbent is procured indigenously. Each unit serves approximately 200?300 households and contains about 100 L of activated alumina. No chemical addition, pH adjustment or electricity is required for operating these units. The arsenic concentration in the influent varies from around 100 ìg/L to greater than 500 ìg/L. In the treated water, arsenic concentration is consistently below 50 ìg/L. The units are capable of removing both arsenites and arsenates from the contaminated groundwater for several months, often exceeding 10,000 bed volumes. In the top portion of the column, the dissolved iron present in ground water is oxidized by atmospheric oxygen into hydrated Fe(III) oxides or HFO particles which in turn selectively bind both As(III) and As(V). Upon exhaustion, these units are regenerated by caustic soda solution followed by acid wash. The arsenic-laden spent regenerant is converted into a small volume sludge (less than 500 g) and contained over a coarse sand filter in the same premise requiring no disposal. Many units have been operating for several years without any significant operational difficulty. The treated water is used for drinking and cooking. Most importantly, the villagers are responsible for the day-to-day operation and the upkeep of the units.
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarS2005,
  author = {Sarkar S, Gupta A, Biswas RK, Deb AK, Greenleaf JE, SenGupta AK},
  title = {Well-head arsenic removal units in remote villages of Indian subcontinent: Field results and performance evaluation},
  journal = {Water Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39},
  number = {10},
  pages = {2196-2206}
}
Savarimuthu X, Smith MMH, Yuan Y, Ehrenstein Osv, Das S, Ghosh N, Mazumder DNG, Smith AH Seasonal Variation of Arsenic Concentrations in Tubewells in West Bengal, India 2006 Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition  article
Abstract: This study was conducted to monitor the changes in arsenic concentration during different seasons in a one-year period during 2002-2003 in selected tubewells in an arsenic-affected area in the district of South 24 Parganas in West Bengal, India, and to map the location of the wells. Seasonal variations in concentrations of arsenic in water were measured from 74 selected tubewells, ranging in depth from 40 to 500 feet. Water samples were collected from these wells during winter, summer, monsoon, and the following winter in 2002-2003. A global positioning system was used for locating the tubewells, and a geographic information system was used for mapping. There was evidence of seasonal variation in concentrations of arsenic
28 in water (p=0.02) with the minimum average concentration occurring in the summer season (694 µg/L) and the maximum in the monsoon season (906 µg/L). From the winter of 2002 to the winter of 2003, arsenic concentrations increased, irrespective of the depth of the tubewells, from an average of 464 µg/L to 820 µg/L (p<0.001). This extent of variation in arsenic concentration, if confirmed, has important implications for both epidemiological research and mitigation programmes.
BibTeX:
@article{SavarimuthuX2006,
  author = {Savarimuthu X, Smith MMH, Yuan Y, Ehrenstein Osv, Das S, Ghosh N, Mazumder DNG, Smith AH},
  title = {Seasonal Variation of Arsenic Concentrations in Tubewells in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition},
  year = {2006}
}
Sen J, Chaudhuri ABD Effect of Arsenic on the Onset of Menarcheal Age 2007 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Vol. 79(3), pp. 293-296 
article
Abstract: Ground water arsenic contamination is a major problem in the Bengal Delta plain. The present study investigates the effect of arsenic exposure on age at menarche in North 24-Parganas district, one of the worst affected districts. A higher mean menarcheal age of 12.50 years is reported from women residing in four arsenic affected villages in as compared to a control village (11.71 years). The differences in menarcheal age between three of the four affected villages and the control village are statistically significant (p<0.05). The study indicates that arsenic exposure can have a negative effect on menarcheal age.
BibTeX:
@article{SenJ2007,
  author = {Sen J, Chaudhuri ABD},
  title = {Effect of Arsenic on the Onset of Menarcheal Age},
  journal = {Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {79(3)},
  pages = {293-296}
}
Sengupta MK, Mukherjee A, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, Rahman MdM, Lodh D, Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Nayak B, Das B, Saha KC, Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Chatterjee G, Pati S, Dutta RN, Quamruzzaman Q Groundwater arsenic contamination in the Ganga-Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain of India and Bangladesh 2003 Archives of Environmental Health
Vol. 58(11), pp. 701-702 
article
BibTeX:
@article{SenguptaMK2003,
  author = {Sengupta MK, Mukherjee A, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, Rahman MdM, Lodh D, Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Nayak B, Das B, Saha KC, Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Chatterjee G, Pati S, Dutta RN, Quamruzzaman Q},
  title = {Groundwater arsenic contamination in the Ganga-Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain of India and Bangladesh},
  journal = {Archives of Environmental Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {58(11)},
  pages = {701-702}
}
Singh N, Kumar D, Sahu AP Arsenic in the environment: effects on human health and possible prevention 2007 J Environ Biol, pp. 359-65  article
Abstract: Arsenic is a major environmental pollutant and exposure occurs through environmental, occupational and medicinal sources. The contaminated drinking water is the main source of 20 exposure and affected countries are India (West Bengal), Bangladesh, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Chile, Argentina and Romania. Concentrations of arsenic in affected areas are several times higher than the maximum contamination level (MCL) (10 microg/l). Arsenic exposure to human results in degenerative, inflammatory and neoplastic changes of skin, respiratory system, blood, lymphatic system, nervous system and reproductive system. There is no particular remedial action for chronic arsenic poisoning. Low socioeconomic status and malnutrition may increase the risk of chronic toxicity. Early intervention and prevention can give the relief to the affected population.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghN2007,
  author = {Singh N, Kumar D, Sahu AP},
  title = {Arsenic in the environment: effects on human health and possible prevention},
  journal = {J Environ Biol},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {359-65}
}
Sinha D, Bhattacharya RK, Siddiqi M, Roy M Amelioration of sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity by tea extracts in Chinese hamster v79 cells 2005 J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol
Vol. 24(2), pp. 129-40 
article
Abstract: Since the early 1980s, an alarming problem of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination has devastated many districts of West Bengal in India. People drinking As-contaminated water have been suffering severe health problems such as hyperkeratosis, blackfoot disease, neuropathy, and cancer of various sites. DNA damage and genetic instability induced by the inorganic arsenicals present in water are thought to be prerequisites for the initiation of carcinogenesis. Many natural polyphenols, which are consumed through our daily diet, possess excellent cancer chemopreventive properties. Tea, a popular beverage worldwide and rich in polyphenols, has exhibited many health benefits. The present study was conducted to examine the anticlastogenic action of tea extracts (both green and black) against the As-induced chromosomal aberrations. We also evaluated the role of tea in inducing antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase to provide protection against the oxidative stress induced by As. Our results demonstrated that tea extracts, particularly Darjeeling tea extract, are effective in counteracting the clastogenicity (chromatid breaks, in particular) of the most potent form of As, sodium arsenite. The
antioxidant function of tea in reducing clastogenicity may be partly due to the induction of phase II detoxification enymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. Our results suggest that the use of tea may be an effective approach in combating the health crisis generated by As
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaD2005,
  author = {Sinha D, Bhattacharya RK, Siddiqi M, Roy M},
  title = {Amelioration of sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity by tea extracts in Chinese hamster v79 cells},
  journal = {J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {24(2)},
  pages = {129-40}
}
Sinha D, Dey S, Bhattacharya RK, Roy M In vitro mitigation of arsenic toxicity by tea polyphenols in human lymphocytes. 2007 J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol
Vol. 26(3), pp. 207-20 
article
Abstract: The groundwater arsenicals have brought dreadful misery for the people residing in the endemic regions of West Bengal, India. Arsenic-related anomalies include arsenicosis, hyperkera-tosis, gastric complications, liver fibrosis, peripheral neuropathy, and cancer. Some of these diseases have been frequently associated with overproduction of reactive oxygen species that cause DNA damage and improper functioning of body’s antioxidant defense mechanism. Natural polyphenols present in tea serve as excellent antioxidants. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the role of representative polyphenols and extracts of green and black tea in modulating sodium arsenite (As III)- induced DNA damage in normal human lymphocytes. Comet assay was used to detect the DNA damage. Arsenic-induced oxidative stress was measured with generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and activity of some antioxidant enzymes. Expression of some repair enzymes such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and DNA polymerase beta was measured to assess the effect of tea on DNA repair. Tea afforded efficient reduction of As IIIinduced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Tea also quenched the excessive production of reactive oxygen species by arsenic, reduced the elevated levels of lipid peroxidation, and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Furthermore, tea enhanced recovery of DNA damage, which was indicative of repair as confirmed by unscheduled DNA synthesis and pronounced expression of DNA repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. It is speculated that the antioxidant potential and repair-inducing capacity of tea might help in combating the severe genotoxic effects induced by arsenic in the human population.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaD2007,
  author = {Sinha D, Dey S, Bhattacharya RK, Roy M},
  title = {In vitro mitigation of arsenic toxicity by tea polyphenols in human lymphocytes.},
  journal = {J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {26(3)},
  pages = {207-20}
}
Smith MMH, Hore T, Chakraborty P, Chakraborty DK, Savarimuthu X, Smith AH A dugwell program to provide Arsenic-safe-water in West Bengal, India:-Preliminary Results 2003 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 38(1), pp. 289-299 
article
Abstract: In 1982, Dr. K. C. Saha, a dermatologist of Calcutta, West Bengal, identified patients with skin lesions from the district of 24 Parganas, leading him and others to search for a cause. The cause was soon identified to be arsenic in drinking water, but even today, 20 years later, large number of people continue to drink arsenic contaminated water and patients are increasing in number. Project Well is a program chosen for implementation in some villages of North 24 Parganas. Arsenic safe drinking water is provided for adopted villages by constructing shallow, concrete dugwells designed to tap the water of the unconfined aquifer, 20-30 feet below ground level, that contains low levels (<0.05 mg/L) of arsenic in the target region. The traditional dugwell design is modified by use of tube well hand pumps to withdraw water. The project includes community involvement, programs to increase awareness of the need to drink arsenic safe water, and training in monitoring of dugwell water for arsenic and harmful pathogens. Disinfecting of the water and regulating the water hazard diagram are also included in the training program. The plan is to make the system sustainable at the village level using indigenous labor and materials.
BibTeX:
@article{SmithMMH2003,
  author = {Smith MMH, Hore T, Chakraborty P, Chakraborty DK, Savarimuthu X, Smith AH},
  title = {A dugwell program to provide Arsenic-safe-water in West Bengal, India:-Preliminary Results},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {38(1)},
  pages = {289-299}
}
Smith MMH, Yuan Y, Savarimuthu X, Liaw J, Hira A, Green C, Hore T, Chakraborty P, Ehrenstein Osv, Smith AH Arsenic concentrations and bacterial contamination in a pilot
shallow dugwell program in West Bengal, India
2007 Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Vol. 42(1), pp. 89-95 
article
Abstract: Project ?Well? has developed a pilot self-supporting community-based mitigation program to provide arsenic-safe water to the villagers of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Shallow concrete dugwells, less than 25 feet deep, that tap into an unconfined aquifer are constructed following stipulated guidelines. The design differs from the traditional dugwell in two major ways: (i) there is a layer of coarse sand in the annular space enveloping the outer wall of the concrete cylinder; and (ii) handpumps are used for water extraction to reduce the potential for bacterial contamination. Monitoring programs for arsenic and coliform bacteria in selected dugwells have been completed. In summer, when the water levels were low, the arsenic
concentrations were measured. In 11 wells, measured over three years, the average water arsenic concentration was 29µgL-1. Two dugwells had high concentrations of arsenic (average 152µgL-1 and 61µgL-1), but the remaining nine dugwells had an overall average of 11µgL-1. Seasonal variation was assessed in five wells with monthly measurements and there was a direct relationship between increases in arsenic concentrations and decreases in the volume of water in the dugwells in the dry summer season. To control bacterial contamination, sodium hypochlorite solution containing 5% chlorine was applied once a month. In 2005, fecal coliform was undetected in 65% (n = 13) of the dugwells but detected at high levels in 35% (n = 7) of the dugwells. The program clearly reduced exposure to arsenic, but we conclude that further study of increases in arsenic concentrations in the dry season are warranted, as well as assessment of ways to more effectively control bacterial contamination such as more frequent chlorination, perhaps with lower doses on each occasion.
BibTeX:
@article{SmithMMH2007,
  author = {Smith MMH, Yuan Y, Savarimuthu X, Liaw J, Hira A, Green C, Hore T, Chakraborty P, Ehrenstein Osv, Smith AH},
  title = {Arsenic concentrations and bacterial contamination in a pilot
shallow dugwell program in West Bengal, India}, journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health}, year = {2007}, volume = {42(1)}, pages = {89-95} }
Spallholz JE, Mallory BL, Rahman MdM Environmental hypothesis: is poor dietary selenium intake an underlying factor for arsenicosis and cancer in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India? 2004 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 323(1-3), pp. 21-32 
article
Abstract: To reduce the incidence of dysentery, cholera and other water-borne diseases and mortality of people drinking from surface contaminated sources of water, the World Bank and United Nations Children’s Fund began to sink tube wells into the underlying aquifers of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, in the 1970s. Many of the tube wells were drilled into underground aquifers that provided microbiologically clean water that was later determined to contain
arsenic (As). As contamination of drinking water is a problem of natural occurrence throughout the world and domestic water often exceeds the World Health Organization limit of 50 microg As/l in the countries of Bangladesh, West Bengal, India and Nepal as well as other areas occupying much of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. It is estimated that as many as one-half of these tube wells discharge water with sufficient amounts of As to produce arsenicosis, i.e. As toxicity in the human population. Access to clean As free water is the priority of most organized relief efforts. Where As free domestic water cannot be provided, an improved diet and/or dietary supplements may ameliorate As toxicity or prevent its toxicity all together. The dietary status of the essential human trace element, selenium (Se) may be adversely affected by a chronic excessive ingestion of As. As added to animal diets has been known to counteract Se toxicity in animals since the 1930s. It is reasoned therefore, that high levels of chronic As ingestion from well water by people within the delta will accelerate the excretion of Se lowering the body’s content of this essential trace element. Excessive Se excretion owing to Se/As complexation may add to the likelihood of As being more toxic and carcinogenic over time, due to the oxidative stress imposed by the excessive As and low Se ingestion. Because of the unique environment of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in which millions of people are presently exposed to As, we ask the question: are low dietary Se ingestion and accelerated Se depletion by As possible contributing factors to arsenicosis?
BibTeX:
@article{SpallholzJE2004,
  author = {Spallholz JE, Mallory BL, Rahman MdM},
  title = {Environmental hypothesis: is poor dietary selenium intake an underlying factor for arsenicosis and cancer in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India?},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {323(1-3)},
  pages = {21-32}
}
Srivastava AK, Hasan SK, Srivastava RC Arsenicism in India: dermal lesions and hair levels 2001 Arch Environ Health
Vol. 56(6)(562) 
article
Abstract: Background: Over 6 million people live in areas of West Bengal, India, where groundwater sources are contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. The key objective of this nested case-control study was to characterize the dose-response relation between low arsenic concentrations in drinking water and arsenic-induced skin keratoses and hyperpigmentation.
Methods: We selected cases (persons with arsenic-induced skin lesions) and age- and sexmatched controls from participants in a 1995?1996 cross-sectional survey in West Bengal. We used a detailed assessment of arsenic exposure that covered at least 20 years. Participants were reexamined between 1998 and 2000. Consensus agreement by four physicians reviewing the skin lesion photographs confirmed the diagnosis in 87% of cases
clinically diagnosed in the field.
Results. The average peak arsenic concentration in drinking water was 325 _g/liter for cases and 180 _g/liter for controls. The average latency for skin lesions was 23 years from first exposure. We found strong dose-response gradients with both peak and average arsenic water concentrations.
Conclusions: The lowest peak arsenic ingested by a confirmed case was 115 _g/liter. Confirmation of case diagnosis and intensive longitudinal exposure assessment provide the basis for a detailed dose-response evaluation of arsenic-caused skin lesions.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaAK2001,
  author = {Srivastava AK, Hasan SK, Srivastava RC},
  title = {Arsenicism in India: dermal lesions and hair levels},
  journal = {Arch Environ Health},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {56(6)},
  number = {562}
}
Subramanian KS, Kosnett MJ Human exposures to arsenic from consumption of well water in West Bengal, India 1998 Int J Occup Environ Health
Vol. 4(4), pp. 217-30 
article
Abstract: The authors visited the State of West Bengal, India, in August 1996, as consultants to the World Health Organization (WHO). The general mandate of the mission was to formulate recommendations to the Government of India regarding its efforts to assist the Government of West Bengal in remedying health problems arising from the presence of arsenic in groundwater in excess of the WHO guideline limit of 0.05 mg/L in eight districts of the State. The authors held discussions with Government of India and Government of West Bengal officials, as well as scientists, engineers, and physicians studying the analytic, medical, engineering, and hydrogeologic facets of the problem. They conducted field visits to arsenicaffected villages; inspected health centers, including the laboratories conducting the analytic and clinical studies; and interviewed and examined local lay people, including many arsenicpoisoned patients. This overview of the arsenic contamination problem in West Bengal is based upon a review of the scientific literature and government reports and the authors
direct, firsthand assessment. The authors hope that their recommendations will assist in the development of a comprehensive infrastructure and plan of action, which are necessary to control the epidemic of chronic arsenic poisoning now afflicting West Bengal
BibTeX:
@article{SubramanianKS1998,
  author = {Subramanian KS, Kosnett MJ},
  title = {Human exposures to arsenic from consumption of well water in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Int J Occup Environ Health},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {4(4)},
  pages = {217-30}
}
Subramanian KS, Viraraghavan T, Phommavong T, Tanjore S Manganese greensand for removal of arsenic in drinking water 1997 Water Quality Research Journal of Canada
Vol. 32(3), pp. 551-561 
article
Abstract: "The present study was initiated to identify treatment techniques suitable for the removal of As from small community groundwater supplies below the current interim maximum acceptable (IMAC) concentration of 25 µg/L prescribed in the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. The effectiveness of manganese greensand filtration (MGSF), including the effect of Fe(II) in the influent, was studied in batch (intermittent) and column (continuous) modes. Batch studies based on the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model showed that the percent removal efficiency of arsenic by MGSF to the IMAC value was 60 for 24-h equilibration. Column studies gave an overall percent removal efficiency of 41. However, in the presence of Fe(II), especially at an Fe/As concentration ratio of 20, manganese greensand gave an overall efficiency of 83% and a throughput volume of 1,440 L. Results showed that at a Fe/As ratio of at least 20 and in the presence of Fe(II), manganese greensand is capable of removing As to below the IMAC value, under continuous mode of operation and when the influent As concentration is <200 µg/L."
BibTeX:
@article{SubramanianKS1997,
  author = {Subramanian KS, Viraraghavan T, Phommavong T, Tanjore S},
  title = {Manganese greensand for removal of arsenic in drinking water},
  journal = {Water Quality Research Journal of Canada},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {32(3)},
  pages = {551-561}
}
Uchino T, Roy Chowdhury T, Ando M, Tokunaga H Intake of arsenic from water, food composites and excretion through urine, hair from a studied population in West Bengal, India 2006 Food Chem Toxicol
Vol. 44(4), pp. 445-6 
article
Abstract: To evaluate the main intake source of arsenic by the villagers from arsenic-affected families in Jalangi and Domkol blocks in Mushidabad district, West Bengal-India, we determined the concentrations of arsenic in tube-well water and in food composites, mainly including vegetables and cereals collected from the surveyed families, which were cultivated in that region. The daily dietary intakes of arsenic by the villagers were estimated and the excretions of arsenic through urine and hair were determined. The arsenic concentrations in hair and urine of the studied population living in mild (2.78 microg/L), moderate (30.7 microg/L) and high (118 microg/L) arsenic-affected families were 133, 1,391 and 4,713 microg/kg and 43.1,
244 and 336 microg/L, respectively. The linear regressions show good correlations between arsenic concentrations in water vs hair (r(2)=0.928, p < 0.001) and water vs urine (r(2)=0.464, p < 0.01). Approximately 29.4%, 58.1% and 62.1% of adult population from mild, moderate and high arsenic-affected families were suffering from arsenical skin manifestations. The
mean arsenic concentrations of food composites (vegetables and cereals) in high arsenicaffected families are not significantly different from mild arsenic-affected families. The daily dietary intakes of arsenic from water and food composites of the studied population, living in high, moderate and mild arsenic-affected families were 568, 228 and 137 microg,
respectively. The linear regressions show good correlations between arsenic concentrations in hair vs daily dietary intake (r(2)=0.452, p < 0.001) and urine vs daily dietary intake (r(2)=0.134, p < 0.001). The water for drinking contributed 6.07%, 26.7% and 58.1% of total arsenic in our study from mild, moderate and high arsenic-affected families. The result suggested that the contaminated water from high arsenic-affected families should be the main source for intake of arsenic. On contrary, the contribution of arsenic-contaminated food composites from mild and moderate arsenic-affected families might be the main source for intake of arsenic. The Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values of arsenic in our study were 3.32, 5.75 and 12.9 microg/kg body weight/day from mild, moderate and high arsenic29 affected families, respectively, which is higher than the recommended PTWI value of arsenic
(2.1 microg/kg body weight/day)
BibTeX:
@article{UchinoT2006,
  author = {Uchino T, Roy Chowdhury T, Ando M, Tokunaga H},
  title = {Intake of arsenic from water, food composites and excretion through urine, hair from a studied population in West Bengal, India},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {44(4)},
  pages = {445-6}
}
Vaishya RC, Agarwal IC Removal of arsenic (III) from contaminated ground waters by Ganga sand 1993 Journal of Indian Water Works Association
Vol. 25(3), pp. 249-253 
article
BibTeX:
@article{VaishyaRC1993,
  author = {Vaishya RC, Agarwal IC},
  title = {Removal of arsenic (III) from contaminated ground waters by Ganga sand},
  journal = {Journal of Indian Water Works Association},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {25(3)},
  pages = {249-253}
}
Warhate SR, Yenkie MK, Pokale WK Impacts of mining on water and soil 2007 J Environ Sci Eng
Vol. 49(2), pp. 43-52 
article
Abstract: Out of seven coalmines situated in Wardha River Valley located at Wani (Dist. Yavatmal), five open caste coalmines are run by Western Coal Field Ltd, India. The results of 25 water and 19 soil samples (including one over burden) from Nilapur, Bramhani, Kolera, Gowari, Pimpari and Aheri for their pH, TDS, hardness, alkalinity, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, arsenic, manganese, sodium and potassium are studied in the present work. Statistical analysis and graphical presentation of the results are discussed in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{WarhateSR2007,
  author = {Warhate SR, Yenkie MK, Pokale WK},
  title = {Impacts of mining on water and soil},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {49(2)},
  pages = {43-52}
}
A Simple Household Device To Remove Arsenic From Groundwater And Two Years Performance Report Of Arsenic Removal Plant For Treating Ground Water With Community Participation 2001   proceedings
BibTeX:
@proceedings{M.FerozeAhmed2001,,
  title = {A Simple Household Device To Remove Arsenic From Groundwater And Two Years Performance Report Of Arsenic Removal Plant For Treating Ground Water With Community Participation},
  year = {2001}
}
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