Bibliography : Silicosis

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AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftype
Rai S, Acharya V, Vahab S, Minal J, Chakraborti S "Bright asteroids in the polar sky"-clinic-radio-pathological correlation in an unusual case of silicotuberculosis. 2016 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 20(1), pp. 60-3 
article DOI  
Abstract: We present a case of acute silicosis presenting with severe breathlessness and respiratory failure. An unusual aspect in our case was the presence of acute silicosis with respiratory failure in backdrop of long-term silica exposure. The other striking aspect in this case was the demonstration of crystalline silica particles under polarizing light in bronchial lavage fluid sample and coexistence of tuberculosis with acute silicosis.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiS2016,
  author = {Rai S, Acharya V, Vahab S, Minal J, Chakraborti S.},
  title = {"Bright asteroids in the polar sky"-clinic-radio-pathological correlation in an unusual case of silicotuberculosis.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {20(1)},
  pages = {60-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.183847}
}
Ramaswamy A, Panchabhai TS, Farver C, Mehta AC Recurrent Tracheal Stenosis: A Novel Presentation of Silicosis. 2016 Ann Am Thorac Soc.
Vol. 13(7), pp. 1184-7 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{RamaswamyA2016,
  author = {Ramaswamy A, Panchabhai TS, Farver C, Mehta AC},
  title = {Recurrent Tracheal Stenosis: A Novel Presentation of Silicosis.},
  journal = {Ann Am Thorac Soc.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {13(7)},
  pages = {1184-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201512-827LE}
}
Tiwari RR Silica Exposure and Effect on Peak Expiratory Flow: Slate Pencil Workers' Study. 2016 Respir Care.  article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a spirometric test that detects obstructive changes in the respiratory tract; has good correlation with the FEV1; and is much less expensive, simpler, and easier to perform under field conditions than FEV1. Chronic silicosis is also known to have obstructive features in advanced stages. Thus, this study was performed to assess the effect of silica exposure on PEF and the factors related to it.
METHODS:
The present study was carried out among 193 slate pencil cutting workers of Multanpura village of Madhya Pradesh, India. An interview technique was used to record demographic characteristics and occupational history on a predesigned form, which included a questionnaire regarding occupational history and silica-related respiratory morbidities. This was followed by a complete medical examination and measurement of PEF using a spirometer.
RESULTS:
The mean age was 43.35 ± 11.31 y, and the mean duration of exposure was 18.72 ± 9.33 y. In the present study, PEF was found to be significantly reduced in those age ?40 y, those who were female, those having duration of exposure > 10 y, and those having respiratory morbidity, whereas the reduction in PEF was statistically nonsignificant for smokers.
CONCLUSIONS:
Higher age, female sex, higher duration of exposure, and respiratory morbidity were found to be important correlates of PEF.
BibTeX:
@article{RR2016,
  author = {Tiwari RR},
  title = {Silica Exposure and Effect on Peak Expiratory Flow: Slate Pencil Workers' Study.},
  journal = {Respir Care.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.04903}
}
Banks LD, Jindal SK Can We Alter the Natural History of Silicosis? 2015 Chest.
Vol. 148(3), pp. 574-6 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BanksLD2015,
  author = {Banks LD, Jindal SK.},
  title = {Can We Alter the Natural History of Silicosis?},
  journal = {Chest.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {148(3)},
  pages = {574-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.15-0591}
}
Bhandary YP, Shetty SK, Marudamuthu AS, Fu J, Pinson BM, Levin J, Shetty S Role of p53-fibrinolytic system cross-talk in the regulation of quartz-induced lung injury. 2015 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 283(2), pp. 92-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Silica is the major component of airborne dust generated by wind, manufacturing and/or demolition. Chronic occupational inhalation of silica dust containing crystalline quartz is by far the predominant form of silicosis in humans. Silicosis is a progressive lung disease that typically arises after a very long latency and is a major occupational concern with no known effective treatment. The mechanism of silicosis is not clearly understood. However, silicosis is associated with increased cell death, expression of redox enzymes and pro-fibrotic cytokines and chemokines. Since alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) death and disruption of alveolar fibrinolysis is often associated with both acute and chronic lung injuries, we explored whether p53-mediated changes in the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system contributes to silica-induced lung injury. We further sought to determine whether caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSP), which inhibits p53 expression, mitigates lung injury associated with exposure to silica. Lung tissues and AECs isolated from wild-type (WT) mice exposed to silica exhibit increased apoptosis, p53 and PAI-1, and suppression of uPA expression. Treatment of WT mice with CSP inhibits PAI-1, restores uPA expression and prevents AEC apoptosis by suppressing p53, which is otherwise induced in mice exposed to silica. The process involves CSP-mediated inhibition of serine-15 phosphorylation of p53 by inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A-C (PP2A-C) interaction with silica-induced caveolin-1 in AECs. These observations suggest that changes in the p53-uPA fibrinolytic system cross-talk contribute to lung injury caused by inhalation of silica dust containing crystalline quartz and is protected by CSP by targeting this pathway.
BibTeX:
@article{BhandaryYP2015,
  author = {Bhandary YP, Shetty SK, Marudamuthu AS, Fu J, Pinson BM, Levin J, Shetty S.},
  title = {Role of p53-fibrinolytic system cross-talk in the regulation of quartz-induced lung injury.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {283(2)},
  pages = {92-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2015.01.007}
}
Chakrabarti S, Pan K Erasmus Syndrome in a 42-Year-Old Male: A Rare Case Report. 2015 J Clin Diagn Res.
Vol. 9(5), pp. OD01-3 
article DOI  
Abstract: Erasmus syndrome is a rare entity in which systemic sclerosis develops following exposure to silica with or without silicosis. Few case reports are available in literature. We report here a case of Erasmus syndrome in a 42-year-old manual labourer. The patient presented with arthralgia, Raynoud's phenomenon, skin tightening and microstomia along with features of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Evidence of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) with mediastinal lymphadenopathy as well as pulmonary arterial hypertension with vascular reactivity was found in appropriate investigations. Serological markers of systemic sclerosis were strongly positive. After a diagnosis of Erasmus syndrome was made, a combination of drugs including Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide and Nifedipine was instituted this led to moderate improvement in his symptoms over 6 months.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabartiS2015,
  author = {Chakrabarti S, Pan K},
  title = {Erasmus Syndrome in a 42-Year-Old Male: A Rare Case Report.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {9(5)},
  pages = {OD01-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/11920.5882}
}
Sharma DC Miners fight for breath in Indian state. 2015 Lancet Respir Med.
Vol. 3(3), pp. 181 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{DC.2015,
  author = {Sharma DC.},
  title = {Miners fight for breath in Indian state.},
  journal = {Lancet Respir Med.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {3(3)},
  pages = {181},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00052-1}
}
Dixit R, Meena M, Patil CB Pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema complicating acute silicosis. 2015 Int J Occup Med Environ Health.
Vol. 28(3), pp. 635-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: A case of acute silicosis complicating as spontaneous pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema is described in a 35-year-old male engaged in stone crusher unit. Diagnosis was established on clinical and radiological assessment and supported by occupational history of the patient. This case is unique one as all these 3 complications at the same time are very uncommon in acute silicosis.
This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
BibTeX:
@article{DixitR2015,
  author = {Dixit R, Meena M, Patil CB},
  title = {Pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema complicating acute silicosis.},
  journal = {Int J Occup Med Environ Health.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {28(3)},
  pages = {635-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00399}
}
Panchadhyayee P, Saha K, Saha I, Ta RK, Ghosh S, Saha A, Barma P, Mitra M Rapidly Fatal Silicosis Among Jewellery Workers Attending a District Medical College of West Bengal, India. 2015 Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci.
Vol. 57(3), pp. 165-71 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Silicosis is a slowly progressive chronic occupational lung disease, developed after a prolong period of exposure to high concentration of silica dust.
METHODS:
In this longitudinal study, we enrolled old and new silicosis patients (n=19; 8 jewellery polishers, 11 from other occupations) seen at our Pulmonary Medicine Department from June 2009 to December 2012 to document the course of illness as per their occupational exposure.
RESULTS:
Six of the eight jewellery polishing workers had developed silicosis within five years of exposure, while six of the 11 other workers with other occupational exposure had developed silicosis after exposure of 10 years or more. Mean duration of exposure was significantly less among jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers (3.4 +/- 1.7 versus 9.3 +/- 4.1; p=0.001). Mean duration of illness (months) (14.9 +/- 5.8 versus 28.5 +/- 16.5; p=0.040) were significantly less among the jewellery polishing workers compared to other workers. At the end of the study period, all eight jewellery polishing workers with silicosis had died while four of the 11 patients with other occupational exposure had died.
CONCLUSION:
Silicosis among jewellery polishing workers was found to be more severe and progressive compared to silicosis due to other occupational exposures, in our study.
BibTeX:
@article{PanchadhyayeeP2015,
  author = {Panchadhyayee P, Saha K, Saha I, Ta RK, Ghosh S, Saha A, Barma P, Mitra M.},
  title = {Rapidly Fatal Silicosis Among Jewellery Workers Attending a District Medical College of West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {57(3)},
  pages = {165-71}
}
Prasad R, Goel N, Gupta P, Viswesvaran B, Singh A Ischaemic Cavitation in Conglomerate Silicosis. 2015 Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci.
Vol. 57(4), pp. 233-4 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{PrasadR2015,
  author = {Prasad R, Goel N, Gupta P, Viswesvaran B, Singh A.},
  title = {Ischaemic Cavitation in Conglomerate Silicosis.},
  journal = {Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {57(4)},
  pages = {233-4}
}
Sivabalasubramaniam G, Sagili H, Dasari P, Gowda M Burst abdomen: an unusual complication of silicosis in pregnancy. 2015 BMJ Case Rep.  article DOI  
Abstract: We present a case of silicosis in a 37-year-old pregnant woman, a second gravida with previous caesarean section. She was referred to our hospital at 42 weeks of gestation with breathlessness and oligohydramnios. She had worked in a glass and talc powder factory for 11 years and was diagnosed as having silicosis 2 years prior; she was on treatment. Following admission, she was evaluated for dyspnoea and underwent emergency Caesarean section for poor cervical dilation. She developed a burst abdomen on the third postoperative day with loops of gangrenous bowel protruding outside the abdomen. Emergency laparotomy with ileal resection and ileostomy was carried out. She was discharged on day 14 and is on follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of silicosis in pregnancy presenting with an unusual complication.
BibTeX:
@article{SivabalasubramaniamG2015,
  author = {Sivabalasubramaniam G, Sagili H, Dasari P, Gowda M},
  title = {Burst abdomen: an unusual complication of silicosis in pregnancy.},
  journal = {BMJ Case Rep.},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2014-207132}
}
Spalgais S, Gothi D, Jaiswal A, Gupta K Nonoccupational anthracofibrosis/anthracosilicosis from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India: A case series. 2015 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 19(3), pp. 159-66 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Nonoccupational anthracosis and silicosis has been reported from various parts of the world including Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India; however, anthracosilicosis has only been reported in industrial workers till date.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Six cases from the Ladakh region in Jammu and Kashmir, India with similar clinico-radiological-pathological features, i.e., anthracosilicosis/anthracofibrosis have been analyzed. Of these, four were analyzed retrospectively and two prospectively.
RESULT:
All the patients were homemakers and resided in Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India since birth with an age range of 42-62 years and an average age of 56 years. Their average duration of symptoms was 4 years. Spirometry showed small and/or large airway disease in 5/6 cases. On computed tomography (CT), 4/6 cases showed progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) with calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. There were random or centrilobular nodules in all the six cases. Bronchoscopy in 5/6 cases showed multiple anthracotic pigments with narrowing and distortion of the bronchus (anthracofibrosis). Malignancy was suspected clinico-radiologically in four cases and pathologically in two cases. On histopathology, anthracosis was demonstrated in all and silicosis in three cases.
CONCLUSION:
Anthracosilicosis can occur due to environmental exposure. Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India is the only place across the globe with unique environmental features having the presence of both free silica and biomass fuel. The disease was observed predominantly in older women. Awareness would prevent unnecessary investigation for malignancy. Treatment with the bronchodilator is useful as it has evidence of airway disease. Finally, environmental measures and a proper study need to be undertaken for knowing the relative role of silica versus soot in causing the lung disease and preventing this irreversible condition.
BibTeX:
@article{SpalgaisS2015,
  author = {Spalgais S, Gothi D, Jaiswal A, Gupta K},
  title = {Nonoccupational anthracofibrosis/anthracosilicosis from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India: A case series.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {19(3)},
  pages = {159-66},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.173995}
}
Murlidhar V An 11-year-old boy with silico-tuberculosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in central India. 2015 BMJ Case Rep.  article DOI  
Abstract: Silicosis from secondary exposure is not often reported. This is the first such report of a child with possible silicosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in India. Silicosis from secondary exposure has been reported in the gem polishing and slate pencil manufacturing industries in India; however, the stone-mining industry is severely under-researched. No preventive measures have been instituted in the stone-mining industry and children are exposed to respirable silica dust when their mothers take them to their work places. Poverty and lack of accessibility to modern medical facilities promote malnutrition and tuberculosis, two known co-morbid conditions. Stone mining, an export-oriented industry, produces billions of dollars of foreign currency every year. Although there is legislation to protect workers from exploitation, employers disregard the law and the state turns a blind eye by not implementing proper enforcement mechanisms. Silicosis from environmental exposure affects the entire community that lives in stone-mining areas.
BibTeX:
@article{V2015,
  author = {Murlidhar V},
  title = {An 11-year-old boy with silico-tuberculosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in central India.},
  journal = {BMJ Case Rep.},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2015-209315}
}
Aggarwal BD Lactate dehydrogenase as a biomarker for silica exposure-induced toxicity in agate workers. 2014 Occup Environ Med
Vol. 71(8), pp. 578-82 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
Agate workers are chronically exposed to silica dust generated from agate grinding, which makes them susceptible to silicosis. In the absence of diagnosis at an early stage, the workers continue to be exposed to silica dust until the development of silicosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in blood samples of silica-exposed agate workers as a non-invasive way to measure silica-induced toxicity.
METHODS:
Blood samples were collected from agate workers and control subjects. Total LDH activity was measured in the blood plasma and blood cells of agate workers and non-exposed (control) subjects using sodium pyruvate as a substrate. The reduction of pyruvate to L-lactate with the concurrent oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) during the assay was monitored by change in absorbance (or optical density (OD)) at 340 nm at the fixed interval of 10 min. The ratio of LDH activity (blood plasma/blood cells) in the blood samples was calculated as a measure to detect cytotoxicity in exposed workers.
RESULTS:
The LDH activity in blood plasma samples of exposed workers was found to increase about 25 times, while the activity in the blood cells of silica-exposed agate workers was reduced to 10% of control subjects. The ratio of LDH activity (blood plasma/cells) was found to be 6.6 in the silica-exposed agate workers, while it was 0.02 in control (non-exposed) subjects.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study proposes that total LDH activity and the LDH ratio (plasma/cells), along with occupational exposure history, are markers for silica exposure-induced toxicity in agate workers.
BibTeX:
@article{BD.2014,
  author = {Aggarwal BD.},
  title = {Lactate dehydrogenase as a biomarker for silica exposure-induced toxicity in agate workers.},
  journal = {Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {71(8)},
  pages = {578-82},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2014-102190}
}
Khanna A, Suri JC, Ray A, Sharma RK Silica associated mixed connective tissue disorder in a stone crusher. 2013 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 17(2), pp. 76-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Silica exposure has been implicated with the development of various connective tissue diseases. We report a case of 32-year-old stone crusher who developed silicosis with mixed connective tissue disorder (MCTD) 6 years after exposure to silica. This association of silicosis with MCTD has never been reported from the Indian subcontinent, although the problem of this pneumoconiosis remains rampant. This rare association urges us to report this case.
BibTeX:
@article{KhannaA2013,
  author = {Khanna A, Suri JC, Ray A, Sharma RK},
  title = {Silica associated mixed connective tissue disorder in a stone crusher.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {17(2)},
  pages = {76-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.123172}
}
Sharma SK, Sharma A, Kadhiravan T, Tharyan P Rifamycins (rifampicin, rifabutin and rifapentine) compared to isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-negative people at risk of active TB. 2013 Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Preventing active tuberculosis (TB) from developing in people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is important for global TB control. Isoniazid (INH) for six to nine months has 60% to 90% protective efficacy, but the treatment period is long, liver toxicity is a problem, and completion rates outside trials are only around 50%. Rifampicin or rifamycin-combination treatments are shorter and may result in higher completion rates.
OBJECTIVES:
To compare the effects of rifampicin monotherapy or rifamycin-combination therapy versus INH monotherapy for preventing active TB in HIV-negative people at risk of developing active TB.
SEARCH METHODS:
We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; clinical trials registries; regional databases; conference proceedings; and references, without language restrictions to December 2012; and contacted experts for relevant published, unpublished and ongoing trials.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of HIV-negative adults and children at risk of active TB treated with rifampicin, or rifamycin-combination therapy with or without INH (any dose or duration), compared with INH for six to nine months.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
At least two authors independently screened and selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We sought clarifications from trial authors. We pooled relative risks (RRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using a random-effects model if heterogeneity was significant. We assessed overall evidence quality using the GRADE approach.
MAIN RESULTS:
Ten trials are included, enrolling 10,717 adults and children, mostly HIV-negative (2% HIV-positive), with a follow-up period ranging from two to five years. Rifampicin (three/four months) vs. INH (six months)Five trials published between 1992 to 2012 compared these regimens, and one small 1992 trial in adults with silicosis did not detect a difference in the occurrence of TB over five years of follow up (one trial, 312 participants; very low quality evidence). However, more people in these trials completed the shorter course (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.30; five trials, 1768 participants; moderate quality evidence). Treatment-limiting adverse events were not significantly different (four trials, 1674 participants; very low quality evidence), but rifampicin caused less hepatotoxicity (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.30; four trials, 1674 participants; moderate quality evidence). Rifampicin plus INH (three months) vs. INH (six months)The 1992 silicosis trial did not detect a difference between people receiving rifampicin plus INH compared to INH alone for occurrence of active TB (one trial, 328 participants; very low quality evidence). Adherence was similar in this and a 1998 trial in people without silicosis (two trials, 524 participants; high quality evidence). No difference was detected for treatment-limiting adverse events (two trials, 536 participants; low quality evidence), or hepatotoxicity (two trials, 536 participants; low quality evidence). Rifampicin plus pyrazinamide (two months) vs. INH (six months)Three small trials published in 1994, 2003, and 2005 compared these two regimens, and two reported a low occurrence of active TB, with no statistically significant differences between treatment regimens (two trials, 176 participants; very low quality evidence) though, apart from one child from the 1994 trial, these data on active TB were from the 2003 trial in adults with silicosis. Adherence with both regimens was low with no statistically significant differences (four trials, 700 participants; very low quality evidence). However, people receiving rifampicin plus pyrazinamide had more treatment-limiting adverse events (RR 3.61, 95% CI 1.82 to 7.19; two trials, 368 participants; high quality evidence), and hepatotoxicity (RR 4.59, 95% 2.14 to 9.85; three trials, 540 participants; moderate quality evidence). Weekly, directly-observed rifapentine plus INH (three months) vs. daily, self-administered INH (nine months)A large trial conducted from 2001 to 2008 among close contacts of TB in the USA, Canada, Brazil and Spain found directly observed weekly treatment to be non-inferior to nine months self-administered INH for the incidence of active TB (0.2% vs 0.4%, RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.07, one trial, 7731 participants; moderate quality evidence). The directly-observed, shorter regimen had higher treatment completion (82% vs 69%, RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.22, moderate quality evidence), and less hepatotoxicity (0.4% versus 2.4%; RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.27; high quality evidence), though treatment-limiting adverse events were more frequent (4.9% versus 3.7%; RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.64 moderate quality evidence)
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaSK2013,
  author = {Sharma SK, Sharma A, Kadhiravan T, Tharyan P},
  title = {Rifamycins (rifampicin, rifabutin and rifapentine) compared to isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-negative people at risk of active TB.},
  journal = {Cochrane Database Syst Rev.},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007545}
}
Sivanmani K, Rajathinakar V Silicosis in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu: A passive surveillance study. 2013 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 17(1), pp. 25-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
SILICOSIS IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT OF TAMIL NADU: A passive surveillance study.
AIM:
This study was done to describe the level of preventive measures and level of awareness among the patients diagnosed with silicosis during a one-year period.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
Coimbatore Medical College Hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This is a passive surveillance study based on patients diagnosed with silicosis in our outpatient facility for a one-year period between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012.
RESULTS:
Seventeen cases of silicosis were diagnosed based on history of exposure to silica and radiological features. The mean age was 55 years with 16 males and one female. The average duration of exposure was 22 years. A protective mask was used by 29% of the patients and one patient had awareness about the risks of exposure to silica. Active tuberculosis was found in 12% and old tuberculosis in 47% of patients; 59% of the patients were smokers. Spirometry showed a restrictive pattern in 59% of the patients. Radiologically nodular opacities with upper-zone predominance was found in majority of the cases.
CONCLUSION:
Most patients are exposed to silica in unorganized industries. Majority of the patients lack awareness about the disease and there is a low implementation of preventive and control measures. As this study was a passive surveillance, it represents only the tip of iceberg and an active field-level surveillance could reveal the true prevalence of this disease.
BibTeX:
@article{SivanmaniK2013,
  author = {Sivanmani K, Rajathinakar V},
  title = {Silicosis in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu: A passive surveillance study.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {17(1)},
  pages = {25-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.116370}
}
Srivastava GN, Prasad R, Meena M, Hussain M Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax 2014 BMJ Case Rep  article DOI  
Abstract: We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaGN2014,
  author = {Srivastava GN, Prasad R, Meena M, Hussain M},
  title = {Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax},
  journal = {BMJ Case Rep},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-200089}
}
Ahmad I.: Khan, M.P.G.&.C.L. Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses of micro- and nano-particles of granite on human lung fibroblast cell IMR-90 2012 Toxicol Lett
Vol. 208(3), pp. 300-7 
article
Abstract: Occupational exposure of granite workers is well known to cause lung impairment and silicosis. Toxicological profiles of different size particles of granite dust, however, are not yet understood. Present evaluation of micro- and nano-particles of granite dust as on human lung fibroblast cells IMR-90, revealed that their toxic effects were dose-dependent, and nanoparticles in general were more toxic. In this study we first demonstrated that nanoparticles caused oxidative stress, inflammatory response and genotoxicity, as seen by nearly 2 fold induction of ROS and LPO, mRNA levels of TNF-a and IL-1?, and induction in micronuclei formation. All these were significantly higher when compared with the effect of micro particles. Thus, the study suggests that separate health safety standards would be required for granite particles of different sizes.
BibTeX:
@article{AhmadI2012,
  author = {Ahmad, I.: Khan, M.I.: Patil, G. & Chauhan, L.K.S.},
  title = {Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses of micro- and nano-particles of granite on human lung fibroblast cell IMR-90},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {208(3)},
  pages = {300-7}
}
Athavale A: Iyer, A.S.D.S.K.R.A.&.K.N. Incidence of silicosis in flourmill workers 2011 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 15(3), pp. 104-8 
article
Abstract: Context: Studies have revealed high morbidity and mortality among agate stone workers of Shakarpur due to silicosis. Besides the fatal disease, the workers also suffer from debilitating co-morbidities especially tuberculosis and under nutrition.

Aims: The present study describes few co-morbidities and their influence in mortality in cases of silicosis that were followed for 30 months at Shakarpur.

Settings and Design: Shakarpur, Khambhat of Gujarat.

Materials and Methods: Spirometry for lung function, chest X-ray, anthropometry, body fat % measurement, record of tuberculosis status and ILO classification of pneumoconiosis were done among 53 chest symptomatic patients above 15 years of age who were followed for 30 months.

Results: Out of 53 participants (35 men), with an average duration of exposure to free silica of 16.8 years, more than half of the male workers were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) at enrollment. Thirteen participants died in less than 3 years of follow up. While 11 of them were silicosis positive out of which 10 had tuberculosis. The odds ratio for association between silicosis and tuberculosis was 2.75. A majority (81.1%) of the 37 silicosis positive cases showed a mixed pattern in spirometry suggesting co-existence of restrictive and obstructive pathology. On regression analysis, TB and nutritional status were found to have strong influence on mortality.

Conclusion: Screening for early diagnosis of silicosis as well as co-morbid conditions and managing them would go a long way in prolonging the lives of the agate stone workers who are prone to die early due to silicosis.

BibTeX:
@article{AthavaleA2011,
  author = {Athavale, A: Iyer, A: Sahoo, D.: Salgia, K.: Raut, A. & Kanodra, N.},
  title = {Incidence of silicosis in flourmill workers},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15(3)},
  pages = {104-8}
}
Bhagia, L. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust in vicinity of slate pencil industry, India 2009 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 151(1-4), pp. 477-82 
article
Abstract: Non-occupational exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) in vicinity of slate pencil industry is reported. Ambient silica monitoring was carried out at two locations in the vicinity of slate pencil industry and one control site 5 kilometers away from slate pencil industry using PM-10 high volume samplers. Quartz content was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) from vertically elutriated dust samples collected simultaneously at all locations. It was found that average quartz concentrations in the vicinity of slate pencil industry and control site were 41.07-57.22 and 3.51 microg/m(3), respectively. Results were compared with derived ambient air quality standard for silica based on findings reported by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
BibTeX:
@article{LJ2009,
  author = {Bhagia, L.J.},
  title = {Non-occupational exposure to silica dust in vicinity of slate pencil industry, India},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {151(1-4)},
  pages = {477-82}
}
Bhagia, L. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust in vicinity of slate pencil industry, India 2008 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 151,(1-4), pp. 477-482 
article
Abstract: Non-occupational exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) in vicinity of slate pencil industry is reported. Ambient silica monitoring was carried out at two locations in the vicinity of slate pencil industry and one control site 5 kilometers away from slate pencil industry using PM-10 high volume samplers. Quartz content was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) from vertically elutriated dust samples collected simultaneously at all locations. It was found that average quartz concentrations in the vicinity of slate pencil industry and control site were 41.07?57.22 and 3.51 ?g/m3, respectively. Results were compared with derived ambient air quality standard for silica based on findings reported by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
BibTeX:
@article{LJ2008,
  author = {Bhagia, L.J.},
  title = {Non-occupational exposure to silica dust in vicinity of slate pencil industry, India},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {151,(1-4)},
  pages = {477-482}
}
Bhagia L.J.: Sadhu, H.&.S.H. Prevention and control of silicosis? Experience in agate industry 2005 Asian-Pacific News Letter on Occup. Health and Safety
Vol. 12 (3), pp. 71-74 
article
Abstract: The Indian agate industry is principally a cottage industry situated in the state of Gujarat, employing around 15,000 workers. Airborne silica dust is generated during the grinding process, pervading the work environment and adjacent areas, often situated within living premises. Silicosis is prevalent within this industry, affecting 38% of the workers. Among workers showing radiological evidence of silicosis, 60% had worked for less than 10 years. This article discusses some of the key steps for the prevention and control of silicosis in this industry, including local exhaust and encouraging workers to adopt improved working methods.
BibTeX:
@article{Bhagia2005,
  author = {Bhagia, L.J.: Sadhu, H.G. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Prevention and control of silicosis? Experience in agate industry},
  journal = {Asian-Pacific News Letter on Occup. Health and Safety},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {12 (3)},
  pages = {71-74}
}
Bhagia L.J.: Tiwari, R.S.Y.&.S.H. Silicosis and its control in small-scale silica mills in India 2007 WHO HOHNET, pp. 12  article
BibTeX:
@article{Bhagia2007,
  author = {Bhagia, L.J.: Tiwari, R.R.: Sharma, Y.K. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Silicosis and its control in small-scale silica mills in India},
  journal = {WHO HOHNET},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {12}
}
Bhagia L.J. & Sadhu, H. Cost-benefit analysis of installing dust control devices in the agate industry, Khambhat (Gujarat) 2008 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 12(3), pp. 128-131 
article
Abstract: It is well known that an exposure to crystalline silica gives rise to silicosis and silico-tuberculosis (TB). In the agate industry of Khambhat (Gujarat) not only workers but also people staying in the vicinity of the agate-grinding facilities are exposed to crystalline silica. To reduce their dust exposure, dust control devices were developed. There are approximately 500 grinding machines located in Khambhat. A cost-benefit analysis of installing dust control devices on all agate-grinding machines was carried out by adding all positive factors and benefits and subtracting the negatives and costs. It was concluded that by installing dust control devices not only could the prevalence of silicosis and TB be reduced but also, in the long run, there could be financial benefits.
BibTeX:
@article{LJ2008a,
  author = {Bhagia, L.J. & Sadhu, H.G},
  title = {Cost-benefit analysis of installing dust control devices in the agate industry, Khambhat (Gujarat)},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {12(3)},
  pages = {128-131}
}
Chandra S.: Mohan, A.G.R.D.P.&.S.C. Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis 2009 BMJ Case Rep  article
Abstract: A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities ("sandstorm-like") in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with "crazy paving" appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandraS2009,
  author = {Chandra, S.: Mohan, A.: Guleria, R.: Das, P. & Sarkar, C.},
  title = {Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis},
  journal = {BMJ Case Rep},
  year = {2009}
}
Chaudhury N.: Paliwal, R.&.P.A. Co-morbidities among silicotics at Shakarpur: A follow up study 2012 Lung India
Vol. 29(1), pp. 6-10 
article
Abstract: Background: Silicosis is an ancient occupational illness reported in silica mill workers, agate stone workers, slate pen workers and mining industry. However its association in flour mill workers has not been established.

Aims: To study the incidence of silicosis and respiratory morbidity in flour mill workers.

Settings and Design: A prospective study of 56 flour mill workers working with open silica grinding stones was undertaken.

Materials and Methods: 56 flour mill workers who volunteered following information regarding the study purpose were recruited from the community. Detailed clinical and occupational history, lung functions, chest x-ray, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were done. Diagnosis was made on the basis of radiological findings.
Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was done with the help of the statistical package for social sciences software. The Chi-square test was used for determining the relationship between qualitative data and descriptive statistics was used where required.

Results: 93% had respiratory symptoms that included cough (66.1%), dyspnea (75%), chest pain (17.1%), and rhinorrhea (46.4%). Radiological abnormalities were noted in chest X-ray (60.7%) and HRCT (81.48%). A significant correlation was seen between duration of exposure and HRCT abnormalities. Lung functions revealed obstruction in 28.5% subjects, restriction in 19%, mixed ventilatory defects in 21.4%, while 18.9% had a reduced diffusion capacity.

Conclusion: Incidence of silicosis in our study on flour mill workers working with silica containing grinding stones was 30.4%. They had high respiratory morbidity (93%) cough and dyspnea being predominant symptoms. Duration of exposure correlates with radiological findings and increased incidence of silicosis.

BibTeX:
@article{ChaudhuryN2012,
  author = {Chaudhury, N.: Paliwal, R. & Phatak, A.},
  title = {Co-morbidities among silicotics at Shakarpur: A follow up study},
  journal = {Lung India},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {29(1)},
  pages = {6-10}
}
Chaudhury N.: Phatak, A.P.R.&.R.C. Silicosis among agate workers at Shakarpur: An analysis of clinic-based data 2010 Lung India
Vol. 27, pp. 221-4 
article
Abstract: Background: There is a high prevalence of silicosis and other morbid conditions leading to early death among agate workers at Khambhat of Gujarat.

Aims: The present study describes the prevalence of X-ray positive silicosis in a sample of a high-risk group visiting a clinic at Shakarpur of Khambhat. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study among 123 clinically suspected cases was conducted over 6 months.

Materials and Methods: A chest physician and a radiologist independently evaluated the Chest X-rays of 123 clinically suspected patients of silicosis. Silicosis was confirmed if either of them rated the X-ray as positive.

Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were done using SPSS software version 14.

Results: Out of 123 cases, 85 (69.1%) were confirmed as silicosis. There was no significant difference in the prevalence between males (70.3%) and females (69.4%). Workers with more than 10 years of exposure to silica had an odd ratio of 4.8, 95% CI (1.76, 13.60) compared to those with less than 10 years of exposure. A logistic regression analysis showed that for every extra year of exposure, the odds of getting silicosis increased by about 12%.

Conclusions: This study highlights the catastrophic effects of exposures to silica in agate worker, which calls for urgent protective measures for this population.

BibTeX:
@article{ChaudhuryN2010,
  author = {Chaudhury, N.: Phatak, A.: Paliwal, R. & Raichaudhari, C.},
  title = {Silicosis among agate workers at Shakarpur: An analysis of clinic-based data},
  journal = {Lung India},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {221-4}
}
Dixit R. & Dave, L. Pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema in a silico tuberculosis patient 2007 Lung India
Vol. 24(3), pp. 102-104 
article
Abstract: The present communication describes a case of pulmonary tuberculosis with silico?sis that developed pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema following anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Possible mechanism of such complication and its clinical significance are also described
BibTeX:
@article{R2007,
  author = {Dixit, R. & Dave, L.},
  title = {Pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema in a silico tuberculosis patient},
  journal = {Lung India},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {24(3)},
  pages = {102-104}
}
Dubey, R. Unheard voices of silicosis affected people in Lalkuan, Delhi 2001 Collective initiatives
Vol. 2(2), pp. 14-18 
article
Abstract: This article presents the results of a survey conducted in a suburb of New Delhi (India), where an important stone-crushing activity had taken place for over 40 years. The purpose was to identify persons who were affected by silicosis or silico-tuberculosis. 146 persons were interviewed, of whom 83 were suspected to be affected on the basis of their symptoms and occupational history. Information was also collected from families of persons who had died from these affections. It is hoped that the survey will give rise to increased awareness of silicosis as an occupational disease.
BibTeX:
@article{Dubey2001,
  author = {Dubey, R.K.},
  title = {Unheard voices of silicosis affected people in Lalkuan, Delhi},
  journal = {Collective initiatives},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {2(2)},
  pages = {14-18}
}
Fotedar S.: Chaudhary, D.S.V.&.N.R. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax 2010 Lung India
Vol. 27, pp. 173-5 
article
Abstract: Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.
BibTeX:
@article{FotedarS2010,
  author = {Fotedar, S.: Chaudhary, D.: Singhla, V. & Narang, R.},
  title = {Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax},
  journal = {Lung India},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {173-5}
}
Gupta K.B.: Manchanda, M.&.K.P. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis 2006 Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
Vol. 48(3), pp. 201-3 
article
Abstract: Occurrence of pneumothorax in silicosis is rare and when it occurs, pneumothorax is usually unilateral. We report here a patient with accelerated silicosis who presented with bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces occurring simultaneously. The rarity of its clinical presentation in the form of bilateral simultaneous spontaneous pneumothorax combined with the typical clinical and radiological features of accelerated silicosis with tuberculosis make us to report this case.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaKB2006,
  author = {Gupta, K.B.: Manchanda, M. & Kaur, P.},
  title = {Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis},
  journal = {Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {48(3)},
  pages = {201-3}
}
Gupta P.: Chaswal, M.&.S.S. Ventilatory functions in stone quarry workers of Rajasthan 1999 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol
Vol. 43(4), pp. 496-500 
article
Abstract: Ninety two stone quarry workers from nearby villages of Jodhpur town were, assessed for their lung functions which included measurement of Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in Ist second (FEV1), and Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). A detailed questionnaire was administered to all the workers, who were divided into group I (cutting the stone) and group II (loading and unloading the stone) depending on the nature of their Job. The presenting complaints included cough with sputum (55%), chest pain (79%), bodyache (31%) and 21% gave the history as suffering from tuberculosis. Comparison of the lung function results between two groups indicated a significant decrement of FEV1 and PEFR in group II as compared to group I workers. The observed lung functions were also found to be lower on comparison with the normative data from Rajasthan. However, no difference in observed lung function results of smokers and nonsmokers were obtained. Thus the reported lower values of lung functions independent of smoking habits, may be due to occupational stone dust exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{Gupta1999,
  author = {Gupta, P.: Chaswal, M. & Saxena, S.},
  title = {Ventilatory functions in stone quarry workers of Rajasthan},
  journal = {Indian J Physiol Pharmacol},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {43(4)},
  pages = {496-500}
}
Iqbal A.: Khan, M.P.G.&.C.L. Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses of micro- and nano-particles of granite on human lung fibroblast cell IMR-90 2011 Toxicology Letters  article
Abstract: Occupational exposure of granite workers is well known to cause lung impairment and silicosis. Toxicological profiles of different size particles of granite dust, however, are not yet understood. Present evaluation of micro- and nano-particles of granite dust as on human lung fibroblast cells IMR-90, revealed that their toxic effects were dose-dependent, and nanoparticles in general were more toxic. In this study we first demonstrated that nanoparticles caused oxidative stress, inflammatory response and genotoxicity, as seen by nearly 2 fold induction of ROS and LPO, mRNA levels of TNF-? and IL-1?, and induction in micronuclei formation. All these were significantly higher when compared with the effect of micro particles. Thus, the study suggests that separate health safety standards would be required for granite particles of different sizes.
BibTeX:
@article{IqbalA2011,
  author = {Iqbal, A.: Khan, M.I.: Patil, G & Chauhan, L.K.S.},
  title = {Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses of micro- and nano-particles of granite on human lung fibroblast cell IMR-90},
  journal = {Toxicology Letters},
  year = {2011}
}
Jaitli H. & Kumar, A. Dusty dawn-Dust at workplace and workers' nightmares 1996 , pp. 130p  article
Abstract: Dust-related respiratory disorders are among the major causes of disability and death among Indian workers. This document presents a collection of articles on dust-related health problems in India. Topics covered: occupational safety, health and workers' awareness; environmental pollution; dust and occupational diseases in India; toxicants in the environment; lung function in rubber factories; epidemiology of air pollution; steel manufacturing industry; spinning and dyeing industry; sponge iron manufacturing industry; iron ore mining in Goa; cement manufacturing industry; bronchial contamination with toxic metals in mineral-based industries; lung function status of workers exposed to coke dust.
BibTeX:
@article{Jaitli1996,
  author = {Jaitli, H. & Kumar, A.},
  title = {Dusty dawn-Dust at workplace and workers' nightmares},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {130p}
}
Jindal S.K.: Aggarwal, A.&.G.D. Dust-induced interstitial lung disease in the tropics 2001 Curr Opin Pulm Med
Vol. 7(5), pp. 272-7 
article
Abstract: Inhalation of dusts is an important cause of interstitial lung disease in the tropical countries such as India. While dusts of organic origin, such as the cotton dust causing byssinosis, generally cause bronchial or bronchiolar involvement and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, inorganic metallic dusts cause progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, and asbestosis are the three most commonly recognized forms of pneumoconiotic pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis is an important complication seen in up to 50% of patients of silicosis in some reports from India. The presentation is generally chronic, although acute and accelerated forms of silicosis are known when the exposures are heavy. Breathlessness, dry cough, and general constitutional symptoms are commonly seen. Patients with silicotuberculosis or other forms of infection may also have significant expectoration, hemoptysis, fever, and rapid progression. Respiratory failure and chronic cor pulmonale occur in the later stages. The diagnosis is easily established if the occupational history is available. Dense nodular opacities on chest roentgenograms, which may be large in patients with massive pulmonary fibrosis, are characteristic. Emphysematous changes generally appear in advanced stages or in patients who smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung biopsy may occasionally be required to establish or exclude other causes of interstitial lung disease. Treatment is largely palliative, although a variety of drugs including corticosteroids and procedures such as whole lung lavage have been tried. None of these methods has yet been found successful in the treatment. Preventive safety steps, including removal of the patient from the site of exposure, are the only effective strategies to control disease progression
BibTeX:
@article{Jindal2001,
  author = {Jindal, S.K.: Aggarwal, A.N. & Gupta, D.},
  title = {Dust-induced interstitial lung disease in the tropics},
  journal = {Curr Opin Pulm Med},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {7(5)},
  pages = {272-7}
}
Joshi, J. Complicated silicosis in teflon-coated utensil making industry 2011 J Assoc Physicians India
Vol. 59, pp. 438 
article
BibTeX:
@article{JM2011,
  author = {Joshi, J.M.},
  title = {Complicated silicosis in teflon-coated utensil making industry},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {438}
}
Kortum, E. Elimination of silicosis 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) ed
GOHNET Newsletter
Vol. 12, pp. 1-20 
article
Abstract: Silicosis is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of crystalline silica dust. It causes inflammation and scarring of the upper lobes of the lungs. It is characterized by shortness of breath, fever and cyanosis (bluish skin). Contents of this issue on the elimination of silicosis: ILO/WHO global programme for the elimination of silicosis; preventing exposure to dust; other silica-related diseases, including chronic obstructive bronchitis; silicosis prevention programmes in Chile, the USA, India and Brazil.
BibTeX:
@article{KortumE2007,
  author = {Kortum, E.},
  title = {Elimination of silicosis},
  journal = {World Health Organization (WHO) ed 
GOHNET Newsletter}, year = {2007}, volume = {12}, pages = {1-20} }
Kulkarni, G. Prevention and control of silicosis: A national challenge 2007 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 11, pp. 95-6 
article
BibTeX:
@article{GK2007,
  author = {Kulkarni, G.K.},
  title = {Prevention and control of silicosis: A national challenge},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {95-6}
}
Kumari S.: Kumar, R.M.K.P.J.U.G.&.B.A. Determination of Quartz and Its Abundance in Respirable Airborne Dust in Both Coal and Metal Mines in India 2011 Procedia Engineering
Vol. 26, pp. 1810-1819 
article
Abstract: The WHO/ILO international program (1995) on the global elimination of silicosis, aiming inter alia at characterization of dust and its sources, monitoring and evaluation of the results for health risk, has put a premium on the determination of quartz in respirable air borne dust, which is known to cause irreversible lung diseases, such as silicosis and cancer. The work presented herein is a study of the quartz content in airborne respirable dust (ARD) generated in coal and metal mines (zinc and manganese) with a view to evaluate the health risk of miners as per mines regulations. Implementation of safety measures to reduce/eliminate risk to contract silicosis in any mine requires monitoring of the emission of quartz in various locations in addition to the ARD concentration for computation of Maximum Exposure Limit (MEL).

The direct on-filter method using an FTIR spectrometer has been adopted for the determination of quartz in ARD. Personal air samplers were used to collect ARD from different locations in mines on GLA-5000 PVC membrane filters. The air samplers were either attached with different workers engaged in the shift or placed in a position near to the dust generation source in the mines to collect suitable amount of dust for analysis. Each dust-loaded filter was then directly scanned by the spectrometer to give the spectrum of quartz, from which the proportion of quartz in the dust was determined from an estimation of the intensity of the doublet at 800 cm-1 using standard procedure.

It has been found that the percentage of quartz in ARD of coal mines, especially in coking coal mines situated in Jharia coalfield, is less than 1% in almost all the workings, barring a few cases where it has exceeded this value. MEL for workers is, therefore, equal to 3 mg/m3 in almost all the working places sampled in coal mines. In contrast, for metal mines the situation is different. Quartz determined in ARD exceeds 5% in many workings. Further, the percentage of quartz is also found to vary from location to location inside the mine, which is a reflection of the compositional variation of the rock strata in different working zones of the mines. Monitoring of the emission of quartz is essential for identifying potentially dangerous silicosis-prone areas and working out strategies to mitigate health-related problems of the miners. It has been found that wet drilling and good ventilation systems help to effectively control dust problems at some locations, whereas rotation of workers may be needed in some places where it is difficult to suppress dust to a safe level.

BibTeX:
@article{KumariS2011,
  author = {Kumari, S.: Kumar, R.: Mishra, K.K.: Pandey, J.K.: Udayabhanu, G.N. & Bandopadhyay, A.K.},
  title = {Determination of Quartz and Its Abundance in Respirable Airborne Dust in Both Coal and Metal Mines in India},
  journal = {Procedia Engineering},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {1810-1819}
}
Mandal, A. Strategies and policies deteriorate occupational health situation in India: A review based on social determinant framework 2009 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 13(3), pp. 113-120 
article
Abstract: Overwhelming evidence shows that hazardous work, working conditions, and environment fail to maintain homeostasis results in death or severe disability. Up to the 1980s, governments did not pay major attention to occupational health in developing countries, including India. The Bhopal Gas Tragedy, in 1984, was the turning point in the history of health and safety in India. It was time for the government to think deeply and review the existing legislative measures, for the upliftment of the occupational health situation in India. However, all the services remain grossly underutilized because of inadequate strategies, policies, and the lack of a proper monitoring mechanism, for occupational workers. The present study reviews the fact that Inaction or Destruction of Demands, Use of Power, Appeal to the existing bias of the system, and Exportation and Flexibility of the workers are some of the main reasons for the alarming situation of the Occupational Health Policy (OHP) in India. The existing and traditional condition of the laborers before and after independence is also highlighted in this article. Finally the threats are identified and options are provided to improve the health conditions of the workers.
BibTeX:
@article{AK2009,
  author = {Mandal, A.K.},
  title = {Strategies and policies deteriorate occupational health situation in India: A review based on social determinant framework},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {13(3)},
  pages = {113-120}
}
Mathur, M. Pattern and predictors of mortality in sandstone quarry workers 2005 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 9(2) 
article
Abstract: Study of silicosis was conducted in 1992-1994, which included a sample of 458 sandstone quarry workers of Jodhpur. To find out the pattern and predictors of mortality among sandstone quarry workers. Houses of all workers were visited and the worker's status was recorded. Standardized mortality ratio (for all causes of death) was calculated. Cox proportional hazard model was applied to study the association of different variables with mortality. Total 97.8% workers could be followed, of whom, 10.9% had died (SMR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.23 - 2.19). The average age at the time of death of the deceased was 51.8 ? 12.5 years. Mortality was higher among silicotics (SMR = 2.54; 95% CI 1.43 - 3.66), smokers (SMR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.27 - 2.39), and those showing mixed abnormality in pulmonary function test (SMR = 2.73; 95% CI 1.24 - 4.21). In multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, restriction in spirometery (HR = 13.95; 95% CI 9.14 - 21.29), longer duration (> 15 years) of working in quarries (HR = 7.29; 95% CI 5.19 - 10.24), chronic dyspnoea (HR = 6.48; 95% CI 4.70 - 8.95), silicosis (HR = 6.03; 95% CI 4.85 - 7.51), BMI < 1.75 (HR = 3.50; 95% CI 2.78 - 4.41), and chronic chest pain (HR = 3.28; 95% CI 2.51 - 4.28) emerged as significant predictors of all cause mortality. It can be concluded that sandstone quarry workers died at a younger age. In absence of certified cause of death, these predictors suggest that silicosis, COPD, lung cancer, and tuberculosis might be underlying causes of higher mortality. This study underlines the need for adopting measures among workers for the prevention from exposure to fine dust.
BibTeX:
@article{ML,
  author = {Mathur, M.L.},
  title = {Pattern and predictors of mortality in sandstone quarry workers},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {9(2)}
}
Mathur, M. Silicosis among sand stone quarry workers of a desert district: Jodhpur 1996 Annals of the Nat Acad Med Sci(India)
Vol. 32(2), pp. 113-8 
article
Abstract: Four hundred sixteen sand stone quarry workers of Jodhpur district were screened for prevalence of silicosis and pulmonary tuberculosis to estimate magnitude of the problem in this region. Their chest radiographs were taken at 300 mA and were read according to international classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses, 1980. Concentration of total and respirable dust in quarries was measured. Chronic symptoms persistent for six or more months were cough (49.5 percent), expectoration (42.1 percent), dyspnoea (41.1 percent) and pain chest (24.8 percent). Radiological opacities suggestive of silicosis were seen in 9.9 percent radiographs, and radiological signs of pulmonary tuberculosis were seen in 15.6 percent radiographs. Prevalence of both conditions increased with duration of work. Examination of sputum smear of subjects with symptoms of tuberculosis revealed 3.6 percent prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed cases of tuberculosis. Minimum concentration of respirable quartz was 8893 micron/m to the power of 3 in airsamples collected from breathing zone of quarry workers, while W.H.O. suggests a safe upper limit of 40 microns/m to the power of 3. The study indicates a considerable prevalence of silicosis in desert but of lesser magnitude and severity as compared to other parts of India.
BibTeX:
@article{Mathur1996a,
  author = {Mathur, M.L.},
  title = {Silicosis among sand stone quarry workers of a desert district: Jodhpur},
  journal = {Annals of the Nat Acad Med Sci(India)},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {32(2)},
  pages = {113-8}
}
Mathur M.L.: Dixit, A.&.L.J. Correlates of peak expiratory flow rate: a study of sand stone quarry workers in desert 1996 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol
Vol. 40(4), pp. 340-4 
article
Abstract: The study assesses the relationship between selected demographic, anthropometeric, radiological, work-history and smoking-history related variables with Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) in a sample of 286 sand stone quarry workers from a desert region. Age, height, profusion of radiological opacities, age at beginning of work, duration of work and duration of smoking were found significantly associated with PEFR while duration of exposure to dust, nature of job and number of biries smoked per day failed to establish their significant association. Mean PEFR of these workers was found significantly lower than the same among healthy adults from the study area. The subset of predictors of PEFR only included age, height and profusion of radiological opacities as identified by multiple regression analysis
BibTeX:
@article{Mathur1996b,
  author = {Mathur, M.L.: Dixit, A.K. & Lakshminarayana, J.},
  title = {Correlates of peak expiratory flow rate: a study of sand stone quarry workers in desert},
  journal = {Indian J Physiol Pharmacol},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {40(4)},
  pages = {340-4}
}
Mathur M.L. & Choudhary, R. Desert lung syndrome in rural dwellers of the Thar Desert, India 1997 J Arid Environ
Vol. 35(3), pp. 559-562 
article
Abstract: 'Desert Lung Syndrome' has occasionally been reported from desert areas in various countries. It denotes non-occupational silicosis in rural desert dwellers. Subjects attending the District TB Clinic, jodhpur in the Thar Desert of India, were screened for it. X-rays of their chest were taken at 300 mA, and read using the International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis. Radiographs of five subjects showed opacities suggestive of pneumoconiosis. However, none of them was ever engaged in any occupation, which can predispose pneumoconiosis.
BibTeX:
@article{Mathur1997,
  author = {Mathur, M.L. & Choudhary, R.C.},
  title = {Desert lung syndrome in rural dwellers of the Thar Desert, India},
  journal = {J Arid Environ},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {35(3)},
  pages = {559-562}
}
Mathur M.L. & Choudhary, R. Mortality Experience Of Sand Stone Quarry Workers Of Jodhpur District 1996 Lung India
Vol. 14(2), pp. 66-68 
article
Abstract: A case control study of deceased quarry workers and controls comparing their age at the time of death was carried out. It showed that the mean age at death was 49.3 ? 12.1 years in quarry workers and 60.0 ? 14.4 years in non-worker controls. In another prospective study, a sample of 314 quarry workers and 40 ex-workers was followed up for a period of 17.4 ? 7.2 months to study their mortality rate. This study demonstrated that there was excess mortality in quarry works (Stanardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) = 1.84, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 2.90). Mortality was higher in those with opacities suggestive of silicosis in chest skiagrams (age adjusted death rate 66.3 per thousand per year and SMR = 6.95), than in non-silicotics (age adjusted death rate 19.97 per 1000 per year and SMR = 1.63). Workers with pulmonary tuberculosis had significantly higher mortality than other quarry workers. Even in the absence of tuberculosis, mortality was more in silicotics (age adjusted death rate 24.9 per thousand per year, SMR 2.8)
BibTeX:
@article{Mathur1996,
  author = {Mathur, M.L. & Choudhary, R.C.},
  title = {Mortality Experience Of Sand Stone Quarry Workers Of Jodhpur District},
  journal = {Lung India},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {14(2)},
  pages = {66-68}
}
Mathur M.L. & Dixit, A. A study of forced vital capacity and its predictors among the sand stone quarry workers 1999 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol
Vol. 43(3), pp. 347-54 
article
Abstract: The study assesses the relationship of selected demographic, anthropometric, radiological, work-history and smoking-history related variables with Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) in a sample of 168 sand stone quarry workers in a desert environment. Except the variables related to smoking behaviour, all are found significantly associated with FVC. The predictors of FVC screened through the multiple regression analysis were age, weight, height, profusion of opacities in chest X-ray and duration of work. Mean FVC was found significantly lower as compared to the healthy adult population. On an average FVC% was 90% of predicted (Percentage deviation of 10%). A clear increasing trend in FVC% along age/duration of work was observed among the young workers, which may be due to building of muscles in this job. Percentage deviation of 20% or more in FVC was significantly associated with presence of radiological opacities suggestive of silicosis (odds Ratio = 3.3). The diagnostic utility of the same is also assessed.
BibTeX:
@article{Mathur1999,
  author = {Mathur, M.L. & Dixit, A.K.},
  title = {A study of forced vital capacity and its predictors among the sand stone quarry workers},
  journal = {Indian J Physiol Pharmacol},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {43(3)},
  pages = {347-54}
}
Mohan Rao N.: Takiar, R.&.S.Y. Maximal expiratory flow volume values evaluation among female quartz grinders 2006 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 10(3), pp. 124-127 
article
Abstract: Background: A recent review in silica dust exposed workers focused on airway obstruction and the variables used were forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1 and FEV1%. The maximal expiratory flow volume (MEFV) values i.e., peak expiratory flow (PEF), FEF75, FEF50 and FEF25 are not only useful to differentiate obstructive and restrictive type of functional abnormalities, but also the site of airway obstruction i.e., larger airways by PEF, FEF75 or smaller airways by FEF50, FEF25. Hence, studies on MEFV values are needed.
Aims: To identify the site of airway obstruction among female quartz grinders.
Settings and Design: Quartz grinding industry workers in Chota Udepur (Gujarat) by cross sectional study.
Materials and Methods: The MEFV values were measured among 106 female quartz grinders using SP-10 computerized spirometer and predicted and percentage of predicted values were derived.The average MEF values were compared according to age (<24; 25-34; 35-44 and >45 yrs). The percentage predicted MEFV values were compared between normal and chest X-ray abnormal (silicosis and silico-tuberculosis) workers and between normal and abnormal spirometry (restrictive (R), obstructive (O) and R+O) workers.
Statistical Analysis: Summary statistics, ANOVA and c2-test.
Results: Significantly high reduction in MEFV values in > 45 yr. Workers; significant loss in silicosis and silicotuberculosis pronouncing higher in silicotuberculosis workers; significantly higher impairment R+O type of functional abnormal than other type of abnormalities. These indicated that site of obstruction is both in larger and smaller airways.
Conclusions: The MEFV values indicated that the site of obstruction is in both in smaller and larger airways.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanRaoN2006,
  author = {Mohan Rao, N.: Takiar, R. & Sharma, Y.K.},
  title = {Maximal expiratory flow volume values evaluation among female quartz grinders},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {10(3)},
  pages = {124-127}
}
Mukherjee A.K.: Bhattacharya, S.&.S.H. Assessment of Respirable Dust and its Free Silica Contents in Different Indian Coalmines 2005 Ind Health
Vol. 43(2), pp. 277-84 
article
Abstract: Assessment of respirable dust, personal exposures of miners and free silica contents in dust were undertaken to find out the associated risk of coal workers? pneumoconiosis in 9 coal mines of Eastern India during 1988?91. Mine Research Establishment (MRE), 113A Gravimetric Dust Sampler (GDS) and personal samplers (AFC 123), Cassella, London, approved by Director General of Mines Safety (DGMS) were used respectively for monitoring of mine air dust and personal exposures of miners. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) Spectroscopy determined free silica in respirable dusts. Thermal Conditions like Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index, humidity and wind velocity were also recorded during monitoring. The dust levels in the face return air of both, Board & Pillar (B&P) and Long Wall (LW) mining were found above the permissible level recommended by DGMS, Govt. of India. The drilling, blasting and loading are the major dusty operations in B&P method. Exposures of driller and loader were varied between, 0.81?9.48 mg/m3 and 0.05?9.84 mg/m3 respectively in B&P mining, whereas exposures of DOSCO loader, Shearer operator and Power Support Face Worker were varied between 2.65?9.11 mg/m3, 0.22?10.00 mg/m3 and 0.12?9.32 mg/m3 respectively in LW mining. In open cast mining, compressor and driller operators are the major exposed groups. The percentage silica in respirable dusts found below 5% in all most all the workers except among query loaders and drillers of open cast mines.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeAK2005,
  author = {Mukherjee, A.K.: Bhattacharya, S.K. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Assessment of Respirable Dust and its Free Silica Contents in Different Indian Coalmines},
  journal = {Ind Health},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43(2)},
  pages = {277-84}
}
Norboo T.: Saiyed, H.A.P.T.P.A.S.P.S.Y.M.W.S.B.N.&.B.K. Mini review of high altitude health problems in Ladakh 2004 Biomed Pharmacother
Vol. 58(4), pp. 220-5 
article
Abstract: Ladakh is a sparsely populated area of Indian Himalaya lying at 3-4500 m altitude mainly consisting of arid desert. This paper will discuss high altitude health problems in Ladakh under the following headings. 1. Acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). 2. Effects of prolonged and permanent exposure to high altitude: (subacute and chronic mountain sickness). 3. Environmental dust and domestic fire pollution resulting in non-occupational pneumoconiosis and high prevalence of respiratory morbidity.
BibTeX:
@article{Norboo2004,
  author = {Norboo, T.: Saiyed, H.N.: Angchuk, P.T.: Tsering, P.: Angchuk, S.T.: Phuntsog, S.T.: Yahya, M.: Wood, S.: Bruce, N.G. & Ball, K.P.},
  title = {Mini review of high altitude health problems in Ladakh},
  journal = {Biomed Pharmacother},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {58(4)},
  pages = {220-5}
}
Parakh U.K.: Sinha, R.B.A.&.S.P. Chronic necrotising pulmonary aspergillosis: a rare complication in a case of silicosis 2005 Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
Vol. 47(3), pp. 199-203 
article
Abstract: Chronic necrotising pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) is a rare complication of silicosis whose diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion as it mimics tuberculosis. We report a case of a 52-year-old male with a long history of silica dust exposure and progressively increasing dyspnoea for the past eight years, productive cough, fever, weight loss for past three months and hemoptysis for preceding three weeks. Based on the clinical, radiological and microbiological evidence, he was diagnosed to be a case of CNPA with aspergilloma complicating silicosis
BibTeX:
@article{ParakhUK2005,
  author = {Parakh, U.K.: Sinha, R.: Bhatnagar, A.K. & Singh, P.},
  title = {Chronic necrotising pulmonary aspergillosis: a rare complication in a case of silicosis},
  journal = {Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {47(3)},
  pages = {199-203}
}
Patel J. & Robbins, M. The agate industry and silicosis in Khambhat, India 2011 New Solut
Vol. 21(1), pp. 117-39 
article
Abstract: Agate stones have been shaped and polished into beads and other decorative items for thousands of years in Khambhat, India. Agate is a silicate quartz that produces a fine dust when shaped and polished. The people who shape and polish the stones in workshops in their homes are being sickened with silicosis, as are their families and neighbors. These home-based workshops are unregulated and the workers and their families have no access to occupational health services or workers' compensation when they become ill. Occupational health activists have tried to find an effective strategy to confront these working conditions and protect the health and livelihood of the agate workers. They have had limited success, and huge challenges remain.
BibTeX:
@article{J2011,
  author = {Patel, J. & Robbins, M.},
  title = {The agate industry and silicosis in Khambhat, India},
  journal = {New Solut},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {21(1)},
  pages = {117-39}
}
Patial, R. Mountain desert silicosis 1999 J Assoc Physicians India
Vol. 47(5), pp. 503-4 
article
Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the radiological miliary shadows in the high landers of a Himalayan desert for the presence of silicosis.

Methods: Seventeen high landers attending the Medicine OPD of a multi-speciality medical camp at Kaza in Himalayas (height 12,500 feet above sea level) having radiological miliary shadows were included in the study. A detailed life time work place history was taken. In the laboratory workup their hemogram, repeat chest skiagram, peak expiratory flow rate, urinalysis and electrocardiogram were undertaken. Their localities were looked for the presence of industries particularly for silicosis prone work place. The silica contents of upper strata of soil were estimated.

Results: Silicosis--chronic simple variety was present in nine males and eight females. The youngest person was 43 years of age and oldest person was of 65 years of age. There was no silicosis prone industry in their locality. Four had taken repeated courses of anti-tubercular treatment in adequate doses for these miliary shadows without any change in the radiological shadows. Three had silicosis prone work history. Seven were smokers and two had hypertension. The miliary shadows were 2-4 mm in size and hilar lymphadenopathy was in 11 and fine calcification of lymph nodes in two. Peak expiratory flow rate was reduced. Upper strata of soil had a silica content of 36.8 percent.

Conclusion: Silicosis developed in high landers of the Himalayas even without working in silicosis prone work place. They were exposed to silica from the non-work place silica rich environment

BibTeX:
@article{Patial1999,
  author = {Patial, R.K.},
  title = {Mountain desert silicosis},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {47(5)},
  pages = {503-4}
}
Pingle S.K.: Tumane, R.&.J.A. Neopterin: Biomarker of cell-mediated immunity and potent usage as biomarker in silicosis and other occupational diseases 2008 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 12(3), pp. 107-111 
article
Abstract: Neopterin is regarded as an early biomarker of the cellular immune response. This low molecular mass compound belongs to the class of pteridine and is a metabolite of guanosine triphosphate, which is produced by the activated macrophages and dendritic cells after stimulation with ?-interferon. An international group acknowledges the fact that the levels of serum neopterin can be used as a marker of the effect of exposure to silica and other occupational diseases. The determination of neopterin is an innovative tool for monitoring diseases associated with the activation of cell-mediated immunity.
BibTeX:
@article{PingleSK2008,
  author = {Pingle, S.K.: Tumane, R.G. & Jawade, A.A.},
  title = {Neopterin: Biomarker of cell-mediated immunity and potent usage as biomarker in silicosis and other occupational diseases},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {12(3)},
  pages = {107-111}
}
Sadhu H.G.: Parikh, D.S.Y.S.H.R.P.K.P.&.K.S. A follow up study of health status of small scale agate industry workers 1995 Ind J Ind Med
Vol. 41(3), pp. 101-105 
article
BibTeX:
@article{Sadhu1995,
  author = {Sadhu, H.G.: Parikh, D.J.: Sharma, Y.K.: Saiyed, H.N.: Rao, P.V.C.: Kulkarni, P.K. & Kashyap SK},
  title = {A follow up study of health status of small scale agate industry workers},
  journal = {Ind J Ind Med},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {41(3)},
  pages = {101-105}
}
Saiyed H.N.: Ghodasara, N.S.N.P.G.P.D.&.K.S. Dustiness, silicosis & tuberculosis in small scale pottery workers 1995 Indian J Med Res
Vol. 102, pp. 138-42 
article
Abstract: Studies were carried out in eight small scale potteries to find out the airborne dust concentrations and the prevalence of dust related diseases like silicosis and tuberculosis in 292 workers. Chest radiography revealed that 44 (15.1%) pottery workers were suffering from silicosis and an equal number showed radiological evidence of tuberculosis. The environmental study showed that the concentrations of airborne dust, containing free silica, in the work environment of all departments (except packing department) of potteries were higher than threshold limit values (TLVs). The prevalence of silicosis and tuberculosis correlated with the levels of airborne dust. The prevalence of tuberculosis increased with radiological severity of silicosis. Dust control measures combined with pre-employment and periodical medical examinations are recommended for the control of silicosis and tuberculosis in the pottery industry.
BibTeX:
@article{Saiyed1995,
  author = {Saiyed, H.N.: Ghodasara, N.B.: Sathwara, N.G.: Patel, G.C.: Parikh, D.J. & Kashyap, S.K.},
  title = {Dustiness, silicosis & tuberculosis in small scale pottery workers},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {102},
  pages = {138-42}
}
Saiyed H.N. & Tiwari, R. Occupational health research in India 2004 Ind Health
Vol. 42(2), pp. 141-8 
article
Abstract: India being a developing nation is faced with traditional public health problems like communicable diseases, malnutrition, poor environmental sanitation and inadequate medical care. However, globalization and rapid industrial growth in the last few years has resulted in emergence of occupational health related issues. Agriculture (cultivators i.e. land owners + agriculture labourers) is the main occupation in India giving employment to about 58% of the people. The major occupational diseases/morbidity of concern in India are silicosis, musculo-skeletal injuries, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive lung diseases, asbestosis, byssinosis, pesticide poisoning and noise induced hearing loss. There are many agencies like National Institute of Occupational Health, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Central Labour Institute, etc. are working on researchable issues like Asbestos and asbestos related diseases, Pesticide poisoning, Silica related diseases other than silicosis and Musculoskeletal disorders. Still much more is to be done for improving the occupational health research. The measures such as creation of advanced research facilities, human resources development, creation of environmental and occupational health cells and development of database and information system should be taken.
BibTeX:
@article{Saiyed2004,
  author = {Saiyed, H.N. & Tiwari, R.R.},
  title = {Occupational health research in India},
  journal = {Ind Health},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {42(2)},
  pages = {141-8}
}
Sharma D.B.: Patel, T.&.V.A. A study on health aspects of agate workers in Shakarpura- Khambat 2011 h e a l t h l i n e
Vol. 2(1) 
article
Abstract: Background: Workers working in the agate industries are dying of silicosis in regular interval for last 40 years in Khambhat. The agate industry is a household industry in the Khambhat region of Gujarat and its surrounding villages (1).

Objectives: To find the:
1. Age and sex distribution of studied agate workers
2. Occurrence of tuberculosis in agate workers and the number of times the TB treatment was taken
3. Number of deaths in the family because of agate work.
4. Health problems if any and type of health problems

Methods: Cross sectional study involving 98 agate workers engaged in grinding work

Results: One family member in 22 families had died because of working as agate grinder. 25(25.5%) cases were diagnosed of having tuberculosis and had taken AKT (DOTS). Out of these 25 persons who were diagnosed to be having TB, 1 person did not took the treatment, 15(60%) got this disease only once and had AKT (DOTS) once; whereas 6(24%) workers had taken AKT (DOTS) twice. On asking about the current health problem, 85(86.7%) replied that they were having one or the other health problems. 78(79.6%) replied that there remains bodily pain after work and 75(76.5%) said malaise is there.

Conclusions: The condition of the agate workers is pitiable. They are working in the agate industry and putting their lives at risk for silicosis and silico-tuberculosis.

BibTeX:
@article{SharmaDB2011,
  author = {Sharma, D.B.: Patel, T.A. & Varshney, A.M.},
  title = {A study on health aspects of agate workers in Shakarpura- Khambat},
  journal = {h e a l t h l i n e},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2(1)}
}
Sharma P.R.: Jain, S.B.R.&.T.P. Increased prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in male adults of sahariya tribe of India: A revised survey. 2010 Ind J Comm Med
Vol. 35, pp. 267-71 
article
Abstract: Background: A survey made in 1991-92, reported Sahariya, a primitive tribe of India (M. P.), having high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. No follow-up study was undertaken thereafter.
Objective: The present study was aimed to know the current status of tuberculosis (TB) in Sahariya after more than a decade of the last survey of 1991-92, as compared to that in Bhil, another primitive tribe living in the same area but never investigated for TB incidence.
Materials and Methods: A total of 763 random sputum smears from Sahariya and 169 sputum smears from Bhil were screened for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M..tb) in order to evaluate the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in both the tribes. Chi square (?2) statistics was performed to study the correlation between age, sex on the one hand and with the prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary TB on the other hand, if any.
Results: In Sahariya, the prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary TB was found increased significantly (P<0.005) to 0.454 as against 0.274 estimated in the earlier survey (1991-92). Males, particularly, appeared most affected (P<0.005; 0.382), especially adults (0.260). In contrast, among Bhil, the prevalence was very low.
Conclusion: The observed increase in TB prevalence and its gender bias in Sahariya tribe indicate the high incidence rate and faster transmission of infection, especially in male sex.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaPR2010,
  author = {Sharma, P.R.: Jain, S.: Bamezai, R.N.K. & Tiwari, P.K.},
  title = {Increased prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in male adults of sahariya tribe of India: A revised survey.},
  journal = {Ind J Comm Med},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {267-71}
}
Singh S.K.: Chowdhary, G.&.P.G. Assessment of impact of high particulate concentration on peak expiratory flow rate of lungs of sand stone quarry workers 2006 Int J Environ Res Public Health
Vol. 3(4), pp. 355-9 
article
Abstract: This study was designed to assess the impact of high particulate concentration on peak expiratory flow rate of lungs of sand stone quarry workers. The workers were engaged in different types of activities such as drilling, loading and dressing. These different working conditions had different concentrations of RSPM, leading to different exposure levels in workers. It was found that exposure duration and exposure concentrations were the main factors responsible for damage to the respiratory tracts of the workers. The particles were deposited at various areas of the respiratory system and reduced the peak flow rate. It was also revealed from the study that most of the workers suffered from silicosis if the exposure duration was more than 20 years.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghSK2006,
  author = {Singh, S.K.: Chowdhary, G.R. & Purohit, G.},
  title = {Assessment of impact of high particulate concentration on peak expiratory flow rate of lungs of sand stone quarry workers},
  journal = {Int J Environ Res Public Health},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {3(4)},
  pages = {355-9}
}
Singh S.K.: Chowdhary, G.C.V.&.P.G. Quantification of reduction in forced vital capacity of sand stone quarry workers 2007 Int J Environ Res Public Health
Vol. 4(4), pp. 296-300 
article
Abstract: This study assessed the reduction in forced vital capacity of lungs of sand stone quarry workers exposed to high respirable suspended particulate concentration. The sand stone quarry workers are engaged in different type of activities like drilling, loading and dressing. These different working places have different concentration of RSPM and these workers are exposed to different concentration of RSPM. It is found that exposure duration and exposure concentrations are main factors responsible to damage respiratory tract of worker. It is also revealed from the study that most of the workers are suffering from silicosis if the exposure duration is more than 15 years.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghSK2007,
  author = {Singh, S.K.: Chowdhary, G.R.: Chhangani, V.D. & Purohit, G.},
  title = {Quantification of reduction in forced vital capacity of sand stone quarry workers},
  journal = {Int J Environ Res Public Health},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4(4)},
  pages = {296-300}
}
Subhashini A.S. & Satchidhanandam, N. Maximal expiratory flow volume curve in quarry workers 2002 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol
Vol. 46(1), pp. 78-84 
article
Abstract: Maximal Expiratory Flow Volume (MEFV) curves were recorded with a computerized Spirometer (Med Spiror). Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volumes (FEV), mean and maximal flow rates were obtained in 25 quarry workers who were free from respiratory disorders and 20 healthy control subjects. All the functional values are lower in quarry workers than in the control subject, the largest reduction in quarry workers with a work duration of over 15 years, especially for FEF75. The effects are probably due to smoking rather than dust exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{Subhashini2002,
  author = {Subhashini, A.S. & Satchidhanandam, N.},
  title = {Maximal expiratory flow volume curve in quarry workers},
  journal = {Indian J Physiol Pharmacol},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {46(1)},
  pages = {78-84}
}
Sundaram P.: Kamat, R.&.J.J. Flour mill lung: a pneumoconiosis of mixed aetiology 2002 Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci.
Vol. 44(3), pp. 199-201 
article
Abstract: We report two cases of mixed dust fibrosis which occurred in the setting of poorly ventilated flour mills where various kinds of grain, chiefly wheat, were ground using stones whose silica content was analysed to be greater than 80 percent. While one patient was a non-smoker and the other was an ex-smoker, both cooked on kerosene stoves in the same room. We propose the term 'Flour mill lung' for this form of pneumoconiosis. A larger study would be required to establish the entity and its incidence among flour mill workers.
BibTeX:
@article{Sundaram2002,
  author = {Sundaram, P.: Kamat, R. & Joshi, J.M.},
  title = {Flour mill lung: a pneumoconiosis of mixed aetiology},
  journal = {Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {44(3)},
  pages = {199-201}
}
Tiwari, R. Biomarkers of silicosis: Potential candidates 2005 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 9(3), pp. 103-6 
article
Abstract: Silica dust is widely prevalent in the atmosphere and more common than the other types of dust, thus making silicosis the most frequently occurring pneumoconiosis. In India also, studies carried out by National Institute of Occupational Health have shown high prevalence of silicosis in small factories and even in nonoccupational exposed subjects. The postero-anterior chest radiographs remain the key tool in diagnosing and assessing the extent and severity of interstitial lung disease. Although Computed Tomography detects finer anatomical structure than radiography it could not get popularity because of its cost. On the basis of histological features of silicosis many potential biomarkers such as Cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin 1, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Serum Copper, Fas ligand (FasL), etc. have been tried. However, further studies are needed to establish these potential biomarkers as true biomarker of silicosis.
BibTeX:
@article{RR2005,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.},
  title = {Biomarkers of silicosis: Potential candidates},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {9(3)},
  pages = {103-6}
}
Tiwari R.R.; Narain, R.S.Y.&.K.S. Comparison of respiratory morbidity between present and ex-workers of quartz crushing units: Healthy workers' effect 2010 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 14(3), pp. 87-90 
article
Abstract: Background: Quartz stone grinders are one such group of workers who are exposed to silica and thereby at risk of developing silicosis. However due to increased campaigning against silicosis the scenario has changed.

Objectives: To compare the respiratory morbidities among the present quartz stone workers and the ex-quartz stone workers who have left the job.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included, 134 ex-workers and 182 current workers of quartz grinding units. All these subjects were subjected to chest radiography and pulmonary function tests.

Results: For 134 ex-workers, the mean age was 31.77 ? 9.99 years and the mean duration of exposure was found to be 2.74 ? 1.65 years while for the present workers, the mean age was 26.74? 7.12 years while the mean duration of exposure was 1.36 ? 2.68 years. The study revealed silicosis in 24 (17.9%), radiological suspected tuberculosis in 17 (12.7%) and silico-tuberculosis in 33 (24.7%) ex-workers while in present workers, radiological suspected tuberculosis in 10 (5.5%) subjects and silicosis grade 1/1 in one subject were found. Among the ex-workers, 14 (10.4%) had a combined type of pulmonary function impairment while 8 (6.0%) and 28 (20.9%) were having restrictive and obstructive type of pulmonary impairments, respectively. Among the present workers, pulmonary function testing revealed the combined type of functional impairment in 1 (0.5%), restrictive type in 13 (7.1%), and obstructive type of functional impairment in 17 (9.2%) subjects.

Conclusion: The high prevalence of respiratory morbidity in ex-workers as compared to current workers can be attributed to the out-of-the-job healthy workers' effect.

BibTeX:
@article{TiwariRR2010,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.; Narain, R.; Sharma, Y.K. & Kumar, S.},
  title = {Comparison of respiratory morbidity between present and ex-workers of quartz crushing units: Healthy workers' effect},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {14(3)},
  pages = {87-90}
}
Tiwari R.R.: & Sharma, Y.K. Respiratory health of female stone grinders with free silica dust exposure in Gujarat, India 2008 Int J Occup Environ Health
Vol. 14(4), pp. 280- 2 
article
Abstract: Eighty-five female quartz mill stone-grinding workers belonging to the Naika, Rathwa and Damor tribes of Chhotaudepur village of the Godhra region of Gujarat, Western India were surveyed and examined to assess health effects related to free silica dust exposure. The mean age for the subjects was 28.2 +/- 9.2 years, while the mean duration of exposure was 2.04 +/- 1.7 years. Chest radiographs showed findings suggestive of silicosis in 14%, silico-tuberculosis in 11.6% and tuberculosis in 8.1% of the study subjects. Respiratory morbidity was significantly associated with duration of exposure (X2 = 9.9, df = 2, p<0.007). On spirometry, obstructive, restrictive and combined (restrictive as well as obstructive) changes were found in 12.8%, 10.5% and 3.5% of the subjects, respectively. Overall, about one-third of subjects displayed abnormal pulmonary function and respiratory morbidity on chest radiographs
BibTeX:
@article{RR2008,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: & Sharma, Y. K.},
  title = {Respiratory health of female stone grinders with free silica dust exposure in Gujarat, India},
  journal = {Int J Occup Environ Health},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {14(4)},
  pages = {280- 2}
}
Tiwari R.R.: Narain, R.P.B.M.I.&.S.H. Spirometric measurements among quartz stone ex-workers of Gujarat, India 2003 J Occup Health
Vol. 45(2), pp. 88-93 
article
Abstract: The present cross sectional study was carried out among 134 ex-workers from quartz stone crushing units. Using the interview technique as a tool for data collection, demographic and occupational details of the subjects were recorded on the predesigned proforma. Standard diagnostic criteria were used for diagnosing silicosis and silico-tuberculosis. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured with Spirovit SP-10. The mean age of the males was found to be 33.18 +/- 10.39 yr and that of the females was 30.10 +/- 9.3 yr and for the whole group was 31.77 +/- 9.99 yr. Mean duration of exposure was 2.74 +/- 1.65 yr. The study variables included age, sex, duration of exposure, smoking and respiratory morbidity. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) which suggests lung parenchymal disorders was found to be significantly reduced with female sex, presence of smoking, increasing duration of exposure and presence of pneumoconiosis, whereas the lung function parameters indicating the status of airways were found to be significantly reduced with all the factors. Therefore, it was concluded that quartz stone workers exposed to approximately 100% free silica had deteriorated lung function which can be attributed mainly to respiratory disorders along with other epidemiological factors such as age, sex, duration of exposure and smoking.
BibTeX:
@article{Tiwari2003,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: Narain, R.: Patel, B.D.: Makwana, I.S. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Spirometric measurements among quartz stone ex-workers of Gujarat, India},
  journal = {J Occup Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {45(2)},
  pages = {88-93}
}
Tiwari R.R.: Sadhu. H.G.: Sharma, Y.P.J.P.D.&.S.H. General medical practioners and silicosis: Role of occupational history 2004 Indian Med Gaz CXXXVIII, pp. 319  article
BibTeX:
@article{Tiwari2004b,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: Sadhu. H.G.: Sharma, Y.K.: Parikh, J.R.: Parikh, D.J. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {General medical practioners and silicosis: Role of occupational history},
  journal = {Indian Med Gaz CXXXVIII},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {319}
}
Tiwari R.R.: Sathawara, N.&.S.H. Silica exposure and serum copper a cross sectional study 2004 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol
Vol. 48, pp. 337 
article
BibTeX:
@article{Tiwari2004c,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: Sathawara, N.G. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Silica exposure and serum copper a cross sectional study},
  journal = {Indian J Physiol Pharmacol},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {337}
}
Tiwari R.R.: Sathwara, N.&.S.H. Serum copper levels among quartz stone crushing workers: a cross sectional study 2004 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.
Vol. 48(3), pp. 337-42 
article
Abstract: The present cross sectional study was carried out among 134 workers of quartz stone crushing units to assess the serum Cu activity among quartz stone workers without disease. Demographic and occupational details of the subjects were recorded on the predesigned proforma. Standard diagnostic criteria were used for diagnosing silicosis and tuberculosis. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP-10. The mean age for male was found to be 26.63 +/- 6.28 years while that for female was 21.93 +/- 4.29 years and for the whole group was 26.13 +/- 6.26 years. In the present study only one case of silicosis and seven cases of tuberculosis were found. The mean serum Cu levels of those having respiratory disease was found to be 91.5 +/- 19.8 microg/dl while mean serum Cu level of those free from respiratory disease was 86.8 +/- 21.3 microg/dl The difference was found to be statistically non-significant (t = 0.64, df= 1, P > 0.05). Thus, in the present study, though the elevated level of serum Cu was found in solitary case of silicosis, no association could be established between the silica exposure and serum copper levels as suggested by non-significant effect of duration of exposure (P = 0.53).
BibTeX:
@article{Tiwari2004,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: Sathwara, N.G.: & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Serum copper levels among quartz stone crushing workers: a cross sectional study},
  journal = {Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {48(3)},
  pages = {337-42}
}
Tiwari R.R.: Sharma, Y.&.S.H. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust 2007 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 11, pp. 61-4 
article
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ?35 years, those exposed for ?3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ?10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV 1 values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant
BibTeX:
@article{TiwariRR2007,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: Sharma, Y.K. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {61-4}
}
Tiwari R.R.: Sharma, Y.&.S.H. Peak expiratory flow and respiratory morbidity: a study among silica-exposed workers in India 2005 Arch Med Res
Vol. 36(2), pp. 2005 
article
BibTeX:
@article{TiwariRR2005,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: Sharma, Y.K. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Peak expiratory flow and respiratory morbidity: a study among silica-exposed workers in India},
  journal = {Arch Med Res},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {36(2)},
  pages = {2005}
}
Tiwari R.R.: Sharma, Y.&.S.H. Peak Expiratory Flow: A Study among Silica-exposed Workers, India 2004 Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine
Vol. 8(1) 
article
Abstract: The present cross sectional study was carried out among 136 quartz stone grinders with the objective to study the peak expiratory flow (PEF) and the epidemiological factors associated with it. Interview technique was used to record demographic characteristics and occupational history on a predesigned proforma which included questionnaires regarding occupational history, and symptoms. This was followed by complete medical examination and measurement of PEF using Spirovit SP-10. The mean age for male was found to be 33.18 ? 10.39 years while that for female was 30.10 ? 9.3 years and for the whole group was 31.77 ? 9.99 years. Mean duration of exposure was 2.74 ? 1.65 years. In the present study the PEF was found to be significantly reduced in those aged ? 35 years, female, those having duration of exposure ? 2 years and those having respiratory morbidity while the reduction in peak expiratory flow rate was statistically non-significant for smokers.
BibTeX:
@article{Tiwari2004a,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: Sharma, Y.K. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Peak Expiratory Flow: A Study among Silica-exposed Workers, India},
  journal = {Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {8(1)}
}
Tiwari R.R.: Sharma, Y.&.S.H. Peak experience flow and associated epidemiological factors: A study among silica exposed workers of Chhotaudepur, India 2004 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 8, pp. 7 
article
BibTeX:
@article{Tiwari2004d,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: Sharma, Y.K. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Peak experience flow and associated epidemiological factors: A study among silica exposed workers of Chhotaudepur, India},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {7}
}
Tiwari R.R.: Sharma, Y.K.A.S.N.&.S.H. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and serum copper levels in covert silicosis 2005 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 9(3), pp. 124-6 
article
Abstract: The present case report describes asymptomatic worker working in quartz crushing unit and having crepitations on ausculation in the middle zone of right lung, diagnosed as grade 1/1 silicotic according to ILO Classification of Pneumoconiosis. The patient had elevated levels of SACE and serum Copper. This is the first time that SACE and serum copper levels were measured in a covert case of silicosis particularly in India.
BibTeX:
@article{Tiwari2005,
  author = {Tiwari, R.R.: Sharma, Y.K.: Karnik, A.B.: Sathwara, N.G. & Saiyed, H.N.},
  title = {Serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and serum copper levels in covert silicosis},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {9(3)},
  pages = {124-6}
}
Tiwary G. & Gangopadhyay, P. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry 2011 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 15(1), pp. 18-24 
article
Abstract: Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors - the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work - the work place is not proper - the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field.
BibTeX:
@article{G2011,
  author = {Tiwary, G. & Gangopadhyay, P.K.},
  title = {A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15(1)},
  pages = {18-24}
}
Tripathi S.S.: Mishra, V.S.M.V.M.C.B.K.P.C.J.P.H.&.P.B. IL-6 receptor-mediated lung Th2 cytokine networking in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis 2010 Arch Toxicol
Vol. 84(12), pp. 947-55 
article
Abstract: Pulmonary silicosis is a deadly disease, which kills thousands of people every year worldwide. The disease initially develops as an inflammatory response with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the lung controlled by multiple cytokines. The question whether these cytokines exert biological functions through signal transducing pathway remains unanswered along with the potential role of interleukin-6 receptor ? (IL-6R?) in regulating inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to assess the status of signal transducers and activator of transcription (Stat3), suppressor of cytokine signalling 3(Socs3) and inflammatory cytokines in airways of silica-exposed mice, and their relationship with IL-6R?. Silica-exposed and silica-exposed IL-6R? gene knockdown Balb/c mice were used in the study. Lung function was measured by plethysmography, mRNA expression of cytokines and signal molecules by qRT(2)-PCR and lung architecture by histopathology; T helper cell-type 2 (Th2) cytokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluids were evaluated by ELISA and hydroxyproline in lung by colorimetry. Elevated levels of collagen deposition, signs of lung fibrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells and presence of exfoliated mucosa in the lung of silica-exposed mice with concurrent increase in methacholine-induced specific resistance of airways were observed on day 60 post-exposure. In parallel, heightened expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6) and signal molecules (Stat3 and Socs3) were observed in the airways of silica-exposed mice. Th1 (IL-1? and TNF-?) cytokines are underexpressed in majority of the airways tissues of silica-exposed mice. Silencing IL-6R? in lung of silica-exposed mice down regulated the hypermorphic mRNA pool of potential Th2 cytokines and signal molecules. Hypermorphic expression of Th2 cytokines and signal molecules in airways of silica-exposed mice are mediated through IL-6R?.
BibTeX:
@article{TripathiSS2010,
  author = {Tripathi, S.S.: Mishra, V.: Shukla, M.: Verma, M.: Chaudhury, B.P.: Kumar, P.: Chhabra, J.K.: Pandey, H.P. & Paul, B.},
  title = {IL-6 receptor-mediated lung Th2 cytokine networking in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis},
  journal = {Arch Toxicol},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {84(12)},
  pages = {947-55}
}
Tumane R.G. : Pingle, S.K.:.J.A.&.N.N. An overview of caspase: Apoptotic protein for silicosis 2010 Indian J Occup Environ Med
Vol. 14(2), pp. 2010 
article
Abstract: Silicosis is a chronic lung disease characterized by granulomatous and fibrotic lesions, which occurs due to accumulation of respirable silica mineral particles. Apoptosis is an important phenomenon of cell death in silicosis. The relationship between silica dust and its exposure is well established. But, the complex chain of cellular responses, which leads to caspase activation in silicosis, has not been fully discovered. Caspase activation plays a central role in the execution of apoptosis. Silica-induced apoptosis of the alveolar macrophages could potentially favor a proinflammatory state, occurring in the lungs of silicotic patients, resulting in the activation of caspase prior to induction of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Recent studies indicated that apoptosis may involve in pulmonary disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the underling mechanism of biochemical pathways in caspase activation that have been ignored so far in silicosis. In addition, caspase could be a key apoptotic protein that can be used as an effective biomarker for the study of occupational diseases. It may provide an important link in understanding the molecular mechanisms of silica-induced lung pathogenesis.
BibTeX:
@article{TumaneRG12010,
  author = {Tumane, R.G. : Pingle, S. K. : Jawade, A.A. & Nath, N.N.},
  title = {An overview of caspase: Apoptotic protein for silicosis},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {14(2)},
  pages = {2010}
}
Whig J.: Sandhu, B.M.R.S.R.G.K.G.B.J.S.&.G.A. Prevalence Of Silicosis Among Emery Polish Workers In Cycle Industry 2004 Lung India
Vol. 21(3), pp. 1-4 
article
Abstract: The study was conducted among 300 emery polisher workers, with at least 5 years of exposure to silica. The workers were recruited from large scale industry with good dust control and small scale industry with no dust control. A standard questionnaire was required to be filled including information regarding duration of work, working hours and history of smoking followed by thorough physical examination. Investigations including chest x-rays and spirometry were carried out in each worker. It was observed that 32(10.66%) workers were suffering from silicosis of which 20(62.5%) workers were working in small-scale sector and 12(37.5%) in large scale industry. Workers with duration of more than 10 years comprised 62.5% of silicotics and 37.5% had worked for less than 10 years. The prevalence of silicosis was 22.47% (20 out of 89) in workers engaged for more than 10 years and 5.68% (12 out of 211) who were working for less than 10 years. Shortness of breath was the most frequent symptom (43.34%) followed by dry cough (29.65%) and expectoration (6.68%). Mean FEV1 in silicotics was 2.25 ? 0.59 L/s (p<0.01) and mean FVC was 2.52 ? 06.4L (p<0.05). Radiologically, most of silicotics had grade III and IV disease (31.25%) silicotics were suffering from tuberculosis. We found that prevalence of Silicosis in emery polishers is more in small scale industry as compared to large scale industry and it increased with longer duration of exposure
BibTeX:
@article{Whig2004,
  author = {Whig, J.: Sandhu, B.S.: Mahajan, R.: Sachar, R.K.: Gupta, K.S.: Gupta, B.: Jain, S. & Gupta, A.},
  title = {Prevalence Of Silicosis Among Emery Polish Workers In Cycle Industry},
  journal = {Lung India},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {21(3)},
  pages = {1-4}
}
(Last Updated Upto:2016)