Bibliography : Cadmium Toxicity

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AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
Jenardhanan P, Panneerselvam M, Mathur PP Effect of environmental contaminants on spermatogenesis. 2016 Semin Cell Dev Biol.  article DOI  
Abstract: Indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical compounds and the unregulated presence of heavy metals threatens the integral reproducibility of mankind and other living organisms. The toxicity of these compounds far outweighs the usefulness of these compounds. Male reproductive health is linked to the process of spermatogenesis and there is a general consensus that males are more sensitive to these environmental contaminants and so significantly affected when compared to their female counterparts. The review discusses the various toxic contaminants polluting the environment and the effect of these compounds on spermatogenesis and its relevance on male infertility in humans. It provides a detailed report on the chemical nature of few selected reprotoxicants like estrogen analogues, phthalates, dioxins, heavy metals and their action mechanism on various cellular targets that play a role in spermatogenesis with special highlights at the genetic and molecular levels. Understanding the toxicityof these compounds serves a dual purpose; to develop counter measures to protect ourselves from cellular damage and to use these compounds as a model to better understand the intricate process of spermatogenesis. The review would also help researchers formulate stringent regulations and usage restrictions in the synthesis of new compounds.
BibTeX:
@article{JenardhananP2016,
  author = {Jenardhanan P, Panneerselvam M, Mathur PP},
  title = {Effect of environmental contaminants on spermatogenesis.},
  journal = {Semin Cell Dev Biol.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2016.03.024}
}
Khanna S, Mitra S, Lakhera PC, Khandelwal S N-acetylcysteine effectively mitigates cadmium-induced oxidative damage and cell death in Leydig cells in vitro. 2016 Drug Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 39(1), pp. 74-80 
article DOI  
Abstract: CONTEXT:
Cadmium (Cd) is known to cause severe damage to various organs including lung, liver, kidney, brain and reproductive system. Several studies have reported the induction of oxidative stress pathways following Cd exposure.
OBJECTIVE:
Since oxidative stress is also deemed responsible for inducing male infertility, a growing worldwide concern, we tried to understand whether the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can be a potential therapeutic agent to counter Cd toxicity using primary Leydig cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This study highlights the initial cellular alterations which culminate in cell death induction. Primary Leydig cells were isolated from 28-day-old male Wistar rats, exposed to various concentrations of Cd in vitro and biochemical and cell death parameters were evaluated to understand the effect of Cd. NAC pre-treatment was done to understand its protective efficacy.
RESULTS:
Following Cd exposure to Leydig cells in vitro, we found simultaneous intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) increase and reduction in mitochondrial membrane polarization at 30 min, followed by significant induction of reactive oxygen species and MAPK-extracellular-regulated kinases with concurrent glutathione depletion at 1 h, and significant cell death (both necrotic and apoptotic) at 6 and 18 h, respectively. Pre-treatment with NAC abrogated all these toxic manifestations and showed significantly reduced cell death. NAC also rescued the expression of 3-?HSD, a major steroidogenic protein.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:
Taken together, these data illustrated that NAC can be used as a potential protective agent against Cd-induced testicular toxicity, especially with regards to oxidative stress-induced Leydig cell toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{KhannaS2016,
  author = {Khanna S, Mitra S, Lakhera PC, Khandelwal S},
  title = {N-acetylcysteine effectively mitigates cadmium-induced oxidative damage and cell death in Leydig cells in vitro.},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {39(1)},
  pages = {74-80},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2015.1028068}
}
Menon AV, Chang J, Kim J Mechanisms of divalent metal toxicity in affective disorders. 2016 Toxicology.
Vol. 339, pp. 58-72 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{MenonAV2016,
  author = {Menon AV, Chang J, Kim J},
  title = {Mechanisms of divalent metal toxicity in affective disorders.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {339},
  pages = {58-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2015.11.001}
}
Rajendran P, Rengarajan T, Nishigaki Y, Palaniswami R, Nishigaki I In vitro studies on mangiferin protection against cadmium-induced human renal endothelial damage and cell death via the MAP kinase and NF-?B pathways. 2016 J Recept Signal Transduct Res
Vol. 36(1), pp. 57-66 
article DOI  
Abstract: The therapeutic effects of the natural antioxidant mangiferin (a xanthonoid and potent oxygen free radical scavenger), which is widely distributed in mango fruit, against CdCl(2)-induced toxicity in human renal glomerulus endothelial cells (HRGEC) were investigated. The viability of HREGCs that were treated with CdCl(2) (25?µ?mol) and co-treated with mangiferin (75?µ?mol) for 24?h was measured by crystal violet dye. The exposure of human glomerulus renal endothelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal proinflammatory cytokines known to play a significant role in renal inflammation. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human renal glomerulus endothelial cells could be the result of cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion via an NF-?B-dependent pathway. However, IL-8 secretion involves the phosphor-JNK phospho-p38 signaling pathway. The results of the current study reveal that mangiferin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human glomerulus endothelial cells and be used to prevent renal inflammation.
BibTeX:
@article{RajendranP2016,
  author = {Rajendran P, Rengarajan T, Nishigaki Y, Palaniswami R, Nishigaki I},
  title = {In vitro studies on mangiferin protection against cadmium-induced human renal endothelial damage and cell death via the MAP kinase and NF-?B pathways.},
  journal = {J Recept Signal Transduct Res},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {36(1)},
  pages = {57-66},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10799893.2015.1019137}
}
Ramamurthy CH, Subastri A, Suyavaran A, Subbaiah KC, Valluru L, Thirunavukkarasu C Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit attenuates cadmium-induced liver and kidney damage through modulation of oxidative stress and glycosylation. 2016 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 23(8), pp. 7919-29 
article DOI  
Abstract: Increased levels of environmental pollutants are linked to almost all human disorders; the efficient method to manage the human health is through naturally available dietary molecule. Solanum torvum (ST) Swartz (Solanaceae) commonly called Turkey Berry is found in Africa, Asia, and South America. Its fruit, part of traditional Indian cuisine, is a widely consumed nutritious herb, acclaimed for its medicinal value. ST aqueous extract (STAe) (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg b.w., 6 days; oral) against acute Cadmium (Cd) (6.3 mg/kg b.w., single dose; oral) toxicity was evaluated in rats. Protective effect was assessed using serum markers, tissue antioxidants, oxidant derivatives, glycoprotein, and histopathological studies. The activities of serum marker enzymes were increased (40-60 %); antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and CAT, GSH, and its metabolic enzyme activities were decreased (50-80 %) in the liver and kidney upon Cd intoxication. During STAe pre-treatment, at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w., the above changes were brought to near normal (25-63 %). Tissue 4-hydroxynonenal, 3-nitrotyrosine, and protein carbonyls were increased (8-15 fold) in Cd-alone-treated rats, whereas pre-supplementation of STAe significantly decreased their levels and inhibited the protein glycosylation effectively. The pharmacological effect of STAe was confirmed by histopathological observations. Based on previous literature and present investigation, we conclude that ST may serve as a potential functional food against environmental contaminant such as heavy metal-induced oxidative stress.
BibTeX:
@article{RamamurthyCH2016,
  author = {Ramamurthy CH, Subastri A, Suyavaran A, Subbaiah KC, Valluru L, Thirunavukkarasu C},
  title = {Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit attenuates cadmium-induced liver and kidney damage through modulation of oxidative stress and glycosylation.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {23(8)},
  pages = {7919-29},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6044-3}
}
Sengupta P, Banerjee R, Nath S, Das S, Banerjee S Metals and female reproductive toxicity. 2016 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 34(7), pp. 679-97 
article DOI  
Abstract: Research into occupational exposure of metals and consequences of reproductive systems has made imperative scientific offerings in the preceding few decades. Early research works focused on possible effects on the reproductive functions rather than the complete reproductive health of the woman. Later, it was realized that metals, as reproductive toxins, may also induce hormonal changes affecting other facets of reproductive health such as the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and fertility. Concern is now shifting from considerations for the pregnant woman to the entire spectrum of occupational health threats and thus reproductive health among women.
BibTeX:
@article{SenguptaP2016,
  author = {Sengupta P, Banerjee R, Nath S, Das S, Banerjee S},
  title = {Metals and female reproductive toxicity.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {34(7)},
  pages = {679-97},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327114559611}
}
Sharma SS, Dietz KJ, Mimura T Vacuolar compartmentalization as indispensable component of heavy metal detoxification in plants. 2016 Plant Cell Environ.
Vol. 39(5), pp. 1112-26 
article DOI  
Abstract: Plant cells orchestrate an array of molecular mechanisms for maintaining plasmatic concentrations of essential heavy metal (HM) ions, for example, iron, zinc and copper, within the optimal functional range. In parallel, concentrations of non-essential HMs and metalloids, for example, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, should be kept below their toxicity threshold levels. Vacuolar compartmentalization is central to HM homeostasis. It depends on two vacuolar pumps (V-ATPase and V-PPase) and a set of tonoplast transporters, which are directly driven by proton motive force, and primary ATP-dependent pumps. While HM non-hyperaccumulator plants largely sequester toxic HMs in root vacuoles, HM hyperaccumulators usually sequester them in leaf cell vacuoles following efficient long-distance translocation. The distinct strategies evolved as a consequence of organ-specific differences particularly in vacuolar transporters and in addition to distinct features in long-distance transport. Recent molecular and functional characterization of tonoplast HM transporters has advanced our understanding of their contribution to HM homeostasis, tolerance and hyperaccumulation. Another important part of the dynamic vacuolar sequestration syndrome involves enhanced vacuolation. It involves vesicular trafficking in HM detoxification. The present review provides an updated account of molecular aspects that contribute to the vacuolar compartmentalization of HMs.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaSS2016,
  author = {Sharma SS, Dietz KJ, Mimura T},
  title = {Vacuolar compartmentalization as indispensable component of heavy metal detoxification in plants.},
  journal = {Plant Cell Environ.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {39(5)},
  pages = {1112-26},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.12706}
}
Zaki MS, Zakaria A, Eissa IA, Eldeen AI Effect of cadmium toxicity on Vertebrates. 2016 Electron Physician
Vol. 8(2), pp. 1964-5 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ZakiMS2016,
  author = {Zaki MS, Zakaria A, Eissa IA, Eldeen AI},
  title = {Effect of cadmium toxicity on Vertebrates.},
  journal = {Electron Physician},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {8(2)},
  pages = {1964-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/1964}
}
Agnihotri SK, Agrawal U, Ghosh I Brain most susceptible to cadmium induced oxidative stress in mice. 2015 J Trace Elem Med Biol., pp. 184-93  article DOI  
Abstract: Accumulated evidence over the years indicate that cadmium (Cd) may be a possible etiological factor for neurodegenerative diseases. This may possibly be linked to excessive generation of free radicals that damages the organs in the body depending on their defence mechanism. Since Cd is a toxic agent that affect several cell types, the aim of this study was to shed light on the effect of Cd and its consequences on different organs of the mice body. To test the hypothesis of concentration dependent Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation and DNA damage, observations were done in the serum of 4-5 weeks old male Swiss albino mice by treating with cadmiumchloride (CdCl2) in drinking water for 30 days. The expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) an apoptotic marker protein was two times higher in brain compared to liver at an exposure level of 0.5mgL(-1) CdCl2. Furthermore the correlation and linkage data analysis of antioxidant defence system revealed a rapid alteration in the brain, compared to any other organs considered in this study. We report that even at low dose of Cd, it impaired the brain due to lipid peroxidase sensitivity which favoured the Cd-induced oxidative injury in the brain.
BibTeX:
@article{AgnihotriSK2015,
  author = {Agnihotri SK, Agrawal U, Ghosh I},
  title = {Brain most susceptible to cadmium induced oxidative stress in mice.},
  journal = {J Trace Elem Med Biol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {184-93},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2014.12.008}
}
Ansari MM, Neha, Khan HA Effect of cadmium chloride exposure during the induction of collagen induced arthritis. 2015 Chem Biol Interact.
Vol. 238, pp. 55-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: The precise cause of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis remains uncertain. Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in animals is the most commonly used model of human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Exposure of humans and animals to toxic metals is widespread.Cadmium is one of the most prevalent nephrotoxic heavy metal, but it may cause other systemic toxicity as well. Cadmium may cause adverse health effects by impairment of the immune systems and induction of reactive oxygen species. Since rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis involve immune system disorder and chronic inflammation, the present study has been designed to find out the effect ofcadmium chloride exposure on clinical manifestation of development of collagen induced rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis was induced in rats by intradermal injection of emulsion of type II collagen in Complete Freund's Adjuvant. Rats were treated with cadmium chloride dissolved in drinking water at concentrations of 5ppm and 50ppm for 21 days from day of immunization. The effects of cadmium in the rats were assessed by biochemical parameters (articular elastase, articular nitrite, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat joint tissue. Histopathological changes further confirmed the biochemical and immunohistochemical results. Our results suggest that exposure tocadmium chloride during the induction phase of collagen induced arthritis abrogate disease development at lower dose whereas exacerbates at higher dose in Wistar rats.
BibTeX:
@article{AnsariMM2015,
  author = {Ansari MM, Neha, Khan HA},
  title = {Effect of cadmium chloride exposure during the induction of collagen induced arthritis.},
  journal = {Chem Biol Interact.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {238},
  pages = {55-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2015.06.001}
}
Chaudhary S, Iram S, Raisuddin S, Parvez S Manganese pre-treatment attenuates cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. 2015 J Trace Elem Med Biol.
Vol. 29, pp. 284-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a soft, malleable bluish-white metal with low melting point, a ubiquitous heavy metal and an environmental pollutant, found in soil, water and air. The presence of Cd in the components of the environment such as air, soil and groundwater is to a large part due to human activity, and the general population is exposed mainly by contaminated drinking water or food. Manganese (Mn) is a component in many enzymes, which play an important role in counteracting oxidative stress. In vitro experiments have revealed the ability of Mn to scavenge oxygen free radicals generated in differently mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO) conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo preventive effect of Mn(2+) pre-treatment on acute Cd-intoxication with regard to oxidative stress biomarker and antioxidant defense system in liver of Swiss albino mice. On exposure to Cd a significant increase in LPO levels, decrease in thiol content and induction in glutathione metabolizing enzyme were observed. Mn pre-treatment attenuated the modulation caused in the above-mentioned parameters due to acute Cd exposure in mice. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that the protective effect of Mn in Cd-induced systemic toxicity in mice. Further investigations are required on the relation between Mn accumulation and resistance to oxidative stress and on the factors influencing Mn/Cd transport in rodents are needed to elucidate the molecular basis of this protective effect.
BibTeX:
@article{ChaudharyS2015,
  author = {Chaudhary S, Iram S, Raisuddin S, Parvez S},
  title = {Manganese pre-treatment attenuates cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.},
  journal = {J Trace Elem Med Biol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {284-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2014.06.013}
}
Ghormade V, Gholap H, Kale S, Kulkarni V, Bhat S, Paknikar K Fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots embedded chitosan nanoparticles: a stable, biocompatible preparation for bio-imaging. 2015 J Biomater Sci Polym Ed.
Vol. 26(1), pp. 42-56 
article DOI  
Abstract: Fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) are an optically attractive option for bioimaging, but are known to display high cytotoxicity. Nanoparticles synthesized from chitosan, a natural biopolymer of ? 1-4 linked glucosamine, display good biocompatibility and cellular uptake. A facile, green synthetic strategy has been developed to embed green fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) in biocompatible CNPs to obtain a safer preparation than 'as is' QDs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed the crystal lattice corresponding to CdTe QDs embedded in CNPs while thermogravimetry confirmed their polymeric composition. Electrostatic interactions between thiol-capped QDs (4 nm, -57 mV) and CNPs (~300 nm, +38 mV) generated CdTe QDs-embedded CNPs that were stable up to three months. Further, viability of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells in vitro increased in presence of QDs-embedded CNPs as compared to bare QDs. At the highest concentration (10 ?g/ml), the former shows 34 and 39% increase in viability at 24 and 48 h, respectively, as compared to the latter. This shows that chitosan nanoparticles do not release the QDs up to 48 h and do not cause extended toxicity. Furthermore, hydrolytic enzymes such as lysozyme and chitinase did not degrade chitosan nanoparticles. Moreover, QDs-embedded CNPs show enhanced internalization in NIH3T3 cells as compared to bare QDs. This method offers ease of synthesis and handling of stable, luminescent, biocompatible CdTe QDs-embedded CNPs with a favorable toxicity profile and better cellular uptake with potential for bioimaging and targeted detection of cellular components.
BibTeX:
@article{GhormadeV2015,
  author = {Ghormade V, Gholap H, Kale S, Kulkarni V, Bhat S, Paknikar K},
  title = {Fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots embedded chitosan nanoparticles: a stable, biocompatible preparation for bio-imaging.},
  journal = {J Biomater Sci Polym Ed.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {26(1)},
  pages = {42-56},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2014.982240}
}
Gilani SR, Zaidi SR, Batool M, Bhatti AA, Durrani AI, Mahmood Z Report: Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity caused by metal poisoning: Brain as a target organ. 2015 Pak J Pharm Sci.
Vol. 28(4), pp. 1417-23 
article  
Abstract: People relate the neural disorders with either inheritance or psychological violence but there might be some other reasons responsible for the ailment of people that do not have such a background. The present study explains the chronic effect of heavy toxic metals on nervous system. During experimentation, rabbits used as laboratory animals, were given test metals in their diet. Concentration of metals given to them in the diet was less than their tolerable dietary intake. Behavioral changes were observed during experimentation. Periodic increase in the metal concentration was seen in the blood sample of rabbits. They were slaughtered after a period of eight months of slowpoisoning. Histological examination of brain tissues was performed. The brain samples were analyzed by Atomic absorption spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to find the retention of heavy metals in mammalian brain. Concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in the blood samples of occupationally exposed people and patients with neurological disorders at the time of neurosurgery was determined by using the same techniques. During circulation, toxic metals passes through the nerve capillaries to settle down in the brain. Heavy metals cross the blood brain barrier and 'may retain themselves in it. Brain tumors and biopsy samples of patients with neurological disorder were also analyzed to relate neurotoxicity and heavy metal poisoning. Results obtained shows that lead, mercury and cadmium retain themselves in the brain for longer period of time and are one of the causes of neurotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{GilaniSR2015,
  author = {Gilani SR, Zaidi SR, Batool M, Bhatti AA, Durrani AI, Mahmood Z},
  title = {Report: Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity caused by metal poisoning: Brain as a target organ.},
  journal = {Pak J Pharm Sci.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {28(4)},
  pages = {1417-23}
}
Hemachandra CK, Pathiratne A Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay. 2015 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 94(2), pp. 199-203 
article  
Abstract: Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.
BibTeX:
@article{HemachandraCK2015,
  author = {Hemachandra CK, Pathiratne A},
  title = {Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {94(2)},
  pages = {199-203}
}
Jagadeesh E, Khan B, Chandran P, Khan SS Toxic potential of iron oxide, CdS/Ag?S composite, CdS and Ag?S NPs on a fresh water alga Mougeotia sp. 2015 Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
Vol. 125, pp. 284-90 
article DOI  
Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs) are being used in many industries ranging from medical, textile, automobile, consumer products, etc. This may increase the probability of their (NPs) release into the environment and fresh water ecosystems. The present study focuses on testing the potential effect of iron oxide, nanocomposite of cadmium sulfide and silver sulfide, cadmium sulfide and silver sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) on a fresh water alga Mougeotia sp. as the model organism. The alga was treated with different concentrations of NPs (0.1-25 mg/L). The NPs exposure caused lipid peroxidation and ROS production, and suppressed the antioxidant defense system such as catalase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Adsorption of NPs on algal surface and membrane damage were confirmed through microscopic evaluation and increase in protein content in extracellular medium. The present investigation pointed out the ecological implications of NPs. The study warrants the need for regulatory agencies to monitor and regulate the use of NPs.
BibTeX:
@article{JagadeeshE2015,
  author = {Jagadeesh E, Khan B, Chandran P, Khan SS},
  title = {Toxic potential of iron oxide, CdS/Ag?S composite, CdS and Ag?S NPs on a fresh water alga Mougeotia sp.},
  journal = {Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {125},
  pages = {284-90},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.11.008}
}
Karak T, Paul RK, Das S, Das DK, Dutta AK, Boruah RK Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. 2015 Environ Monit Assess.  article DOI  
Abstract: A study on the sorption kinetics of Cd from soil solution to soils was conducted to assess the persistence of Cd in soil solution as it is related to the leaching, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of Cd. The kinetics of Cd sorption on two non-contaminated alkaline soils from Canning (22° 18' 48.02? N and 88° 39' 29.0? E) and Lakshmikantapur (22° 06' 16.61? N and 88° 19' 08.66? E) of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India, were studied using conventional batch experiment. The variable soil suspension parameters were pH (4.00, 6.00, 8.18, and 9.00), temperatures (308, 318, and 328 K) and Cd concentrations (5-100 mg L(-1)). The average rate coefficient (kavg) and half-life (t1/2) values indicate that the persistence of Cd in soil solution is influenced by both temperature and soil suspension pH. The concentration of Cd in soil solution decreases with increase of temperature; therefore, Cd sorption on the soil-solution interface is an endothermic one. Higher pH decreases the t 1/2 of Cd in soil solution, indicating that higher pH (alkaline) is not a serious concern in Cd toxicity than lower pH (acidic). Based on the energy of activation (Ea) values, Cd sorption in acidic pH (14.76±0.29 to 64.45±4.50 kJ mol(-1)) is a surface control phenomenon and in alkaline pH (9.33±0.09 to 44.60±2.01 kJ mol(-1)) is a diffusion control phenomenon The enthalpy of activation (?H?) values were found to be between 7.28 and 61.73 kJ mol(-1). Additionally, higher positive energy of activation (?G?) values (46.82±2.01 to 94.47±2.36 kJ mol(-1)) suggested that there is an energy barrier for product formation.
BibTeX:
@article{KarakT2015,
  author = {Karak T, Paul RK, Das S, Das DK, Dutta AK, Boruah RK},
  title = {Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4923-6}
}
Khan MH, Parvez S Hesperidin ameliorates heavy metal induced toxicity mediated by oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats. 2015 J Trace Elem Med Biol.
Vol. 31, pp. 53-60 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) induces neurotoxicity owing to its highly deleterious capacity to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Recent studies have provided insights on antioxidant properties of bioflavonoids which have emerged as potential therapeutic and nutraceutical agents. The aim of our study was to examine the hypothesis that hesperidin (HP) ameliorates oxidative stress and may have mitigatory effects in the extent of heavy metal-induced neurotoxicity. Cd (3mg/kg body weight) was administered subcutaneously for 21 days while HP (40 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally once every day. The results of the current investigation demonstrate significant elevated levels of oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl (PC) along with significant depletion in the activity of non-enzymatic antioxidants like glutathione (GSH) and non-protein thiol (NP-SH) and enzymatic antioxidants in the Cd treated rats' brain. Activity of neurotoxicity biomarkers such as acetylcholinesterase (AchE), monoamine oxidase (MAO) and total ATPase were also altered significantly and HP treatment significantly attenuated the altered levels of oxidative stress and neurotoxicity biomarkers while salvaging the antioxidant sentinels of cells to near normal levels thus exhibiting potent antioxidant and neuroprotective effects on the brain tissue against oxidative damage in Cd treated rodent model.
BibTeX:
@article{KhanMH2015,
  author = {Khan MH, Parvez S},
  title = {Hesperidin ameliorates heavy metal induced toxicity mediated by oxidative stress in brain of Wistar rats.},
  journal = {J Trace Elem Med Biol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {53-60},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.03.002}
}
Knazicka Z, Forgacs Z, Lukacova J, Roychoudhury S, Massanyi P, Lukac N Endocrine disruptive effects of cadmium on steroidogenesis: human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R as a cellular model for reproductive toxicity testing. 2015 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 50(4), pp. 348-56 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a known endocrine disruptor with the ability to affect the production of hormones involved in the regulation of reproductive processes. In this study human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R was used as an in vitro biological model to study the effect of cadmium (CdCl2) on steroidogenesis. The cell cultures were exposed to different concentrations of CdCl2 (1.90, 3.90, 7.80, 15.60, 31.20 and 62.50 ?M) and compared to control (medium without CdCl2). Cell viability was measured by the metabolic activity (MTT) assay for estimation of mitochondria structural integrity. Quantification of sexual steroid production directly from aliquots of the medium was performed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following 48 h culture of the cells in the presence of CdCl2 a concentration-dependent depletion in progesterone production was observed at the lower concentrations of CdCl2. The lowest amount of progesterone was significantly detected in groups with the higher doses (? 31.20 ?M) of CdCl2, which elicited significant (P < 0.01) cytotoxic action, too. Cadmium decreased testosterone release in the whole applied range even at the lower concentration of CdCl2. The release of 17?-estradiol decreased as well, but the decline was less pronounced compared to decrease of progesterone and testosterone. The cytotoxic effect was significantly (P < 0.01) detected at all concentrations of CdCl2 (1.90-62.50 ?M) used in the study. However, the cell viability remained relatively high (>75%) up to 7.80 ?M of CdCl2 and significantly (P < 0.01) decreased at 15.60 ?M and higher concentrations of CdCl2. These results suggest that cadmium has endocrine disruptive effects on sexual steroid synthesis even at very low concentrations.
BibTeX:
@article{KnazickaZ2015,
  author = {Knazicka Z, Forgacs Z, Lukacova J, Roychoudhury S, Massanyi P, Lukac N},
  title = {Endocrine disruptive effects of cadmium on steroidogenesis: human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R as a cellular model for reproductive toxicity testing.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {50(4)},
  pages = {348-56},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2015.987520}
}
Kumar R, Chawla J, Kaur I Removal of cadmium ion from wastewater by carbon-based nanosorbents: a review. 2015 J Water Health
Vol. 13(1), pp. 18-33 
article  
Abstract: A green environment and a healthy life are dream projects of today's science and technology to save the world. Heavy metal ions in water affect both environment and human health. Cadmium has been identified as one of the heavy metals that causes acute or chronic toxic effects if ingested. Increasing use of cadmium in different technological fields has raised concern about its presence and removal from water/wastewater. Researchers have made many systematic efforts to remove heavy metals from water to reduce their impact on human beings and the environment. Adsorption is one of the best methods to remove heavy metals from water among the different proposed methods. This study explores carbon-based nanosorbents which have been proved as effective adsorbents for removal of cadmium ions from water. The adsorption efficiency of carbon-based nanosorbents is the main criterion to rank and select them for removal of cadmiumions from water. Toxicity, reusability and environmentally friendly characteristics of sorbents are also taken considered while ranking the suitable carbon-based nanosorbents for removal of cadmium ions from water.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarR2015,
  author = {Kumar R, Chawla J, Kaur I},
  title = {Removal of cadmium ion from wastewater by carbon-based nanosorbents: a review.},
  journal = {J Water Health},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {13(1)},
  pages = {18-33}
}
Moitra S, Chakraborty K, Bhattacharyya A, Sahu S Impact of occupational cadmium exposure on spirometry, sputum leukocyte count, and lung cell DNA damage among Indian goldsmiths. 2015 Am J Ind Med.
Vol. 58(6), pp. 617-24 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Cadmium is frequently used in manual jewelry industries. Although its toxicity on lung function is well-known, the mechanism is not well-understood.
METHODS:
Among 26 goldsmiths exposed to cadmium (mean age 35.9 ± 5.0 years) and 17 referent workers without direct exposure (36.6 ± 6.6 years), we measured blood and urinary cadmium concentration and performed spirometry and quantified leukocytes and comet formation in the cells from spontaneously expectorated sputum samples.
RESULTS:
The goldsmiths had higher cadmium concentration in urine (mean 6.14 ± 1.63 vs. 0.47 ± 0.17 ?g/dl) and blood (0.90 ± 0.23 vs. 0.02 ± 0.007 ?g/dl) than the referents, which were inversely associated with FEV1 /FVC. Cadmium exposure also resulted in higher neutrophils (%) and lower macrophage (%) prevalence in the sputum and also caused substantial DNA damage in the lung cells among the goldsmiths than the referents (69 vs. 14%).
CONCLUSION:
Altered lung function among cadmium-exposed goldsmiths was associated with enhanced inflammatory response and increased cellular DNA damage in the lungs.
BibTeX:
@article{MoitraS2015,
  author = {Moitra S, Chakraborty K, Bhattacharyya A, Sahu S},
  title = {Impact of occupational cadmium exposure on spirometry, sputum leukocyte count, and lung cell DNA damage among Indian goldsmiths.},
  journal = {Am J Ind Med.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {58(6)},
  pages = {617-24},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22449}
}
Nisha KD, Navaneethan M, Dhanalakshmi B, Saravana Murali K, Hayakawa Y, Ponnusamy S, Muthamizhchelvan C, Gunasekaran P Effect of organic-ligands on the toxicity profiles of CdS nanoparticles and functional properties. 2015 Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
Vol. 126, pp. 407-13 
article  
Abstract: CdS nanoparticles are one among the most promising agents for fluorescent imaging. Hence, it is essential to develop new strategies to overcome the cytotoxicity of these nanoparticles. Surface modification is one of the simplest and effective techniques. This paper assesses the effect of surface modification on toxicity of the CdS nanoparticles. Unmodified CdS and surface-modified CdS nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous medium using a wet chemical route at room temperature. The surface modification of the CdS nanoparticles with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cysteine was confirmed using infrared absorption studies. The diameters of unmodified CdS, PVP-modified CdS, and cysteine-modified CdS nanoparticles were determined using HRTEM. They exhibited luminescence in the range from 500 to 800 nm. The cytotoxic effects of these CdS nanoparticles were investigated in cultures of Vero cells. The results indicated that Vero cell viability was higher for the surface-modified CdS nanoparticles than for the unmodified CdS nanoparticles. The reduction in the toxicity was related to the nature of the capping agents used for the surface modification, and the particle size.
BibTeX:
@article{NishaKD2015,
  author = {Nisha KD, Navaneethan M, Dhanalakshmi B, Saravana Murali K, Hayakawa Y, Ponnusamy S, Muthamizhchelvan C, Gunasekaran P},
  title = {Effect of organic-ligands on the toxicity profiles of CdS nanoparticles and functional properties.},
  journal = {Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {126},
  pages = {407-13}
}
Sinha P Cadmium telluride leaching behavior: Discussion of Zeng et al. (2015). 2015 J Environ Manage.
Vol. 163(184-5) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Zeng et al. (2015) evaluate the leaching behavior and surface chemistry of II-VI semiconductor materials, CdTe and CdSe, in response to pH and O2. Under agitation in acidic and aerobic conditions, the authors found approximately 3.6%-6.4% (w/w) solubility of Cd content in CdTe in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), Waste Extraction Test (WET), and dissolution test, with lower solubility (0.56-0.58%) under agitation in acidic and anoxic conditions. This range is comparable with prior long-term transformation and dissolution testing and bio-elution testing of CdTe (2.3%-4.1% w/w solubility of Cd content in CdTe). The implications for potential leaching behavior of CdTe-containing devices require further data. Since CdTe PV modules contain approximately 0.05% Cd content by mass, the starting Cd content in the evaluation of CdTe-containing devices would be lower by three orders of magnitude than the starting Cd content in the authors' study, and leaching potential would be further limited by the monolithic glass-adhesive laminate-glass structure of the device that encapsulates the semiconductor material. Experimental evaluation of leaching potential of CdTe PV modules crushed by landfill compactor has been conducted, with results of TCLP and WET tests on the crushed material below regulatory limits for Cd. CdTe PV recycling technology has been in commercial operation since 2005 with high yields for semiconductor (95%) and glass (90%) recovery.
BibTeX:
@article{P2015,
  author = {Sinha P},
  title = {Cadmium telluride leaching behavior: Discussion of Zeng et al. (2015).},
  journal = {J Environ Manage.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {163},
  number = {184-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.08.015}
}
Sharma P, Goyal PK Ameliorative Effect of Green Tea Catechin Against Cadmium Chloride-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice. 2015 J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol.
Vol. 34(4) 
article  
Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of green tea catechin (7500 µg/kg/animal/day) against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress in the testes of mice. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups: group I, negative control; group II, catechin-treated control; group III, cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated control; group IV, experimental group I; group V, experimental group II; and group VI, experimental group III. Animals from all of these groups were necropsied at various post-treatment intervals between 12 hours and 30 days for various biochemical alterations in the testes. CdCl2 intoxication resulted in a significant decline in testicular total proteins, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase, whereas acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation exhibited a noticeable augmentation as compared to negative control. Catechin treatment effectively protected CdCl2-induced alterations in all such parameters throughout the experiment. Catechin was effective in reducing the CdCl2-induced augmentation of phase I (P450 and CYPB5) as well as phase II (DT-diaphorase and glutathione-S-transferase) enzymes in testes. Furthermore, CdCl2 intoxication was found to attenuate the antioxidant potential of testes, which was however augmented when supplemented with green tea extract. Compared to CdCl2-treated control mice, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and catalase levels were significantly decreased in testes. Indeed, green tea catechin significantly increased testicular antioxidant enzymatic activities compared to those given CdCl2 alone. In conclusion, the use of green tea extract appeared to be beneficial to a great extent in inhibiting and restoring the testicular injuries induced by CdCl2 intoxication in mammals.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaP2015,
  author = {Sharma P, Goyal PK},
  title = {Ameliorative Effect of Green Tea Catechin Against Cadmium Chloride-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice.},
  journal = {J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {34(4)}
}
Sivaprakasam C, Nachiappan V Modulatory effect of cadmium on the expression of phospholipase A2 and proinflammatory genes in rat testis. 2015 Environ Toxicol.  article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal that is hazardous to health, and its exposure showed a significant reduction in mitochondrial phospholipid function in the rat testes. Cd induction enhanced phospholipases (PLA2 s) activities, specifically the secretory PLA2 and cytosolic PLA2 . There was a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and significant decline in the respiratory complexes, which was confirmed by 2D blue native gel. The mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase and proinflammatory cytokine genes interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interferon-? increased and that of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 reduced with Cd exposure in a time-dependent manner. The gene expression of the proapoptotic factor Bax was elevated, and in parallel, the antiapoptotic factor Bcl2 was down-regulated. Hence, this study explored the testes under Cd toxicity and observed alterations in PLA2 s and mitochondrial membrane composition/function and further explored the impact of these alterations on proinflammation and apoptosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015.
BibTeX:
@article{SivaprakasamC2015,
  author = {Sivaprakasam C, Nachiappan V},
  title = {Modulatory effect of cadmium on the expression of phospholipase A2 and proinflammatory genes in rat testis.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22124}
}
Veeriah V, Saran U, Swaminathan A, Balaguru UM, Thangaraj P, Nagarajan S, Rajendran VK, Chatterjee S Cadmium-induced embryopathy: nitric oxide rescues teratogenic effects of cadmium. 2015 Toxicol Sci.
Vol. 144(1), pp. 90-104 
article DOI  
Abstract: Although Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known heavy metal pollutant and teratogen, the mechanism behind Cd-mediated teratogenicity remains unknown. Previously, we have reported of the protective role of Nitric oxide (NO), a key signaling molecule in the embryonic developmental process, against Thalidomide-induced teratogenicity. The objective of this study was to obtain a mechanistic in-sight of the antiteratogenic potential of NO against Cd-mediated teratogenicity. To achieve this goal, we first studied the effect of Cd on the vasculature of developing embryos and then we investigated whether Cd mediated its effects by interfering with the redox regulation of NO signaling in the early development milieu. We used a chick embryonic model to determine the time and dose-dependent effects of Cd and NO recovery against Cd assault. The effects of Cd and NO recovery were assessed using various angiogenic assays. Redox and NO levels were also measured. Results demonstrated that exposure to Cd at early stage of development caused multiple birth defects in the chick embryos. Exposure to Cd suppressed endogenous NO levels and cGMP signaling, inhibiting angioblast activation and subsequently impairing yolk sac vascular development. Furthermore, Cd-induced superoxide and lipid peroxidation mediated activation of proapoptotic markers p21 and p53 in the developing embryo. Cd also caused the down-regulation of FOXO1, and up-regulation of FOXO3a and Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis. Addition of exogenous NO through a NO donor was able to blunt Cd-mediated effects and restore normal vascular and embryonic development. In conclusion, Cd-mediated teratogenicity occurs as a result of impaired NO-cGMP signaling, increased oxidative stress, and the activation of apoptotic pathways. Subsequent addition of exogenous NO through NO donor negated Cd-mediated effects and protected the developing embryo.
BibTeX:
@article{VeeriahV2015,
  author = {Veeriah V, Saran U, Swaminathan A, Balaguru UM, Thangaraj P, Nagarajan S, Rajendran VK, Chatterjee S},
  title = {Cadmium-induced embryopathy: nitric oxide rescues teratogenic effects of cadmium.},
  journal = {Toxicol Sci.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {144(1)},
  pages = {90-104},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfu258}
}
Zare MR, Amin MM, Nikaeen M, Bina B, Rahmani A, Hemmati-Borji S, Rahmani H Acute toxicity of Hg, Cd, and Pb towards dominant bacterial strains of sequencing batch reactor (SBR). 2015 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 187(5), pp. 263 
article DOI  
Abstract: One of the most important factors that affect the operation efficiency of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology is bacterial viability and biomass activity. The acute toxicity of three heavy metals to four dominant strains of sequencing batch reactor (Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, and Bacillus) was investigated using a resazurin bioassay. After exposing the bacterial strains to soluble compound of Hg, Cd, and Pb, at more than five selected concentrations, the median effective concentration (EC50) and the mortality rate values were calculated. Large differences were observed in sensitivities of the four bacterial strains to the metals. Pseudomonas showed the highest sensitivity for Cd (EC???=?0.06 ?mol/L) and Hg (EC???=?11.75 ?mol/L), while Aeromonas showed the highest sensitivity for Pb (EC???=?48.27 ?mol/L). Considering the EC50 test results, it was concluded that Pseudomonas and Aeromonas are excellent and reliable bioindicators for assessing the toxicity of water and wastewaters polluted by Cd, Hg, and Pb. The rapidity (30 min) and simplicity of the resazurin bioassay procedure enable this enzymatic test to be used in toxicity assessment of small and decentralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).
BibTeX:
@article{ZareMR2015,
  author = {Zare MR, Amin MM, Nikaeen M, Bina B, Rahmani A, Hemmati-Borji S, Rahmani H},
  title = {Acute toxicity of Hg, Cd, and Pb towards dominant bacterial strains of sequencing batch reactor (SBR).},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {187(5)},
  pages = {263},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4457-y}
}
Dasgupta A Cadmium exposure. 2011 Clin Chem.
Vol. 57(11) 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{A2011,
  author = {Dasgupta A},
  title = {Cadmium exposure.},
  journal = {Clin Chem.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {57(11)},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2011.164459}
}
Abbas S, Khan K, Khan MP, Nagar GK, Tewari D, Maurya SK, Dubey J, Ansari NG, Bandyopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay N Developmental exposure to As, Cd, and Pb mixture diminishes skeletal growth and causes osteopenia at maturity via osteoblast and chondrocyte malfunctioning in female rats. 2013 Toxicol Sci.
Vol. 134(1), pp. 207-20 
article DOI  
Abstract: We studied the effect of metal mixture (MM), comprising As, Cd, and Pb, in developing female rat skeleton from gestation day 5 until postnatal day 60 (P-60). MM resulted in synergistic inhibition in viability and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro, likely induced by reactive oxygen species. MM, administered at their most frequently occurring concentrations present in the groundwater of India, i.e., As: 0.38 ppm, Pb: 0.22 ppm, and Cd: 0.098 ppm or 10× of the ratio to developing rats, exhibited a synergistic decrease in ex vivo mineralization of bone marrow stromal (osteoprogenitor) cells. MM group showed a dose-dependent attenuation in weight and axial lengths and shortening of tibias at P-60. Furthermore, the growth plate was shortened, which was associated with shorter proliferative and hypertrophic zones, decreased parathyroid hormone-related protein and Indian hedgehog expression in the chondrocytes, reduced primary and secondary spongiosa, and hypomineralized osteoids-a major characteristic of osteomalacia. In addition, compared with the control, MM-treated rats were clearly osteopenic based on bone mineral density, microarchitecture, biomechanical strength, and particularly the biochemical profile, that suggested high turnover bone loss. Finally, in comparison to the control, the fracture-healing ability of MM group was delayed and accompanied by inferior quality of the healed bone. Together, these data demonstrated that the mixture of As, Cd, and Pb induced synergistic toxicity to developing skeleton, thereby diminishing modeling-directed bone accrual, inducing osteopenia and dampening fracture healing.
BibTeX:
@article{AbbasS2013,
  author = {Abbas S, Khan K, Khan MP, Nagar GK, Tewari D, Maurya SK, Dubey J, Ansari NG, Bandyopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay N},
  title = {Developmental exposure to As, Cd, and Pb mixture diminishes skeletal growth and causes osteopenia at maturity via osteoblast and chondrocyte malfunctioning in female rats.},
  journal = {Toxicol Sci.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {134(1)},
  pages = {207-20},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kft093}
}
Agarwal AK Metabolic alterations in liver and testes of adult and newborn rats following cadmium administration. 1988 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
Vol. 40(4), pp. 569-75 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{AK1988,
  author = {Agarwal AK},
  title = {Metabolic alterations in liver and testes of adult and newborn rats following cadmium administration.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {40(4)},
  pages = {569-75}
}
Alam MZ, Ahmad S, Malik A Prevalence of heavy metal resistance in bacteria isolated from tannery effluents and affected soil. 2011 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 178(1-4), pp. 281-91 
article  
Abstract: In the present study, a total of 198 bacteria were isolated, 88 from the tannery effluents and 110 from agricultural soil irrigated with the tannery effluents. Tannery effluents and soils were analyzed for metal concentrations by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The tannery effluents and soil samples were found to be contaminated with chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium. All isolates were tested for their resistance against Cr(6+?), Cr(3+?), Ni(2+?), Zn(2+?), Cu(2+?), Cd(2+?), and Hg(2+?). From the total of 198 isolates, maximum bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to Cr(6+?) 178 (89.9%) followed by Cr(3+?) 146 (73.7%), Cd(2+?) 86 (43.4%), Zn(2+?) 83 (41.9%), Ni(2+?) 61 (30.8%), and Cu(2+?) 51 (25.6%). However, most of the isolates were sensitive to Hg(2+?). Among the isolates from tannery effluents, 97.8% were resistant to Cr(6+?) and 64.8% were resistant to Cr(3+?). Most of the soil isolates were resistant against Cr(6+?) (83.6%) and Cr(3+?) (81.8%). All isolates were categorized into Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In a total of 114 Gram-positive isolates, 91.2% were resistant to Cr(6+?) followed by 73.7% to Cr(3+?), 42.1% to Zn(2+?), 40.4% to Cd(2+?), and 32.5% to Ni(2+?). Among Gram-negative isolates, 88.1% were found showing resistance to Cr(6+?), 75.0% to Cr(3+?), and 47.6% were resistant to Cd(2+?). Majority of these metal-resistant isolates were surprisingly found sensitive to the ten commonly used antibiotics. Out of 198 isolates, 114 were found sensitive to all antibiotics whereas only two isolates were resistant to maximum eight antibiotics at a time. Forty-one and 40 isolates which constitute 20.7% and 20.2% were resistant to methicilin and amoxicillin, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{AlamMZ2011,
  author = {Alam MZ, Ahmad S, Malik A},
  title = {Prevalence of heavy metal resistance in bacteria isolated from tannery effluents and affected soil.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {178(1-4)},
  pages = {281-91}
}
Ali MM, Murthy RC, Chandra SV Developmental and longterm neurobehavioral toxicity of low level in-utero cadmium exposure in rats. 1986 Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol.
Vol. 8(5), pp. 463-8 
article  
Abstract: The developmental and behavioral toxicity of gestational exposure to low levels of cadmium (Cd, 4.2 and 8.4 micrograms/ml in drinking water) were assessed in rats. Significant decreases in birth weight and growth rate were observed in the 8.4 micrograms Cd/ml group. The metal exposure had no effect on the ontogeny of physical landmarks, surface and air righting reflexes and visual placing, but a significant hyperactivity and delay in the development of cliff aversion and swimming behavior were observed in the neonatal pups of either treatment group. Marked decreases in the locomotor activity shuttle box performance were evident at 60 days but not at 90 days of postnatal life. The apomorphine-induced hyperactivity was not affected in these rats at either age. These data indicate that Cd exposure during the critical periods of development might result in developmental and behavioral deficits with longterm implications on adult behavior.
BibTeX:
@article{AliMM1986,
  author = {Ali MM, Murthy RC, Chandra SV},
  title = {Developmental and longterm neurobehavioral toxicity of low level in-utero cadmium exposure in rats.},
  journal = {Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol.},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {8(5)},
  pages = {463-8}
}
Alvarez MM, Chakraborty C Cadmium inhibits motility factor-dependent migration of human trophoblast cells. 2011 Toxicol In Vitro.
Vol. 25(8), pp. 1926-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: The occurrence of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is higher in infants born to mothers exposed to cadmium (Cd2+) through environmental sources such as smoking and industrial work. A contributing factor of IUGR is improper placentation. The human placenta is established through the function of a specialized group of cells known as extravillous trophoblast (EVT). Paramount among the abilities of these cells is the capacity to migrate and invade into the endometrial wall of the uterus in order to anchor the placenta and access the maternal blood supply. EVT cell migration is regulated by interactions of a number of autocrine and paracrine factors with their respective receptors on the trophoblast. In order to investigate potential involvement of environmental exposure relevant concentrations of Cd2+ exposure on placental function, we measured the effects of 0.5-1 ?mol/L CdCl2 on cellular migration in an immortalized human trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. We found that these concentrations of CdCl2 kept the cells viable until at least 48 h and didn't affect basal migratory capacity but eliminated cell migration induced by IGF-II, or PGE2 or uPA-ATF. In addition, the presence of CdCl2 resulted in filamentous actin disorganization of the trophoblast cells. However, pre-incubations of the cells with zinc-chloride (ZnCl2), or caspase inhibitor (CI-1) resulted in reversal of ligand-dependent cellular migration and actin disorganization. These findings suggest that low concentrations of Cd2+, though do not affect trophoblast cell survival can interfere with ligand-induced trophoblast cell migration by affecting actin cytoskeletal organization possibly through activation of caspase(s).
BibTeX:
@article{AlvarezMM2011,
  author = {Alvarez MM, Chakraborty C},
  title = {Cadmium inhibits motility factor-dependent migration of human trophoblast cells.},
  journal = {Toxicol In Vitro.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {25(8)},
  pages = {1926-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2011.06.016}
}
Amatya PL, Hettiaratchi JP, Joshi RC Interaction effects of metals and salinity on biodegradation of a complex hydrocarbon waste. 2006 J Air Waste Manag Assoc.
Vol. 56(2), pp. 197-205 
article  
Abstract: The presence of high levels of salts because of produced brine water disposal at flare pits and the presence of metals at sufficient concentrations to impact microbial activity are of concern to bioremediation of flare pit waste in the upstream oil and gas industry. Two slurry-phase biotreatment experiments based on three-level factorial statistical experimental design were conducted with a flare pit waste. The experiments separately studied the primary effect of cadmium [Cd(II)] and interaction effect between Cd(II) and salinity and the primary effect of zinc [Zn(II)] and interaction effect between Zn(II) and salinity on hydrocarbon biodegradation. The results showed 42-52.5% hydrocarbon removal in slurries spiked with Cd and 47-62.5% in the slurries spiked with Zn. The analysis of variance showed that the primary effects of Cd and Cd-salinity interaction were statistically significant on hydrocarbon degradation. The primary effects of Zn and the Zn-salinity interaction were statistically insignificant, whereas the quadratic effect of Zn was highly significant on hydrocarbon degradation. The study on effects of metallic chloro-complexes showed that the total aqueous concentration of Cd or Zn does not give a reliable indication of overall toxicity to the microbial activity in the presence of high salinity levels.
BibTeX:
@article{AmatyaPL2006,
  author = {Amatya PL, Hettiaratchi JP, Joshi RC},
  title = {Interaction effects of metals and salinity on biodegradation of a complex hydrocarbon waste.},
  journal = {J Air Waste Manag Assoc.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {56(2)},
  pages = {197-205}
}
Amatya PL, Hettiaratchi JP, Joshi RC Interaction effects of metals and salinity on biodegradation of a complex hydrocarbon waste. 2006 J Air Waste Manag Assoc.
Vol. 56(2), pp. 197-205 
article  
Abstract: The presence of high levels of salts because of produced brine water disposal at flare pits and the presence of metals at sufficient concentrations to impact microbial activity are of concern to bioremediation of flare pit waste in the upstream oil and gas industry. Two slurry-phase biotreatment experiments based on three-level factorial statistical experimental design were conducted with a flare pit waste. The experiments separately studied the primary effect of cadmium [Cd(II)] and interaction effect between Cd(II) and salinity and the primary effect of zinc [Zn(II)] and interaction effect between Zn(II) and salinity on hydrocarbon biodegradation. The results showed 42-52.5% hydrocarbon removal in slurries spiked with Cd and 47-62.5% in the slurries spiked with Zn. The analysis of variance showed that the primary effects of Cd and Cd-salinity interaction were statistically significant on hydrocarbon degradation. The primary effects of Zn and the Zn-salinity interaction were statistically insignificant, whereas the quadratic effect of Zn was highly significant on hydrocarbon degradation. The study on effects of metallic chloro-complexes showed that the total aqueous concentration of Cd or Zn does not give a reliable indication of overall toxicity to the microbial activity in the presence of high salinity levels.
BibTeX:
@article{AmatyaPL2006a,
  author = {Amatya PL, Hettiaratchi JP, Joshi RC},
  title = {Interaction effects of metals and salinity on biodegradation of a complex hydrocarbon waste.},
  journal = {J Air Waste Manag Assoc.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {56(2)},
  pages = {197-205}
}
Aravind P, Prasad MN Modulation of cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Ceratophyllum demersum by zinc involves ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glutathione metabolism. 2005 Plant Physiol Biochem.
Vol. 43(2), pp. 107-16 
article DOI  
Abstract: To understand the interaction between Zn, an essential micronutrient and Cd, a non-essential element, Cd-10 microM and Zn supplemented (10, 50, 100, and 200 microM) Cd 10 microM treated Ceratophyllum demersum L. (Coontail), a free floating freshwater macrophyte was chosen for the study. Cadmium at 10 microM concentration decreased thiol content, enhanced oxidation of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) to dehydroascorbate (DHA) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), respectively, a clear indication of oxidative stress. Zinc supplementation to Cd (10 microM) treated plants effectively restored thiols, inhibited oxidation of AsA and GSH maintaining the redox molecules in reduced form. Cd-10 microM slightly induced ascorbate peroxidase (APX, E.C. 1.11.1.11) but inhibited monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, E.C. 1.6.5.4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, E.C. 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, E.C. 1.6.4.2), enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle (AGC). Zn supplementation restored and enhanced the functional activity of all the AGC enzymes (APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR). Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS, E.C. 6.3.2.2) was not affected by Cd as well as Zn, but Zn supplements increased glutathione-S-transferase (GST, E.C. 2.5.1.18) activity to a greater extent than Cd and simultaneously restored glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, E.C. 1.11.1.9) activity impaired by Cd toxicity. Zn-alone treatments did not change above investigated parameters. These results clearly indicate the protective role of Zn in modulating the redox status of the plant system through the antioxidant pathway AGC and GSH metabolic enzymes for combating Cd induced oxidative stress.
BibTeX:
@article{AravindP2005,
  author = {Aravind P, Prasad MN},
  title = {Modulation of cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Ceratophyllum demersum by zinc involves ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glutathione metabolism.},
  journal = {Plant Physiol Biochem.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43(2)},
  pages = {107-16},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2005.01.002}
}
Arockia Vasanthi L, Revathi P, Arulvasu C, Munuswamy N Biomarkers of metal toxicity and histology of Perna viridis from Ennore estuary, Chennai, south east coast of India. 2012 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 84, pp. 92-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Distribution of heavy metals and its associated histological perturbations were studied in the soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and compared with the less polluted Kovalam coast. The concentration of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese and iron were quantified in gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle. The results showed marked differences between the two sites as well as significant variations within the tissues. Among the heavy metals analyzed, lead and cadmium recorded very low in the soft tissues of mussel. Heavy metal levels in tissues of mussel collected from Ennore estuary were in the order of gills>digestive gland>adductor muscle, while it was digestive gland>gills>adductor muscle in the mussel sampled from Kovalam coast. The decreasing trend of metals in the tissues of mussels sampled from both Ennore estuary and Kovalam coast was in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. Overall, the highest metal concentrations were found in the mussel collected from Ennore estuary. The metal accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Perna viridis was found to be quite high in comparison with the adductor muscle. These soft tissues were further investigated by light microscopy and the results were compared with the reference site (Kovalam coast). These results suggest that thickening of the digestive epithelium, hemocytic infiltration in the gills and myodegeneration in the muscle tissue are useful histological biomarkers for heavy metal induced stress, and demonstrate that precautions need to be taken in Ennore estuary in order to prevent heavy metal pollution that can occur in the future.
BibTeX:
@article{ArockiaVasanthiL2012,
  author = {Arockia Vasanthi L, Revathi P, Arulvasu C, Munuswamy N},
  title = {Biomarkers of metal toxicity and histology of Perna viridis from Ennore estuary, Chennai, south east coast of India.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {84},
  pages = {92-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.06.025}
}
Aslam M, Ahmad ST, Dayal R, Javid K, Umar S, Asiaf A, Nafees S, Bhat JU, Wani A, Samim M, Singh S Nephroprotective action of Peucedanum grande against cadmium chloride induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats. 2012 EXCLI J.
Vol. 11, pp. 444-52 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{AslamM2012,
  author = {Aslam M, Ahmad ST, Dayal R, Javid K, Umar S, Asiaf A, Nafees S, Bhat JU, Wani A, Samim M, Singh S},
  title = {Nephroprotective action of Peucedanum grande against cadmium chloride induced renal toxicity in Wistar rats.},
  journal = {EXCLI J.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {444-52}
}
Awasthi M, Rai LC Toxicity of nickel, zinc, and cadmium to nitrate uptake in free and immobilized cells of Scenedesmus quadricauda. 2005 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 61(2), pp. 268-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: We examined the influences of three trace metals on the accumulation of a major nutrient (NO3-) in Scenedesmus quadricauda. A comparative study on metal-nutrient interaction in free and immobilized states of algal cells was conducted. The effect due to interaction between different variables (cell state type, metal type, and metal dose) was studied to assess the variation in the nitrate uptake by free and immobilized cells. The results analyzed by ANOVA (three-way) (components: cell state type, metal type, and metal dose) confirmed that the inhibition of nitrate uptake by test metals was highly significant (P<0.001). Free and immobilized states of S. quadricauda responded differently (P<0.05, ANOVA) to the types of metal added. Uptake kinetics was studied by monitoring short-term uptake rates at different nutrient levels. Free and immobilized cells of the organism displayed noncompetitive modes of inhibition for Ni and Zn while a competitive mode of inhibition by Cd was observed in both free and immobilized states of the organism.
BibTeX:
@article{AwasthiM2005,
  author = {Awasthi M, Rai LC},
  title = {Toxicity of nickel, zinc, and cadmium to nitrate uptake in free and immobilized cells of Scenedesmus quadricauda.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {61(2)},
  pages = {268-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.12.018}
}
Babu KR, Rajmohan HR, Rajan BK, Kumar KM Plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes status in workers exposed to cadmium. 2006 Toxicol Ind Health.
Vol. 22(8), pp. 329-35 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Cadmium (Cd) is a corrosion-resistant metal, used extensively for electroplating in the automobile, electronic and aerospace industry. Only a few studies are available regarding Cd-induced oxidative stress in animals, but no reports are available regarding the effects of Cd on oxidative stress during occupational exposure.
OBJECTIVE:
The present study was carried out to determine the plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes status in workers exposed to Cd during electroplating.
METHODS:
50 subjects exposed to Cd during electroplating formed the study group. An equal number of age-sex matched subjects, working in the administrative section, formed the control group. Urinary Cd levels were determined using the flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes were determined using spectrophotometric methods.
RESULTS:
A significant increase of plasma lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels were noted in the study group compared with the control group. The level of plasma lipid peroxidation was positively and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes were negatively and significantly associated with Cd levels in urine. Multiple regression analysis assessed the oxidative stress associated with Cd and other lifestyle confounding factors, such as age, body mass index, the consumption of vegetables, coffee, tea, smoking and alcohol. Analysis showed that the lifestyle confounding factors viz; smoking, body mass index and urinary Cd levels > 5 microg/g of creatinine, were significantly associated with oxidative stress.
CONCLUSION:
The results of the present study suggest that increased plasma lipid peroxidation and decreased superoxide dismutase levels could be used as biomarkers of oxidative stress in cadmium-exposed workers.
BibTeX:
@article{BabuKR2006,
  author = {Babu KR, Rajmohan HR, Rajan BK, Kumar KM},
  title = {Plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes status in workers exposed to cadmium.},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {22(8)},
  pages = {329-35}
}
Babu MY, Palanikumar L, Nagarani N, Devi VJ, Kumar SR, Ramakritinan CM, Kumaraguru AK Cadmium and copper toxicity in three marine macroalgae: evaluation of the biochemical responses and DNA damage. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(16), pp. 9604-16 
article  
Abstract: Marine macroalgae have evolved a different mechanism to maintain physiological concentrations of essential metal ions and non-essential metals. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant response and DNA damage of copper and cadmiumions in three halophytes, namely, Acanthophora spicifera, Chaetomorpha antennina, and Ulva reticulata. Accumulation of copper was significantly higher (P??0.05). Decreases in glutathione content and fluctuations of super oxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were observed corresponding to time and concentration of exposure. Interestingly, it was also observed that antioxidant levels decreased as a result of metal accumulation, which may be due to free radicals generated by copper and cadmium in seaweeds. The present study also showed that copper and cadmium increased oxidative stress and induced antioxidant defense systems against reactive oxygen species. The order of toxicity for metals in the studied seaweeds was U. reticulata > A. spicifera > C. antennina. DNA damage index analysis supported that copper was significantly (P?
BibTeX:
@article{BabuMY2014,
  author = {Babu MY, Palanikumar L, Nagarani N, Devi VJ, Kumar SR, Ramakritinan CM, Kumaraguru AK},
  title = {Cadmium and copper toxicity in three marine macroalgae: evaluation of the biochemical responses and DNA damage.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(16)},
  pages = {9604-16}
}
Bajpai R, Waseem M, Khanna AK, Kaw JL Comparative pulmonary toxicity of cadmium and nickel: histopathological and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis. 1999 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 37(6), pp. 541-5 
article  
Abstract: Pulmonary toxicity of cadmium and nickel was evaluated in rat lungs following intratracheal instillation of their chlorides. Concentration of both the metals varied from 0.2-5 mM. Both the metals increased total number of cells, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, total protein, sialic acid and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase in bronchoalveolar lavage 3 days after exposure. Increase in the levels of the selected parameters was more following Cd exposure than in Ni exposed rats. Histologically there was an inflammatory response and interstitial fibroblastic proliferation in the lungs of Cd exposed animals. These changes were mild in Ni-exposed animals and higher concentrations of Ni were needed to produce changes similar to those produced by smaller concentrations of Cd.
BibTeX:
@article{BajpaiR1999,
  author = {Bajpai R, Waseem M, Khanna AK, Kaw JL},
  title = {Comparative pulmonary toxicity of cadmium and nickel: histopathological and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {37(6)},
  pages = {541-5}
}
Barata C, Varo I, Navarro JC, Arun S, Porte C Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna exposed to redox cycling compounds. 2005 Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 140(2), pp. 175-86 
article  
Abstract: Contaminant-related changes in antioxidative processes in the freshwater crustacea Daphnia magna exposed to model redox cycling contaminant were assessed. Activities of key antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferases and levels of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and lipofucsin pigment content were determined in D. magna juveniles after being exposed to sublethal levels of menadione, paraquat, endosulfan,cadmium and copper for 48 h. Results denoted different patterns of antioxidant enzyme responses, suggesting that different toxicants may induce different antioxidant/prooxidant responses depending on their ability to produce reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes to detoxify them. Low responses of antioxidant enzyme activities for menadione and endosulfan, associated with increasing levels of lipid peroxidation and enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme activities for paraquat, seemed to prevent lipid peroxidation, whereas high levels of both antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation were found for copper. For cadmium, low antioxidant enzyme responses coupled with negligible increases in lipid peroxidation indicated low potential for cadmium to alter the antioxidant/prooxidant status in Daphnia. Among the studied enzymes, total glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase appeared to be the most responsive biomarkers of oxidative stress.
BibTeX:
@article{BarataC2005,
  author = {Barata C, Varo I, Navarro JC, Arun S, Porte C},
  title = {Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna exposed to redox cycling compounds.},
  journal = {Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {140(2)},
  pages = {175-86}
}
Bauddh K, Singh RP Differential toxicity of cadmium to mustard (Brassica juncia L.) genotypes under higher metal levels. 2011 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 32(3), pp. 355-62 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium application inhibited various growth and biochemical parameters in seedlings of five cultivars of Brassicajuncia L. with different magnitude at lower Cd supply, however, at higher metal applications the variation in Cd toxicity ranged with minor differences. The seedling vigour index (SVI) was inhibited more severely in Gangotri (62.25% over control) and least in Pusa Jai Kisan (8.95%) at 1.0 mM CdCI2. The SVI of all five mustard cultivars, however, severely inhibited (84.29-91.80%) at 5.0 mM Cd. The root and shoot elongation in 7 days old seedlings were inhibited by 32.39-40.38 and 11.83-56.40% respectively at 1.0 mM CdCI2. whereas the varietal differences in root and shoot elongation were 76.71-82.47 and 71.57-78.91 respectively at 5.0 mM CdCI2 The genotypic differences at lower Cd level were more pronounced in shoot elongation than that in the root elongation. The dry weight and moisture content of the seedlings, however, does notshow much varietal differences even at lower Cd level, though the Cd toxicity increased at higher level of Cd application. The metal tolerance index (MTI) and % phytotoxicity of 3 days old seedlings ranged between 43.30-98.37 and 1.63-56.70% respectively at 1.0 mM CdCI2 for different mustard genotypes, whereas at 5.0 mM CdCI2 these factors ranged between 12.26-20.92 and 80.08-87.74% respectively. The varietal differences of MTI and % phytotoxicity was, however, less pronounced at all the metal levels when the seedling attained an age of 7 days. Asimilar trend of genotypic variation was noticed in Cd accumulation in the seedlings at lower and higher levels of Cd supply to the seedlings.Amongst some biochemical parameters e.g. photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates and proteins in the leaves, the photosynthetic pigments i.e. chlorophylls and carotenoids were decreased more drastically. The carbohydrate content of leaves, however, was the least affected component. Our data indicate that the differential toxicity of cadmium to Indian mustard genotypes was dependent on the level of contamination and growth phases.
BibTeX:
@article{BauddhK2011,
  author = {Bauddh K, Singh RP},
  title = {Differential toxicity of cadmium to mustard (Brassica juncia L.) genotypes under higher metal levels.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {32(3)},
  pages = {355-62}
}
Bhattacharya T, Bhattacharya S, Ray AK, Dey S Influence of industrial pollutants on thyroid function in Channa punctatus (Bloch). 1989 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 27(1), pp. 65-8 
article  
Abstract: A 30 day exposure of C. punctatus to sublethal levels of phenol, ammonia, mercuric chloride, cadmium chloride and a mixture of the four resulted in an overall activation of guaiacol peroxidase and depression of iodide peroxidase (IPOD) activity and blood T4 titre. Interestingly enough, in case of 15 day ammonia and 1 day mercury exposures, an increase of IPOD activity was accompanied by a decrease in T4 titre. In general, phenol, mercury, cadmium and the mixture of pollutants were found to inhibit LP activity by 56% to 85% while ammonia inhibited lysosomal protease (LP) activity by 70%. Alterations in acid phosphatase (AP) activity indicate changes in the lysosomal membrane characteristics caused by these toxicants. Considering the concomitant alterations in IPOD, T4, LP and AP it is surmised that thyroid function in C. punctatus is influenced by the pollutants by two pathways, one via IPOD pathway affecting T4 synthesis and the other via lysosomal pathway affecting T4 release.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaT1989,
  author = {Bhattacharya T, Bhattacharya S, Ray AK, Dey S},
  title = {Influence of industrial pollutants on thyroid function in Channa punctatus (Bloch).},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {27(1)},
  pages = {65-8}
}
Bhattacharya T, Ray AK, Bhattacharya S Blood glucose and hepatic glycogen interrelationship in Channa punctatus (Bloch): a parameter of nonlethal toxicity bioassay with industrial pollutants. 1987 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 25(8), pp. 539-41 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaT1987,
  author = {Bhattacharya T, Ray AK, Bhattacharya S},
  title = {Blood glucose and hepatic glycogen interrelationship in Channa punctatus (Bloch): a parameter of nonlethal toxicity bioassay with industrial pollutants.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {25(8)},
  pages = {539-41}
}
Bhattacharya T, Ray AK, Bhattacharya S Response of Channa punctatus (Bloch) under short and long term exposure to industrial pollutants: induction of histopathology in the kidney. 1985 Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch.
Vol. 99(2), pp. 327-34 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaT1985,
  author = {Bhattacharya T, Ray AK, Bhattacharya S},
  title = {Response of Channa punctatus (Bloch) under short and long term exposure to industrial pollutants: induction of histopathology in the kidney.},
  journal = {Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch.},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {99(2)},
  pages = {327-34}
}
Bhattacharyay G, Sadhu AK, Mazumdar A, Chaudhuri PK Antennal deformities of chironomid larvae and their use in biomonitoring of heavy metal pollutants in the river Damodar of West Bengal, India. 2005 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 108(1-3), pp. 67-84 
article  
Abstract: Analyses of sediment and water indicate the presence of heavy metal pollutants like lead, zinc, copper, mercury and cadmium of the river Damodar of India. These metals are responsible for causing morphological deformities of antennae and other parts of chironomid larvae. Percentage of deformity correlated positively with the concentrations of Pb in water and sediment (r > 0.6) at the confluence point. A new severity index, SISS((antenna)) has been proposed here to assess deformity at the family or subfamily level.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyayG2005,
  author = {Bhattacharyay G, Sadhu AK, Mazumdar A, Chaudhuri PK},
  title = {Antennal deformities of chironomid larvae and their use in biomonitoring of heavy metal pollutants in the river Damodar of West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {108(1-3)},
  pages = {67-84}
}
Bhattacharyya MH, Sacco-Gibson NA, Peterson DP Cadmium-induced bone loss: increased susceptibility in female beagles after ovariectomy. 1992 IARC Sci Publ.
Vol. 118 
article  
Abstract: Bone resorption, as measured by release of bone 45Ca, was significantly increased in elderly female beagles within 96 h of exposure to 15 mg/l cadmium in drinking-water. The 45Ca response was greater in ovariectomized animals than in sham-operated controls and was not mediated by changes in calciotropic hormone concentrations. Mean blood cadmium concentrations were 3-8 micrograms/l during the earliest bone resorption response and 13-15 micrograms/l at the end of the study. During seven months of cadmium exposure, bone mineral densities decreased most in the ovariectomized animals exposed to cadmium: -15.4 +/- 4.3% for the tibia distal end and -7.2 +/- 1.2% for the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) (mean +/- SE, n = 4). The results indicate that cadmium may act directly on bone and that postmenopausal women exposed to cadmium in industry or via cigarette smoke may be at increased risk of cadmium-induced bone loss. They also support a direct role of cadmium in the etiopathology of itai-itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyyaMH1992,
  author = {Bhattacharyya MH, Sacco-Gibson NA, Peterson DP},
  title = {Cadmium-induced bone loss: increased susceptibility in female beagles after ovariectomy.},
  journal = {IARC Sci Publ.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {118}
}
Chakraborty PK, Scharner B, Jurasovic J, Messner B, Bernhard D, Thévenod F Chronic cadmium exposure induces transcriptional activation of the Wnt pathway and upregulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in mouse kidney. 2010 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 198(1), pp. 69-76 
article  
Abstract: The transition metal cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant which damages the kidneys. Chronic Cd exposure may induce renal fibrosis and/or cancer, but the signaling pathways involved are not understood. The Wnt pathway is a key signaling cascade responsible for renal development, fibrosis and cancer. Hence the effect of chronic in vivo Cd exposure (100 mg/l drinking water for 12 weeks) on transcriptional activation of the Wnt pathway and markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was investigated in mouse kidneys. Cd exposure increased kidney Cd content from 0.023+/-0.001 microg/g to 61+/-7 microg/g wet weight (means+/-S.D. of 6-7 animals). This was accompanied by increased expression of Wnt ligands (Wnt3a/6/7a/7b/9a/9b/10a/11), as determined by RT-PCR. The Wnt receptors Frizzled (Fz1/2/4,5,7-10) were also upregulated, as were the co-receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5/6. Immunoblots with Wnt10a and Fz7 antibodies also revealed increased protein expression induced by Cd exposure. In contrast, Wnt antagonists were largely unaffected. Upregulation of Wnt signaling components induced by Cd was corroborated by increased expression of Wnt target genes, i.e. cell proliferation and survival genes c-Myc, cyclin D1 and the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein Abcb1b, which promote malignancy. Lastly the EMT markers Twist, fibronectin and collagen I, but not alpha-smooth muscle actin, were also upregulated, suggesting that Cd-induced changes of renal epithelial tissue characteristics towards fibrosis and cancer may be mediated by Wnt signaling.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyPK2010,
  author = {Chakraborty PK, Scharner B, Jurasovic J, Messner B, Bernhard D, Thévenod F},
  title = {Chronic cadmium exposure induces transcriptional activation of the Wnt pathway and upregulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in mouse kidney.},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {198(1)},
  pages = {69-76}
}
Chakraborty S, Dutta AR, Sural S, Gupta D, Sen S Ailing bones and failing kidneys: a case of chronic cadmium toxicity. 2013 Ann Clin Biochem.
Vol. 50, pp. 492-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Heavy metal toxicity is often caused by occupational exposure. Chronic cadmium toxicity is a significant health concern among workers engaged in zinc smelting, battery production and silver jewellery industries, particularly in developing countries. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who presented with severe osteoporosis, impaired renal function and acquired Fanconi syndrome. He was finally diagnosed with chronic cadmium toxicity resulting from long-term occupational exposure. Cadmium has a long biological half-life and there is no effective treatment for people who are exposed to it. Therefore, an early diagnosis and prevention of further exposure are important.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyS2013,
  author = {Chakraborty S, Dutta AR, Sural S, Gupta D, Sen S},
  title = {Ailing bones and failing kidneys: a case of chronic cadmium toxicity.},
  journal = {Ann Clin Biochem.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {492-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004563213481207}
}
Chakraborty S, Mukherjee A, Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Das TK Cadmium-induced oxidative stress tolerance in cadmium resistant Aspergillus foetidus: its possible role in cadmium bioremediation. 2014 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 106, pp. 46-53 
article DOI  
Abstract: Toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) were examined on a cadmium-resistant strain of Aspergillus foetidus isolated from wastewater. The Cd removal potential was analyzed. The results indicated that the strain could tolerate up to 25 mM and 63 mM Cd in liquid and solid Czapek-Dox media, respectively. It efficiently removed Cd from liquid growth media and industrial wastewater by mycelial biosorption. The strain produced oxalic acid for the purpose of Cd bioleaching as confirmed by the presence of cadmium oxalate crystals on the mycelial surface. Intracellular proline contents and the antioxidative enzyme activities increased up to a certain level to detoxify the overproduced free radicals. These data indicate that the strain has inherent mechanisms to grow in Cd contaminated environment, tolerate high Cd doses and high Cd uptake potential which are pre-requisite for acting as a suitable candidate for Cd bioremediation.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyS2014,
  author = {Chakraborty S, Mukherjee A, Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Das TK},
  title = {Cadmium-induced oxidative stress tolerance in cadmium resistant Aspergillus foetidus: its possible role in cadmium bioremediation.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {106},
  pages = {46-53},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.04.007}
}
Chandra R, Dass SK, Tomar P, Tiwari M Cadmium, carcinogen, co-carcinogen and anti carcinogen. 2001 Indian J Clin Biochem.
Vol. 16(2), pp. 145-52 
article DOI  
Abstract: As a stress agent, inducing apoptosis and blocking it, Cd can have both helpful and harmful effects. The atmosphere is a thin envelope which makes the worid a global village. Cd is the most toxic metal in air. As both the first and second messenger of the stress response, it is synergistically toxic with all other stressors, including many other carcinogens. Elimination of Pb and its replacement with added benzene in gasoline appears to have increased the toxicity of atmospheric Cd. With scientific understanding of the molecular basis of Cd's role in carcinogenesis and anti-carcinogenesis, primary cancer prevention can be practiced by reducing Cd and chemical air pollution and educating the public on smoke cessation, healthy eating habits and stress reduction. Using the existing information on Cd and its effects, determinations could be made on established cancers so that individualized treatment protocols can be developed to improve patient care.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandraR2001,
  author = {Chandra R, Dass SK, Tomar P, Tiwari M},
  title = {Cadmium, carcinogen, co-carcinogen and anti carcinogen.},
  journal = {Indian J Clin Biochem.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {16(2)},
  pages = {145-52},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02864853}
}
Chatterjee GC, Banerjee SK, Pal DR Cadmium administration and L-ascorbic acid metabolism in rats: effect of L-ascorbic acid supplementation. 1973 Int J Vitam Nutr Res.
Vol. 43(3), pp. 370-7 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeGC1973,
  author = {Chatterjee GC, Banerjee SK, Pal DR},
  title = {Cadmium administration and L-ascorbic acid metabolism in rats: effect of L-ascorbic acid supplementation.},
  journal = {Int J Vitam Nutr Res.},
  year = {1973},
  volume = {43(3)},
  pages = {370-7}
}
Chatterjee S, Bhattacharya S Detoxication of industrial pollutants by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase system in the liver of Anabas testudineus (Bloch). 1984 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 22(2), pp. 187-98 
article  
Abstract: The interrelationship of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver of a freshwater climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch) exposed to common industrial pollutants has been studied. In both short- and long-term treatments there was a concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione profile and an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity. It may be surmised that the majority of xenobiotics of industrial origin are detoxicated by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase pathways enabling the fish to survive exposure to the additive and/or synergistic toxicity of mixtures of poisons.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeS1984,
  author = {Chatterjee S, Bhattacharya S},
  title = {Detoxication of industrial pollutants by the glutathione glutathione-S-transferase system in the liver of Anabas testudineus (Bloch).},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {22(2)},
  pages = {187-98}
}
Chatterjee S, Kundu S, Bhattacharyya A Mechanism of cadmium induced apoptosis in the immunocyte. 2008 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 177(2), pp. 83-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium is the major component of polluted environment which can be fatal by mechanisms that are not fully clear. Our study indicates immunosupression may be one of the reason for that. It is well known that cadmium (Cd) has toxic and carcinogenic effects in rhondents and humans, but the effects of cadmium on apoptosis are still not clear. Although some studies have shown that cadmium has apoptotic potential, other studies have shown that cadmium can be anti-apoptotic. In the present study, we aimed to determine the mode of cell death and its mechanism in Swiss albino mice splenocyte by cadmium for its toxic effects. To identify the nature of cell death, our result signifies apoptotic mode of killing. In search of the mechanism behind it we found that cadmium increased cell death and lowered the survival of the host in a dose dependent manner. In search of the reason we found increased expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 in splenic lymphocytes. Here we showed that cadmium induced p53-dependent apoptosis through cooperation between Bcl-xl down regulation without changing the Bcl-2 and Bax expression, the common target of p53. The down regulation of Bcl-xl strongly indicating mitochondrial involvement in apoptosis. It is confirmed by the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. All of these findings establish an important role of p53 and mitochondrial function in cadmium induced toxic environment in the host.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeS2008,
  author = {Chatterjee S, Kundu S, Bhattacharyya A},
  title = {Mechanism of cadmium induced apoptosis in the immunocyte.},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {177(2)},
  pages = {83-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2007.12.010}
}
Chaudhari LB, Murthy ZV Separation of Cd and Ni from multicomponent aqueous solutions by nanofiltration and characterization of membrane using IT model. 2010 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 180(1-3), pp. 309-15 
article  
Abstract: Removal of heavy metals from wastewater is of critical importance due to their high toxicity and tendency to accumulate in living organisms. In the present work, performance of a nanofiltration (NF) membrane has been studied to separate cadmium and nickel ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions at different operating conditions. It is observed that the separation of cadmium and nickel ions increases with increase in applied pressure and decreases with increase in feed concentration at a constant feed flow rate. The maximum observed solutes rejection of cadmium and nickel ions are 80.57% and 85.27% for CdCl(2)-NiCl(2)-water system and 97.26% and 98.90% for CdSO(4)-NiSO(4)-water system, respectively, for an initial feed concentration of 0.005 g/L. This difference in rejection is due to the charge density of the anions. It is also observed that the order of solute rejection sequence is inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient. The NF membrane is characterized by an irreversible thermodynamics (IT) based Spiegler-Kedem model, coupled with film theory. Boundary-layer thickness and membrane transport parameters are estimated using Levenberg-Marquadt method. The estimated parameters are used to predict the membrane performance and found that the predicted values are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results.
BibTeX:
@article{ChaudhariLB2010,
  author = {Chaudhari LB, Murthy ZV},
  title = {Separation of Cd and Ni from multicomponent aqueous solutions by nanofiltration and characterization of membrane using IT model.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {180(1-3)},
  pages = {309-15}
}
Chopra RK, Kohli KK, Nath R Effect of dietary chronic cadmium exposure on cell-mediated immune response in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). 1984 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 23(1) 
article  
Abstract: Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were daily exposed orally to cadmium (Cd) at 5 mg/kg body wt in diet for a period of 2 and 6 months. Significant amount of Cd accumulated in liver, kidney and spleen after its exposure to monkeys. Cell mediated immune response was assessed by the responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Even after 6 months of exposure, Cd increased DNA synthesis, although not significantly, in unstimulated and mitogen stimulated lymphocytes. Stimulation Index (SI), however, decreased largely due to increased unstimulated [( 3H]thymidine incorporation) observed after Cd exposure. It, therefore, indicates that Cd is not immunosuppressive in primates, phylogenetically closer to humans.
BibTeX:
@article{ChopraRK1984,
  author = {Chopra RK, Kohli KK, Nath R},
  title = {Effect of dietary chronic cadmium exposure on cell-mediated immune response in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {23(1)}
}
Choudhury H, Harvey T, Thayer WC, Lockwood TF, Stiteler WM, Goodrum PE, Hassett JM, Diamond GL Urinary cadmium elimination as a biomarker of exposure for evaluating a cadmium dietary exposure--biokinetics model. 2001 J Toxicol Environ Health A.
Vol. 63(5), pp. 321-50 
article  
Abstract: The Cadmium Dietary Exposure Model (CDEM) utilizes national survey data on food cadmium concentrations and food consumption patterns to estimate dietary intakes in the U.S. population. The CDEM has been linked to a modification of the cadmium biokinetic model of Kjellström and Nordlberg (KNM) to derive predictions of kidney and urinary cadmium that reflect U.S. dietary cadmium intake and related variability. Variability in dietary cadmium intake was propagated through the KNM using a Monte Carlo approach. The model predicts a mean peak kidney cadmium burden of approximately 3.5 mg and a 5th-95th percentile range of 2.2-5.1 mg in males. The corresponding peak renal cortex cadmium concentration in males is 15 microg/g wet cortex (10-22, 5th-95th percentile). Predicted kidneycadmium levels in females were higher than males: 5.1 (3.3-7.6) mg total kidney, 29 (19-43) microg/g wet cortex. Predicted urinarycadmium in males and females agreed with empirical estimates based on the NHANES III, with females predicted and observed to excrete approximately twice the amount of cadmium in urine than males. An explanation for the higher urinary cadmium excretion in females is proposed that is consistent with the NHANES III data as well as experimental studies in humans and animals. Females may absorb a larger fraction of ingested dietary cadmium than males, and this difference may be the result of lower iron body stores in females compared to males. This would suggest that females may be at greater risk of developing cadmium toxicity than males. The predicted 5th-95th percentile values for peak kidney cadmium burden are approximately 60% of the peak kidney burden (8-11 mg) predicted for a chronic intake at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) chronic reference dose of 1 microg/kg-d.
BibTeX:
@article{ChoudhuryH2001,
  author = {Choudhury H, Harvey T, Thayer WC, Lockwood TF, Stiteler WM, Goodrum PE, Hassett JM, Diamond GL},
  title = {Urinary cadmium elimination as a biomarker of exposure for evaluating a cadmium dietary exposure--biokinetics model.},
  journal = {J Toxicol Environ Health A.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {63(5)},
  pages = {321-50}
}
Choudhury H, Mudipalli A Potential considerations & concerns in the risk characterization for the interaction profiles of metals. 2008 Indian J Med Res.
Vol. 128(4), pp. 462-83 
article  
Abstract: The contaminants of concern for smelting and mining sites include arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Risk assessments for such sites need to consider whether toxicity values can be developed for this mixture, and if not, whether interactions among the individual components are significant and can be incorporated quantitatively into the assessment. No information is available for the risk characterization of the toxic interactions of AsCdPbZn mixtures. Studies of the AsCdPb and CdPbZn mixtures supported the assumption that a reasonable approximation to the toxicity of a mixture can be achieved by considering the binary submixtures. Data relevant to long-term simultaneous exposure to binary submixtures were not conclusive. For example, data from animal and human studies of Zn and Pb suggested that moderately elevated Zn intakes may slightly inhibit Pb absorption and haematological effects in children who have deficient or marginal Zn intakes, but were not adequate for adjusting absorption parameters in the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for Pb. Thus the existing database calls for plausible approaches for risk characterization and considerations in the data usage for such characterization. This article is an attempt to identify such data gaps and the scientific considerations for such efforts.
BibTeX:
@article{ChoudhuryH2008,
  author = {Choudhury H, Mudipalli A},
  title = {Potential considerations & concerns in the risk characterization for the interaction profiles of metals.},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {128(4)},
  pages = {462-83}
}
Chowdhury BA, Chandra RK Biological and health implications of toxic heavy metal and essential trace element interactions. 1987 Prog Food Nutr Sci.
Vol. 11(1), pp. 55-113 
article  
Abstract: Human civilization and a concomitant increase in industrial activity has gradually redistributed many toxic metals from the earth's crust to the environment and increased the possibility of human exposure. Among the various toxic elements, heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury are specially prevalent in nature due to their high industrial use. These metals serve no biological function and their presence in tissues reflects contact of the organism with its environment. They are cumulative poison, and are toxic even at low dose. Studies of metabolism and toxicity of these elements have revealed important interactions between them and some essential dietary elements like calcium, zinc, iron, selenium, copper, chromium, and manganese. In general, a deficiency of these essential elements increases toxicityof heavy metals, whereas an excess appears to be protective. While most of the observations are on laboratory animals, limited human data are in agreement with the results of animal experiments. These suggest that the dietary presence of the essential elements may contribute to the protection of man and animal from the effects of heavy metal exposure, while their deficiency may increase toxicity. Appropriate dietary manipulation thus may be valuable in the prevention and treatment of heavy metal toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryBA1987a,
  author = {Chowdhury BA, Chandra RK},
  title = {Biological and health implications of toxic heavy metal and essential trace element interactions.},
  journal = {Prog Food Nutr Sci.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {11(1)},
  pages = {55-113}
}
Chowdhury BA, Friel JK, Chandra RK Cadmium-induced immunopathology is prevented by zinc administration in mice. 1987 J Nutr.
Vol. 117(10), pp. 1788-94 
article  
Abstract: Six-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 50 mg cadmium/L drinking water (50 ppm) for 3 wk, and killed at 0, 3 and 6 wk after cessation of treatment. In some groups, 500 mg zinc/L was added to the drinking water (500 ppm) with or after cadmium treatment. The number of direct and indirect splenic plaque-forming cells was higher in cadmium-treated mice at 0 wk than in untreated controls. Concurrent zinc administration prevented the enhancement of plaque-forming cell response. Proliferative response of spleen cell culture to the T-cell mitogens phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A was slightly high in cadmium-treated mice at 0 wk and zinc administered after exposure to cadmium tended to lower it. The number of Lyt-2 positive cells in the spleen was lower and the ratio of L3T4 to Lyt-2 positive cells, reflecting the balance of immunoregulatory T-lymphocytes, was higher after cadmium treatment than in untreated controls. Concurrent zinc administration prevented the alteration of T-cell subsets. Cadmium and zinc treatment had no effect on liver, kidney, spleen and thymus weights and lymphocyte content of spleen, thymus and peripheral blood. Use of immunofluorescence with anti-mouse IgG and C3 showed no evidence of an autoimmune reaction in kidney sections. Liver and kidney cadmium concentrations were high at all observation times in the cadmium-treated animals. Tissue cadmium levels were lower in mice treated with both zinc and cadmium than in those treated with cadmium alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryBA1987,
  author = {Chowdhury BA, Friel JK, Chandra RK},
  title = {Cadmium-induced immunopathology is prevented by zinc administration in mice.},
  journal = {J Nutr.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {117(10)},
  pages = {1788-94}
}
Chowdhury MJ, Wood CM Renal function in the freshwater rainbow trout after dietary cadmium acclimation and waterbornecadmium challenge. 2007 Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 145(3), pp. 321-32 
article  
Abstract: Renal function was examined in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after chronic exposure to a sublethal level of dietary Cd (500 mg/kg diet) for 52 d and during a subsequent challenge to waterborne Cd (10 microg/L) for 72 h. Dietary Cd had no major effects on UFR (urine flow rate) and GFR (glomerular filtration rate) but caused increased renal excretion of glucose, protein, and major ions (Mg(2+), Zn(2+), K(+), Na(+), Cl(-) but Ca(2+)). However, dietary Cd did not affect any plasma ions except Na(+) which was significantly elevated in the Cd-acclimated trout. Plasma glucose and ammonia levels fell by 25% and 36% respectively, but neither plasma nor urine urea was affected in Cd-acclimated fish. Dietary Cd exposure resulted in a remarkable increase of Cd load in the plasma (48-fold, approximately 22 ng/mL) and urine (60-fold, 8.9 ng/mL), but Cd excretion via the kidney was negligible on a mass-balance basis. Clearance ratio analysis indicates that all ions, Cd, and metabolites were reabsorbed strongly (58-100%) in both naïve and dietary Cd exposed fish, except ammonia which was secreted in both groups. Mg(2+), Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) reabsorption decreased significantly (3-15%) in the Cd-exposed fish relative to the control. Following waterborne Cd challenge, GFR and UFR were affected transiently, and only Mg(2+) and protein excretion remained elevated with no recovery with time in Cd-acclimated trout. Urinary Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) excretion rates dropped with an indication of renal compensation towards plasma declines of both ions. Cadmium challenge did not cause any notable effects on urinary excretion rates of metabolites. However, a significant decrease in Mg(2+) reabsorption but an increase in total ammonia secretion was observed in the Cd-acclimated fish. The study suggests that dietary Cd acclimation involves physiological costs in terms of renal dysfunction and elevated urinary losses.
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryMJ2007,
  author = {Chowdhury MJ, Wood CM},
  title = {Renal function in the freshwater rainbow trout after dietary cadmium acclimation and waterbornecadmium challenge.},
  journal = {Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {145(3)},
  pages = {321-32}
}
Jain CK Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of River Yamuna, India. 2004 Water Res.
Vol. 38(3), pp. 569-78 
article DOI  
Abstract: The pollution of aquatic ecosystem by heavy metals has assumed serious proportions due to their toxicity and accumulative behavior. The toxicity and fate of the water borne metal is dependent on its chemical form and therefore quantification of the different forms of metal is more meaningful than the estimation of its total metal concentrations. In this study fractionation of metal ions on bed sediments of River Yamuna has been studied to determine the eco-toxic potential of metal ions. The investigations suggest that copper have a tendency to remain associated with residual, reducible and carbonate fractions. The Risk Assessment Code reveal that about 30-50% of lead at most of the sites exist in exchangeable fraction while 30-50% of cadmium at almost all the sites is either exchangeable or carbonate bound and therefore comes under the high risk category and can easily enter the food chain. Most of the copper is in immobile fraction at Delhi while at other sites, a sizable portion (10-30%) is found in carbonate fraction thus posing medium risk for the aquatic environment. Fractionation pattern of zinc shows low to medium risk to aquatic environment.
BibTeX:
@article{CK2004,
  author = {Jain CK},
  title = {Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of River Yamuna, India.},
  journal = {Water Res.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {38(3)},
  pages = {569-78},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2003.10.042}
}
Damodaran D, Balakrishnan RM, Shetty VK The uptake mechanism of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) by mycelia and fruiting bodies of Galerina vittiformis. 2013 Biomed Res Int.  article  
Abstract: Optimum concentrations of heavy metals like copper, cadmium, lead, chromium, and zinc in soil are essential in carrying out various cellular activities in minimum concentrations and hence help in sustaining all life forms, although higher concentration of these metals is lethal to most of the life forms. Galerina vittiformis, a macrofungus, was found to accumulate these heavy metals into its fleshy fruiting body in the order Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cr(VI) from 50 mg/kg soil. It possesses various ranges of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in detoxification of heavy metals and thus increases its tolerance to heavy metal stress, mainly by producing organic acids and phytochelatins (PCs). These components help in repairing stress damaged proteins and compartmentalisation of metals to vacuoles. The stress tolerance mechanism can be deduced by various analytical tools like SEM-EDX, FTIR, and LC-MS. Production of two kinds of phytochelatins was observed in the organism in response to metal stress.
BibTeX:
@article{DamodaranD2013,
  author = {Damodaran D, Balakrishnan RM, Shetty VK},
  title = {The uptake mechanism of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) by mycelia and fruiting bodies of Galerina vittiformis.},
  journal = {Biomed Res Int.},
  year = {2013}
}
De J, Sarkar A, Ramaiah N Bioremediation of toxic substances by mercury resistant marine bacteria. 2006 Ecotoxicology.
Vol. 15(4), pp. 385-9 
article  
Abstract: Bioremediation of toxic substances includes microbe-mediated enzymatic transformation of toxicants to non-toxic, often assimilable, forms. Mercury-resistant marine bacteria are found to be very promising in dealing with mercury, and a host of other highly toxic heavy metals and xenobiotics. In the present studies we have shown that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa CH07 (NRRL B-30604) has been able to degrade a variety of PCB congeners including a complete degradation of CB-126 and CB-181. The culture was able to remove over 70% Cd from growth medium when supplemented with 100 ppm Cd. The same bacterium rapidly biotransformed/removed toxic mercury from wastewater in a bioreactor system.
BibTeX:
@article{DeJ2006,
  author = {De J, Sarkar A, Ramaiah N},
  title = {Bioremediation of toxic substances by mercury resistant marine bacteria.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicology.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {15(4)},
  pages = {385-9}
}
Deshpande A, Bhendigeri S, Shirsekar T, Dhaware D, Khandekar RN Analysis of heavy metals in marine fish from Mumbai Docks. 2009 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 159(1-4), pp. 493-500 
article DOI  
Abstract: Seafood containing heavy metals as a result of environmental contamination causes toxicity in human beings. To evaluate such kind of contamination, our study targeted the analysis of metals such as lead, copper, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic in muscle tissue of the fish. The fish commonly consumed such as Brama brama (Pomfret), Rachycentron canadus (Surmai/King Fish), Rastrelliger kanagurta (Mackerel), Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Ravas/Indian salmon), and Metapenaeus monoceros (Brown Prawn) were collected from four different docks in the city. The heavy metals in tissue samples of fish were estimated using voltammeter and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metal concentration in the tissues varied significantly depending upon the locations from where the fish were collected. Although the concentration of arsenic, copper, cadmium, and lead were in normal range, the concentration of mercury was found to exceed the daily permissible levels (1 microg/g) as a food source for human consumption. We have analyzed heavy metals from different locations in Mumbai-Versova dock, Sassoon dock, Navi Mumbai dock, and Mazgaon dock.
BibTeX:
@article{DeshpandeA2009,
  author = {Deshpande A, Bhendigeri S, Shirsekar T, Dhaware D, Khandekar RN},
  title = {Analysis of heavy metals in marine fish from Mumbai Docks.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {159(1-4)},
  pages = {493-500},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0645-3}
}
Dhiman A, Nanda A, Ahmad S Metal analysis in citrus sinensis fruit peel and psidium guajava leaf. 2011 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 18(2), pp. 163-7 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{DhimanA2011,
  author = {Dhiman A, Nanda A, Ahmad S},
  title = {Metal analysis in citrus sinensis fruit peel and psidium guajava leaf.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18(2)},
  pages = {163-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.84271}
}
Dixit P, Mukherjee PK, Ramachandran V, Eapen S Glutathione transferase from Trichoderma virens enhances cadmium tolerance without enhancing its accumulation in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum. 2011 PLoS One.
Vol. 6(1) 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd.
RESULTS:
Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants.
CONCLUSION:
The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and in limiting Cd availability in the food chain.
BibTeX:
@article{DixitP2011,
  author = {Dixit P, Mukherjee PK, Ramachandran V, Eapen S},
  title = {Glutathione transferase from Trichoderma virens enhances cadmium tolerance without enhancing its accumulation in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.},
  journal = {PLoS One.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6(1)}
}
Verma DK Metals in the lungs of Ontario hardrock miners. 2013 Arch Environ Occup Health.
Vol. 68(3), pp. 180-3 
article  
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of nickel, cadmium, and lead in the autopsied lungs of 29 hardrock miners. It involved chemical analysis of the lungs, where each lung was divided horizontally into 3 sections and analyzed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace. The grand mean levels of nickel, cadmium, and lead were found to be 1.84, 1.74, and 2.75 ?g/g of dry tissue, respectively. The effect of smoking was also examined. The ratios using the mean values between smoker and nonsmoker for nickel, cadmium, and lead were found to be 0.7, 5.4, and 1.4, respectively. The level of cadmium in smokers was significantly higher than nonsmokers. This study provides an estimate of retained metals in the lungs of the Ontario hardrock miners as a result of occupational exposure to hardrock mining environment.
BibTeX:
@article{DK2013,
  author = {Verma DK},
  title = {Metals in the lungs of Ontario hardrock miners.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Occup Health.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {68(3)},
  pages = {180-3}
}
Dogra RK, Murthy RC, Srivastava AK, Gaur JS, Shukla LJ, Varmani BM Cattle mortality in the Thane district, India: a study of cause/effect relationships. 1996 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 30(2), pp. 292-7 
article  
Abstract: An unexpected mortality of more than 300 cattle was investigated near a metal recovery factory located in a rural area of the Thane district of India. The factory was engaged in reclaiming lead, aluminum, tin, and zinc from discarded lead storage batteries and soft drink cans. The environmental samples (soil, leaves, grass, slag, water, and sediment), human blood and hair and animal samples (blood, urine, peritoneal fluid, liver, kidney, cow dung, ribs, and femur), collected for analysis revealed toxic levels of lead, cadmium, and chromium. Clinical examination of factory workers and school children revealed cough, fever, gastric problems, abdominal pain, skin lesions (scabies), and blue line on gums. Histopathological examination of animal tissues revealed chronic pathology with lead inclusion bodies in hepatocytes and renal tubules. Based on environmental, clinical, analytical, and histopathological observations, the mortality has been attributed to toxic levels of metals in the body and the malnourished status of the animals.
BibTeX:
@article{DograRK1996,
  author = {Dogra RK, Murthy RC, Srivastava AK, Gaur JS, Shukla LJ, Varmani BM},
  title = {Cattle mortality in the Thane district, India: a study of cause/effect relationships.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {30(2)},
  pages = {292-7}
}
Dogra S, Khanna AK, Waseem M, Kaw JL Tissue cadmium and locomotor behavior following acute inhalation exposure to cadmium aerosol in rats. 2001 Vet Hum Toxicol.
Vol. 43(3), pp. 176-8 
article  
Abstract: Rats were exposed for 1 h to increasing concentrations of cadmium (Cd) through inhalation of cadmium chloride aerosol using nose-only inhalation chambers and depositions of Cd in lungs, liver and kidneys were measured. Changes in spontaneous locomotor activities were recorded 2 and 7 d after cessation of exposure. A concentration dependent increase in Cd in lungs, liver and kidneys was accompanied by significant alterations in spontaneous locomotor response that was dependent on the air Cd concentrations and the postexposure duration. The study shows decreased spontaneous locomotor activity due to Cd accumulation in tissues.
BibTeX:
@article{DograS2001,
  author = {Dogra S, Khanna AK, Waseem M, Kaw JL},
  title = {Tissue cadmium and locomotor behavior following acute inhalation exposure to cadmium aerosol in rats.},
  journal = {Vet Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {43(3)},
  pages = {176-8}
}
Dubey S, Shri M, Misra P, Lakhwani D, Bag SK, Asif MH, Trivedi PK, Tripathi RD, Chakrabarty D Heavy metals induce oxidative stress and genome-wide modulation in transcriptome of rice root. 2014 Funct Integr Genomics.
Vol. 14(2), pp. 401-17 
article  
Abstract: Industrial growth, ecological disturbances and agricultural practices have contaminated the soil and water with many harmful compounds, including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect growth and development of plants as well as cause severe human health hazards through food chain contamination. In past, studies have been made to identify biochemical and molecular networks associated with heavy metal toxicity and uptake in plants. Studies suggested that most of the physiological and molecular processes affected by different heavy metals are similar to those affected by other abiotic stresses. To identify common and unique responses by different metals, we have studied biochemical and genome-wide modulation in transcriptome of rice (IR-64 cultivar) root after exposure to cadmium (Cd), arsenate [As(V)], lead (Pb) and chromium [Cr(VI)] in hydroponic condition. We observed that root tissue shows variable responses for antioxidant enzyme system for different heavy metals. Genome-wide expression analysis suggests variable number of genes differentially expressed in root in response to As(V), Cd, Pb and Cr(VI) stresses. In addition to unique genes, each heavy metal modulated expression of a large number of common genes. Study also identified cis-acting regions of the promoters which can be determinants for the modulated expression of the genes in response to different heavy metals. Our study advances understanding related to various processes and networks which might be responsible for heavy metal stresses, accumulation and detoxification.
BibTeX:
@article{DubeyS2014,
  author = {Dubey S, Shri M, Misra P, Lakhwani D, Bag SK, Asif MH, Trivedi PK, Tripathi RD, Chakrabarty D},
  title = {Heavy metals induce oxidative stress and genome-wide modulation in transcriptome of rice root.},
  journal = {Funct Integr Genomics.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {14(2)},
  pages = {401-17}
}
Dutta S, Kamat M, Gole D Comparison of effects of ozone, cadmium chloride and carbon tetrachloride on [14C]antipyrine metabolism in conscious rats. 1987 J Appl Toxicol.
Vol. 7(2), pp. 97-103 
article  
Abstract: Previously, Graham et al. found evidence that pentobarbital-induced sleeping time was enhanced in various animals following exposure to 1 ppm of ozone in air. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether similar ozone exposure would cause inhibition of metabolism of another model drug, [14C]antipyrine, in conscious rats. Furthermore, this study also investigated whether, like that of ozone, other lipid-peroxidizing agents such as cadmium and carbon tetrachloride would affect metabolism of [14C]antipyrine in conscious rats. The results showed no significant effect of ozone exposure on subsequent metabolism of [14C]antipyrine in conscious rats as revealed by very similar 14CO2 exhalation rate (CER)-time profiles before and after ozone treatment under various exposure protocols. Even though the exposure to ozone caused no inhibition of antipyrine metabolism in conscious rats, cadmium and carbon tetrachloride, on the other hand, markedly inhibited metabolism of this model drug. In agreement with the reported sex-difference in toxic effects ofcadmium, during the present study the cadmium-induced inhibitory effect on the CER-time profiles was observed in male but not in female rats. In contrast, no clear sex-dependency was noted in the inhibitory effect of carbon tetrachloride on [14C]antipyrine metabolism.
BibTeX:
@article{DuttaS1987,
  author = {Dutta S, Kamat M, Gole D},
  title = {Comparison of effects of ozone, cadmium chloride and carbon tetrachloride on [14C]antipyrine metabolism in conscious rats.},
  journal = {J Appl Toxicol.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {7(2)},
  pages = {97-103}
}
Garrett SH, Park S, Sens MA, Somji S, Singh RK, Namburi VB, Sens DA Expression of metallothoinein isoform 3 is restricted at the post-transcriptional level in human bladder epithelial cells. 2005 Toxicol Sci.
Vol. 87(1), pp. 66-74 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study was designed to define the effect that overexpression of MT-3 would have on a cell culture model of bladder urothelium. Stable and inducible transfection was used to achieve overexpression of the MT-3 gene in the UROtsa cell line. When the UROtsa cells were stably transfected with the MT-3 coding sequence, there was highly elevated expression of MT-3 mRNA, but no MT-3 protein. An inducible vector showed that low basal levels of MT-3 mRNA and protein could be produced, but that induction only increased MT-3 mRNA and not protein. The clones expressing low basal levels of MT-3 protein also had reduced growth rates compared to control cells. Site directed mutagenesis was used to produce an MT-3 coding sequence where the prolines in positions 7 and 9 were converted to threonines. When this altered MT-3 was stably transfected into the UROtsa cells, the cells were able to accumulate the mutated form of the MT-3 protein. These studies show that MT-3 protein expression is inhibited by post-transcriptional control in the urothelial cell. Modifying the MT-3 protein to resemble the MT-1 isoform removes this component of post-transcriptional control and allows accumulation of the mutated MT-3 protein. The altered sequence involved in post-transcriptional control of MT-3 protein expression is the same sequence implicated in the neuronal growth inhibitory activity associated specifically with the MT-3 isoform of the MT gene family.
BibTeX:
@article{GarrettSH2005,
  author = {Garrett SH, Park S, Sens MA, Somji S, Singh RK, Namburi VB, Sens DA},
  title = {Expression of metallothoinein isoform 3 is restricted at the post-transcriptional level in human bladder epithelial cells.},
  journal = {Toxicol Sci.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {87(1)},
  pages = {66-74},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfi231}
}
Gill SS, Khan NA, Tuteja N Differential cadmium stress tolerance in five indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars: an evaluation of the role of antioxidant machinery. 2011 Plant Signal Behav.
Vol. 6(2), pp. 293-300 
article  
Abstract: The presence of Cadmium (Cd) in the agricultural soils affects horticultural cultivars and constrains the crop productivity. A pot experiment was performed using five cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) to evaluate the difference in their response to Cd toxicityunder greenhouse conditions. The pots containing reconstituted soil were supplied with different concentration of CdCl2 (0, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg Cd kg-1 soil). Increasing concentration of Cd in the soil resulted in decreased growth, photosynthesis and yield. Maximum significant reduction in growth, photosynthesis and yield were observed with 150 mg Cd kg-1 soil in all the cultivars. Our results indicate that the cultivar Alankar is found to be more tolerant to Cd stress, recording higher plant dry mass, net photosynthesis rate, associated with high antioxidant activity and low Cd content in the plant leaves and thus less oxidative damage. Cultivar RH 30 experienced maximum damage in terms of reduction in growth, photosynthesis, yield characteristics and oxidative damage and emerged as sensitive cultivar. The data of tolerance index of Alankar were found to be higher among all tested mustard cultivars which indicate its higher tolerance to Cd. Better coordination of antioxidants protected Alankar from Cd toxicity, whereas lesser antioxidant activity in RH 30 resulted in maximum damage. Cultivars of mustard were ranked with respect to their tolerance to Cd: Alankar > Varuna > Pusa Bold > Sakha > RH 30, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{GillSS2011,
  author = {Gill SS, Khan NA, Tuteja N},
  title = {Differential cadmium stress tolerance in five indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars: an evaluation of the role of antioxidant machinery.},
  journal = {Plant Signal Behav.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6(2)},
  pages = {293-300}
}
Gopalakrishnan S, Thilagam H, Raja PV Comparison of heavy metal toxicity in life stages (spermiotoxicity, egg toxicity, embryotoxicity and larval toxicity) of Hydroides elegans. 2008 Chemosphere.
Vol. 71(3), pp. 515-28 
article  
Abstract: A toxicity test was developed to examine the effects of heavy metal contaminants on the early life stages of the marine polychaete. We have studied the effects of metals on fertilization and early development of marine polychaete Hydroides elegans. These heavy metals have often been found in polluted ground and water near industrial discharges, and have therefore been detected from time to time in the food chain. They have been reported to alter various reproduction functions in various animals including marine populations. The toxic effect of mercury, cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc on sperm viability, fertilization, embryogenesis and larvae of H. elegans was examined. We observed that the rate of fertilization decreased when the sperm was incubated with heavy metals. Treatment of eggs with each metal did not prevent fertilization, but delayed or blocked the first mitotic divisions, and altered early embryonic development. All these effects were observed at relatively high concentrations. However, bio-accumulation in sediments and aquatic organisms have been reported. Polychaete eggs may then be in contact with very high concentrations of these heavy metals in areas where these metals are not handled or stocked properly, and then develop into abnormal embryos. In addition to bivalves and sea-urchins, polychaete embryos can provide biological criteria for seawater quality standards taking into account the sensitivity of the invertebrates and their contribution in detection of harmful chemicals with no marked effect on the species. Our results indicate that the early development of H. elegans is highly sensitive to heavy metals and this polychaete can be routinely employed as a test organism for ecotoxicity bioassays in tropical and subtropical regions.
BibTeX:
@article{GopalakrishnanS2008,
  author = {Gopalakrishnan S, Thilagam H, Raja PV},
  title = {Comparison of heavy metal toxicity in life stages (spermiotoxicity, egg toxicity, embryotoxicity and larval toxicity) of Hydroides elegans.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {71(3)},
  pages = {515-28}
}
Gupta BN, Mathur AK Toxicity of heavy metals (a review). 1983 Indian J Med Sci.
Vol. 37(12), pp. 236-40 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaBN1983,
  author = {Gupta BN, Mathur AK},
  title = {Toxicity of heavy metals (a review).},
  journal = {Indian J Med Sci.},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {37(12)},
  pages = {236-40}
}
Gurjar BR, Mohan M Integrated risk analysis for acute and chronic exposure to toxic chemicals. 2003 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 103(1-2), pp. 25-40 
article  
Abstract: The traditional practice to assess and evaluate different types of risk in isolation to each other are liable to give erroneous results. Integrated risk assessment is an answer to overcome this problem. This paper presents the cumulative or integrated assessment of acute risk posed by accidental release of hazardous chemical (e.g. chlorine) and chronic risk induced by toxic chemicals (e.g. cadmium, chromium and nickel) present in the ambient environment. The present study has been carried out in a most simplified way to demonstrate and appreciate the broader context of integrated risk analysis (IRA). It has been observed that the inclusion of background risk factors (BRF) in individual risk factors (IRF) related to an industry may significantly alter the siting and planning strategies of that industry.
BibTeX:
@article{GurjarBR2003,
  author = {Gurjar BR, Mohan M},
  title = {Integrated risk analysis for acute and chronic exposure to toxic chemicals.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {103(1-2)},
  pages = {25-40}
}
Gurjar BR, Mohan M, Sidhu KS Potential health risks related to carcinogens in the atmospheric environment in India. 1996 Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 24(2 Pt 1), pp. 141-8 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GurjarBR1996,
  author = {Gurjar BR, Mohan M, Sidhu KS},
  title = {Potential health risks related to carcinogens in the atmospheric environment in India.},
  journal = {Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {24(2 Pt 1)},
  pages = {141-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/rtph.1996.0119}
}
Harikumar PS, Nasir UP Ecotoxicological impact assessment of heavy metals in core sediments of a tropical estuary. 2010 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 73(7), pp. 1742-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Down core variation of heavy metals in three sediment cores from Cochin estuary was studied. The average concentration of iron, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury in each slices of sediment was determined. Quality of the sediments were evaluated based on sediment quality guidelines, pollution load index, and sum of toxic units and with effect range low/effect range median and threshold effect level/probable effect level values of environmental protection agency guidelines. The degree of contamination for each station was determined. The results of the study revealed higher concentration of heavy metals in surface layers than in deeper ones. The concentration of heavy metals in some stations exceeded the effect range median levels, which represents a probable effect range with in which adverse biological effects frequently occur. The spatial variation of heavy metals showed more contamination in the downstream at Pathalam industrial site. Statistical analysis showed that the correlation among different parameters differs with respect to stations. The present study highlighted severe heavy metal contamination of Cochin estuary with increased rate of deposition.
BibTeX:
@article{HarikumarPS2010,
  author = {Harikumar PS, Nasir UP},
  title = {Ecotoxicological impact assessment of heavy metals in core sediments of a tropical estuary.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {73(7)},
  pages = {1742-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.08.022}
}
Jadhav SH, Sarkar SN, Aggarwal M, Tripathi HC Induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of male rats subchronically exposed to a mixture of eight metals found as groundwater contaminants in different parts of India. 2007 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 52(1), pp. 145-51 
article  
Abstract: Exposure of animals and humans to different metal components through contaminated drinking water can result in a wide range of adverse clinical conditions. Toxicological consequences arising from the concurrent repeated exposure to multiple metal contaminants are not known. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress-inducing potential of a mixture of eight metals (arsenic,cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese, iron), representative of groundwater contamination in different areas of India, in erythrocytes of male rats subchronically exposed to environmentally relevant doses via drinking water. The selection of these metals, as determined by literature survey of groundwater contamination in India, was primarily based on the frequency of their occurrence and contamination level above World Health Organization maximum permissible limit (MPL) in drinking water. Male albino Wistar rats were exposed to the metal mixture at 0, 1, 10, and 100 times the mode concentrations (the most frequently occurring concentration) of the individual metals in drinking water for 90 days. In addition, one group of rats was also exposed to the mixture at a concentration equal to the MPL of individual components. The oxidative stress in erythrocytes was evaluated by assessing the magnitude of malondialdehyde production and reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) after 30, 60, and 90 days of exposure. MPL and 1x dose levels did not cause any changes. The mixture at 10x and 100x doses caused dose- and time-dependent effects. After 30 days, the 10x dose did not cause any changes except increase in SOD activity. The 100x dose increased the activities of SOD, catalase and GR and the GSH level, but caused no alterations in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and GPx activity. After 60 days, the 10x dose did not cause any changes. The 100x dose increased LPO and decreased all the antioxidant parameters, except GSH. After 90 days, both 10x and 100x levels elevated LPO. The 10x dose decreased GSH level and activities of SOD and catalase, but not of GPx and GR, whereas the 100x dose decreased all the antioxidative systems. Overall, the present study demonstrates that the subchronic exposure of male rats to the mixture of metals via drinking water results in induction of oxidative stress and concomitant reduction in antioxidative defense system in erythrocytes at 10 and 100 times the mode concentrations of the individual metals in contaminated groundwater.
BibTeX:
@article{JadhavSH2007,
  author = {Jadhav SH, Sarkar SN, Aggarwal M, Tripathi HC},
  title = {Induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of male rats subchronically exposed to a mixture of eight metals found as groundwater contaminants in different parts of India.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {52(1)},
  pages = {145-51}
}
Jadhav SH, Sarkar SN, Patil RD, Tripathi HC Effects of subchronic exposure via drinking water to a mixture of eight water-contaminating metals: a biochemical and histopathological study in male rats. 2007 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 53(4), pp. 667-77 
article  
Abstract: In the current study, we examined whether subchronic exposure via drinking water to low doses of a mixture of metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, manganese, iron, and nickel), found as contaminants in various water sources of India, and to concentrations equivalent to WHO maximum permissible limits (MPL) in drinking water for individual metals, can alter systemic physiology of male rats. Data on water contamination with metals in India were collected from the literature and metals were selected on the basis of their frequency of occurrence and contamination level above MPL. Male Wistar rats were exposed to the mixture at 0, 1, 10, and 100 times the mode concentrations (the most frequently occurring concentration) of the individual metals via drinking water for 90 days. One more group of rats was exposed to the mixture at a concentration equivalent to the MPL (WHO) in drinking water for individual metals. Toxic potential of the mixture was evaluated by assessing general toxicological end points, serum chemistry and histopathology of vital organs. The mixture decreased body weight and water consumption and increased weights of brain, liver, and kidneys with 10x and 100x doses. After 30 days of exposure, no appreciable changes were found in any blood clinical markers. After 60 days, only the 100x dose, while after 90 days both 10x and 100x doses increased activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine and decreased total protein and albumin levels, but alanine aminotransferase activity and glucose level were not affected. At 10x and 100x exposure levels, qualitatively similar, but dose-dependent vascular, degenerative, and necrotic changes were observed in brain, liver, and kidney. The results indicate that subchronic exposure to the metal mixture affected general health of male rats by altering the functional and structural integrity of kidney, liver, and brain at 10 and 100 times the mode concentrations of the individual metals in Indian water sources, but exposure at mode concentrations of contemporary water contamination levels or at concentrations equivalent to the MPL for individual metals in drinking water may not cause any health hazards in male rats.
BibTeX:
@article{JadhavSH2007a,
  author = {Jadhav SH, Sarkar SN, Patil RD, Tripathi HC},
  title = {Effects of subchronic exposure via drinking water to a mixture of eight water-contaminating metals: a biochemical and histopathological study in male rats.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {53(4)},
  pages = {667-77}
}
Jadhav SH, Sarkar SN, Ram GC, Tripathi HC Immunosuppressive effect of subchronic exposure to a mixture of eight heavy metals, found as groundwater contaminants in different areas of India, through drinking water in male rats. 2007 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 53(3), pp. 450-8 
article  
Abstract: Immunotoxicity is an important health hazard of heavy metal exposure. Because the risk of combined exposure in the population cannot be neglected, we examined whether subchronic exposure to a mixture of metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese, and iron) via drinking water at contemporary Indian groundwater contamination levels and at concentrations equivalent to the WHO maximum permissible limit (MPL) in drinking water can induce immunotoxicity in male rats. Data on groundwater contamination with metals in India were collected from literature and metals were selected on the basis of their frequency of occurrence and contamination level above the MPL. Male albino Wistar rats were exposed to the mixture at 0, 1, 10, and 100 times the mode concentrations (the most frequently occurring concentration) of the individual metals in drinking water for 90 days. In addition, one group was exposed to the mixture at a concentration equal to the MPL of the individual metal and another group was used as positive control for immune response studies. The end points assessed were weights of organs, hematological indices, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and histopathology of skin and spleen. The MPL and 1x doses did not significantly affect any of the parameters and none of the doses induced any significant changes after 30 days of exposure. The mixture at 10x and 100x doses increased the relative weight of the spleen, but that of thymus, adrenals, and popliteal lymphnodes were increased with the 100x dose. After 90 days, 10x and 100x doses decreased serum protein and globulin contents and increased the albumin:globulin ratio; the albumin level was decreased only with the 100x dose. After 60 days, the total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) level, and packed cell volume (PCV) were decreased with the 100x dose, whereas after 90 days, 10x and 100x doses reduced the TEC, total leukocyte count, Hb level, PCV, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. With the 100x dose, the lymphocyte count was decreased after 60 and 90 days, but the neutrophil number was increased after 90 days. Antibody titer was decreased after 75 days with the 100x dose, but after 90 days, it was decreased with both the 10x and 100x doses. In delayed-type hypersensitivity response, these two doses decreased ear thickness after 24 and 48 h and skin biopsies showed a dose-dependent decrease in inflammatory changes. Histologically, the spleen revealed depletion of lymphoid cells and atrophic follicles with reduced follicular activity with higher doses. The findings suggest that hematopoietic and immune systems are toxicologically sensitive to the mixture, which could lead to anemia and suppression of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in male rats at 10 and 100 times the mode concentrations of the individual components in contaminated groundwater.
BibTeX:
@article{JadhavSH2007b,
  author = {Jadhav SH, Sarkar SN, Ram GC, Tripathi HC},
  title = {Immunosuppressive effect of subchronic exposure to a mixture of eight heavy metals, found as groundwater contaminants in different areas of India, through drinking water in male rats.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {53(3)},
  pages = {450-8}
}
Jain CK, Rao VV, Prakash BA, Kumar KM, Yoshida M Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of Hussainsagar Lake, Hyderabad, India. 2010 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 166(1-4), pp. 57-67 
article DOI  
Abstract: Hussainsagar Lake in the heart of Hyderabad City (India) receives toxic substances through five streams draining from a catchment area of 245 km(2). Of particular interest are heavy metals received from urban runoff as well as municipal sewage and industrial effluents. Heavy metals entering the lake get adsorbed onto the suspended sediments, which eventually settle down in the bottom of the lake. In this study, fractionation of metal ions has been studied on the bed sediments of Hussainsagar Lake in order to determine the ecotoxic potential of metal ions. Comparison of sediments with average shale values indicated anthropogenic enrichment with copper, nickel, lead,cadmium, and zinc. The risk assessment code as applied to the present study reveals that 10-17% of manganese, 10-18% of nickel, 14-24% of chromium, 10-19% of lead, 21-30% of cadmium, and 18-28% of zinc exist in exchangeable fraction and, therefore, comes under medium risk category and may enter into food chain. The association of these metals with the exchangeable fraction may cause deleterious effects to aquatic life. The present database will help in formulating guidelines for carrying out dredging operations under restoration programs in the Hussainsagar Lake.
BibTeX:
@article{JainCK2010,
  author = {Jain CK, Rao VV, Prakash BA, Kumar KM, Yoshida M},
  title = {Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of Hussainsagar Lake, Hyderabad, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {166(1-4)},
  pages = {57-67},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-0984-8}
}
Jonah MM, Bhattacharyya MH Early changes in the tissue distribution of cadmium after oral but not intravenous cadmium exposure. 1989 Toxicology.
Vol. 58(3), pp. 325-38 
article  
Abstract: The kinetics of 109Cd distribution in tissues of male and female mice were measured at intervals of 5 min to 15 days after oral (100 micrograms Cd/kg; by gavage) or intravenous (1 micrograms Cd/kg; i.v.) administration of 109CdCl2. Unexpectedly, the ratio of 109Cd in liver to that in kidneys was greater than or equal to 10 within 1 h after administration by either route. However, after 4 h, route-dependent differences in distribution between liver and kidney became apparent. In mice receiving oral cadmium, the liver:kidney 109Cd ratio decreased with time to approximately 4 at 72 h after gavage. In contrast, in mice receiving IV cadmium, the liver:kidney 109Cd ratio remained high and relatively constant during the same time period. The time-dependent decrease in the liver:kidney 109Cd ratio after oralcadmium administration was caused by a 4-5-fold increase in cadmium content of the kidney that occurred between 30 min and 72 h after oral but not i.v. administration. During this time, there was no change in cadmium distribution in subcellular fractions of either liver or kidney. These results could be explained by the existence of 2 separate pathways for cadmium deposition after oral exposure. Early after exposure, cadmium may leave the intestine, bind to serum albumins or other high molecular weight proteins, and accumulate primarily in liver, as is also observed after IV cadmium administration. With time, cadmium may leave the intestinal mucosa bound to metallothionein and deposit primarily in the kidney. The different pathways of deposition after oral vs. i.v. exposure may in part explain why acute parenteral cadmium exposure causes liver toxicity, but chronic oral exposure causes renal toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{JonahMM1989,
  author = {Jonah MM, Bhattacharyya MH},
  title = {Early changes in the tissue distribution of cadmium after oral but not intravenous cadmium exposure.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {58(3)},
  pages = {325-38}
}
Jose S, Jayesh P, Mohandas A, Philip R, Bright Singh IS Application of primary haemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon in the assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of heavy metals and pesticides. 2011 Mar Environ Res.
Vol. 71(3), pp. 169-77 
article DOI  
Abstract: Lack of shrimp cell lines has hindered the study of pollutants which adversely affects shrimp health and its export value. In this context a primary haemocyte culture developed from Penaeus monodon was employed for assessing the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two heavy metal compounds, cadmium chloride and mercuric chloride and two organophosphate insecticides, malathion and monocrotophos. Using MTT assay 12 h IC(50) values calculated were 31.09 ± 16.27 ?M and 5.52 ± 1.16 ?M for cadmium chloride and mercuric chloride and 59.94 ± 52.30 mg l(-1) and 186.76 ± 77.00 mg l(-1) for malathion and monocrotophos respectively. Employing Comet assay, DNA damage inflicted by these pollutants on haemocytes were evaluated and the pollutants induced DNA damage in >60% of the cells. The study suggested that haemocyte culture could be used as a tool for quantifying cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aquaculture drugs, management chemicals and pollutants.
BibTeX:
@article{JoseS2011,
  author = {Jose S, Jayesh P, Mohandas A, Philip R, Bright Singh IS},
  title = {Application of primary haemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon in the assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of heavy metals and pesticides.},
  journal = {Mar Environ Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {71(3)},
  pages = {169-77},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2010.12.008}
}
Kalariya NM, Wills NK, Ramana KV, Srivastava SK, van Kuijk FJ Cadmium-induced apoptotic death of human retinal pigment epithelial cells is mediated by MAPK pathway. 2009 Exp Eye Res.
Vol. 89(4), pp. 494-502 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd), released from cigarette smoke and metal industrial activities, is known to accumulate in human body organs including retina and is particularly higher in retinal tissues of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes compared to non-AMD eyes. We have determined the cytotoxic effects of Cd on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Upon Cd treatment, there was a dose- and time-dependent decline in ARPE-19 cell viability as well as early apoptotic changes such as altered mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and Cytochrome C release in cytosol. Depletion of GSH by buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in increased Cd toxicity in ARPE-19 cells. Cadmium also caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), and p38 in ARPE-19 cells. Antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly reduced Cd-induced toxicity. These results indicate that elevated ROS-induced activation of the MAPK signaling pathway could be associated with Cd-induced RPE cell apoptosis, one of the major contributing factors in AMD. The toxic effects of Cd on ARPE-19 cells indicate that environmental heavy metals such as Cd could be important potential factors in RPE cells death associated retinal diseases particularly related to smoking.
BibTeX:
@article{KalariyaNM2009,
  author = {Kalariya NM, Wills NK, Ramana KV, Srivastava SK, van Kuijk FJ},
  title = {Cadmium-induced apoptotic death of human retinal pigment epithelial cells is mediated by MAPK pathway.},
  journal = {Exp Eye Res.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {89(4)},
  pages = {494-502},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2009.05.011}
}
Kamiya T, Izumi M, Hara H, Adachi T Propolis suppresses CdCl?-induced cytotoxicity of COS7 cells through the prevention of intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. 2012 Biol Pharm Bull.
Vol. 35(7) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KamiyaT2012,
  author = {Kamiya T, Izumi M, Hara H, Adachi T},
  title = {Propolis suppresses CdCl?-induced cytotoxicity of COS7 cells through the prevention of intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation.},
  journal = {Biol Pharm Bull.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {35(7)}
}
Karmakar R, Bhattacharya R, Chatterjee M Biochemical, haematological and histopathological study in relation to time-related cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. 2000 Biometals.
Vol. 13(3), pp. 231-9 
article  
Abstract: In the present investigation sub-chronic hepatic necrosis was induced by cadmium chloride and was examined biochemically, haematologically and histopathologically in order to study the time-dependent effect and correlation among the parameters. Male Balb/c mice were injected with cadmium chloride (2.5 mg/kg bw s.c.) for each other day and, sacrificed on the 7th day, 14th day and 21th day post exposure. Body weight and relative liver weight did not show alteration at any of the time point following the treatment but the tissuecadmium level showed progressive significant increment values with the advancement of time exposure. Most of the biochemical parameters (total protein, DNA, RNA, cytochrome P450 cotents, alkaline phosphatase and UDP glucuronyl transferase activities), haematological parameters (total red blood cells, total white blood cell, differential white blood cell counts, haemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, plasma protein) indicated either no or less on the alterations/7th day following cadmium exposure. Both the light and transmission electron microscopy, on the other hand, indicated the fact that a minimum of 21 day-exposure was needed to alter the cellular architecture. So, a certain amount of cadmium load might be required to adversely affect the cellular architecture preceeded by biochemical and haematological alterations. In this connection, in the present study a possible mechanism of cadmium-induced hepatoxicity was discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{KarmakarR2000,
  author = {Karmakar R, Bhattacharya R, Chatterjee M},
  title = {Biochemical, haematological and histopathological study in relation to time-related cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.},
  journal = {Biometals.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {13(3)},
  pages = {231-9}
}
Karthikeyan J, Bavani G Effect of cadmium on lactate dehyrogenase isoenzyme, succinate dehydrogenase and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in liver tissue of rat. 2009 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 30(5 Suppl), pp. 895-8 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium is known to be an environmental and industrial pollutant. Exposure to cadmium is known to affect various tissues. The purpose of this study is to determine the toxic effects of cadmium on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes. Administration of cadmiumchloride (3 mg kg(-1)) resulted in the reduction of LDH4 fraction of liver tissue indicating the inhibitory effect of cadmium. The LDH1 LDH3 and LDH5 fractions showed decreasing trend initially but there was a significant increase later In contrast the LDH2 fraction showed increasing trend after 24 hr from the last dosage it was elevated after 30 days. The total activity of LDH in liver showed gradual reduction in both groups. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) the mitochondrial enzyme has been observed to be inhibited by cadmiumwith the possibility of interfering with energy transport mechanism. Na(+)- K(+)-ATPase activity of liver also showed similar decrease aftercadmium administration which may lead to general deficit in cell membrane transport. As cadmium shows drastic decrease in all the enzymes studied, the LDH2 fraction which sharply rises from the control may be used as a marker enzyme to asses the liver injury.
BibTeX:
@article{KarthikeyanJ2009,
  author = {Karthikeyan J, Bavani G},
  title = {Effect of cadmium on lactate dehyrogenase isoenzyme, succinate dehydrogenase and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in liver tissue of rat.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(5 Suppl)},
  pages = {895-8}
}
Kaushal RK, Nema AK Multi-stakeholder decision analysis and comparative risk assessment for reuse-recycle oriented e-waste management strategies: a game theoretic approach. 2013 Waste Manag Res.
Vol. 31(9), pp. 881-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: This article deals with assessment of the potential health risk posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances, namely lead (Pb),cadmium (Cd), copper, chromium (CrVI), zinc, nickel and mercury, present in e-waste. A multi-objective, multi-stakeholder approach based on strategic game theory model has been developed considering cost, as well as human health risk. The trade-off due to cost difference between a hazardous substances-free (HSF) and a hazardous substance (HS)-containing desktop computer, and the risk posed by them at the time of disposal, has been analyzed. The cancer risk due to dust inhalation for workers at a recycling site in Bangalore for Pb, Cr(VI) and Cd was found to be 4, 33 and 101 in 1 million respectively. Pb and Cr(VI) result in a very high risk owing to dust ingestion at slums near the recycling site--175 and 81 in 1 million for children, and 24 and 11 in 1 million for adults respectively. The concentration of Pb at a battery workshop in Mayapuri, Delhi (hazard quotient = 3.178) was found to pose adverse health hazards. The government may impose an appropriate penalty on the land disposal of computer waste and/or may give an incentive to manufacturer for producing HSF computers through, for example, relaxing taxes, but there should be no such incentive for manufacturing HS-containing computers.
BibTeX:
@article{KaushalRK2013,
  author = {Kaushal RK, Nema AK},
  title = {Multi-stakeholder decision analysis and comparative risk assessment for reuse-recycle oriented e-waste management strategies: a game theoretic approach.},
  journal = {Waste Manag Res.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {31(9)},
  pages = {881-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X13490983}
}
Khanna S, Lakhera PC, Khandelwal S Interplay of early biochemical manifestations by cadmium insult in sertoli-germ coculture: an in vitro study. 2011 Toxicology.
Vol. 287(1-3), pp. 46-53 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium is a common environmental and occupational hazard and its adverse effect on reproductive organ has been well documented. The present study is planned to delineate the mechanism of Cd toxicity in rat testes. Our study shows that Cd causes apoptosis in sertoli-germ cells which is governed by oxidative stress. We assayed ROS, GSH and MMP to ensure the role of oxidative stress, further confirmed it by thiol modulators. The initial biochemical response shown in sertoli-germ cells was a significant rise in intracellular calcium followed by a drastic fall in MMP and then ROS generation. The downstream events included cytochrome c release leading to caspase-3 activation and culminating in cell death via apoptosis. Furthermore Cd disrupted the spermatogenic pathway as evident by suppression in tesmin and LDH-X levels.
BibTeX:
@article{KhannaS2011,
  author = {Khanna S, Lakhera PC, Khandelwal S},
  title = {Interplay of early biochemical manifestations by cadmium insult in sertoli-germ coculture: an in vitro study.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {287(1-3)},
  pages = {46-53}
}
Kim J, Sharma RP Cadmium-induced apoptosis in murine macrophages is antagonized by antioxidants and caspase inhibitors. 2006 J Toxicol Environ Health A.
Vol. 69(12), pp. 1181-201 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that accumulates in the environment and is commonly found in cigarette smoke and industrial effluents. This study was designed to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and its antagonism by antioxidants, incadmium-mediated cell signaling and apoptosis in murine macrophage cultures. Cadmium-generated ROS production was observed in J774A.1 cells at 6 h, reverting to control levels at 16 and 24 h. The ROS production was concentration related between 20 and 500 microM cadmium. Activation of caspase-3 was observed at 8 h and DNA fragmentation at 16 h in the presence of 20 microM cadmium, suggesting that caspase-3 activation is a prior step to DNA fragmentation in cadmium-induced apoptosis. Inhibitors of caspase-3, -8, -9, and a general caspase inhibitor suppressed cadmium-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis indicating the importance of caspase-3 in cadmium-induced toxicity in these cells. Protection against the oxidative stress with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and silymarin (an antioxidant flavonoid) blocked cadmium-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cells with NAC and silymarin prevented cadmium-induced cell injury, including growth arrest, mitochondrial impairment, and necrosis, and reduced the cadmium-elevated intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), suggesting that the oxidative stress is a source of increased [Ca2+]i. NAC inhibited cadmium-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, the c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). However, silymarin provided only a partial protection for JNK activation, and only at the low concentration did it inhibit cadmium-induced ERK activation. Inhibition of caspase-3 protected oxidative stress produced by cadmium, suggesting that the activation of caspase-3 also contributes to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results emphasized the role of ROS, Ca2+ and mitogen-activated protein kinases in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in murine macrophages.
BibTeX:
@article{KimJ2006,
  author = {Kim J, Sharma RP},
  title = {Cadmium-induced apoptosis in murine macrophages is antagonized by antioxidants and caspase inhibitors.},
  journal = {J Toxicol Environ Health A.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {69(12)},
  pages = {1181-201}
}
Kim J, Sharma RP Calcium-mediated activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and apoptosis in response to cadmiumin murine macrophages. 2004 Toxicol Sci.
Vol. 81(2), pp. 518-27 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium is a well-known carcinogenic and immunotoxic metal commonly found in cigarette smoke and industrial effluent. An altered intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) level has been implicated in the pathophysiology of immune dysfunction. The present study was designed to determine the possible involvement of calcium (Ca(2+)) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways on cadmium-induced cell death in J774A.1 murine macrophage cells. Cadmium caused a low-amplitude [Ca(2+)](i) elevation at 20 microM and rapid and high-amplitude [Ca(2+)](i) elevation at 500 microM. Exposure to cadmium dose-dependently induced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and deactivated p38 MAPK. Use of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 suggested that activation of JNK is pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic. Buffering of the calcium response with 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxy-methyl) ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) completely blocked cadmium-induced apoptotic response. The pretreatment of cells with BAPTA-AM and EGTA suppressed the cadmium-induced cell injury, including growth arrest, mitochondrial activity impairment, and necrosis, and it also recovered the cadmium-altered JNK and p38 MAPK activity. Chelating [Ca(2+)](i) also reversed cadmium-induced hydrogen peroxide generation, suggesting that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is related to [Ca(2+)](i). The present study showed that cadmium induces a [Ca(2+)](i)-ROS-JNK-caspase-3 signaling pathway leading to apoptosis. Furthermore, cadmium-induced [Ca(2+)](i) regulates phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of JNK and p38, and it modulates signal transduction pathways to proliferation, mitochondrial activity, and necrosis.
BibTeX:
@article{KimJ2004,
  author = {Kim J, Sharma RP},
  title = {Calcium-mediated activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and apoptosis in response to cadmiumin murine macrophages.},
  journal = {Toxicol Sci.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {81(2)},
  pages = {518-27}
}
Klaassen CD1, Liu J, Choudhuri S Metallothionein: an intracellular protein to protect against cadmium toxicity. 1999 Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol.
Vol. 39, pp. 267-94 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KlaassenCD11999,
  author = {Klaassen CD1, Liu J, Choudhuri S},
  title = {Metallothionein: an intracellular protein to protect against cadmium toxicity.},
  journal = {Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {267-94},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.39.1.267}
}
Kumar P, Prasad Y, Patra AK, Swarup D Levels of cadmium and lead in tissues of freshwater fish (Clarias batrachus L.) and chicken in Western UP (India). 2007 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 79(4), pp. 396-400 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KumarP2007,
  author = {Kumar P, Prasad Y, Patra AK, Swarup D},
  title = {Levels of cadmium and lead in tissues of freshwater fish (Clarias batrachus L.) and chicken in Western UP (India).},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {79(4)},
  pages = {396-400}
}
Kumar R, Agarwal AK, Seth PK Oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity of cadmium. 1996 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 89(1), pp. 65-9 
article  
Abstract: Young albino rats were administered cadmium i.p. (0.4 mg/kg body weight) for a period of 30 days and membrane fluidity, intracellular calcium level, MDA level, phospholipids, (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin) and reduced glutathione were studied in olfactory bulb, cerebellum and rest of brain. A decrease in membrane fluidity was observed in all the brain regions studied, maximum being in olfactory bulb (21%). Intracellular calcium (Ca+2)i level was increased significantly in olfactory bulb (150%) followed by rest of brain (98%) and cerebellum (71%) in Cd-exposed rats in comparison with controls. A significant decrease in phosphatidylcholine (27%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (22%) was observed in olfactory bulb, while other phospholipids remained unaffected. TBA reactivity was increased in olfactory bulb (77%), cerebellum (35%) and rest of brain (27%). Reduced glutathione level was also decreased in different brain regions. The results suggest that the effect of cadmium in brain is region-specific and most pronounced in olfactory bulb.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarR1996,
  author = {Kumar R, Agarwal AK, Seth PK},
  title = {Oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity of cadmium.},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {89(1)},
  pages = {65-9}
}
Kumar S, Sharma V, Bhoyar RV, Bhattacharyya JK, Chakrabarti T Effect of heavy metals on earthworm activities during vermicomposting of municipal solid waste. 2008 Water Environ Res.
Vol. 80(2), pp. 154-61 
article  
Abstract: The effect of heavy metals on the activities of earthworm species Eudrillus eugineae was studied during vermicomposting of municipal solid waste (MSW) spiked with heavy metals. The activities of earthworms, in terms of growth and biomass production and number of cocoons produced, were monitored periodically, and the concentration of heavy metals in earthworms and substrates was determined at definite intervals. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed by mixing individual heavy metals in MSW. Copper, cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc were selected for the study. The study concludes that heavy metals tend to accumulate in the body of earthworms; hence, the inherent concentration of heavy metals in the substrate before vermicomposting must be considered in view of composting of MSW and its application to soil. It was observed that copper and cadmium were toxic for the worms at 1.5 and 0.1 g/kg of the waste, respectively. The studies also suggest that earthworms are susceptible to the free form of heavy metals. Cadmium is the most toxic metal, followed by copper. Based on the investigation and observation, it was also found that earthworms should be separated from castings before the use of castings in soil amendments.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS2008,
  author = {Kumar S, Sharma V, Bhoyar RV, Bhattacharyya JK, Chakrabarti T},
  title = {Effect of heavy metals on earthworm activities during vermicomposting of municipal solid waste.},
  journal = {Water Environ Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {80(2)},
  pages = {154-61}
}
Kumar SV, Bhattacharya S In vitro toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and arsenic to platelet aggregation: influence of adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activity. 2000 In Vitr Mol Toxicol.
Vol. 13(2), pp. 137-44. 
article DOI  
Abstract: In vitro effect of mercury (Hg2+), cadmium (Cd2+), and arsenic (As3+) on adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in relation to platelet aggregation (PA) was studied in rats. Cd(2+) significantly elevated cAMP (p < 0.005) in a dose-dependent (5, 10 and 20 pmoles) manner while Hg(2+) and As(3+) significantly reduced the cAMP level (p < 0.01 and p < 0.005, respectively). Our studies further reveal that Hg21 and As(3+) inhibit AC and stimulate PDE activity with a concomitant increase in the rate of PA. On the other hand, Cd(2+) stimulates AC and inhibits PDE activity with a decrease in the rate of PA. The present investigation suggests that cellular cAMP is a regulatory molecule in the event of PA and the disruption of its homeostasis is directly correlated to xenobiotic effects on PA. It is concluded that other than divalent heavy metal cations, As(3+) appears to be one of the most toxic xenobiotics to platelet function.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarSV2000,
  author = {Kumar SV, Bhattacharya S},
  title = {In vitro toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and arsenic to platelet aggregation: influence of adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activity.},
  journal = {In Vitr Mol Toxicol.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {13(2)},
  pages = {137-44.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/109793300440721}
}
Kundu S, Sengupta S, Bhattacharyya A EGFR upregulates inflammatory and proliferative responses in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549), induced by lower dose of cadmium chloride. 2011 Inhal Toxicol.
Vol. 23(6), pp. 339-48 
article  
Abstract: Exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of pulmonary damage such as emphysema and lung cancer. This metal is also a powerful inducer of different proinflammatory and cell cycle regulatory proteins in many biologic models. Previously, we showed that prolonged exposure of low concentration of cadmium resulted in upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and cell cycle regulatory molecules in mice lung cell. The present study was undertaken to determine molecular mechanism of inflammation and its relation to cell proliferation in a transformed human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549) in response to cadmium chloride. In comparative studies, we examine that short-duration exposure to lower doses of cadmium significantly increase the growth of A549 cells, whereas higher doses are toxic and cause cell death. We also observed that cadmium induced elevated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) along with different proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The possible occurrence of cell proliferation events was evaluated via analysis of the physical state of the DNA and the expression of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We also checked the pattern of expression of different cell cycle regulatory molecules involved in the onset of cell proliferation. Our results indicate that cadmium treatment appears to induce inflammatory and growth responses in transformed A549 cell line by activating EGFR and its downstream modulators. These results may contribute to better understand the toxic mechanism of cadmium; moreover, the expression profile of cadmium-induced regulatory molecules could provide potential biomarkers for cadmium exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{KunduS2011,
  author = {Kundu S, Sengupta S, Bhattacharyya A},
  title = {EGFR upregulates inflammatory and proliferative responses in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549), induced by lower dose of cadmium chloride.},
  journal = {Inhal Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {23(6)},
  pages = {339-48}
}
Lohiya NK, Arya M, Shivapuri VS The effects of cadmium chloride on testis and epididymis of the Indian Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus entellus Dufresne. 1976 Acta Eur Fertil.
Vol. 7(4), pp. 339-48 
article  
Abstract: Administration of single sub-lethal dose (12 mg/kg body wt.) of cadmium chloride neutralizes endogenous hormonal activity in th male Indian Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus entellus), resulting in a marked decrease in the production of androgens and subsequent reduction in the weights of sex accessory glands. Cadmium chloride in low dose (4 mg/kg body wt.) failed to bring about any significant change in the weights of excised tissue but did change biochemical composition and histo-architecture of testes. A significant increase in the concentration of testicular cholesterol was observed after the treatment. Decrease in the sialic acid concentration, total lipids and acid phosphatase activity of testis was associated with the degenerative changes of the spermatogenic elements. Reduced fructose and sialic acid concentration in the seminal vesicle of cadmium chloride treated animals indicate an inhibition of androgen production. Our results show that sialic acid epididymis is not androgen dependent in langurs. It is suggested that cadmium induced biochemical and histological changes in the testes and epididymides are dose dependent.
BibTeX:
@article{LohiyaNK1976,
  author = {Lohiya NK, Arya M, Shivapuri VS},
  title = {The effects of cadmium chloride on testis and epididymis of the Indian Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus entellus Dufresne.},
  journal = {Acta Eur Fertil.},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {7(4)},
  pages = {339-48}
}
Mathur N, Bhatnagar P, Nagar P, Bijarnia MK Mutagenicity assessment of effluents from textile/dye industries of Sanganer, Jaipur (India): a case study. 2005 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 61(1), pp. 105-13 
article  
Abstract: Sanganer town, district Jaipur (Rajasthan, India), is famous worldwide for its dyeing and printing industries. There are about 400 industries involved in textile printing processes, which discharge effluents into nearby ponds and drains, without any treatment. These effluents contain highly toxic dyes, bleaching agents, salts, acids, and alkalis. Heavy metals like cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, and iron are also found in the dye effluents. Textile workers are exposed to such waters with no control over the length and frequency of exposure. Further, as the untreated effluents are discharged into the environment they can cause severe contamination of surface and underground water. Environmental pollution caused by such textile effluents results in adverse effects on flora, fauna, and the general health of not only the textile workers, but also the residents of Sanganer town. Therefore, to assess the possible genotoxic health risk and environmental genotoxicity due to the textile industry effluents, this study was carried out using the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. The results clearly indicate that the effluents and the surface water of Amani Shah drainage have high mutagenic activity. Further, the drainage water and the dry bed of the drainage (during summer months) are not fit for agricultural or other recreational purposes. A low level of mutagenicity in the underground water of Sanganer again emphasizes the grave pollution problem existing in the area. Multiple post hoc comparison tests (LSD, Tukey's) were used for comparison of sample site, dose, and length of exposure. Quadratic Model was found to adequately fit the observed data.
BibTeX:
@article{MathurN2005,
  author = {Mathur N, Bhatnagar P, Nagar P, Bijarnia MK},
  title = {Mutagenicity assessment of effluents from textile/dye industries of Sanganer, Jaipur (India): a case study.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {61(1)},
  pages = {105-13}
}
Memon S, Pratten M Effects of multivitamins and known teratogens on chick cardiomyocytes micromass culture assay. 2013 Iran J Basic Med Sci.
Vol. 16(9), pp. 996-1003. 
article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE(S):
This study aimed to find out whether the chick cardiomyocyte micromass (MM) system could be employed to predict the teratogenecity of common environmental factors. Different multivitamins and over the counter drugs were used in this study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
White Leghorn 5-day-old embryo hearts were dissected and trypsinized to produce a cardiomyocyte cell suspension in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. The cultures were incubated at 37(0)C in 5% CO2 in air, and observations were made at 24, 48 and 144 hr, for the detection of cell beating. Cellular viability was assessed using the resazurin assay and cell protein content was assessed by the kenacid blue assay. It was observed that while not affecting total cell number folic acid, vitamin C, sodium fluoride and ginseng did not significantly reduced cell activity and beating. However cadmium chloride significantly reduced the beating, cell viability and cell protein content in micromass cultures.
RESULTS:
The results demonstrate the potential of the chick cardiomyocyte MM culture assay to identify teratogens/embryotoxins that alter morphology and function, which may result in either teratogenic outcome or cytotoxicity.
CONCLUSION:
This could form part of a screen for developmental toxicity related to cardiac function.
BibTeX:
@article{MemonS2013,
  author = {Memon S, Pratten M},
  title = {Effects of multivitamins and known teratogens on chick cardiomyocytes micromass culture assay.},
  journal = {Iran J Basic Med Sci.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {16(9)},
  pages = {996-1003.}
}
Bhattacharyya MH Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: mechanisms and relationship to human exposures. 2009 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 238(3), pp. 258-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.
BibTeX:
@article{MH2009,
  author = {Bhattacharyya MH},
  title = {Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: mechanisms and relationship to human exposures.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {238(3)},
  pages = {258-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.05.015}
}
Milton Prabu S, Muthumani M, Shagirtha K Quercetin potentially attenuates cadmium induced oxidative stress mediated cardiotoxicity and dyslipidemia in rats. 2013 Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.
Vol. 17(5), pp. 582-95 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Cadmium is one of the potent cardiotoxic heavy metals in the environment, which induces oxidative stress, dyslipidemia and membrane disturbances in heart. Quercetin is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger against oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of quercetin (QE) on cardiac marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation products, lipid profile, membrane bound ATPases and antioxidant status in cadmium (Cd)-intoxicated rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Twenty four male albino rats were used. Cadmium induced oxidative cardiotoxicity was induced by the oral administration of Cd for four weeks. Quercetin was pretreated along with Cd for four weeks to assess its cardioprotective effect against Cd intoxication. Rats treated with vehicles alone were used as controls.
RESULTS:
Rats intoxicated with cadmium (5 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks in combination with quercetin (50 mg/kg/day) respectively. Cd-induced cardiotoxicity and dyslipidemia was indicated by increased activities of marker enzymes such as creatine kinase-MB, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. In addition, the levels of lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyl contents in heart were significantly (p < 0.05) increased and the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in the heart and non-enzymic antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamin C and E in the heart were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in Cd intoxicated rats. The levels total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipidis (PL), free fatty acids (FFA), LDL and VLDL were significantly (p < 0.05) increased and the level of HDL was significantly decreased in the serum of Cd-treated rats. Cd intoxication also increased the levels of TC, TG and FFA and decreased the level of PL in the heart tissue. Further Cd treatment significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the levels of membrane bound ATP ases in heart. QE treatment along with Cd showed significant protective effect on all the biochemical parameters studied. Histopathological findings of QE and Cd treated heart confirmed the biochemical findings of this study. Thus, QE protects the myocardium against Cd-induced oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in rats.
CONCLUSIONS:
Quercetin may be beneficial in combating the cadmium induced oxidative cardiotoxicity and dyslipidemia in rats.
BibTeX:
@article{MiltonPrabuS2013,
  author = {Milton Prabu S, Muthumani M, Shagirtha K},
  title = {Quercetin potentially attenuates cadmium induced oxidative stress mediated cardiotoxicity and dyslipidemia in rats.},
  journal = {Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {17(5)},
  pages = {582-95}
}
Milton Prabu S, Shagirtha K, Renugadevi J Quercetin in combination with vitamins (C and E) improves oxidative stress and renal injury in cadmiumintoxicated rats. 2010 Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.
Vol. 14(11), pp. 903-14 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The aim of the present study was to determine if the combination therapy of quercetin along with vitamins (C and E) has any advantage over the cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative stress and renal injury in rats. They were analysed serum and urinary markers of renal damage (urea, uric acid, creatinine and creatinine clearance), renal oxidative stress indices (thio barbituric acid reactive substances: TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and protein carbonyls (PC), renal non-enzymatic [reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulphydryl groups (TSH)], vitamin-C and vitamin-E, enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase, GST)], glutathione metabolizing enzymes [glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, (G6PD)] and histological changes in kidney.
RESULTS:
Cd intoxication significantly (P > 0.05) increased the levels of serum nephritic markers (urea, uric acid, creatinine) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the urea, uric acid and creatinine in urine and serum creatinine clearance. It also significantly (P > 0.05) increased renal oxidative stress markers and significantly (P > 0.05) decreased renal non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants status and severely increased the histo-pathological changes when compared to normal control rats. Cd intoxicated rats pre-treated with quercetin (QE) alone and QE along with vitamin-C (VC) and vitamin-E (VE) significantly ameliorated Cd induced anomalies in renal biochemical and histological indices.
CONCLUSION:
The ameliorative effect against Cd intoxication was much pronounced in rats treated with QE along with vitamins C and E.
BibTeX:
@article{MiltonPrabuS2010,
  author = {Milton Prabu S, Shagirtha K, Renugadevi J},
  title = {Quercetin in combination with vitamins (C and E) improves oxidative stress and renal injury in cadmiumintoxicated rats.},
  journal = {Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {14(11)},
  pages = {903-14}
}
Misra RR, Hochadel JF, Smith GT, Cook JC, Waalkes MP, Wink DA Evidence that nitric oxide enhances cadmium toxicity by displacing the metal from metallothionein. 1996 Chem Res Toxicol.
Vol. 9(1), pp. 326-32 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium is carcinogenic in humans and rodents. Although extensive evidence indicates that the toxicity and genotoxicity of Cd is ameliorated by binding to cysteine clusters in metallothionein (MT), the factors governing Cd release at intracellular target sites remain unknown. Nitric oxide is a pollutant gas and an important intercellular messenger in the inflammatory immune response. When growing Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated for 24 h with 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 mM CdCl2 followed by a 1-h exposure to 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mM 1,1-diethyl-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazine (DEA/NO), an NO-generating sodium salt, NO enhanced Cd-induced inhibition of colony forming ability without affecting Cd-induced cytolethality. In experiments designed to determine whether NO acts by displacing Cd from cellular MT, cells treated with 2.0 mM CdCl2 followed by 1.5 or 3.0 mM DEA/NO exhibited 29 and 38% reductions, respectively, in the amount of Cd bound to MT. When purified rat liver MT was used to further characterize NO-induced release of Cd from MT, dose-related increases in Cd displacement were observed at DEA/NO concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 mM, and a plateau was reached at 3 mol of Cd displaced/mol of MT at higher DEA/NO concentrations. Compared to cells exposed to Cd or DEA/NO alone, cells treated with Cd followed by DEA/NO also exhibited a transient 2-3-fold decrease in c-myc proto-oncogene expression. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that NO mediates Cd release from MT in vivo and suggest that intracellular generation of free Cd may induce DNA damage and force cells into a period of growth arrest. Such findings may have particular relevance with regard to the etiology of Cd-induced carcinogenesis in human populations.
BibTeX:
@article{MisraRR1996,
  author = {Misra RR, Hochadel JF, Smith GT, Cook JC, Waalkes MP, Wink DA},
  title = {Evidence that nitric oxide enhances cadmium toxicity by displacing the metal from metallothionein.},
  journal = {Chem Res Toxicol.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {9(1)},
  pages = {326-32},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx950109y}
}
Misra RR, Page JE, Smith GT, Waalkes MP, Dipple A Effect of cadmium exposure on background and anti-5 methylchrysene-1,2-dihydrodiol 3,4-epoxide-induced mutagenesis in the supF gene of pS189 in human Ad293 cells. 1998 Chem Res Toxicol.
Vol. 11(3), pp. 211-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic environmental contaminant that is carcinogenic in humans and rodents. Although cadmium has proven to be mutagenic in a variety of assay systems, exactly how cadmium achieves gentoxicity is poorly understood. To define the mechanism(s) underlying the mutagenicity and comutagenicity of cadmium, human Ad293 cells were exposed to subtoxic doses of the metal and transfected with untreated or anti-5-methylchrysene-3,4-dihydrodiol 1,2-epoxide (5-MCDE)-treated pS189 shuttle vector. Alterations in the frequency, types, and distribution of mutations were subsequently assessed in the supF gene of pS189 that was replicated in Ad293 cells and screened in indicator bacteria. Doses of 0.5 and 1 microM CdCl2 increased the mutation frequency of untreated pS189 by approximately 4- and 8-fold, respectively, with no apparent effect on the types of mutations generated. In contrast, host-cell exposure tocadmium had little or no effect on the frequency, types, or distribution of mutations generated with 5-MCDE-treated pS189. These results indicate that cadmium increases mutagenesis of untreated pS189 by affecting a process that is not involved in mutagenesis of the 5-MCDE-treated vector. Although it is not clear exactly how host-cell exposure to cadmium increases background mutagenesis, presumably, the mutagenic effect does not involve cadmium interaction with the cellular machinery used to replicate past bulky DNA lesions.
BibTeX:
@article{MisraRR1998,
  author = {Misra RR, Page JE, Smith GT, Waalkes MP, Dipple A},
  title = {Effect of cadmium exposure on background and anti-5 methylchrysene-1,2-dihydrodiol 3,4-epoxide-induced mutagenesis in the supF gene of pS189 in human Ad293 cells.},
  journal = {Chem Res Toxicol.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {11(3)},
  pages = {211-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx970183b}
}
Misra RR, Smith GT, Waalkes MP Evaluation of the direct genotoxic potential of cadmium in four different rodent cell lines. 1999 Toxicology.
Vol. 126(2), pp. 103-14 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic environmental contaminant that is carcinogenic in humans and laboratory animals. Although the mechanism underlying cadmium carcinogenesis has not yet been determined experimental evidence suggests that the stress-inducible, metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, may mediate organ specificity. In the present study, four different rodent cell lines (Chinese hamster ovary cells, rat L6 myoblast cells, rat Clone 9 liver cells, and rat TRL 1215 liver cells) were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 10, 50, or 100 microM CdCl2 and monitored for evidence of direct DNA damage. A microfiltration assay was used to measure DNA strand breaks and a filter-binding assay was used to measure DNA-protein crosslinks, two lesions that have been associated with cadmium exposure and may mediate genotoxicity of the metal. Although variability in sensitivity to DNA damage was evident between the different cell lines, in all of the cell lines tested, increases in DNA damage were observed only at cadmium doses that completely arrested cell growth. In addition, in three of the four cell lines tested, induction of metallothionein had no substantial protective effect against cadmium-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicty. While protection against cadmium-induced DNA strand breakage with metallothionein preinduction was observed in the TRL 1215 rat liver cells, metallothionein preinduction did not protect against cadmium-induced DNA-protein crosslinking in that cell line. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that cadmium is not directly genotoxic.
BibTeX:
@article{MisraRR1999,
  author = {Misra RR, Smith GT, Waalkes MP},
  title = {Evaluation of the direct genotoxic potential of cadmium in four different rodent cell lines.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {126(2)},
  pages = {103-14}
}
Mitra A, Chowdhury R, Banerjee K Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga. 2012 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 184(4), pp. 2219-30 
article  
Abstract: Heavy metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and it can be bioaccumulated in the food chain leading to diseases in human. Cumulative effects of metals or chronic poisoning may occur as a result of long-term exposure even to low concentrations. The accumulation of heavy metals varies depending upon the species, environmental conditions, and inhibitory processes. Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in finfish and shellfish species in the Gangetic delta using a PerkinElmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer and expressed as milligrams per kilogram of dry weight. In finfish and shellfish species the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were comparatively higher at stations 1 and 2 than the permissible level of WHO. The concentration of metals exhibited significant spatial variation and followed the order station 1 > station 2 > station 3 > station 4, which may be related to different degree of contamination in different location. The metal accumulation exhibited species specificity.
BibTeX:
@article{MitraA2012,
  author = {Mitra A, Chowdhury R, Banerjee K},
  title = {Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {184(4)},
  pages = {2219-30}
}
Moitra S, Brashier BB, Sahu S Occupational cadmium exposure-associated oxidative stress and erythrocyte fragility among jewelry workers in India. 2014 Am J Ind Med.
Vol. 57(9), pp. 1064-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Cadmium-induced pulmonary and renal target organ effects are well-established although its association with oxidative stress and associated hematological effects for human toxicity remain understudied.
METHODS:
In a population of cadmium-exposed male jewelry manufacturing workers (n?=?32) and referents without direct exposure (n?=?21), all with urinary cadmium quantification, we measured plasma antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), erythrocyte fragility, and surface irregularity of the erythrocyte membrane.
RESULTS:
Compared to referents, exposed workers manifested significantly lower plasma antioxidant enzymes, and increased malondialdehyde and erythrocyte fragility (for all, P??0.01 for all) in terms of Cd-effect indicating a strong impact on hematological system and oxidative stress.
CONCLUSION:
Cd exposure contributes to oxidative stress and related erythrocyte effects thus making the hematological system another end-organ target for chronic Cd toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{MoitraS2014,
  author = {Moitra S, Brashier BB, Sahu S},
  title = {Occupational cadmium exposure-associated oxidative stress and erythrocyte fragility among jewelry workers in India.},
  journal = {Am J Ind Med.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {57(9)},
  pages = {1064-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22336}
}
Mukherjee JJ, Gupta SK, Kumar S, Sikka HC Effects of cadmium(II) on (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-induced DNA damage response in human fibroblasts and DNA repair: a possible mechanism of cadmium's cogenotoxicity. 2004 Chem Res Toxicol.
Vol. 17(3), pp. 287-93 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant and a cigarette smoke constituent, enhances the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BP). The mechanism(s) underlying the potentiation of BP-induced genotoxicity by Cd2+ is not clearly understood. Our studies of the effects of noncytotoxic concentrations of Cd2+ on the levels of p53 and p21 in (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-treated human fibroblasts showed that Cd2+ decreased BPDE-induced p21 levels in a dose-dependent manner whereas p53 accumulation is attenuated only at higher noncytotoxic concentrations of cadmium. These findings suggest that both the activity and the accumulation of p53 in response of BPDE treatment are inhibited by Cd2+ although the possibility of p53-independent p21 transactivation cannot be ruled out. Exposure of synchronized human fibroblast cells to 0.5 microM of BPDE caused 72% of the cells remaining in G1 phase as compared to 52% in the case of untreated cells. Treatment of the cells with CdCl2 prior to exposing them to BPDE caused a decrease in the G1 population (72 to 54%) in a dose-dependent manner. An in vitro repair assay of BPDE-damaged pUC18 plasmid DNA using untreated and cadmium-treated nucleotide excision repair (NER) proficient HeLa extract showed that cadmium impaired the ability of HeLa cell extract to repair BPDE-damaged pUC18 DNA. Our findings indicate that cadmium not only inhibits NER pathway-dependent repair of BPDE-damaged DNA but also impairs p53 and p21 responses and overrides BPDE-induced G1-S cell cycle arrest. The effect of cadmiumon these processes may explain, at least partly, the potentiating effect of the metal on the genotoxicity of BP.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeJJ2004,
  author = {Mukherjee JJ, Gupta SK, Kumar S, Sikka HC},
  title = {Effects of cadmium(II) on (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-induced DNA damage response in human fibroblasts and DNA repair: a possible mechanism of cadmium's cogenotoxicity.},
  journal = {Chem Res Toxicol.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {17(3)},
  pages = {287-93},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx034229e}
}
Mukherjee JJ, Gupta SK, Sikka H, Kumar S Inhibition of benzopyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE)-induced bax and caspase-9 by cadmium: role of mitogen activated protein kinase. 2009 Mutat Res.
Vol. 661(1-2), pp. 41-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium, a major metal constituent of tobacco smoke, elicits synergistic enhancement of cell transformation when combined with benzo[a]pyrene (BP) or other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The mechanism underlying this synergism is not clearly understood. Present study demonstrates that (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), an ultimate carcinogen of BP, induces apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells and others, and cadmium at non-cytotoxic concentration inhibits BPDE-induced apoptosis. We observed that BPDE treatment also activates all three MAP kinases e.g. ERK1/2, p38 and JNK in HL-60 cells, and inhibition of BPDE-induced apoptosis by cadmium is associated with down-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax induction/caspase-9 activation and up-regulation of ERK phosphorylation, whereas p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun phosphorylation (indicative of JNK activation) remain unaffected. Inhibition of ERKs by prior treatment of cells with 10muM U0126 relieves cadmium-mediated inhibition of apoptosis/bax induction/caspase-9 activation. Our results suggest that cadmium inhibits BPDE-induced apoptosis by modulating apoptotic signaling through up-regulation of ERK, which is known to promote cell survival.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeJJ2009,
  author = {Mukherjee JJ, Gupta SK, Sikka H, Kumar S},
  title = {Inhibition of benzopyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE)-induced bax and caspase-9 by cadmium: role of mitogen activated protein kinase.},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {661(1-2)},
  pages = {41-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2008.10.020}
}
Murthy RC, Saxena DK, Lal B, Chandra SV Chronic cadmium-ethanol administration alters metal distribution and some biochemicals in rat brain. 1989 Biochem Int.
Vol. 19(1), pp. 135-43 
article  
Abstract: The effects of cadmium (100 ppm through drinking water) and ethanol (5 g/kg by gastric gavage) administration on biogenic amines, metal distribution and certain enzymes in rat brain was investigated after 90 days of exposure. Co-exposure group revealed significant accumulation of cadmium and also increase in zinc levels compared to all the other groups. Ethanol alone decreased MAO activity and increased NE and 5-HT level while in combination with Cd, these effects were more magnified. It is, therefore, suggested that the persons consuming alcohol may be more prone to the neurotoxic effects of this metal.
BibTeX:
@article{MurthyRC1989,
  author = {Murthy RC, Saxena DK, Lal B, Chandra SV},
  title = {Chronic cadmium-ethanol administration alters metal distribution and some biochemicals in rat brain.},
  journal = {Biochem Int.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {19(1)},
  pages = {135-43}
}
Murthy RC, Saxena DK, Sunderaraman V, Chandra SV Cadmium induced ultrastructural changes in the cerebellum of weaned and adult rats. 1987 Ind Health.
Vol. 25(3), pp. 159-62 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{MurthyRC1987,
  author = {Murthy RC, Saxena DK, Sunderaraman V, Chandra SV},
  title = {Cadmium induced ultrastructural changes in the cerebellum of weaned and adult rats.},
  journal = {Ind Health.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {25(3)},
  pages = {159-62}
}
Muthukumar K, Nachiappan V Phosphatidylethanolamine from phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 is essential for autophagy undercadmium stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 2013 Cell Biochem Biophys.
Vol. 67(3), pp. 1353-63 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a potent toxic element used in several industries and in the process contaminates air, soil, and water. Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cd increases the major phospholipids, and profound increase was observed in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). In yeast, there are four different pathways contributing to the biosynthesis of PE, and contribution to PE pool through phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 (psd2) is not significant in normal conditions. Upon Cd exposure, psd2? strain showed a significant decrease in major phospholipids including PE. When exposed to Cd, wild-type (WT) cells depicted an increase in ER stress and autophagy, whereas in psd2, ER stress was noted but autophagy process was impaired. The supplementation of ethanolamine did not overcome the Cd stress and also the autophagy process, whereas overexpression of PSD2 in psd2? increased the cellular tolerance, PE levels, and the autophagy process against Cd stress. From our studies, we can suggest that PSD2 of S. cerevisiae has an important role in PE synthesis and in autophagy process under Cd stress.
BibTeX:
@article{MuthukumarK2013,
  author = {Muthukumar K, Nachiappan V},
  title = {Phosphatidylethanolamine from phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 is essential for autophagy undercadmium stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.},
  journal = {Cell Biochem Biophys.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {67(3)},
  pages = {1353-63}
}
Nair AR, Degheselle O, Smeets K, Van Kerkhove E, Cuypers A Cadmium-Induced Pathologies: Where Is the Oxidative Balance Lost (or Not)? 2013 Cadmium-Induced Pathologies: Where Is the Oxidative Balance Lost (or Not)?
Vol. 14(3), pp. 6116-43 
article DOI  
Abstract: Over the years, anthropogenic factors have led to cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the environment causing various health problems in humans. Although Cd is not a Fenton-like metal, it induces oxidative stress in various animal models via indirect mechanisms. The degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress depends on the dose, duration and frequency of Cd exposure. Also the presence or absence of serum in experimental conditions, type of cells and their antioxidant capacity, as well as the speciation of Cd are important determinants. At the cellular level, the Cd-induced oxidative stress either leads to oxidative damage or activates signal transduction pathways to initiate defence responses. This balance is important on how different organ systems respond to Cd stress and ultimately define the pathological outcome. In this review, we highlight the Cd-induced oxidant/antioxidant status as well as the damage versus signalling scenario in relation to Cd toxicity. Emphasis is addressed to Cd-induced pathologies of major target organs, including a section on cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, attention is paid to Cd-induced oxidative stress in undifferentiated stem cells, which can provide information for future therapies in preventing Cd-induced pathologies.
BibTeX:
@article{NairAR2013,
  author = {Nair AR, Degheselle O, Smeets K, Van Kerkhove E, Cuypers A},
  title = {Cadmium-Induced Pathologies: Where Is the Oxidative Balance Lost (or Not)?},
  journal = {Cadmium-Induced Pathologies: Where Is the Oxidative Balance Lost (or Not)?},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {14(3)},
  pages = {6116-43},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms14036116}
}
Nair PM, Choi J Characterization and transcriptional regulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 on exposure to oxidative stress inducing environmental pollutants in Chironomus riparius. 2012 Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol.
Vol. 161(2), pp. 134-9 
article  
Abstract: We characterized thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) from Chironomus riparius (CrTrxR1) and studied its expression under oxidative stress. The full-length cDNA is 1820bp long and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1488bp. The deduced CrTrxR1 protein has 495 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 54.41kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.15. There was a 71bp 5' and a 261bp 3' untranslated region with a polyadenylation signal site (AATAAA). Homologous alignments showed the presence of conserved catalytic domain Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys (CVNVGC), the C-terminal amino acids 'CCS' and conserved amino acids required in catalysis. The expression of CrTrxR1 is measured using quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to 50 and 100mg/L of paraquat (PQ) and 2, 10 and 20mg/L ofcadmium chloride (Cd). CrTrxR1 mRNA was upregulated after PQ exposure at all conditions tested. The highest level of CrTrxR1 expression was observed after exposure to 10mg/L of Cd for 24h followed by 20mg/L for 48h. Significant downregulation of CrTrxR1 was observed after exposure to 10 and 20mg/L of Cd for 72h. This study shows that the CrTrxR1 could be potentially used as a biomarker of oxidative stress inducing environmental contaminants.
BibTeX:
@article{NairPM2012,
  author = {Nair PM, Choi J},
  title = {Characterization and transcriptional regulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 on exposure to oxidative stress inducing environmental pollutants in Chironomus riparius.},
  journal = {Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {161(2)},
  pages = {134-9}
}
Nampoothiri LP, Gupta S Simultaneous effect of lead and cadmium on granulosa cells: a cellular model for ovarian toxicity. 2006 Reprod Toxicol.
Vol. 21(2), pp. 179-85 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{NampoothiriLP2006,
  author = {Nampoothiri LP, Gupta S},
  title = {Simultaneous effect of lead and cadmium on granulosa cells: a cellular model for ovarian toxicity.},
  journal = {Reprod Toxicol.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {21(2)},
  pages = {179-85},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2005.07.010}
}
Nath R, Prasad R, Palinal VK, Chopra RK Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity. 1984 Prog Food Nutr Sci.
Vol. 8(1-2), pp. 109-63 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs and kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.
BibTeX:
@article{NathR1984,
  author = {Nath R, Prasad R, Palinal VK, Chopra RK},
  title = {Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity.},
  journal = {Prog Food Nutr Sci.},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {8(1-2)},
  pages = {109-63}
}
Nithya C, Gnanalakshmi B, Pandian SK Assessment and characterization of heavy metal resistance in Palk Bay sediment bacteria. 2011 Mar Environ Res.
Vol. 71(4), pp. 283-94 
article  
Abstract: The present study aimed at characterizing the heavy metal resistance and assessing the resistance pattern to multiple heavy metals (300 mmol L?¹) by Palk Bay sediment bacteria. From 46 isolates, 24 isolates showed resistance to more than eight heavy metals. Among the 24 isolates S8-06 (Bacillus arsenicus), S8-10 (Bacillus pumilus), S8-14 (B. arsenicus), S6-01 (Bacillus indicus), S6-04 (Bacillus clausii), SS-06 (Planococcus maritimus) and SS-08 (Staphylococcus pasteuri) exhibited high resistance against arsenic, mercury, cobalt,cadmium, lead and selenium. Plasmid curing confirmed that the heavy metal resistance in S8-10 is chromosomal borne. Upon treatment with the heavy metals, the strain S8-10 showed many morphological and physiological changes as shown by SEM, FTIR and AAS analysis. S8-10 removed 47% of cadmium and 96% of lead from the growth medium. The study suggests that sediment bacteria can be biological indicators of heavy metal contamination.
BibTeX:
@article{NithyaC2011,
  author = {Nithya C, Gnanalakshmi B, Pandian SK},
  title = {Assessment and characterization of heavy metal resistance in Palk Bay sediment bacteria.},
  journal = {Mar Environ Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {71(4)},
  pages = {283-94}
}
Painuly D, Bhatt A, Krishnan VK Physicochemical and in vitro biocompatibility evaluation of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core/shell. 2014 J Biomater Appl.
Vol. 28(8), pp. 1125-37 
article DOI  
Abstract: Group II-VI semiconductor quantum dots (Q-dots) have found various applications in biomedical field during last decade. In this study, we have synthesized CdSe Q-dots and CdSe/ZnS core/shell (CS) by wet chemical route and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. CS formation was confirmed by red shift as well as enhancement in the luminescence peak compared to bare Q-dots. Processing parameters such as core and sulfur concentrations were optimized at maximum luminescence efficiency during the shell preparation. Effects of dialysis, aging and cell culture medium on the properties of the Q-dots and CS were also studied by luminescence and DLS techniques. DLS data showed Q-dots and CS to be stable, and there was no effect on the integrity of the Q-dots and CS after various modifications. CS was found to be hemocompatible and cytocompatible for human umbilical vein endothelial cells even at a high concentration of 0.1 mg/ml up to 48 h indicating high potential for CS in various biomedical applications.
BibTeX:
@article{PainulyD2014,
  author = {Painuly D, Bhatt A, Krishnan VK},
  title = {Physicochemical and in vitro biocompatibility evaluation of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core/shell.},
  journal = {J Biomater Appl.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {28(8)},
  pages = {1125-37},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885328213499194}
}
Panchal L, Vaideeswar P Acute lung injury due to cadmium inhalation--a case report. 2006 Indian J Pathol Microbiol.
Vol. 49(2), pp. 265-6 
article  
Abstract: Heavy metal inhalation is a rare cause of acute lung injury. Among the various heavy metals, cadmium is more commonly known to cause acute lung injury. A case of accidental inhalation of cadmium fumes in a young male is presented. The incident occurred in local silver jewellery manufacturing unit.
BibTeX:
@article{PanchalL2006,
  author = {Panchal L, Vaideeswar P},
  title = {Acute lung injury due to cadmium inhalation--a case report.},
  journal = {Indian J Pathol Microbiol.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {49(2)},
  pages = {265-6}
}
Pandey B, Kinrade SD, Catalan LJ Effects of carbonation on the leachability and compressive strength of cement-solidified and geopolymer-solidified synthetic metal wastes. 2012 J Environ Manage.
Vol. 101, pp. 59-67 
article  
Abstract: The effects of accelerated carbonation on the compressive strength and leachability of fly ash-based geopolymer and ordinary portland cement (OPC) doped with Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II) or Zn(II) salts were investigated. Cement was effective at immobilizing Cd, Cr(III), Cu, Pb and Zn under both the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), but ineffective for retaining Cr(VI). Carbonated cement maintained its ability to immobilize Cd, Cr(III), Pb and Zn, but, under acidic TCLP conditions, was much worse at retaining Cu. Geopolymer was effective at immobilizing Cr(III) and Cu, and, to a lesser degree, Cd, Pb and Zn in SPLP leaching tests. Only Cr(III) was immobilized under comparatively acidic TCLP testing conditions. Carbonation did not change the metal retention capacity of the geopolymer matrix. Metal doping caused compressive strengths of both geopolymer and cement to decrease. Carbonation increased the compressive strength of cement, but decreased that of the geopolymer. Geochemical equilibrium modeling provided insight on the mechanisms of metal immobilization.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyB2012,
  author = {Pandey B, Kinrade SD, Catalan LJ},
  title = {Effects of carbonation on the leachability and compressive strength of cement-solidified and geopolymer-solidified synthetic metal wastes.},
  journal = {J Environ Manage.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {59-67}
}
Pandey S, Saha P, Barai PK, Maiti TK Characterization of a Cd(2+)-resistant strain of Ochrobactrum sp. isolated from slag disposal site of an iron and steel factory. 2010 Curr Microbiol.
Vol. 61(2), pp. 106-11 
article DOI  
Abstract: A cadmium-resistant bacterium designated as CdSP9 was isolated from the slag disposal site of IISCO, Burnpur, West Bengal, India. The isolate was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence-based molecular phylogenetic approach and phenotypic characteristics. It is a Gram negative, short rod (0.5-1.0 micro), aerobic bacterium, growing well in LB medium between temperatures 10-42 degrees C, pH 6.0-9.0, and between 2 and 6% NaCl. The most preferred nitrogen and carbon sources for the strain are L: -proline, L: -lysine and fructose, maltose, respectively. Superoxide toxicity minimization by increased level of SOD activity also occurs in this bacterium. The heavy metal accumulation efficiency as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy was found to be 0.214 mg/g of the dry weight at late log phase. The accumulation efficiency was directly proportional to the optimum growth conditions.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyS2010,
  author = {Pandey S, Saha P, Barai PK, Maiti TK},
  title = {Characterization of a Cd(2+)-resistant strain of Ochrobactrum sp. isolated from slag disposal site of an iron and steel factory.},
  journal = {Curr Microbiol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {61(2)},
  pages = {106-11},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-010-9583-8}
}
Pandya C, Gupta S, Pillai P, Bhandarkar A, Khan A, Bhan A, Prajapati A, Gupta S Association of cadmium and lead with antioxidant status and incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients of Western India. 2013 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 152(3), pp. 316-26 
article DOI  
Abstract: The association of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the pathophysiology and progression of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) has been evaluated in an epidemiological study with 116 BPH patients of the western part of India. The prostatic acid phosphatase activity, prostate-specific antigen, maximum urinary flow rate (Q max), and redox status of BPH patients were correlated with Cd and Pb contents. Additionally, patients were also separated on the basis of their age, genetic lineage, and additive habits and correlated with the Cd, Pb, and Q max levels. Our results suggest that the accumulation of toxic metals in prostate tissue has a significant positive correlation with the pathogenesis of BPH. Cd and Pb exert their effects through altered antioxidant defense mechanisms, ultimately leading to increased BPH severity. Progression of the pathogenesis also depends on other factors such as additive habits, genetic lineage, and age of the patients.
BibTeX:
@article{PandyaC2013,
  author = {Pandya C, Gupta S, Pillai P, Bhandarkar A, Khan A, Bhan A, Prajapati A, Gupta S},
  title = {Association of cadmium and lead with antioxidant status and incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients of Western India.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {152(3)},
  pages = {316-26},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-013-9630-y}
}
Pandya C, Pillai P, Nampoothiri LP, Bhatt N, Gupta S, Gupta S Effect of lead and cadmium co-exposure on testicular steroid metabolism and antioxidant system of adult male rats. 2012 Andrologia., pp. 813-22  article DOI  
Abstract: The mechanism of testicular toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) is poorly understood. Previous studies focused on single metal-related changes in testicular toxicity. This study points towards the possible involvement of Pb- and Cd-induced oxidative stress in the suppression of steroidogenesis. The oxidative status of testis of adult male rats exposed to Pb acetate and cadmium acetate either alone or in combination at a dose of 0.025 mg kg(-1) body weight of metal intraperitoneally for 15 days was studied. Pb and Cd caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by elevating testicular malondialdehydes (MDA) and decrease in activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in mitochondrial and/or post-mitochondrial fraction. Activities of steroidogenic enzymes 3? and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase also decreased significantly leading to altered testosterone production. Metal-exposed groups showed significantly decreased testicular and epididymal sperm count. Epididymal sperm motility and viability was also decreased on Pb and Cd exposure. Cd exposure showed more toxic effect than lead exposure, while combined exposure demonstrated least toxicity. In vitro experiments showed that vitamin C restores steroidogenic enzyme activities, suggesting that Pb- and Cd-induced ROS inhibits the testicular steroidogenesis.
BibTeX:
@article{PandyaC2012,
  author = {Pandya C, Pillai P, Nampoothiri LP, Bhatt N, Gupta S, Gupta S},
  title = {Effect of lead and cadmium co-exposure on testicular steroid metabolism and antioxidant system of adult male rats.},
  journal = {Andrologia.},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {813-22},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0272.2010.01137}
}
Pant N, Banerjee AK, Pandey S, Mathur N, Saxena DK, Srivastava SP Correlation of lead and cadmium in human seminal plasma with seminal vesicle and prostatic markers. 2003 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 22(3), pp. 125-8. 
article  
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between lead and cadmium with seminal vesicle and prostatic markers. Semen samples categorized into fertile and infertile were evaluated for the presence of lead and cadmium and biochemical markers in the seminal plasma. Associations between lead and fructose, acid phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) were observed. However, no such relationships were noticed for cadmium. It is concluded that lead may be one of the pollutants indirectly affecting semen quality by altering the functions of accessory sex glands.
BibTeX:
@article{PantN2003,
  author = {Pant N, Banerjee AK, Pandey S, Mathur N, Saxena DK, Srivastava SP},
  title = {Correlation of lead and cadmium in human seminal plasma with seminal vesicle and prostatic markers.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {22(3)},
  pages = {125-8.}
}
Pant N, Kumar G, Upadhyay AD, Patel DK, Gupta YK, Chaturvedi PK Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(18), pp. 11066-74 
article  
Abstract: Environmental toxicants viz lead or cadmium and phthalate esters (di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [DEHP], dibutyl phthalate [DBP], and diethyl phthalate [DEP]) widely found in different environmental strata are linked to deteriorating male reproductive health. The objective was to assess the relationships between the seminal lead, cadmium, and phthalate (DEHP, DBP, DEP) concentrations at environmental level and serum hormone levels and semen quality in non-occupationally exposed men and specify the effect of individual and combined exposure of toxicants on semen quality. A study of 60 male partners of couples attending the Andrology Laboratory of the Reproductive Biology Department, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India for semen analysis to assess their inability to achieve a pregnancy was selected for the study. The results of univariate and stepwise multiple regression analysis in the unadjusted model showed a significant correlation between lead or cadmium and phthalates DEHP/DBP/DEP and sperm motility, sperm concentration, and DNA damage. After adjusting for potential confounders, an association with lead or DEHP was only observed. The present data shows that lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) or phthalates might independently contribute to decline in semen quality and induce DNA damage. Phthalates might influence reproductive hormone testosterone. These findings are significant in light of the fact that men are exposed to a volley of chemicals; however, due to the small sample size, our finding needs to be confirmed in a larger population.
BibTeX:
@article{PantN2014,
  author = {Pant N, Kumar G, Upadhyay AD, Patel DK, Gupta YK, Chaturvedi PK},
  title = {Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(18)},
  pages = {11066-74}
}
Pant N, Pant AB, Chaturvedi PK, Shukla M, Mathur N, Gupta YK, Saxena DK Semen quality of environmentally exposed human population: the toxicological consequence. 2013 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 20(11), pp. 8274-81 
article DOI  
Abstract: Human data on the relationship of semen quality with pesticide and metals are mostly inconsistent. The purpose of the study is to confirm the toxicity of organochlorine pesticide ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDE and DDD, and metals lead or cadmium on sperm motility in epidemiological study among fertile and infertile men and to determine whether in vivo and in vitro results are in the same direction. Semen analysis and estimation of the toxicants were done in 60 fertile and 150 infertile men. In the in vitro studies, sperm were exposed to the highest levels of these toxicants found in vivo, as well as five and ten times higher, and to the mixture of all compounds. The study assesses sperm viability and motility for a period ranging between 30 min and 96 h. Epidemiological data showed an inverse correlation of toxicant with sperm motility. In vitro study showed that ?-HCH and lead after 12 h, cadmium after 8 h, and coexposure to toxicants after 6 h of exposure caused significant concentration- and duration-dependent decline in sperm motility. Data of in vitro study were concurrent with epidemiological finding that might be useful in establishing the possible association between exposure and effect of these selected pollutants on sperm motility.
BibTeX:
@article{PantN2013,
  author = {Pant N, Pant AB, Chaturvedi PK, Shukla M, Mathur N, Gupta YK, Saxena DK},
  title = {Semen quality of environmentally exposed human population: the toxicological consequence.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {20(11)},
  pages = {8274-81},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1813-8}
}
Pathak N, Khandelwal S Oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in murine splenocytes exposed to cadmium. 2006 Toxicology.
Vol. 220(1), pp. 26-36 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium being a potent immunotoxicant, affects both humoral and cell mediated immunity. However, its effect on spleen is not clearly understood. Hence, to delineate the action of Cd, mouse splenic lymphocytes were exposed to Cd (10, 25 and 50 microM) for 60 min, 1.5, 3, 6 and 18 h. At 6 h, apoptosis was reflected by DNA fragmentation, increased sub-G1 population (apoptotic DNA) and apoptotic cells (Annexin V binding assay). The early stage markers of apoptosis, i.e. decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activation were observed as early as 1.5 h by the highest dose of Cd (50 microM). Significant ROS production by 25 and 50 microM Cd at 60 min occurred prior to the lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting involvement of ROS in causing mitochondrial membrane damage. N-acetylcysteine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (thiol antioxidants) lowered the sub-G(1) population, inhibited the ROS generation and raised the GSH levels induced by Cd. Buthionine sulfoximine (GSH depletor) on the other hand, enhanced the ROS production as well as the sub-G1 fraction. These results imply that ROS is a critical mediator of Cd-induced apoptosis and that cadmiummay compromise splenic immune function by accelerating apoptosis.
BibTeX:
@article{PathakN2006,
  author = {Pathak N, Khandelwal S},
  title = {Oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in murine splenocytes exposed to cadmium.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {220(1)},
  pages = {26-36}
}
Pathak SP, G.K. Occurrence of antibiotic and metal resistance in bacteria from organs of river fish. 2005 Environ Res.
Vol. 98(1), pp. 100-3 
article  
Abstract: Bacterial populations in some organs, viz., liver, spleen, kidney, gill, and arborescent organ of the catfish Clarias batrachus were enumerated followed by determination of resistance for antibiotics and metals. The total viable counts in these organs, observed, were 2.24x10(4), 2.08x10(4), 1.44x10(4), 1.23x10(4), and 6.40x10(3) colony-forming units/mL, respectively. The random bacterial isolates from these fish organs showed resistance in decreasing order for colistin (98%), ampicillin (82%), gentamycin (34%), carbenicillin (28%), tetracyline (20%), streptomycin (12%), and ciprofloxacin (02%). Most of the isolates exhibited an increasing order of tolerance for the metals (microg/mL) copper (100), lead (200), manganese (400), cadmium (200), and chromium (50), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from <50 to 1600 microg/mL. These observations indicate that the significant occurrence of bacterial population in organs of fish with high incidence of resistance for antibiotics and metals may pose risk to fish fauna and public health.
BibTeX:
@article{PathakSP2005,
  author = {Pathak SP, Gopal K},
  title = {Occurrence of antibiotic and metal resistance in bacteria from organs of river fish.},
  journal = {Environ Res.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {98(1)},
  pages = {100-3}
}
Patra RC, Rautray AK, Swarup D Oxidative stress in lead and cadmium toxicity and its amelioration. 2011 Vet Med Int.  article  
Abstract: Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role, at least in part, in pathogenesis of many disease conditions and toxicities in animals. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and free radicals beyond the cells intrinsic capacity to neutralize following xenobiotics exposure leads to a state of oxidative stress and resultant damages of lipids, protein, and DNA. Lead and cadmium are the common environmental heavy metal pollutants and have widespread distribution. Both natural and anthropogenic sources including mining, smelting, and other industrial processes are responsible for human and animal exposure. These pollutants, many a times, are copollutants leading to concurrent exposure to living beings and resultant synergistic deleterious health effects. Several mechanisms have been explained for the damaging effects on the body system. Of late, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the lead- and cadmium-induced pathotoxicity. Several ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage to the body system aftermath or during exposure to these toxicants have been assessed with the use of antioxidants. The present review focuses on mechanism of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidate damages and the ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage and pathotoxicity with the use of supplemented antioxidants for their beneficial effects.
BibTeX:
@article{PatraRC2011,
  author = {Patra RC, Rautray AK, Swarup D},
  title = {Oxidative stress in lead and cadmium toxicity and its amelioration.},
  journal = {Vet Med Int.},
  year = {2011}
}
Patra RC, Swarup D, Kumar P, Nandi D, Naresh R, Ali SL Milk trace elements in lactating cows environmentally exposed to higher level of lead and cadmiumaround different industrial units. 2008 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 404(1), pp. 36-43 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to assess the trace mineral profile of milk from lactating cows reared around different industrial units and to examine the effect of blood and milk concentration of lead and cadmium on copper, cobalt, zinc and iron levels in milk. Respective blood and milk samples were collected from a total of 201 apparently healthy lactating cows above 3 years of age including 52 cows reared in areas supposed to be free from pollution. The highest milk lead (0.85+/-0.11 microg/ml) and cadmium (0.23+/-0.02 microg/ml) levels were recorded in lactating cows reared around lead-zinc smelter and steel manufacturing plant, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher concentration of milk copper, cobalt, zinc and iron compared to control animals was recorded in cows around closed lead cum operational zinc smelter. Analysis of correlation between lead and other trace elements in milk from lactating cows with the blood lead level>0.20 microg/ml (n=79) revealed a significant negative correlations between milk iron and milk lead (r=-0.273, P=0.015). However, such trend was not recorded with blood lead level<0.20 microg/ml (n=122). The milk cobalt concentration was significantly correlated (r=0.365, P<0.001) with cadmium level in milk and the highest milk cadmium (>0.10 to 0.39 microg/ml) group had significantly (P<0.05) increased milk cobalt. It is concluded that increased blood and milk lead or cadmium level as a result of natural exposure of lactating cows to these environmental toxicants significantly influences trace minerals composition of milk and such alterations affect the milk quality and nutritional values.
BibTeX:
@article{PatraRC2008,
  author = {Patra RC, Swarup D, Kumar P, Nandi D, Naresh R, Ali SL},
  title = {Milk trace elements in lactating cows environmentally exposed to higher level of lead and cadmiumaround different industrial units.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {404(1)},
  pages = {36-43},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.06.010}
}
Patra RC, Swarup D, Sharma MC, Naresh R Trace mineral profile in blood and hair from cattle environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium around different industrial units. 2006 J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med.
Vol. 53(10), pp. 511-7 
article  
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to assess the trace mineral profile in blood and hair from cows environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium and to examine if these toxic heavy metals in blood and hair could affect blood copper, cobalt, zinc and iron concentrations and their accumulation in hair. Respective blood and tail hair samples were collected from adult cows above 3 years, reared in different industrial localities. Samples were also collected from urban areas with small industrial units (n = 55) and areas supposed to be free from pollution. The concomitant exposure of animals to both the heavy metal pollutants was not recorded in either of the industrial or urban locality. Blood lead was significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with blood copper (r = -0.339), cobalt (r = -0.224) and iron (r = -0.497). The increasing blood lead concentrations, irrespective of area of collection of samples, was associated with declining blood copper and iron, and cows with blood lead level above 0.60 mug/ml had significantly (P < 0.05) lower blood copper and iron. The higher blood lead but notcadmium significantly influenced the accumulation of lead (r = 0.323, P < 0.01) and cadmium (r = 0.204, P < 0.01) in hair possibly leading to significantly (P < 0.05) higher accumulation of both lead and cadmium in hair from cattle around lead-zinc smelters and closed lead-cum-operational zinc smelter, where blood cadmium level was comparable with that from unpolluted area. Concentration of zinc (r = 0.237, P < 0.01) and iron (r = 0.183, P < 0.01) but not copper and cobalt in tail hair was significantly influenced by their respective blood concentration. Both the hair lead and cadmium had a significant (P < 0.01) positive correlation with hair copper (r = 0.234, 0.294), zinc (r = 0.489, 0.775), and iron (r = 0.385, 0.643) concentrations. Thus, it is concluded from the present study that the higher blood lead concentrations in cattle irrespective of locality/industrial operations areas affected trace elements profile in blood and hair.
BibTeX:
@article{PatraRC2006,
  author = {Patra RC, Swarup D, Sharma MC, Naresh R},
  title = {Trace mineral profile in blood and hair from cattle environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium around different industrial units.},
  journal = {J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {53(10)},
  pages = {511-7}
}
Patra S, Das TK, Avila C, Cabello V, Castillo F, Sarkar D, Lahiri S, Jana BB Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from waste stabilization ponds. 2012 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 50(4), pp. 300-7 
article  
Abstract: The incidence pattern of cadmium tolerance and antibiotics resistance by Escherichia coli was examined periodically from the samples of water, sludge and intestine of fish raised in waste stabilization ponds in a sewage treatment plant. Samples of water and sludge were collected from all the selected ponds and were monitored for total counts of fecal coliform (FC), total coliform (TC) and the population of Escherichia coli, which was also obtained from the intestine of fishes. Total counts of both FC and TC as well as counts of E. coli were markedly reduced from the facultative pond to the last maturation pond. Tolerance limit to cadmium by E. coli tended to decline as the distance of the sewage effluent from the source increased; the effective lethal concentration of cadmium ranged from 0.1 mM in split chamber to 0.05 mM in first maturation pond. E. coli isolated from water, sludge and fish gut were sensitive to seven out of ten antibiotics tested. It appears that holistic functions mediated through the mutualistic growth of micro algae and heterotrophic bacteria in the waste stabilization ponds were responsible for the promotion of water quality and significant reduction of coliform along the sewage effluent gradient.
BibTeX:
@article{PatraS2012,
  author = {Patra S, Das TK, Avila C, Cabello V, Castillo F, Sarkar D, Lahiri S, Jana BB},
  title = {Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from waste stabilization ponds.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {50(4)},
  pages = {300-7}
}
Paul A, Das J, Das S, Samadder A, Khuda-Bukhsh AR Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nano-encapsulation of chelidonine, an active bioingredient of greater celandine (Chelidonium majus), enhances its ameliorative potential against cadmium induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in mice. 2013 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 36(3), pp. 937-47 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{PaulA2013,
  author = {Paul A, Das J, Das S, Samadder A, Khuda-Bukhsh AR},
  title = {Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nano-encapsulation of chelidonine, an active bioingredient of greater celandine (Chelidonium majus), enhances its ameliorative potential against cadmium induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in mice.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {36(3)},
  pages = {937-47},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2013.08.008}
}
Pillai A, Gupta S Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in liver of female rats co-exposed to lead andcadmium: effects of vitamin E and Mn2+. 2005 Free Radic Res.
Vol. 39(7), pp. 707-12 
article DOI  
Abstract: The oxidative status of liver of female rats exposed to lead acetate and cadmium acetate either alone or in combination at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg body wt intraperitoneally for 15 days was studied. After the administration of lead alone, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in liver, whereas no changes were observed in catalase (CAT) activity, and glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels. Cadmium exposure and combined exposure to lead and cadmium led to decrease in GSH content and increased TBARS levels. Moreover, animals exposed to either cadmium alone or in combination with lead showed a decrease in SOD activity and an increase in CAT activity. The in vitro experiments showed that vitamin E failed to restore the antioxidant enzyme activities in metal treated postmitochondrial supernatant fraction of liver. But Mn2+ ions protected the mitochondria from lipid peroxidation and could completely restore Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity following metal intoxication. The results of this study indicate that despite the ability of lead and cadmium to induce oxidative stress the effect in liver is not intensified by combined exposure to both lead and cadmium. The observed changes in various oxidative stress parameters in the liver of rats co-exposed to lead and cadmium may result from an independent effect of lead and cadmium and also from their interaction such as changes in metal accumulation and content of essential elements like Cu, Zn and Fe. These results suggest that when lead and cadmium are present together in similar concentrations, cadmiummediates major effects due to its more reactive nature.
BibTeX:
@article{PillaiA2005,
  author = {Pillai A, Gupta S},
  title = {Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in liver of female rats co-exposed to lead andcadmium: effects of vitamin E and Mn2+.},
  journal = {Free Radic Res.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39(7)},
  pages = {707-12},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715760500092444}
}
Pillai A, Laxmipriya, Rawal A, Gupta S Effect of low level exposure of lead and cadmium on hepatic estradiol metabolism in female rats. 2002 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 40(7), pp. 807-11 
article  
Abstract: Toxic effect of metal cations on female reproduction and gonadal functions was studied. Adult synchronized female rats were treated intraperitoneally with lead acetate and cadmium acetate separately and in combination (0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days. The metabolizing enzymes (17beta-hydroxy steroid oxidoreductase and UDP glucoronyl transferase) activities decreased with increasing dose showing significant change compared to control. Also, significant decrease in cytochrome P450 (CYP450) content was found after the treatment. Displacement of zinc bound to metallothionein was more in cadmium treated rats compared to other groups. In all these parameters, treatment in combination of lead and cadmium showed intermediate results indicating some kind of competition between the two metals. But the histological studies showed that combined treatment caused more cytotoxic effect than cadmium and lead alone. These results indicated that metal cations tested did have a direct inhibitory effect on metabolizing enzyme activities.
BibTeX:
@article{PillaiA2002,
  author = {Pillai A, Laxmipriya, Rawal A, Gupta S},
  title = {Effect of low level exposure of lead and cadmium on hepatic estradiol metabolism in female rats.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {40(7)},
  pages = {807-11}
}
Prabu SM, Shagirtha K, Renugadevi J Amelioration of cadmium-induced oxidative stress, impairment in lipids and plasma lipoproteins by the combined treatment with quercetin and ?-tocopherol in rats. 2010 J Food Sci.
Vol. 75(7), pp. 132-40 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) exposure results in numerous pathological consequences including oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of combined treatment with quercetin (QE) and ?-tocopherol (AT) against Cd-induced oxidative stress and alterations in lipids and lipoproteins in the plasma and liver of rats. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg bw/d) for 4 wk has shown a significant (P < 0.05) increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydro peroxides (LOOH), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), free fatty acids (FFA), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TGs), and the activity of hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in plasma with a significant (P > 0.05) reduction in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and the activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) in plasma. In addition, the levels of hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), LOOH, conjugated dienes (CD), protein carbonyls (PC), and the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, levels of cholesterol, FFA, and TGs were significantly (P > 0.05) increased and the level of PL is significantly (P > 0.05) decreased along with the decreased activity of LCAT in the liver of Cd-treated rats. Oral supplementation with QE (50 mg/kg bw/d) and AT (50 mg/kg bw/d) for 4 wk in Cd intoxicated rats significantly (P > 0.05) has reduced the plasma levels of TBARS, LOOH, GSH, cholesterol, FFA, TGs, VLDL-C, LDL-C, and the activity of HMG-CoA and significantly (P > 0.05) has increased the activity of LCAT and the plasma levels of HDL-C. The oral supplementation also significantly (P > 0.05) has reduced the hepatic oxidative stress markers, cholesterol, TGs, FFA, and significantly (P > 0.05) has increased the LCAT activity and the PL in liver. Our results indicate that the combined treatment with QE and AT has normalized all the previously mentioned biochemical parameters in Cd-intoxicated rats than the individual treatments. The combined treatment has provided remarkable protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress and alterations in lipid metabolism and, thereby, reduced the Cd-mediated cardiovascular diseases.
BibTeX:
@article{PrabuSM2010,
  author = {Prabu SM, Shagirtha K, Renugadevi J},
  title = {Amelioration of cadmium-induced oxidative stress, impairment in lipids and plasma lipoproteins by the combined treatment with quercetin and ?-tocopherol in rats.},
  journal = {J Food Sci.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {75(7)},
  pages = {132-40}
}
Pradhan A, Pinheiro JP, Seena S, Pascoal C, Cássio F Polyhydroxyfullerene binds cadmium ions and alleviates metal-induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 2014 Appl Environ Microbiol.
Vol. 80(18), pp. 5874-81 
article DOI  
Abstract: The water-soluble polyhydroxyfullerene (PHF) is a functionalized carbon nanomaterial with several industrial and commercial applications. There have been controversial reports on the toxicity and/or antioxidant properties of fullerenes and their derivatives. Conversely, metals have been recognized as toxic mainly due to their ability to induce oxidative stress in living organisms. We investigated the interactive effects of PHF and cadmium ions (Cd) on the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by exposing cells to Cd (?5 mg liter(-1)) in the absence or presence of PHF (?500 mg liter(-1)) at different pHs (5.8 to 6.8). In the absence of Cd, PHF stimulated yeast growth up to 10.4%. Cd inhibited growth up to 79.7%, induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and promoted plasma membrane disruption in a dose- and pH-dependent manner. The negative effects of Cd on growth were attenuated by the presence of PHF, and maximum growth recovery (53.8%) was obtained at the highest PHF concentration and pH. The coexposure to Cd and PHF decreased ROS accumulation up to 36.7% and membrane disruption up to 30.7% in a dose- and pH-dependent manner. Two mechanisms helped to explain the role of PHF in alleviating Cd toxicity to yeasts: PHF decreased Cd-induced oxidative stress and bound significant amounts of Cd in the extracellular medium, reducing its bioavailability to the cells.
BibTeX:
@article{PradhanA2014,
  author = {Pradhan A, Pinheiro JP, Seena S, Pascoal C, Cássio F},
  title = {Polyhydroxyfullerene binds cadmium ions and alleviates metal-induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.},
  journal = {Appl Environ Microbiol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {80(18)},
  pages = {5874-81},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01329-14}
}
Prasada Rao PV Effects of intraperitoneal cadmium administration on mitochondrial enzymes in rat tissues. 1983 Toxicology.
Vol. 27(1), pp. 81-7 
article  
Abstract: The effects of cadmium on some mitochondrial enzymes of kidney, testis and lung were investigated in male rats. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 mg Cd/kg body weight and its effects were studied 24, 72 and 144 h later. Succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase activities were significantly inhibited in kidney, testis and lung mitochondria. Citrate synthase activity was inhibited in testis mitochondria at all time periods studied, whereas in kidney and lung an initial increase in activity was followed by inhibition at later time periods.
BibTeX:
@article{PV1983,
  author = {Prasada Rao PV},
  title = {Effects of intraperitoneal cadmium administration on mitochondrial enzymes in rat tissues.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {27(1)},
  pages = {81-7}
}
Ragunathan N, Dairou J, Sanfins E, Busi F, Noll C, Janel N, Dupret JM, Rodrigues-Lima F Cadmium alters the biotransformation of carcinogenic aromatic amines by arylamine N-acetyltransferase xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes: molecular, cellular, and in vivo studies. 2010 Environ Health Perspect.
Vol. 118(12), pp. 1685-91 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogenic heavy metal of environmental concern. Exposure to both Cd and carcinogenic organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or aromatic amines (AAs), is a common environmental problem. Human arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that play a key role in the biotransformation of AA carcinogens. Changes in NAT activity have long been associated with variations in susceptibility to different cancers in relation with exposure to certain AAs.
OBJECTIVE:
We explored the possible interactions between Cd and the NAT-dependent biotransformation of carcinogenic AAs.
METHODS:
We exposed purified enzymes, lung epithelial cells, and mouse models to Cd and subsequently analyzed NAT-dependent metabolism of AAs.
RESULTS:
We found that Cd, at biologically relevant concentrations, impairs the NAT-dependent acetylation of carcinogenic AAs such as 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) in lung epithelial cells. NAT activity was strongly impaired in the tissues of mice exposed to Cd. Accordingly, mice exposed to Cd and 2-AF displayed altered in vivo toxicokinetics with a significant decrease (~ 50%) in acetylated 2-AF in plasma. We found that human NAT1 was rapidly and irreversibly inhibited by Cd [median inhibitory concentration (IC??) ? 55 nM; rate inhibition constant (k(inact)) = 5 × 10? M?¹ • sec?¹], with results of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) protection assays indicating that Cd-mediated inhibition was due to the reaction of metal with the active-site cysteine residue of the enzyme. We found similar results for human NAT2, although this isoform was less sensitive to inactivation (IC?? ? 1 ?M; k(inact) = 1 × 10? M?¹ • sec?¹).
CONCLUSIONS:
Our data suggest that Cd can alter the metabolism of carcinogenic AAs through the impairment of the NAT-dependent pathway, which may have important toxicological consequences.
BibTeX:
@article{RagunathanN2010,
  author = {Ragunathan N, Dairou J, Sanfins E, Busi F, Noll C, Janel N, Dupret JM, Rodrigues-Lima F},
  title = {Cadmium alters the biotransformation of carcinogenic aromatic amines by arylamine N-acetyltransferase xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes: molecular, cellular, and in vivo studies.},
  journal = {Environ Health Perspect.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {118(12)},
  pages = {1685-91}
}
Rahim MB, Syed MA, Shukor MY Isolation and characterization of an acrylamide-degrading yeast Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 KCTC 11960BP. 2012 J Basic Microbiol.
Vol. 52(5), pp. 573-81 
article  
Abstract: As well as for chemical and environmental reasons, acrylamide is widely used in many industrial applications. Due to its carcinogenicity and toxicity, its discharge into the environment causes adverse effects on humans and ecology alike. In this study, a novel acrylamide-degrading yeast has been isolated. The isolate was identified as Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 using ITS rRNA analysis. The results showed that the best carbon source for growth was glucose at 1.0% (w/v). The optimum acrylamide concentration, being a nitrogen source for cellular growth, was at 500 mg l(-1). The highest tolerable concentration of acrylamide was 1500 mg l(-1) whereas growth was completely inhibited at 2000 mg l(-1). At 500 mg l(-1), the strain MBH completely degraded acrylamide on day 5. Acrylic acid as a metabolite was detected in the media. Strain MBH23 grew well between pH 6.0 and 8.0 and between 27 and 30 °C. Amides such as 2-chloroacetamide, methacrylamide, nicotinamide, acrylamide, acetamide, and propionamide supported growth. Toxic heavy metals such as mercury, chromium, and cadmium inhibited growth on acrylamide.
BibTeX:
@article{RahimMB2012,
  author = {Rahim MB, Syed MA, Shukor MY},
  title = {Isolation and characterization of an acrylamide-degrading yeast Rhodotorula sp. strain MBH23 KCTC 11960BP.},
  journal = {J Basic Microbiol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {52(5)},
  pages = {573-81}
}
Rai A, Maurya SK, Khare P, Srivastava A, Bandyopadhyay S Characterization of developmental neurotoxicity of As, Cd, and Pb mixture: synergistic action of metal mixture in glial and neuronal functions. 2010 Toxicol Sci.
Vol. 118(2), pp. 586-601 
article  
Abstract: Neurotoxicity of individual metals is well investigated but that of metal mixture (MM), an environmental reality, in the developing brain is relatively obscure. We investigated the combinatorial effect of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) on rat brain development, spanning in utero to postnatal development. MM was administered by gavage to pregnant and lactating rats, and to postweaning pups till 2 months. The pups exhibited behavioral disturbances characterized by hyperlocomotion, increased grip strength, and learning-memory deficit. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was associated with dose-dependent increase in deposition of the metals in developing brain. Astrocytes were affected by MM treatment as evident from their reduced density, area, perimeter, compactness, and number of processes, and increased apoptosis in cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The metals induced synergistic reduction in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression during brain development; however, postweaning withdrawal of MM partially restored the levels of GFAP in adults. To characterize the toxic mechanism, we treated rat primary astrocytes with MM at concentrations ranging from lethal concentration (LC)(10) to LC(75) of the metals. We observed synergistic downregulation in viability and increase in apoptosis of the astrocytes, which were induced by proximal activation of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and downstream activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Furthermore, rise in intracellular calcium ion ([Ca(2+)](i)) and reactive oxygen species generation promoted apoptosis in the astrocytes. Taken together, these observations are the first to show that mixture of As, Cd, and Pb has the capacity to induce synergistic toxicity in astrocytes that may compromise the BBB and may cause behavioral dysfunction in developing rats.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiA2010,
  author = {Rai A, Maurya SK, Khare P, Srivastava A, Bandyopadhyay S},
  title = {Characterization of developmental neurotoxicity of As, Cd, and Pb mixture: synergistic action of metal mixture in glial and neuronal functions.},
  journal = {Toxicol Sci.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {118(2)},
  pages = {586-601}
}
Rai A, Maurya SK, Sharma R, Ali S Down-regulated GFAP?: a major player in heavy metal induced astrocyte damage. 2013 Toxicol Mech Methods.
Vol. 23(2), pp. 99-107 
article  
Abstract: Exposure to a mixture of As, Pb and Cd induces apoptosis and morphological alterations in the cortical astrocytes of rat brain. The levels of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) undergo a reduction. The GFAP exists in several isoforms, viz., ?, ?, ?, ? and ?. However, contribution of the isoforms towards astrocyte damage is not understood. We investigated the effect of the metal mixture (MM) on the expression profiles of mRNAs encoding the GFAP isoforms in astrocytes. The MM was administered in drinking water to developing rats till postnatal day (PD) 60. We observed a fall (10.20?±?1.04%, 18.91?±?2.12% and 30.26?±?3.21% at PD24, PD45 and PD60 respectively) in GFAP?. This may have been compensated by a rise in ?, ?, and ?. The GFAP? remained unchanged. To determine the role of the GFAP?, we silenced its gene using SiRNA technology in the rat primary astrocytes. We observed a 23.73?±?1.56% increase in the number of apoptotic cells. The cleaved PARP and Bax levels increased by 2.48?±?0.14-fold and 3.73?±?0.23-fold respectively, and the Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl decreased by 2.38?±?0.08-fold and 1.76?±?0.09-fold respectively. The change was comparable to the cells treated with MM. Moreover, silencing the GFAP? gene induced a reduction in the area (6.19?±?0.18-folds), perimeter (12.65?±?1.68-folds) and the number of processes (5.88?±?1.5-folds) in the astrocytes, which closely matched the MM-treated ones. Taken together, these observations are the first to show that MM disturbs the composition of the GFAP isoforms, and a suppressed GFAP? promotes apoptosis in the matured rat astrocytes.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiA2013,
  author = {Rai A, Maurya SK, Sharma R, Ali S},
  title = {Down-regulated GFAP?: a major player in heavy metal induced astrocyte damage.},
  journal = {Toxicol Mech Methods.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {23(2)},
  pages = {99-107}
}
Rai NK, Ashok A, Rai A, Tripathi S, Nagar GK, Mitra K, Bandyopadhyay S Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina. 2013 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 273(2), pp. 242-58 
article  
Abstract: Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2'-, 3'-cyclic-nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiNK2013,
  author = {Rai NK, Ashok A, Rai A, Tripathi S, Nagar GK, Mitra K, Bandyopadhyay S},
  title = {Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {273(2)},
  pages = {242-58}
}
Rai V, Khatoon S, Bisht SS, Mehrotra S Effect of cadmium on growth, ultramorphology of leaf and secondary metabolites of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn. 2005 Chemosphere.
Vol. 61(11), pp. 1644-50 
article DOI  
Abstract: The pollution is increasing in the environment by different kinds of human activities, which results in the accumulation of heavy metals including cadmium in the soil and water and it causes different types of problems to living beings. As the plants are utilized by human being as food and medicine, therefore, it is mandatory to see the effect of metals on plants. In this context, efforts have been made to observe the effect of different concentration of Cadmium (Cd) on Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn., because Cd is the widespread metal and the plants response to low and high level of exposure is a complex phenomenon. P. amarus is mostly grown as weed in agricultural and waste lands. It is a reputed plant used in Indian indigenous systems of medicine with hepatoprotective, diuretic, stomachic properties and is recently being used for the treatment of hepatitis B. The study revealed that Cd causes significant decrease in fresh and dry weight, length of root and shoot, protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids and sugar and increase in starch content. It is interesting to note that the therapeutically active compounds-phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin, enhanced at certain levels of Cd due to abiotic stress. Besides, the ultramorpholical changes were also observed in stomatal opening and wax deposition on both the surfaces of leaves.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiV2005,
  author = {Rai V, Khatoon S, Bisht SS, Mehrotra S},
  title = {Effect of cadmium on growth, ultramorphology of leaf and secondary metabolites of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {61(11)},
  pages = {1644-50},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.052}
}
Rajeshkumar S, Mini J, Munuswamy N Effects of heavy metals on antioxidants and expression of HSP70 in different tissues of Milk fish (Chanos chanos) of Kaattuppalli Island, Chennai, India. 2013 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf
Vol. 98, pp. 8-18 
article DOI  
Abstract: Distribution of heavy metals and its associated oxidative stress, ultrastructure and expression of HSP 70 were studied in varies tissues of Chanos chanos collected from polluted sites compared with the fish collected from less polluted sites of Kaattuppalli Island. The concentrations of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese and iron were quantified in gills and liver. The results showed marked differences between the two sites as well as significant variations within the tissues. The decreasing trend of metals in the tissues of fish sampled from both polluted and less polluted sites was in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. Overall, the highest metal concentrations were found in the fish collected from polluted sites. Similarly increase of antioxidant enzymes biomarkers due to heavy metals was also evident in gills and liver of the fish collected from polluted sites. These tissues were further investigated by scanning and electron microscopy and the results were compared with the reference less polluted sites. The presence of large lipid droplets in liver and increase of mucous cells in gills were some of the most noticeable alterations observed and were related to heavy metal contaminants. It is concluded that scanning, ultrastructural and useful of HSP70 biomarkers for heavy metal induced oxidative stress, and demonstrate that precautions need to be taken in polluted sites of Kaattuppalli Island in order to prevent heavy metal pollution that can occur in the future.
BibTeX:
@article{RajeshkumarS2013,
  author = {Rajeshkumar S, Mini J, Munuswamy N},
  title = {Effects of heavy metals on antioxidants and expression of HSP70 in different tissues of Milk fish (Chanos chanos) of Kaattuppalli Island, Chennai, India.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {98},
  pages = {8-18},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.07.029}
}
Ramachandran B, Mäkelä S, Cravedi JP, Berglund M, Håkansson H, Damdimopoulou P, Maggi A Estrogen-like effects of diet-derived cadmium differ from those of orally administered CdCl(2) in the ERE-luc estrogen reporter mouse model. 2011 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 202(2), pp. 75-84 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd), an environmental and dietary contaminant, has been described to mimic the effects of 17?-estradiol (E(2)) in selected model systems when studied as an inorganic salt. However, inorganic Cd salts do not represent the main form of Cd exposure in general human populations. The aims of this study were to compare the estrogen-like effects and the bioavailability of dietary Cd to inorganic CdCl(2). Adult ovariectomized ERE-luc reporter mice were administered two bread based diets containing different concentrations of Cd (17.57 and 49.22?g/kg, corresponding to oral intakes of 1.8 and 5.1?g/kg body weight (bw) per day, respectively), inorganic CdCl(2) (1?g/kg bw per day by gavage) or E(2) (5?g/kg bw per day pellet) for 21 days. The effects on estrogen signaling were investigated by studying the uterine weights, luciferase activation, and expression of endogenous estrogen target genes. The uterine weight was significantly increased by both CdCl(2) and E(2) but not by the Cd containing diets. All treatments modulated the expression of luciferase and the endogenous estrogen target genes; however, there was no consistent overlap between the responses triggered by the bread diets and the responses stimulated by CdCl(2) or E(2). Oral exposure to Cd was calculated and the concentrations in liver and kidneys quantified to estimate the amount of absorbed Cd retained in tissues. The results suggest significantly lower absorption and/or tissue retention of dietary Cd compared to CdCl(2) following oral exposure. Altogether, our results support previous reports on in vivo estrogenicity of CdCl(2) but do not suggest the same activity for diet bound Cd. This study calls for caution when extrapolating results from pure compound studies (e.g. estrogenicity of CdCl(2)) to dietary exposure scenarios (e.g. estrogenicity of diet bound Cd). Further basic research is needed on the mechanisms of interaction between Cd and the estrogen signaling, biologically active species of Cd, and biomarkers of estrogen-like effects of Cd in vivo before human health risk assessment on the hormone disruptive effects of Cd can be carried out.
BibTeX:
@article{RamachandranB2011,
  author = {Ramachandran B, Mäkelä S, Cravedi JP, Berglund M, Håkansson H, Damdimopoulou P, Maggi A},
  title = {Estrogen-like effects of diet-derived cadmium differ from those of orally administered CdCl(2) in the ERE-luc estrogen reporter mouse model.},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {202(2)},
  pages = {75-84}
}
Ramesh A, Kozi?ski JA Investigations of ash topography/morphology and their relationship with heavy metals leachability. 2001 Environ Pollut.
Vol. 111(2), pp. 255-62 
article  
Abstract: The leachability of heavy metals such as chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from the ash material obtained from waste combustion was studied. The effects of ash surface topography and morphology on the leachability of these elements were examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The AFM (scan size 10 x 10 microns) and SEM images of the simulated ash pellet obtained at various operating temperatures (1000, 1400 and 1500 degrees C) showed significant microstructural and topographical changes. Ash pellets treated at 1000 degrees C contain porous and non-continuous surface. On the other hand, the ash pellet obtained at higher temperature (1500 degrees C) was found to contain a smooth, continuous and non-porous surface. The AFM height profile studies indicated that the top surface variation of the ash pellet at 1000, 1400 and 1500 degrees C were found to be -40.0 to 25.5, -3.7 to 4.7 and -0.10 to 0.66 nm respectively. The SEM analyses also confirmed the presence of smooth, non-porous outer surface of ash formed at 1500 degrees C. In addition, it also showed the presence of compact and rigid interior for the same ash pellet. The leachability of the heavy metals was determined using standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and the samples were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the TCLP leaching ratios of the heavy metals were Cr = 0.30, Pb = 0.05 and Cd = 0.09 at 1000 degrees C. However, the ash obtained at 1400 degrees C showed negligible heavy metals leaching ratio while at 1500 degrees C no leachability was detected (TCLP concentration dropped to nondetectable levels). The use of high temperature treatment enabled the immobilization of heavy metals in the ash preventing their leaching. Such ash can be considered as a non-hazardous material for reuse or safe disposal.
BibTeX:
@article{RameshA2001,
  author = {Ramesh A, Kozi?ski JA},
  title = {Investigations of ash topography/morphology and their relationship with heavy metals leachability.},
  journal = {Environ Pollut.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {111(2)},
  pages = {255-62}
}
Ramesh A, Kozi?ski JA Investigations of ash topography/morphology and their relationship with heavy metals leachability. 2001 Environ Pollut.
Vol. 111(2), pp. 255-62 
article  
Abstract: The leachability of heavy metals such as chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from the ash material obtained from waste combustion was studied. The effects of ash surface topography and morphology on the leachability of these elements were examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The AFM (scan size 10 x 10 microns) and SEM images of the simulated ash pellet obtained at various operating temperatures (1000, 1400 and 1500 degrees C) showed significant microstructural and topographical changes. Ash pellets treated at 1000 degrees C contain porous and non-continuous surface. On the other hand, the ash pellet obtained at higher temperature (1500 degrees C) was found to contain a smooth, continuous and non-porous surface. The AFM height profile studies indicated that the top surface variation of the ash pellet at 1000, 1400 and 1500 degrees C were found to be -40.0 to 25.5, -3.7 to 4.7 and -0.10 to 0.66 nm respectively. The SEM analyses also confirmed the presence of smooth, non-porous outer surface of ash formed at 1500 degrees C. In addition, it also showed the presence of compact and rigid interior for the same ash pellet. The leachability of the heavy metals was determined using standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and the samples were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the TCLP leaching ratios of the heavy metals were Cr = 0.30, Pb = 0.05 and Cd = 0.09 at 1000 degrees C. However, the ash obtained at 1400 degrees C showed negligible heavy metals leaching ratio while at 1500 degrees C no leachability was detected (TCLP concentration dropped to nondetectable levels). The use of high temperature treatment enabled the immobilization of heavy metals in the ash preventing their leaching. Such ash can be considered as a non-hazardous material for reuse or safe disposal.
BibTeX:
@article{RameshA2001a,
  author = {Ramesh A, Kozi?ski JA},
  title = {Investigations of ash topography/morphology and their relationship with heavy metals leachability.},
  journal = {Environ Pollut.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {111(2)},
  pages = {255-62}
}
Rani A, Kumar A, Lal A, Pant M Cellular mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity: a review. 2014 Int J Environ Health Res.
Vol. 24(4), pp. 378-99 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium is a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern because of its diverse toxic effects: extremely protracted biological half-life (approximately 20-30 years in humans), low rate of excretion from the body and storage predominantly in soft tissues (primarily, liver and kidneys). It is an extremely toxic element of continuing concern because environmental levels have risen steadily due to continued worldwide anthropogenic mobilization. Cadmium is absorbed in significant quantities from cigarette smoke, food, water and air contamination and is known to have numerous undesirable effects in both humans and animals. Cadmium has a diversity of toxic effects including nephrotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine and reproductive toxicities. At the cellular level,cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Current evidence suggests that exposure tocadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Most important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanism, generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis. In this article, we have reviewed recent developments and findings on cadmium toxicology.
BibTeX:
@article{RaniA2014,
  author = {Rani A, Kumar A, Lal A, Pant M},
  title = {Cellular mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity: a review.},
  journal = {Int J Environ Health Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {24(4)},
  pages = {378-99},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2013.835032}
}
Rao J, Madhyastha MN Toxicities of some heavy metals to the tadpoles of frog, Microhyla ornata (Dumeril & Bibron). 1987 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 36(2), pp. 205-8 
article  
Abstract: Static bioassays were conducted to determine the relative acute toxicities of five heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, copper, manganese and zinc) to 1-week-old and 4-week-old tadpoles of the frog, Microhyla ornata. Toxic effects were calculated on the basis of LC50 for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h exposures at 25.5-26.0 degrees C. Mercury was the most toxic and zinc was the least toxic of the heavy metals tested. The sensitivity of the tadpoles to the heavy metals increased with increased age.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoJ1987,
  author = {Rao J, Madhyastha MN},
  title = {Toxicities of some heavy metals to the tadpoles of frog, Microhyla ornata (Dumeril & Bibron).},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {36(2)},
  pages = {205-8}
}
Rathore RS, Khangarot BS Effects of temperature on the sensitivity of sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller to selected heavy metals. 2002 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 53(1), pp. 27-36 
article  
Abstract: The present study evaluates the effect of temperature on the sensitivity of the freshwater tubificid sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller to 10 heavy metal ions. Metals used in this study were cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, and zinc. The acute toxicity of these heavy metals was studied at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. The percentage mortality, relative toxicity, and EC50 values and their 95% confidence limits from 24 to 96 h were determined at varying temperatures. The EC50 values (mg/liter) of metal ions at 15 degrees C were Hg2+, 0.034; Cu2+, 0.340; Cr6+, 1.846; Zn2+, 10.99; Ni2+, 25.10; Cd2+, 56; Fe3+, 86.09; Co2+, 239.39; Pb2+, 456.76; and Mn2+, 164.55. At 30 degrees C the values were Hg2+, 0.014; Cu2+, 0.031; Cr6+, 0.872; Zn2+, 3.37; Ni2+, 18; Cd2+, 28.55; Fe3+, 71.26; Co2+, 95.35; Pb2+, 165.22; and Mn2+, 239.39. The results indicate that the acute toxicity of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc increases with temperature increase. The toxicity of manganese was not influenced by temperature, and temperature had little effect on iron toxicity. The rank order of toxicity of metal ions at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C is presented and discussed. It is concluded that temperature is an important factor in short-term acute toxicity tests. The study indicates that seasonal temperature changes are an important variable in determining the amount of heavy metals that may be safely released from metal industries and other similar sources into the aquatic environment. Influence of temperature on the short- and long-term toxicity of chemicals should be considered for establishing appropriate water-quality criteria and standards to protect aquatic flora and fauna and human health.
BibTeX:
@article{RathoreRS2002,
  author = {Rathore RS, Khangarot BS},
  title = {Effects of temperature on the sensitivity of sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller to selected heavy metals.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {53(1)},
  pages = {27-36}
}
Ray PD, Yosim A, Fry RC Incorporating epigenetic data into the risk assessment process for the toxic metals arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury: strategies and challenges. 2014 Front Genet.
Vol. 5(201) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Exposure to toxic metals poses a serious human health hazard based on ubiquitous environmental presence, the extent of exposure, and the toxicity and disease states associated with exposure. This global health issue warrants accurate and reliable models derived from the risk assessment process to predict disease risk in populations. There has been considerable interest recently in the impact of environmental toxicants such as toxic metals on the epigenome. Epigenetic modifications are alterations to an individual's genome without a change in the DNA sequence, and include, but are not limited to, three commonly studied alterations: DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA expression. Given the role of epigenetic alterations in regulating gene and thus protein expression, there is the potential for the integration of toxic metal-induced epigenetic alterations as informative factors in the risk assessment process. In the present review, epigenetic alterations induced by five high priority toxic metals/metalloids are prioritized for analysis and their possible inclusion into the risk assessment process is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{RayPD2014,
  author = {Ray PD, Yosim A, Fry RC},
  title = {Incorporating epigenetic data into the risk assessment process for the toxic metals arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury: strategies and challenges.},
  journal = {Front Genet.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {5},
  number = {201},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2014.00201}
}
Rehman A, Sohail Anjum M, Hasnain S Cadmium biosorption by yeast, Candida tropicalis CBL-1, isolated from industrial wastewater. 2010 J Gen Appl Microbiol.
Vol. 56(5), pp. 359-68 
article  
Abstract: The present study is aimed at assessing the ability of metal-resistant yeast, Candida tropicalis CBL-1, to uptake metal from liquid medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cd(II) against Candida tropicalis CBL-1 was 2,800 mg/L. The yeast could also tolerate Zn(II) (3,100 mg/L), Hg(II) (2,400 mg/L), Ni(II) (2,200 mg/L), Cr(VI) (2,000 mg/L), Pb(II) (1,100 mg/L), and Cu(II) (2,200 mg/L). The yeast isolate showed typical growth curves but lag and log phases extended in the presence of cadmium. The yeast isolate showed optimum growth at 30ºC and pH 7. The metal processing ability of the isolate was determined in a medium containing 100 mg/L of Cd(II). Candida tropicalis CBL-1, could reduce Cd(II) 59%, 64% and 70% from the medium after 48, 96 and 144 h, respectively. C. tropicalis CBL-1 was also able to remove Cd(II) 46% and 60% from the wastewater after 6 and 12 days, respectively. Cd produced an increase in glutathione and non-protein thiols level by 37% (17.50±0.8-24.0±1.2) and 18% (3.30±0.7- 3.90±0.8) at 100 mg/L concentration, respectively. Metal tolerance and accumulation together with changes in the GSH status and non-protein thiols under Cd exposure were studied in C. tropicalis.
BibTeX:
@article{RehmanA2010,
  author = {Rehman A, Sohail Anjum M, Hasnain S},
  title = {Cadmium biosorption by yeast, Candida tropicalis CBL-1, isolated from industrial wastewater.},
  journal = {J Gen Appl Microbiol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {56(5)},
  pages = {359-68}
}
Renugadevi J, Prabu SM Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the protective effect of naringenin. 2010 Exp Toxicol Pathol.
Vol. 62(2), pp. 171-81 
article DOI  
Abstract: This experiment pertains to the protective role of naringenin against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress in the liver of rats. Cadmiumis a major environmental pollutant and is known for its wide toxic manifestations. Naringenin is a naturally occurring citrus flavonone which has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. In the present investigation cadmium (5mg/kg) was administered orally for 4 weeks to induce hepatotoxicity. Liver damage induced by cadmium was clearly shown by the increased activities of serum hepatic marker enzymes namely aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and serum total bilirubin (TB) along with the increased level of lipid peroxidation indices (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides) and protein carbonyl contents in liver. The toxic effect of cadmium was also indicated by significantly decreased levels of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E). Administration of naringenin at a dose of (50mg/kg) significantly reversed the activities of serum hepatic marker enzymes to their near-normal levels when compared to Cd-treated rats. In addition, naringenin significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and restored the levels of antioxidant defense in the liver. The histopathological studies in the liver of rats also showed that naringenin (50mg/kg) markedly reduced the toxicity of cadmium and preserved the normal histological architecture of the tissue. The present study suggested that naringenin may be beneficial in ameliorating the cadmium-induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats.
BibTeX:
@article{RenugadeviJ2010,
  author = {Renugadevi J, Prabu SM},
  title = {Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the protective effect of naringenin.},
  journal = {Exp Toxicol Pathol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {62(2)},
  pages = {171-81},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2009.03.010}
}
Renugadevi J, Prabu SM Naringenin protects against cadmium-induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats. 2009 Toxicology.
Vol. 256(1-2), pp. 128-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in human and experimental animals. Naringenin is a naturally occurring plant bioflavonoid found in citrus fruits, which has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. A body of evidence has accumulated implicating the free radical generation with subsequent oxidative stress in the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cadmium toxicity. Since kidney is the critical target organ of chronic Cd toxicity, we carried out this study to investigate the effects of naringenin on Cd-induced toxicity in the kidney of rats. In experimental rats, oral administration of cadmiumchloride (5mg/(kgday)) for 4 weeks significantly induced the renal damage which was evident from the increased levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine with a significant (p<0.05) decrease in creatinine clearance. Cadmium also significantly decreased the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in urine. A markedly increased levels of lipid peroxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides) and protein carbonyl contents with significant (p<0.05) decrease in non-enzymatic antioxidants (total sulfhydryl groups, reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) as well as glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)) were also observed in cadmium-treated rats. Co-administration of naringenin (25 and 50mg/(kgday)) along with Cd resulted in a reversal of Cd-induced biochemical changes in kidney accompanied by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and an increase in the level of renal antioxidant defense system. The histopathological studies in the kidney of rats also showed that naringenin (50mg/(kgday)) markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the normal histological architecture of the renal tissue. The present study suggest that the nephroprotective potential of naringenin in Cd toxicity might be due to its antioxidant and metal chelating properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in Cd-induced renal damage.
BibTeX:
@article{RenugadeviJ2009,
  author = {Renugadevi J, Prabu SM},
  title = {Naringenin protects against cadmium-induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {256(1-2)},
  pages = {128-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2008.11.012}
}
Roy AA, Baxla SP, Gupta T, Bandyopadhyaya R, Tripathi SN Particles emitted from indoor combustion sources: size distribution measurement and chemical analysis. 2009 Inhal Toxicol.
Vol. 21(10), pp. 837-48 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study is primarily focused toward measuring the particle size distribution and chemical analysis of particulate matter that originates from combustion sources typically found in Indian urban homes. Four such sources were selected: cigarette, incense stick, mosquito coil, and dhoop, the latter being actually a thick form of incense stick. Altogether, seven of the most popular brands available in the Indian market were tested. Particle size distribution in the smoke was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer, using both long and nano forms of differential mobility analyzer (DMA), with readings averaged from four to six runs. The measurable particle size range of the nano DMA was 4.6 nm to 157.8 nm, whereas that of the long DMA was 15.7 nm to 637.8 nm. Therefore, readings obtained from the long and the nano DMA were compared for different brands as well as for different sources. An overlap was seen in the readings in the common range of measurement. The lowest value of peak concentration was seen for one brand of incense stick (0.9 x 10(6) cm(-3)), whereas the highest (7.1 x 10(6) cm(-3)) was seen for the dhoop. Generally, these sources showed a peak between 140 and 170 nm; however, 2 incense stick brands showed peaks at 79 nm and 89 nm. The dhoop showed results much different from the rest of the sources, with a mode at around 240 nm. Chemical analysis in terms of three heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, and lead) was performed using graphite tube atomizer and flame-atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Calculations were made to assess the expected cancer and noncancer risks, using published toxicity potentials for these three heavy metals. Our calculations revealed that all the sources showed lead concentrations much below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) level. One of the two mosquito coil brands (M(2)) showed cadmium concentrations two times higher than the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal EPA) reference exposure level (REL). The latter also showed the highest carcinogenic risks of 350 people per million population. The amount of zinc obtained from the sources, however, was found to be quite below the standard limits, implying no risk in terms of zinc.
BibTeX:
@article{RoyAA2009,
  author = {Roy AA, Baxla SP, Gupta T, Bandyopadhyaya R, Tripathi SN},
  title = {Particles emitted from indoor combustion sources: size distribution measurement and chemical analysis.},
  journal = {Inhal Toxicol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {21(10)},
  pages = {837-48},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958370802538050}
}
Roychoudhury S, Massanyi P, Bulla J, Choudhury MD, Lukac N, Filipejova T, Trandzik J, Toman R, Almasiova V Cadmium toxicity at low concentration on rabbit spermatozoa motility, morphology and membrane integrity in vitro. 2010 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 45(11), pp. 1374-83 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this study the effect of cadmium on various parameters of spermatozoa motility, morphology as well as on the spermatozoa membrane integrity in rabbits was analyzed in vitro, experimental concentrations ranging from 0.62 to 0.98 micro g CdCl(2)/mL. Pooled rabbit (n = 5) semen was cultured in vitro with cadmium and subsequently diluted to various experimental concentrations apart from control which received no cadmium exposure. Using computer assisted semen analysis method (CASA) we detected decrease of total motility with in the higher concentration range at Time 0. However, with increasing time (after 1 and 2 h of culture), cadmium exerted deleterious effect leading to significant motility reduction in comparison to control. A similar trend was exhibited in case of progressive motility, too. Most of the spermatozoa distance and velocity parameters detected no significant change in comparison to control at the beginning of culture (Time 0), although the toxic effect became significant (P < 0.05) with the passage of culture time (Times 1 and 2 h) in all concentrations. Analysis of spermatozoa morphology detected significant (P < 0.05) alterations at higher concentrations. At higher concentrations acrosomal changes, head without flagellum/separated flagellum, broken flagellum and other abnormalities were significantly higher (P < 0.05), while knob-twisted flagellum and small heads differed significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison to control at all concentrations. In regards to flagellum torso, flagellum ball and retention of cytoplasmic drop statistically higher values (P < 0.05) were noted at the maxium experimental concentration only. Annexin analysis for detection of spermatozoa with disordered membranes revealed higher occurrence of positive spermatozoa in cadmium exposed groups. Annexin-positive reactions suggested alterations in anterior part of head (acrosome) and in flagellum (mitochondrial segment) of spermatozoa. This paper underlines that cadmium is highly toxic for rabbit spermatozoa, as visualized by the toxic effects on parameters of spermatozoa motility, morphology and membrane integrity. The toxic effect is more drastic at higher concentrations. This study also indicates that cadmium requires a minimum one hour incubation time to exert its deletorious effects on various parameters of spermatozoa, particularly at low concentrations.
BibTeX:
@article{RoychoudhuryS2010,
  author = {Roychoudhury S, Massanyi P, Bulla J, Choudhury MD, Lukac N, Filipejova T, Trandzik J, Toman R, Almasiova V},
  title = {Cadmium toxicity at low concentration on rabbit spermatozoa motility, morphology and membrane integrity in vitro.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {45(11)},
  pages = {1374-83},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2010.500909}
}
Saha JK, Panwar NR, Singh MV Determination of lead and cadmium concentration limits in agricultural soil and municipal solid waste compost through an approach of zero tolerance to food contamination. 2010 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 168(1-4), pp. 397-406 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium and lead are important environmental pollutants with high toxicity to animals and human. Soils, though have considerable metal immobilizing capability, can contaminate food chain via plants grown upon them when their built-up occurs to a large extent. Present experiment was carried out with the objective of quantifying the limits of Pb and Cd loading in soil for the purpose of preventing food chain contamination beyond background concentration levels. Two separate sets of pot experiment were carried out for these two heavy metals with graded levels of application doses of Pb at 0.4-150 mg/kg and Cd at 0.02-20 mg/kg to an acidic light textured alluvial soil. Spinach crop was grown for 50 days on these treated soils after a stabilization period of 2 months. Upper limit of background concentration levels (C(ul)) of these metals were calculated through statistical approach from the heavy metals concentration values in leaves of spinach crop grown in farmers' fields. Lead and Cd concentration limits in soil were calculated by dividing C(ul) with uptake response slope obtained from the pot experiment. Cumulative loading limits (concentration limits in soil minus contents in uncontaminated soil) for the experimental soil were estimated to be 170 kg Pb/ha and 0.8 kg Cd/ha. Based on certain assumptions on application rate and computed cumulative loading limit values, maximum permissible Pb and Cd concentration values in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost were proposed as 170 mg Pb/kg and 0.8 mg Cd/kg, respectively. In view of these limiting values, about 56% and 47% of the MSW compost samples from different cities are found to contain Pb and Cd in the safe range.
BibTeX:
@article{SahaJK2010,
  author = {Saha JK, Panwar NR, Singh MV},
  title = {Determination of lead and cadmium concentration limits in agricultural soil and municipal solid waste compost through an approach of zero tolerance to food contamination.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {168(1-4)},
  pages = {397-406}
}
Saini P, Khan S, Baunthiyal M, Sharma V Organ-wise accumulation of fluoride in Prosopis juliflora and its potential for phytoremediation of fluoride contaminated soil. 2012 Chemosphere.
Vol. 89(5), pp. 633-5 
article  
Abstract: Fluoride (F) contamination is a global environmental problem, as there is no cure of fluorosis available yet. Prosopis juliflora is a leguminous perennial, phreatophyte tree, widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of world. It extensively grows in F endemic areas of Rajasthan (India) and has been known as a "green" solution to decontaminate cadmium, chromium and copper contaminated soils. This study aims to check the tolerance potential of P. juliflora to accumulate fluoride. For this work, P. juliflora seedlings were grown for 75 d on soilrite under five different concentrations of F viz., control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg NaF kg(-1). Organ-wise accumulation of F, bioaccumulation factor (BF), translocation factor (TF), growth ratio (GR) and F tolerance index (TI) were examined. Plant accumulated high amounts of F in roots. The organ-wise distribution showed an accumulation 4.41 mg kg(-1)dw, 12.97 mg kg(-1)dw and 16.75 mg kg(-1)dw F, in stem, leaves and roots respectively. The results indicated significant translocation of F from root into aerial parts. The bioaccumulation and translocation factor values (>1.0) showed high accumulation efficiency and tolerance of P. juliflora to F. It is concluded that P. juliflora is a suitable candidate for phytoremediation purpose and can be explored further for the decontamination of F polluted soils.
BibTeX:
@article{SainiP2012,
  author = {Saini P, Khan S, Baunthiyal M, Sharma V},
  title = {Organ-wise accumulation of fluoride in Prosopis juliflora and its potential for phytoremediation of fluoride contaminated soil.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {89(5)},
  pages = {633-5}
}
Santos A, Alonso E, Riesco P Influence of cadmium on the performance of an activated SBR sludge treatment. 2005 Environ Technol.
Vol. 26(2), pp. 127-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: High concentration of heavy metals is a toxic factor for most microorganisms. As a result, such metals give rise to severe disruption in wastewater treatment operations. It has been noticed, however, that biological systems may adapt to heavy metals when their concentration is limited. In fact, such systems can even produce some degree of metal elimination provided that an optimal exposure tempo is guaranteed. On the other hand, irreversible damage may occur when metal concentration is sufficiently high. It is the aim of the present study to report on the inhibiting effects due to Cadmium on the activated sludge treatment method. To that end, different Cd concentrations were tested (ranging from 0.25 to 14 mg l(-1)) in a Sequential Biological Reactor, using synthetic wastewater without recirculation. The feed water providing 325 mg l(-1) COD and 30 mg l(-1) NH4+ -N. The process was screened by checking elimination percentages for COD and ammonia, as well as the evolution of ciliate protozoa. In addition, research was carried out on Cd assimilation by the activated sludge system by means of measuring in the mixed liquor and in the effluent. Results showed a marked decrease in purification efficiency when Cd-concentration rose over 14 mg l(-1), in which case COD elimination dropped from 98% to 41% while ammonia elimination went down from 98% to 32%. The Sludge Biotic Index decreases to 0 at Cd concentrations above 10 mg l(-1).
BibTeX:
@article{SantosA2005,
  author = {Santos A, Alonso E, Riesco P},
  title = {Influence of cadmium on the performance of an activated SBR sludge treatment.},
  journal = {Environ Technol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {26(2)},
  pages = {127-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593332608618568}
}
Sarkar S, Yadav P, Bhatnagar D Lipid peroxidative damage on cadmium exposure and alterations in antioxidant system in rat erythrocytes: a study with relation to time. 1998 Biometals.
Vol. 11(2), pp. 153-7 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes after the administration of a single dose of CdCl2 (0.4 mg kg-1 body wt, i.p.) was studied in rat erythrocytes. Cd intoxication increased erythrocyte LPO along with a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) up to three days of Cd treatment. The decrease in erythrocyte catalase (CAT) activity was marked within 9 h of Cd intoxication. After three days of Cd treatment, LPO decreased towards normal, along with an increase in erythrocyte SOC and CAT activity. Blood glutathione (GSH) decreased significantly within 24 h of Cd treatment, followed by an increase towards normal. Erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity increased up to 10 days of Cd intoxication, probably in an attempt to reduce Cdtoxicity. Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and serum bilirubin increased up to 10 days of Cd intoxication. Blood urea increased significantly up to three days, followed by a decrease towards normal. The results show that Cd induced LPO was associated with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes and GSH in erythrocytes; as these antioxidants increase in erythrocytes with recovery from Cd intoxication, the Cd induced LPO reversed towards normal. The increase in the SGPT, SALP and serum bilirubin correlated with LPO. The results suggest that Cd intoxication induces oxidative stress and alters the antioxidant system, resulting in oxidative damage to rat erythrocytes.
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarS1998,
  author = {Sarkar S, Yadav P, Bhatnagar D},
  title = {Lipid peroxidative damage on cadmium exposure and alterations in antioxidant system in rat erythrocytes: a study with relation to time.},
  journal = {Biometals.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {11(2)},
  pages = {153-7}
}
Saxena DK, Murthy RC, Singh C, Chandra SV Zinc protects testicular injury induced by concurrent exposure to cadmium and lead in rats. 1989 Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol.
Vol. 64(2), pp. 317-29 
article  
Abstract: The effect of coexposure to lead and cadmium (each 50 ppm alone and 25 ppm in combination) on the testes of rats and the preventive role of zinc (50 ppm) was investigated by administering these metals through drinking water. Male weaned albino rats were exposed to these metals for 120 days. Testicular histology, sperm counts and sperm motility were studied in these rats. The animals coexposed to lead and cadmium exhibited much more pronounced pathological changes and reduced sperm counts compared to the animals exposed to either of the metals alone. Zinc supplementation to the lead + cadmium exposed rats revealed the protective effect of zinc on these parameters. The observed higher magnitude of changes in the testes of lead + cadmium exposed group seems to be due to the excessive cadmium accumulation.
BibTeX:
@article{SaxenaDK1989,
  author = {Saxena DK, Murthy RC, Singh C, Chandra SV},
  title = {Zinc protects testicular injury induced by concurrent exposure to cadmium and lead in rats.},
  journal = {Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {64(2)},
  pages = {317-29}
}
Selvaraju S, Nandi S, Gupta PS, Ravindra JP Effects of heavy metals and pesticides on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa functions in vitro. 2011 Reprod Domest Anim.
Vol. 46(5), pp. 807-13 
article DOI  
Abstract: Industrial toxic metals, pollutants and bio-accumulative pesticides interfere with the male reproductive functions in farm animals. Frozen-thawed semen samples were incubated with heavy metals (cadmium and lead) and pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) of different concentrations (0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.02, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ?g/ml) for 1 h, and various spermatozoa functional parameters and in vitro fertilization rates were assessed. Any significant effect was assessed by comparing the 1 h data between the control and treatment groups. Progressive forward motility was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in spermatozoa exposed to lower concentrations (0.05-0.5 ?g/ml) of toxic substances. The straight-line velocity (?m/s) and the average path velocity (?m/s) were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in spermatozoa exposed to 1.0 and 0.5 ?g/ml of cadmium (11.6 ± 1.9 and 16.3 ± 1.9) and chlorpyrifos (10.4 ± 1.5 and 17.1 ± 1.3), respectively, when compared to control (20.4 ± 1.4 and 28.1 ± 1.7). The acrosomal integrity was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 0.05 ?g/ml of chlorpyrifos (33.3 ± 1.9), 1.0 ?g/ml of cadmium (36.8 ± 3.7), 1.0 ?g/ml of lead (39.4 ± 2.8) and 0.5 ?g/ml of endosulfan (38.3 ± 3.2), respectively. The spermatozoa chromatin decondensation was significantly (p < 0.05) affected at higher concentrations (>0.5 ?g/ml) of these chemicals. The mitochondrial membrane potential (%) was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 0.05 ?g/ml of cadmium (3.2 ± 0.2) and chlorpyrifos (4.3 ± 0.4), 0.1 ?g/ml of lead (3.8 ± 0.3) and 0.5 ?g/ml of endosulfan (3.2 ± 0.3) when compared to control (6.7 ± 1.0). The in vitro fertilization capabilities (cleavage percentage) of spermatozoa were significantly reduced at 1.0 ?g/ml of cadmium (28.3 ± 2.4) and 2.0 ?g/ml of lead (31.1 ± 2.7), chlorpyrifos (29.4 ± 2.2) and endosulfan (32.6 ± 2.5) when compared to control (59.4 ± 4.4). This study suggested that the mitochondrial membrane potential was primarily affected even with lowest doses of toxic chemicals. Cadmiumwhen compared to lead and chlorpyrifos when compared to endosulfan were found to be more toxic to the spermatozoa.
BibTeX:
@article{SelvarajuS2011,
  author = {Selvaraju S, Nandi S, Gupta PS, Ravindra JP},
  title = {Effects of heavy metals and pesticides on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa functions in vitro.},
  journal = {Reprod Domest Anim.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {46(5)},
  pages = {807-13},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2010.01745.x}
}
Sengupta M, Deb I, Sharma GD, Kar KK Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam. 2013 Syst Biol Reprod Med.
Vol. 59(4), pp. 199-209 
article  
Abstract: In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral ?-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition.
BibTeX:
@article{SenguptaM2013,
  author = {Sengupta M, Deb I, Sharma GD, Kar KK},
  title = {Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.},
  journal = {Syst Biol Reprod Med.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {59(4)},
  pages = {199-209}
}
Senthilkumar T, Sangeetha N, Ashokkumar N Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and renoprotective effects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in diabetic rats exposed to cadmium. 2012 Toxicol Mech Methods
Vol. 22(8), pp. 617-24 
article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
The objective of the present study is to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in diabetic rats exposed to cadmium (Cd).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Group 1 and 2 rats were treated as control and C. pyrenoidosa control. Group 3 and 4 rats were given single injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg b.w; i.p) followed by Cd (0.6 mg/kg b.w; s.c) for 5 days per week for a total period of 90 days. In addition, group 4 rats alone were treated with C. pyrenoidosa throughout the study period of 90 days. Assessments of plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile and renal function markers were performed in control and experimental rats along with histological examination of kidney tissues.
RESULTS:
Diabetic rats exposed to Cd showed increased levels of plasma glucose and decreased levels of plasma insulin accompanied by the significantly elevated levels of tissue lipids viz., total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipids compared with control rats. Alterations in lipoproteins (low density lipoprotein-C, very low density lipoprotein-C, and high density lipoprotein-C) levels were also observed.
DISCUSSION:
Elevated levels of urinary albumin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen confirmed the onset of renal dysfunction in unsupplemented diabetic rats exposed to Cd.
CONCLUSION:
C. pyrenoidosa (100 mg/kg body weight) supplemented diabetic nephropathic rats showed near normal biochemical profile and well preserved renal histology that substantiate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and renoprotective effects of C. pyrenoidosa in diabetic rats exposed to Cd.
BibTeX:
@article{SenthilkumarT2012,
  author = {Senthilkumar T, Sangeetha N, Ashokkumar N},
  title = {Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and renoprotective effects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in diabetic rats exposed to cadmium.},
  journal = {Toxicol Mech Methods},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {22(8)},
  pages = {617-24}
}
Senthilkumaran S, Ananth C, Gore SB, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P Cadmium toxicity in silversmith: Safety is never too much! 2014 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 18(3)(163) 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{SenthilkumaranS2014,
  author = {Senthilkumaran S, Ananth C, Gore SB, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P},
  title = {Cadmium toxicity in silversmith: Safety is never too much!},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {18(3)},
  number = {163},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.146919}
}
Seth CS, Chaturvedi PK, Misra V Toxic effect of arsenate and cadmium alone and in combination on giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza L.) in response to its accumulation. 2007 Environ Toxicol.
Vol. 22(6), pp. 539-49 
article  
Abstract: To evaluate the biological effects of wastewater samples containing heavy metals, the effects of metal Cd (II) and As (V) were studied on Spirodela polyrrhiza L. The plants were exposed at metal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 microM of Cd (II) and 1, 5, 10, 20 microM of As (V) for a period of 1, 4, 7 d (day) alone and in combination of both. Plants accumulated 1855 mg kg(-1) dw (dry weight) Cd and 1230 mg kg(-1) dw As after 7 d in alone, whereas it was 885 mg kg(-1) dw Cd and 865 mg kg(-1) dw As in combination. The toxicological parameters such as fresh biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and total protein contents increased up to 2 microM of Cd (II) after 1 d and 10 microM of As (V) after 4 d with respect to control (Hormesis effect), followed by gradual decline at higher concentrations and duration. In case of Cd (II) a maximum decrease of 58% in protein content, 62% in fresh biomass, and 78% in total chlorophyll was observed at 2 microM, whereas, with As (V) 38% decrease in protein content, 34% in fresh biomass, and 52% in total chlorophyll was shown at 20 microM after 7 d. The metal tolerance strategy against metal induced reactive oxygen species adopted by the plants was investigated with reference to nonprotein thiols (NP-SH), cysteine, and ascorbic acid. The results of combined treatment revealed reduced toxicity at the level of fresh biomass, protein content, and chlorophyll; however, the amount of nonenzymatic antioxidant did not significantly (P = 0.172) increase as compared to alone treatment. Finally, it was concluded that due to high metal accumulation coupled with defense potential, the plant appears to have a potential for its use as phytoremediator species of aquatic environments.
BibTeX:
@article{SethCS2007,
  author = {Seth CS, Chaturvedi PK, Misra V},
  title = {Toxic effect of arsenate and cadmium alone and in combination on giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza L.) in response to its accumulation.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {22(6)},
  pages = {539-49}
}
Seth CS, Misra V, Chauhan LK Accumulation, detoxification, and genotoxicity of heavy metals in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). 2012 Int J Phytoremediation.
Vol. 14(1), pp. 1-13 
article  
Abstract: Plants of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) were exposed to different concentrations (15, 30, 60, 120 microM) of (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb) for 28 and 56 d for accumulation and detoxification studies. Metal accumulation in roots and shoots were analyzed and it was observed that roots accumulated a significant amount of Cd (1980 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cr (1540 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cu (1995 microg g(-1) dry weight), and Pb (2040 microg g(-1) dry weight) after 56 d of exposure, though in shoot this was 1110, 618, 795, and 409 microg g(-1) dry weight of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In order to assess detoxification mechanisms, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) were analyzed in plants. An increase in the quantity of NP-SH (9.55), GSH (8.30), and PCs (1.25) micromol g(-1) FW were found at 15 microM of Cd, however, a gradual decline in quantity was observed from 15 microM of Cd onwards, after 56 d of exposure. For genotoxicity in plants, cytogenetic end-points such as mitotic index (MI), micronucleus formation (MN), mitotic aberrations (MA) and chromosome aberrations (CA) were examined in root meristem cells of B. juncea. Exposure of Cd revealed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of MI, induction of MA, CA, and MN in the root tips for 24 h. However, cells examined at 24 h post-exposure showed concentration-wise recovery in all the endpoints. The data revealed that Indian mustard could be used as a potential accumulator of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb due to a good tolerance mechanisms provided by combined/concerted action of NP-SH, GSH, and PCs. Also, exposure of Cd can cause genotoxic effects in B. juncea L. through chromosomal mutations, MA, and MN formation.
BibTeX:
@article{SethCS2012,
  author = {Seth CS, Misra V, Chauhan LK},
  title = {Accumulation, detoxification, and genotoxicity of heavy metals in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).},
  journal = {Int J Phytoremediation.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {14(1)},
  pages = {1-13}
}
Seth P, Husain MM, Gupta P, Schoneboom A, Grieder BF, Mani H, Maheshwari RK Early onset of virus infection and up-regulation of cytokines in mice treated with cadmium and manganese. 2003 Biometals.
Vol. 16(2), pp. 359-68 
article  
Abstract: A substantial database indicates that a large number of environmental pollutants, chemicals and therapeutic agents to which organisms are exposed cause immunotoxicity. The suppression of immune functions may cause increased susceptibility of the host to a variety of microbial pathogens potentially resulting in a life-threatening state. Evaluation of the immunotoxic potential of chemical xenobiotics is of great concern and, therefore, we have investigated the impact of exposure of inorganic metals, specifically cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn) on Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) infection. Pretreatment with a single, oral dose of Cd or Mn increased the susceptibility of mice to a sub-lethal infection of these viruses as observed by increased severity of symptoms and mortality compared to untreated controls. An early onset of virus infection was found in brains of Cd and Mn treated animals. Histopathological observations of the brain indicate evidence of inflammation and greater tissue pathology in Cd-or Mn-exposed mice compared to control animals. Meningitis and vascular congestion was seen in virus infected mice in all the metal treated groups, and further, the perivascular inflammation appeared earlier in treated mice compared to control. Encephalitis was maximum in Cd pretreated mice. Widespread environmental contamination of metals and the potential for their exposure and subsequent infection of humans or animals is indicative that further studies of these and all other metals are important to understand the effect of environmental pollution on human health.
BibTeX:
@article{SethP2003,
  author = {Seth P, Husain MM, Gupta P, Schoneboom A, Grieder BF, Mani H, Maheshwari RK},
  title = {Early onset of virus infection and up-regulation of cytokines in mice treated with cadmium and manganese.},
  journal = {Biometals.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {16(2)},
  pages = {359-68}
}
Sethi PK, Khandelwal D Cadmium exposure: health hazards of silver cottage industry in developing countries. 2006 J Med Toxicol.
Vol. 2(1), pp. 14-5 
article  
Abstract: In countries such as India, the silver jewelry industry is an important cottage industry. Silver is mixed with cadmium and then used to make silver jewelry. During this process there is a formation of cadmium fumes, and the workers inhale the fumes. Cadmium is a neurotoxic and nephrotoxic heavy metal, and there are no national policies to prevent exposure to such chemicals. We will present a case of cadmium induced peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and decreased bone density.
BibTeX:
@article{SethiPK2006,
  author = {Sethi PK, Khandelwal D},
  title = {Cadmium exposure: health hazards of silver cottage industry in developing countries.},
  journal = {J Med Toxicol.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {2(1)},
  pages = {14-5}
}
Sethy SK, Ghosh S Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds. 2013 J Nat Sci Biol Med.
Vol. 4(2), pp. 272-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: With the expansion of the world population, the environmental pollution and toxicity by chemicals raises concern. Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of pollutants such as pesticides, petroleum products, acids and heavy metals in the natural resources like soil, water and air thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting both plants and animals. Heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt, chromium and mercury are important environmental pollutants that cause toxic effects to plants; thus, lessening productivity and posing dangerous threats to the agro-ecosystems. They act as stress to plants and affect the plant physiology. In this review, we have summarized the effects of heavy metals on seeds of different plants affecting the germination process. Although reports exist on mechanisms by which the heavy metals act as stress and how plants have learnt to overcome, the future scope of this review remains in excavating the signaling mechanisms in germinating seeds in response to heavy metal stress.
BibTeX:
@article{SethySK2013,
  author = {Sethy SK, Ghosh S},
  title = {Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds.},
  journal = {J Nat Sci Biol Med.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4(2)},
  pages = {272-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.116964}
}
Shagirtha K, Muthumani M, Prabu SM Melatonin abrogates cadmium induced oxidative stress related neurotoxicity in rats. 2011 Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.
Vol. 15(9), pp. 1039-50 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Cadmium is a potent neurotoxic heavy metal, which induces oxidative stress and membrane disturbances in brain. Melatonin is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of melatonin in protecting the Cd induced changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, non-enzymatic antioxidant, enzymatic antioxidant status, membrane bound ATPases and histopathology in the brain of rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Twenty four male albino rats were used. Cadmium induced oxidative neurotoxicity was induced by oral administration of Cd for four weeks. Melatonin was pretreated along with Cd for four weeks to assess its neuroprotective activity against Cd intoxication. Rats treated with vehicles alone were used as controls.
RESULTS:
Rats intoxicated with cadmium (5 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the AChE levels in the plasma and brain, elevated the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides and protein carbonyls along with the significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH and vitamins C and E), enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and membrane bound ATPases in the brain tissue. Administration of melatonin (10 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks in cadmium intoxicated rats significantly (p < 0.05) diminished the levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in brain and significantly (p < 0.05) elevated the levels of nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants, brain and the activities of AChE, enzymatic antioxidants and ATPases in brain. The histopathological studies in the brain of rats also supported that melatonin markedly reduced the Cd induced pathological changes and preserved the normal histological architecture of the brain tissue.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results of the present study suggest that melatonin may be beneficial in combating the cadmium induced oxidative neurotoxicity in the brain of rats.
BibTeX:
@article{ShagirthaK2011,
  author = {Shagirtha K, Muthumani M, Prabu SM},
  title = {Melatonin abrogates cadmium induced oxidative stress related neurotoxicity in rats.},
  journal = {Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15(9)},
  pages = {1039-50}
}
Shagirtha K, Pari L Hesperetin, a citrus flavonone, protects potentially cadmium induced oxidative testicular dysfunction in rats. 2011 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 74(7), pp. 2105-11 
article  
Abstract: The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of hesperetin (Hp) on cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative testicular toxicity in rats. Subcutaneous administration of Cd (3mg/kg body weight) for 21 days significantly elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers, Cd concentration in testis and lowered the levels of enzymatic, non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound enzymes in the testicular tissue. Hp administrated orally along with Cd injection for 21 days, significantly revert back the status of oxidative stress markers, Cd concentration in testis, improved status of antioxidant markers and membrane bound enzymes in the testis to near normal level. The histopathological studies in the testis of rats also supported that Hp (40 mg/kg) markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the normal histoarchitecture pattern of the testis. Thus, the results suggest that Hp acts as a potent antioxidative agent against Cd induced testicular toxicity in rats.
BibTeX:
@article{ShagirthaK2011a,
  author = {Shagirtha K, Pari L},
  title = {Hesperetin, a citrus flavonone, protects potentially cadmium induced oxidative testicular dysfunction in rats.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {74(7)},
  pages = {2105-11}
}
Shaikh ZA, Smith LM Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. 1986 Experientia Suppl.
Vol. 50 
article  
Abstract: The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators ofcadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissuecadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{ShaikhZA1986,
  author = {Shaikh ZA, Smith LM},
  title = {Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity.},
  journal = {Experientia Suppl.},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {50}
}
Shanmugaraj BM, Chandra HM, Srinivasan B, Ramalingam S Cadmium induced physio-biochemical and molecular response in Brassica juncea. 2013 Int J Phytoremediation.
Vol. 15(3), pp. 206-18 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium is a hazardous heavy metal; its presence in the agricultural soil constrains the crop productivity and restricts crop plants from reaching their full genetic potential. In the present study, two Brassica juncea cultivars (Pusa Bold and Pusa Jaikisan), were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (50 microM, 100 microM, 150 microM, and 200 microM). The effect of cadmium on seed germination ratio, changes in the root and shoot length, plant dry weight, moisture content, metal tolerance index, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation were studied. The consequence of cadmium stress at the molecular level was studied using a key gene Phytochelatin Synthase (PCS). The results of our study suggested that, exposure of cadmium affected the seed germination, growth rate, biomass content and antioxidant enzyme activities in the root, shoot and leaves of both the cultivars. Transcript expression of PCS was increased with increasing CdCl2 concentration in both the cultivars. Based on the results, it was concluded that, Brassica juncea Cv Pusa Jaikisan is more tolerant to cadmium toxicity than the Pusa Bold. These findings could be used to develop heavy metal stress tolerant plants and more importantly, detoxification of heavy metals in the soil.
BibTeX:
@article{ShanmugarajBM2013,
  author = {Shanmugaraj BM, Chandra HM, Srinivasan B, Ramalingam S},
  title = {Cadmium induced physio-biochemical and molecular response in Brassica juncea.},
  journal = {Int J Phytoremediation.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {15(3)},
  pages = {206-18}
}
Sharma B, Singh S, Siddiqi NJ Biomedical implications of heavy metals induced imbalances in redox systems. 2014 Biomed Res Int.  article  
Abstract: Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaB2014,
  author = {Sharma B, Singh S, Siddiqi NJ},
  title = {Biomedical implications of heavy metals induced imbalances in redox systems.},
  journal = {Biomed Res Int.},
  year = {2014}
}
Sharma R, Pervez S Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India. 2005 Environ Geochem Health.
Vol. 27(1), pp. 39-45 
article  
Abstract: Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, human milk is the most important food source for infants. Breast milk can, however, also be a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic elements. Selected toxic elements (As, Pb, Mn,a Hg and Cd) were determined in human breast milk and blood samples obtained from 120 subjects related to an integrated steel plant environment located in central India. Samples of breast milk and blood from subjects living outside the steel plant environment were also analyzed for comparative study. Higher levels of these toxic elements were found in blood samples as compared to breast milk samples. Plant workers showed the higher presence of these metals in their breast milk and blood samples compared to the residents of the area and the subjects living outside the industrial environment, respectively. Mn, Pb and Hg have shown a higher tendency to associate with blood and breast milk than As and Cd. The order of occurrence of these metals in blood and milk samples thus found is Mn > Pb > Hg > As > Cd.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaR2005,
  author = {Sharma R, Pervez S},
  title = {Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India.},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {27(1)},
  pages = {39-45}
}
Sharma SK, Goloubinoff P, Christen P Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding. 2008 Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
Vol. 372(2), pp. 341-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC(50) in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaSK2008,
  author = {Sharma SK, Goloubinoff P, Christen P},
  title = {Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding.},
  journal = {Biochem Biophys Res Commun.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {372(2)},
  pages = {341-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.05.052}
}
Sharma V, Chaudhari PR, Satyanarayan S Toxicity assessment of free form of heavy metals in aqueous media on earthworm Eudrillus eugeniae. 2011 Water Sci Technol.
Vol. 63(10), pp. 2434-45 
article  
Abstract: Metals are found in free and also in combined forms. In order to get information on the effect of free forms of heavy metals on earthworms the aqueous extracts of metals were tested on earthworms both in individual form and also in combined form. Different concentrations, i.e. 1 ppm, 5 ppm, and 10 ppm, were selected arbitrarily and were used in the experiments. Metals like copper, cadmium, chromium, zinc and lead were used. Earthworms' Eudrillus eugeniae activity, i.e. their response to the toxicity of metals, was monitored continuously for 5 h. It can be concluded that free form/ionic form/dissolved form of heavy metals are more toxic for earthworms, concurrent with findings of workers who have drawn same inference during studies on aquatic organisms. Earthworms can serve as biomarkers for wastewater and sludge treatment studies as they have shown typical adverse body reactions and symptoms altogether different in reaction to each of the metals during aqueous medium studies. It can be inferred that, if earthworms are utilised for treating wastewater and sludges containing these five heavy metals, one can ascertain the presence of individual metal concentrations in the wastewaters and sludges by studying the typical body reactions of earthworms during the treatment.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaV2011,
  author = {Sharma V, Chaudhari PR, Satyanarayan S},
  title = {Toxicity assessment of free form of heavy metals in aqueous media on earthworm Eudrillus eugeniae.},
  journal = {Water Sci Technol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {63(10)},
  pages = {2434-45}
}
Sharma VJ, Satyanarayan S Effect of selected heavy metals on the histopathology of different tissues of earthworm Eudrillus eugeniae. 2011 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 180(1-4), pp. 257-67 
article DOI  
Abstract: Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to determine the effect of heavy metals viz. copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) on the different vital tissues of earthworm Eudrillus eugeniae such as head, gizzard, clitellum, and intestine after the worms were placed in municipal solid waste (MSW) substrate spiked with heavy metals in the concentration range of 0.05 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg of the waste for Cu, Cr, PB, and Zn and 0.05 g/kg for Cd. The experiments were conducted for 100 days with periodic observations and sample collection for investigation after every 10th day. Copper and lead metals were found to cause more deleterious effect in head, gizzard, and intestine. Chromium metal caused cellular damage to the intestinal region. In comparison, cadmium metal severity was more than copper, lead, and chromium metal. Zinc metal did not show deleterious effect on tissues. In general, earthworms can be used as biomarkers in toxicity studies related to heavy metals at cellular levels.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaVJ2011,
  author = {Sharma VJ, Satyanarayan S},
  title = {Effect of selected heavy metals on the histopathology of different tissues of earthworm Eudrillus eugeniae.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {180(1-4)},
  pages = {257-67},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1786-8}
}
Shukla D, Huda KM, Banu MS, Gill SS, Tuteja R, Tuteja N OsACA6, a P-type 2B Ca(2+) ATPase functions in cadmium stress tolerance in tobacco by reducing the oxidative stress load. 2014 Planta.
Vol. 240(4), pp. 809-24 
article  
Abstract: The present study demonstrates the first direct evidence of the novel role of OsACA6 in providing Cd (2+) stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating ROS-scavenging pathway. Cadmium, a non-essential toxic heavy metal, interferes with the plant growth and development. It reaches the leaves through xylem and may become part of the food chain, thus causing detrimental effects to human health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop strategies for engineering plants for Cd(2+) tolerance and less accumulation. The members of P-type ATPases family transport metal ions including Cd(2+), and thus play important role an ion homeostasis. The present study elucidates the role of P-type 2B Ca(2+) ATPase (OsACA6) in Cd(2+) stress tolerance. The transcript levels of OsACA6 were up-regulated upon Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) exposure. Transgenic tobacco expressing OsACA6 showed tolerance towards Cd(2+) stress as demonstrated by several physiological indices including root length, biomass, chlorophyll, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content. The roots of the transgenic lines accumulated more Cd(2+) as compared to shoot. Further, confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that Cd(2+) exposure altered Ca(2+) uptake in OsACA6 transgenic plants. OsACA6 expression in tobacco also protected the transgenic plants from oxidative stress by enhancing the activity of enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, GR) and non-enzymatic (GSH and AsA) antioxidant machinery. Transgenic lines also tolerated Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) stress; however, tolerance for these ions was not as significant as observed for Cd(2+) exposure. Thus, overexpression of OsACA6 confers Cd(2+) stress tolerance in transgenic lines by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging pathway. The results of the present study will help to develop strategies for engineering Cd(2+) stress tolerance in economically important crop plants.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaD2014,
  author = {Shukla D, Huda KM, Banu MS, Gill SS, Tuteja R, Tuteja N},
  title = {OsACA6, a P-type 2B Ca(2+) ATPase functions in cadmium stress tolerance in tobacco by reducing the oxidative stress load.},
  journal = {Planta.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {240(4)},
  pages = {809-24}
}
Shukla GS, Chandra SV Cadmium toxicity and bioantioxidants: status of vitamin E and ascorbic acid of selected organs in rat. 1989 J Appl Toxicol.
Vol. 9(2), pp. 119-22 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaGS1989,
  author = {Shukla GS, Chandra SV},
  title = {Cadmium toxicity and bioantioxidants: status of vitamin E and ascorbic acid of selected organs in rat.},
  journal = {J Appl Toxicol.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {9(2)},
  pages = {119-22}
}
Shukla GS, Chandra SV Concurrent exposure to lead, manganese, and cadmium and their distribution to various brain regions, liver, kidney, and testis of growing rats. 1987 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 16(3), pp. 303-10 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaGS1987a,
  author = {Shukla GS, Chandra SV},
  title = {Concurrent exposure to lead, manganese, and cadmium and their distribution to various brain regions, liver, kidney, and testis of growing rats.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {16(3)},
  pages = {303-10}
}
Shukla GS, Hussain T, Chandra SV Possible role of regional superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxide levels in cadmium neurotoxicity: in vivo and in vitro studies in growing rats. 1987 Life Sci.
Vol. 41(19), pp. 2215-21 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaGS1987,
  author = {Shukla GS, Hussain T, Chandra SV},
  title = {Possible role of regional superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxide levels in cadmium neurotoxicity: in vivo and in vitro studies in growing rats.},
  journal = {Life Sci.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {41(19)},
  pages = {2215-21}
}
Shukla GS, Hussain T, Srivastava RS, Chandra SV Glutathione peroxidase and catalase in liver, kidney, testis and brain regions of rats following cadmiumexposure and subsequent withdrawal. 1989 Ind Health
Vol. 27(2), pp. 59-69 
article  
Abstract: Intraperitoneal administration of 0.4 mg/kg Cadmium (Cd) daily for 45 days was found to inhibit the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in liver, kidney, testis and various brain regions at different time intervals. The magnitude of inhibition was increased with the period of exposure. Cd produced significant inhibition of glutathione peroxidase at 15 days in liver, kidney and cerebellum only; however, the enzyme activity was found to be decreased in all the tissues, except corpus striatum, at 30 and 45 days of exposure. Hippocampal glutathione peroxidase remained unaltered throughout the experiment. Catalase was found to be inhibited in all the tissues at different time intervals. The withdrawal of Cd treatment for 15 days after 45 days of exposure did not show significant recovery in the activity of both enzymes of different organs, except kidney and testis where partial and full recoveries respectively were observed. Since these two enzymes constitute an important part of cellular defence mechanism against oxidation, their widespread persistent inhibition may be of great significance in view of the recent reports showing the possible involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of Cdtoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaGS1989a,
  author = {Shukla GS, Hussain T, Srivastava RS, Chandra SV},
  title = {Glutathione peroxidase and catalase in liver, kidney, testis and brain regions of rats following cadmiumexposure and subsequent withdrawal.},
  journal = {Ind Health},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {27(2)},
  pages = {59-69}
}
Shukla GS, Singhal RL The present status of biological effects of toxic metals in the environment: lead, cadmium, and manganese. 1984 Can J Physiol Pharmacol.
Vol. 62(8), pp. 1015-31 
article  
Abstract: The number of reports concerning the chemical toxicology of metals which are released in the environment by natural as well as anthropogenic sources, have been increasing constantly. Lead, cadmium, and manganese have found a variety of uses in industry, craft, and agriculture owing to their physical and chemical properties. The environmental burden of heavy metals has been rising substantially by smelter emission in air and waste sewage in water. Further, organic compounds of lead and manganese used as antiknock substances in gasoline are emitted into the atmosphere by automobile exhaustion. Such environmental contamination of air, water, soil, and food is a serious threat to all living kinds. Although these metals are known to produce their toxic effects on a variety of body systems, much emphasis has been placed on their effects on the nervous system owing to apparent association of relatively low or "subclinical" levels of metallic exposure with behavioral and psychological disorders. Clinical and animal data on environmental exposure show that while lead and manganese are most toxic to the nervous system, cadmium exerts profound adverse effects on kidney and the male reproductive system. It appears that the consequences of exposure to lead in adults are less severe than the types of exposure associated with hyperactivity in neonates. Except for a few reports, hyperactivity has indeed been observed in animals exposed to either of these three metals. Experimental work has also shown that these metals produce behavioral changes by altering the metabolism of brain neurotransmitters, especially catecholamines. Recently, it is hypothesized that these metals exert their toxic effect by damaging biological defences which exist in the body to serve as protective mechanisms against exogenous toxins. A voluminous publication list with diverse opinions on the biological effects of metals is available and there is an urgent need to compile assessment of the existing literature to identify the future theme of research work. The problem of metal toxicity becomes even more complex owing to simultaneous or successive exposure of the general population to different physical, chemical, biological, and psychological factors in the environment. The net toxic manifestations produced by multiple exposure should, therefore, be different from those produced by a single factor as the result of their additive, synergistic or antagonistic action. Even though a metal may not exist in sufficient amounts to cause any disability, the toxicity could result when a second factor is also present.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaGS1984,
  author = {Shukla GS, Singhal RL},
  title = {The present status of biological effects of toxic metals in the environment: lead, cadmium, and manganese.},
  journal = {Can J Physiol Pharmacol.},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {62(8)},
  pages = {1015-31}
}
Shukla GS, Srivastava RS, Chandra SV Glutathione status and cadmium neurotoxicity: studies in discrete brain regions of growing rats. 1988 Fundam Appl Toxicol.
Vol. 11(2), pp. 229-35 
article  
Abstract: Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium (Cd2+, 0.4 mg/kg) daily for 30 days to rats was found to decrease the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in various brain regions. These changes resulted in a significant decline in the GSH/GSSG ratio in different brain regions, except for the hippocampus and midbrain. In addition, the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) were also significantly inhibited in different brain regions. Measurement of regional Cd levels revealed that Cd administration significantly increased the levels in all brain regions except for the hippocampus, which could be the reason for not finding any change in any of the biochemical parameters studied in this region. The observed changes in the regional GSH/GSSG ratios could be the result of inhibition in GR activity, as this enzyme catalyzes an irreversible conversion of GSH to GSSG and is responsible for higher cellular GSH levels. GR uses NADPH in its reaction; therefore, the inhibition of GPDH may further aggravate the situation because of the short supply of NADPH. The alterations in the regional "glutathione status" may affect various related metabolic processes, including those required for detoxification of lipid peroxides which have recently been suggested to play a role in the mechanism of Cd neurotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaGS1988,
  author = {Shukla GS, Srivastava RS, Chandra SV},
  title = {Glutathione status and cadmium neurotoxicity: studies in discrete brain regions of growing rats.},
  journal = {Fundam Appl Toxicol.},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {11(2)},
  pages = {229-35}
}
Shukla UC, Murthy RC, Kakkar P Combined effect of ultraviolet-B radiation and cadmium contamination on nutrient uptake and photosynthetic pigments in Brassica campestris L. seedlings. 2008 Environ Toxicol.
Vol. 23(6), pp. 712-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Environmental and industrial pollution along with increase in ground level UV-B radiation, because of stratospheric ozone depletion, present multiple stresses, which may affect crop photosynthesis and productivity. The present study was undertaken to see interactive effects of heavy metal contamination (Cd(2+)) and UV-B exposure on essential nutrient (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+)) uptake, biomass, and chlorophyll content in mustard (Brassica campestris L.) seedlings. Plants grown in 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) supplemented medium were exposed to UV-B for 30 min (0.4 mW cm(-2)) per day. The interactive effect of two stresses measured after 5 and 10 days showed an overall decline in biomass. Under dual stress (5 mg Cd(2+) L(-1)) significant (P < 0.001) decrease in chlorophyll a (43%), chlorophyll b (23%), and carotenoid (53%) was observed. Ca(2+) uptake was reduced by 51% in roots under high doses of Cd(2+) (5 mg L(-1)) and simultaneous exposure to 0.4 mW cm(-2) UV-B for 10 days. Mg(2+) content was reduced by 48% and K(+) by 62% under similar exposure conditions. Decline in nutrient uptake in Brassica campestris L. seedlings was observed both in root and shoot leaf in the initial growth period under controlled lab conditions. Cadmium ion (Cd(2+)) uptake was significantly enhanced by 33% (P < 0.001) in the presence of UV-B. The findings are significant as multiple stress conditions prevalent in the environment play an important role during the early growth period, a period critical for crop yield.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaUC2008,
  author = {Shukla UC, Murthy RC, Kakkar P},
  title = {Combined effect of ultraviolet-B radiation and cadmium contamination on nutrient uptake and photosynthetic pigments in Brassica campestris L. seedlings.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {23(6)},
  pages = {712-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.20378}
}
Shukla UC, Singh J, Joshi PC, Kakkar P Effect of bioaccumulation of cadmium on biomass productivity, essential trace elements, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and macromolecules of wheat seedlings. 2003 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 92(3), pp. 257-74 
article  
Abstract: Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a worldwide problem, leading to losses in agricultural yield and hazardous human health effects as they enter the food chain. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the influence of cadmium (Cd2+) on the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant. Cd2+ accumulation and distribution in 3-wk-old seedlings grown in nutrient medium containing varying concentrations of Cd2+ (control, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/L) was monitored. The effect of varying Cd2+ concentrations up to 21 d on biomass productivity, plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, protein, amino acids, starch, soluble sugars, and essential nutrients uptake was studied in detail to explore the level up to which the plant can withstand the stress of heavy metal. Plants treated with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/L Cd2+ showed symptoms of heavy-metal toxicity as observed by various morphological parameters which were recorded with the growth of plants. The root, shoot-leaf length and the root, shoot-leaf biomass progressively decreased with increasing Cd2+ concentration in the nutrient medium. Cd2+ uptake and accumulation was found to be maximum during the initial growth period. Cd2+ also interfered with the nutrients uptake, especially calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+), iron (Fe2+), zinc (Zn2+), and manganese (Mn2+) from the growth medium. Growth reduction and altered levels of major biochemical constituents such as chlorophyll, protein, free amino acids, starch, and soluble sugars that play a major role in plant metabolism were observed in response to varying concentrations of Cd2+ in the nutrient medium. In the present study, the effects of Cd2+ on growth, biomass productivity, mineral nutrients, chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein, free amino acid, starch, and soluble sugars in wheat plants was estimated to establish an overall picture of the Cd2+ toxicity at structural and functional levels.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaUC2003,
  author = {Shukla UC, Singh J, Joshi PC, Kakkar P},
  title = {Effect of bioaccumulation of cadmium on biomass productivity, essential trace elements, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and macromolecules of wheat seedlings.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {92(3)},
  pages = {257-74}
}
Siegers CP, Sharma SC, Younes M Hepatotoxicity of metals in glutathione-depleted mice. 1986 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 34(2-3), pp. 185-91 
article  
Abstract: Sublethal doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2; 3 mg/kg i.v.), mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 2 mg/kg i.v.) and sodium vanadate (6 mg/kg i.v.) were administered to normal and glutathione (GSH)-depleted mice (phorone, 250 mg/kg i.p.). In normal mice serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity as a measure of hepatotoxicity was elevated 24 h after treatment with CdCl2 and HgCl2. Following GSH depletion more pronounced increments of SDH activities were observed only after CdCl2 treatment. No difference was seen in the exhalation of ethane by normal and GSH-depleted animals, neither in metal-treated nor in control mice, indicating that lipid peroxidation is not involved in their hepatotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{SiegersCP1986,
  author = {Siegers CP, Sharma SC, Younes M},
  title = {Hepatotoxicity of metals in glutathione-depleted mice.},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {34(2-3)},
  pages = {185-91}
}
Silva N, Peiris-John R, Wickremasinghe R, Senanayake H, Sathiakumar N Cadmium a metalloestrogen: are we convinced? 2012 J Appl Toxicol.
Vol. 32(5), pp. 318-32 
article  
Abstract: Metalloestrogens are inorganic metal ions that bind to and activate oestrogen receptors. They are implicated in the aetiology of oestrogen-dependent diseases such as cancers of the breast and endometrium as well as endometriosis. Cadmium is one of the most studied metalloestrogens. In this review, scientific evidence for the oestrogenic effects of cadmium is critically evaluated to determine if there is sufficient evidence to support cadmium as an aetiological factor of oestrogen-dependent disease in humans. Results of the review indicated that, although the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the oestrogenic properties of cadmium was persuasive, evidence from population-based human studies remains conflicting. Considerable knowledge gaps exist on the potential oestrogenic effect of cadmiumin humans. Research that focuses on bridging these knowledge gaps would be useful in preventing and managing oestrogen-dependent disease in humans.
BibTeX:
@article{SilvaN2012,
  author = {Silva N, Peiris-John R, Wickremasinghe R, Senanayake H, Sathiakumar N},
  title = {Cadmium a metalloestrogen: are we convinced?},
  journal = {J Appl Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {32(5)},
  pages = {318-32}
}
Sindhe VR, Kulkarni RS Fecundity of the freshwater fish, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) in natural and heavy metal contaminated water. 2005 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 26(2), pp. 287-90 
article  
Abstract: The knowledge of fecundity of fish from a specific aquatic body is extremely important in the successful management and exploitation of its fishery. In the present investigation the fecundity of the freshwater fish, Notopterus notopterus was studied in fish collected from a natural aquatic body (Sirnoor nala) near Gulbarga and also in fish exposed to some heavy metal contamination (HgCl2, CdCl2 and their combination) at sublethal concentration for 15 days in the laboratory. The mathematical relationship between fecundity and total length, body weight, ovary length and ovary weight were determined in both unexposed and exposed fish. The fish, N. notopterus has bigger oocytes and are few in number. Studies in the fish exposed to heavy metals indicate that significant reduction in these parameters after exposure to heavy metals at sublethal concentration was noticed. The fecundity has straight line relationship with total length, body weight, ovary length and ovary weight in control fish which did not alter after heavy metal exposure. This study provides the viability of species in only specific environment.
BibTeX:
@article{SindheVR2005,
  author = {Sindhe VR, Kulkarni RS},
  title = {Fecundity of the freshwater fish, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) in natural and heavy metal contaminated water.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {26(2)},
  pages = {287-90}
}
Singh A, Kumar CS, Agarwal A Effect of lead and cadmium on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata. 2013 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 34(6), pp. 1027-31 
article  
Abstract: Absorption of different concentrations of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) by aquatic plant Hydrilla vertcillato was measured during winter season for two different durations i.e. 3 days and 7 days. Effect of Pb and Cd was evaluated by analyzing various parameters such as biomass, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, nitrate reductase activity, SOD (super oxide dismutase) and heavy metal uptake. Increase in biomass, total chlorophyll, protein and nitrate reductase activity was noticed at lower concentration of both metals whereas at higher metal concentrations of Pb and Cd, decrease in these parameters was observed i.e. it was concentration and duration dependent. Increase in carotenoid and SOD levels at high concentration of Pb and Cd indicated its ability of stress tolerance. Accumulation of Pb by test plant was found to be more than Cd at low concentration. Higher concentration of Cd and Pb caused toxicity which resulted in reduced plant growth and physiological activities.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghA2013,
  author = {Singh A, Kumar CS, Agarwal A},
  title = {Effect of lead and cadmium on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {34(6)},
  pages = {1027-31}
}
Singh A, Pandey J Metal contamination and health risk from consumption of organically grown vegetables influenced by atmospheric deposition in a seasonally dry tropical region of India. 2012 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 89(2), pp. 384-9 
article  
Abstract: Pot-culture experiments showed that organically grown Vicia faba, influenced by atmospheric deposition, accumulated (?g g(-1)) 0.088-3.246 Cadmium, 0.19-42.48 Chromium, 0.0124-30.43 Copper, 0.075-4.28 Lead and 0.63-67.68 Zinc. Similar trends appeared for Abelmoschus esculentus. At high deposition sites, Cadmium, Lead and Zinc exceeded the safe limits of Prevention of Food Adulteration standards. Health risk index for Cadmium, Copper and Lead exceeded the safe limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency. The study suggests that atmospheric deposition could substantially elevate metal levels in organically grown vegetables in 2011.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghA2012,
  author = {Singh A, Pandey J},
  title = {Metal contamination and health risk from consumption of organically grown vegetables influenced by atmospheric deposition in a seasonally dry tropical region of India.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {89(2)},
  pages = {384-9}
}
Singh A, Prasad SM Effect of agro-industrial waste amendment on Cd uptake in Amaranthus caudatus grown under contaminated soil: an oxidative biomarker response. 2014 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 100, pp. 105-13 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the present study phytoavailability of Cd, growth yield, cellular Cd accumulation and oxidative stress responses were studied in leafy vegetable Amaranthus caudatus under soil amendments. The test plant was cultivated in Cd contaminated soil (6 µgCdg(-1) soil) amended with different doses: 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 percent of rice husk (RH), saw dust (SD), farmyard manure (FYM), farmyard in combination with nitrogen, and phosphorus and potassium (FYM+NPK). Phytoavailability of Cd in amended soil and cellular Cd accumulation in edible parts (shoot) of A. caudatus declined maximally with 5 percent dose of each amendment, and decrease in Cd content in tissues was 36, 45, 23 and 14 percent under FYM, FYM+NPK, RH and SD amendments, respectively, over the value recorded in plants grown in Cd contaminated non-amended soil (Cd(+)NA soil). The shoot yield in control plant cultivated in the absence of Cd without amendment (Cd(-)NA soil) was 18.1 ± 0.98 gfwplant(-1) and it was declined up to 50 percent (9.2 ± 0.80 gfwplant(-1)) when plants were grown in Cd(+)NA soil. Amendments with 5 percent doses of FYM+NPK and FYM enhanced the yield up to 26.5 ± 0.57 and 20.5 ± 1.00 gfwplant(-1), respectively, which may be correlated with better mineral nutrients and organic carbon content in amended soil. RH and SD amendments with similar doses improved in yield up to 16.9 ± 0.43 and 15.2 ± 0.45 gfwplant(-1), respectively, however, it was still less than that of control. Further, correlation analysis of growth yield, Cd concentration and oxidative stress under these conditions suggest that with the decrease in cellular Cd concentration following amendment the level of oxidative markers (oxidants: O2(-) and H2O2 and lipid peroxidation: malondialdehyde; MDA) declined as a result of significant enhancement in the activity of enzymatic antioxidants (peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, dyhydroascorbe reductase and catalase). Thus, the present technique can efficiently reduce the metal load in food chain and also increase plant yield, hence it could be applied in catchments area of urban cities where metal contamination has become an unavoidable factor.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghA2014,
  author = {Singh A, Prasad SM},
  title = {Effect of agro-industrial waste amendment on Cd uptake in Amaranthus caudatus grown under contaminated soil: an oxidative biomarker response.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {100},
  pages = {105-13},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.09.005}
}
Singh AK, Rai LC Use of in situ structural and functional variables of phytoplankton of the river Ganga for assessment of heavy metal toxicity. 1990 Biomed Environ Sci.
Vol. 3(4), pp. 397-405 
article  
Abstract: Toxicity of Cd and Zn on autotrophic index, pigment diversity. 14C uptake, and in situ nitrogenase activity of phytoplankton of the river Ganga has been studied for the first time in India using CEPEX enclosures. Maximum reduction in algal population was noted at 8.0 micrograms ml-1 Cd followed by 8.0 micrograms ml-1 Zn. Complete elimination of two and four species was observed respectively at 4.0 and 8.0 micrograms ml-1 Cd and Zn. The filamentous forms showed greater tolerance against Cd and Zn, whereas unicellular forms were more sensitive to test metals used. Bacillariophytes in general depicted greater sensitivity for both the metals. A concentration-dependent metal-specific increase in autotrophic index and pigment diversity of phytoplankton was noted for Cd and Zn. Inhibition of carbon and nitrogen fixation was, however, concentration dependent and metal specific. Looking at the sensitivity of 14CO2 uptake rather than other variables, we recommend the employment of this parameter for assessment of heavy metal toxicity in an aquatic ecosystem.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghAK1990,
  author = {Singh AK, Rai LC},
  title = {Use of in situ structural and functional variables of phytoplankton of the river Ganga for assessment of heavy metal toxicity.},
  journal = {Biomed Environ Sci.},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {3(4)},
  pages = {397-405}
}
Singh K, Mathur RS Action of cadmium on some testicular enzymes of the desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae Jerdon. 1968 J Reprod Fertil.
Vol. 17(3), pp. 509-13 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SinghK1968,
  author = {Singh K, Mathur RS},
  title = {Action of cadmium on some testicular enzymes of the desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae Jerdon.},
  journal = {J Reprod Fertil.},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {17(3)},
  pages = {509-13}
}
Singh KP, Kumari R, Pevey C, Jackson D, DuMond JW Long duration exposure to cadmium leads to increased cell survival, decreased DNA repair capacity, and genomic instability in mouse testicular Leydig cells. 2009 Cancer Lett.
Vol. 279(1), pp. 84-92 
article DOI  
Abstract: Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that cadmium is carcinogenic to human and experimental animals, however, the mechanism of cadmium-induced carcinogenesis is not clear. The aberrant expression of cell cycle and DNA repair genes resulting in increased cell proliferation and genomic instability are the characteristic features of cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to cadmium can perturb cell proliferation/survival and causes genomic instability in TM3 cells, a mouse testicular Leydig cell line. The results of this study revealed that short-duration exposure to lower doses of cadmium significantly increase the growth of TM3 cells, whereas, higher doses are toxic and cause cell death. The long duration exposure to higher doses of cadmium, however, results in increased cell survival and acquisition of apoptotic resistance. Gene expression analysis by real-time PCR revealed increased expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, whereas decreased expression of pro-apoptotic gene Bax. Decreased expression of genes for maintenance of DNA methylation, DNMT1, and DNA repair, OGG1 and MYH, was also observed in cells exposed tocadmium for 24h. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay revealed genomic instability in cells with chronic exposure tocadmium. The findings of this study indicate that mouse testicular Leydig cells adapt to chronic cadmium exposure by increasing cell survival through increased expression of Bcl-2, and decreased expression of Bax. The increased proliferation of cells with genomic instability may result in malignant transformation, and therefore, could be a viable mechanism for cadmium-induced cancers.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghKP2009,
  author = {Singh KP, Kumari R, Pevey C, Jackson D, DuMond JW},
  title = {Long duration exposure to cadmium leads to increased cell survival, decreased DNA repair capacity, and genomic instability in mouse testicular Leydig cells.},
  journal = {Cancer Lett.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {279(1)},
  pages = {84-92},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2009.01.023}
}
Singh KP, Mohan D, Sinha S, Dalwani R Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area. 2004 Chemosphere.
Vol. 55(2), pp. 227-55 
article DOI  
Abstract: Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and outlet points of the plants during peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours. The impact of the treated wastewater toxicants (metals and pesticides) on the environmental quality of the disposal area was assessed in terms of their levels in different media samples viz., water, soil, crops, vegetation, and food grains. The data generated show elevated levels of metals and pesticides in all the environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. The critical levels of the heavy metals in the soil for agricultural crops are found to be much higher than those observed in the study areas receiving no effluents. The sludge from the STPs has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture as it is loaded with high levels of toxic heavy metals and pesticides, but also enriched with several useful ingredients such as N, P, and K providing fertilizer values. The sludge studied had cadmium, chromium and nickel levels above tolerable levels as prescribed for agricultural and lands application. Bio-monitoring of the metals and pesticides levels in the human blood and urine of the different population groups under study areas was undertaken. All the different approaches indicated a considerable risk and impact of heavy metals and pesticides on human health in the exposed areas receiving the wastewater from the STPs.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghKP2004,
  author = {Singh KP, Mohan D, Sinha S, Dalwani R},
  title = {Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {55(2)},
  pages = {227-55},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.10.050}
}
Singh N, Kayal N, Gupta PK, Agrawal AK Monitoring the trace metals concentration in rice by flame atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. 2010 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 52(1), pp. 33-6 
article  
Abstract: The objective of this study was to monitor the concentration of trace metals in rice. Eight different commercial rice samples were collected from retail market and among these samples Fe, Cd, Cr and Zn metal concentrations were determined by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (FAAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). The powdered rice samples were digested by wet chemical method. The analytical results obtained by both the instruments were found comparable. The accuracy of the method has been confirmed by analyzing Certified Reference Material CRM No. 10-b of National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). The concentrations of Fe, Cd, Cr and Zn in different brands were found in the range of 15.4 +/- 1.1 to 57.7 +/- 2.5 mg/kg, 0.08 +/- 0.03 to 0.39 +/- 0.05 mg/kg, 0.16 +/- 0.03 to 0.58 +/- 0.08 mg/kg and 7.3 +/- 0.3 to 18.6 +/- 0.5 mg/kg respectively. The standard deviation of the measurements has been calculated for Fe, Cd, Cr and Zn in six replicates of each sample and was found to be less than +/- 3% by the method proposed.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghN2010,
  author = {Singh N, Kayal N, Gupta PK, Agrawal AK},
  title = {Monitoring the trace metals concentration in rice by flame atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {52(1)},
  pages = {33-6}
}
Singh PK, Baxi D, Diwedi R, Ramachandran AV Prior cadmium exposure improves glucoregulation in diabetic rats but exacerbates effects on metabolic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and hepatic and renal toxicity. 2012 Drug Chem Toxicol
Vol. 35(2), pp. 167-77 
article  
Abstract: The present study was taken up to assess the role of subchronic exposure to an environmentally relevant dosage of cadmium in type l diabetes. Female rats of the Wistar strain were treated with cadmium (5.12?mg/kg body weight) for 45 days. On day 46, rats were made diabetic by alloxan. After 7 days, diabetes (i.e., animals with serum glucose greater than 300?mg/dL) in the alloxanized animals was confirmed and further experiments were conducted for 15 days. Cadmium pretreatment showed disturbed glucose homeostasis with attendant changes in carbohydrate metabolism, coupled with decrease in food and water intake. Disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism was indicated by altered tissue metabolite load, as marked by a decrease in protein and glycogen contents and increased cholesterol store. Poor glucose clearance subsequent to a glucose challenge under the glucose tolerance test was observed in these animals (0.48/min in control vs. 0.13/min in Cd animals). There was a significantly lower glucose elevation rate in the insulin response test subsequent to an insulin-induced decrease in glucose level in Cd-exposed animals. Elevated oxidative stress was marked by increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic) levels, and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage. Decreased corticosterone levels, together with increased E2 and reduced P4 levels, were some of the hallmark changes in the serum hormone profile of Cd-exposed animals. Overall, the present results are novel and interesting to open more investigations on animal models of type 1 diabetes with a history of previous Cd exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghPK2012,
  author = {Singh PK, Baxi D, Diwedi R, Ramachandran AV},
  title = {Prior cadmium exposure improves glucoregulation in diabetic rats but exacerbates effects on metabolic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and hepatic and renal toxicity.},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {35(2)},
  pages = {167-77}
}
Singh RK, Albrecht AL, Somji S, Sens MA, Sens DA, Garrett SH Alterations in metal toxicity and metal-induced metallothionein gene expression elicited by growth medium calcium concentration. 2008 Cell Biol Toxicol.
Vol. 24(3), pp. 273-81 
article  
Abstract: The calcium content of the growth medium has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of primary epithelial cells in culture. The goal of the present study was to determine if growth medium calcium concentration could influence the susceptibility to metal toxicityand metallothionein gene expression of an immortalized human prostate-derived epithelial cell line (RWPE-1). The RWPE-1 cell line was grown in medium containing either 0.1 or 1.4 mM calcium. Confluent cells were exposed to either Zn(+2) (50, 100, or 150 microM) or Cd(+2) (3, 6, or 12 microM) for 13 days, and cell toxicity and MT gene expression were determined along the time course of exposure. It was demonstrated that the calcium content of the growth medium had a marked influence on Zn(+2) toxicity and a lesser but significant effect on Cd(+2) toxicity to the RWPE-1 cells. Calcium concentration of the growth medium was also shown to alter the accumulation of MT-1/2 protein and MT-1E, MT-1X, and MT-2A mRNAs. It was shown that MT-1/2 protein was markedly increased for metal-exposed cells grown in medium containing 0.1 mM calcium; however, the increased expression did not cause an increase in the resistance of the cells to Zn(+2) or Cd(+2) exposure. These observations show that growth medium calcium concentration can influence metal toxicity and the pattern of expression of the MT mRNAs and protein for RWPE-1 cells. The results suggest that caution should be exercised when comparing toxicological responses between cell lines that may be grown in growth formulations differing in calcium concentration.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghRK2008,
  author = {Singh RK, Albrecht AL, Somji S, Sens MA, Sens DA, Garrett SH},
  title = {Alterations in metal toxicity and metal-induced metallothionein gene expression elicited by growth medium calcium concentration.},
  journal = {Cell Biol Toxicol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {24(3)},
  pages = {273-81}
}
Singh SV, Xu BH, Jani JP, Emerson EO, Backes MG, Rihn C, Scalamogna D, Stemmler N, Specht S, Blanock K. et al. Mechanism of cross-resistance to cisplatin in a mitomycin C-resistant human bladder cancer cell line. 1995 Int J Cancer.
Vol. 61(3), pp. 431-6 
article  
Abstract: This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism(s) of cross-resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) in a mitomycin C (MMC)-resistant human bladder cancer cell line, J82/MMC. The J82/MMC cell line displayed 2- to 3-fold cross-resistance to CDDP and carboplatin when compared to the parental J82/WT cells. Drug uptake studies revealed that cross-resistance to CDDP in the J82/MMC cell line was independent of reduced platinum accumulation. The J82/MMC cell line exhibited approximately a 1.5-fold resistance to cadmium chloride, an indicator for increased metallothionein (MT) content, when compared to the J82/WT cells. Northern blot analysis showed a 2.7-fold higher level of MT-IIA mRNA in the J82/MMC cell line compared with J82/WT. We have reported previously that, whereas glutathione (GSH) level is comparable in these cells, GSH transferase (GST) activity is significantly higher in the J82/MMC cell line compared with J82/WT. Results of the present study showed that the elevated GST activity in the J82/MMC cell line was due to an over-expression of pi-type GST protein. Although buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO)-induced GSH depletion significantly enhanced CDDP cytotoxicity in both cell lines, the magnitude of potentiation was markedly higher in J82/MMC cells (about 2.1-fold) relative to J82/WT (about 1.6-fold). Our results suggest that cross-resistance to CDDP in the J82/MMC cell line may be due to alterations in cellular thiols.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghSV1995,
  author = {Singh SV, Xu BH, Jani JP, Emerson EO, Backes MG, Rihn C, Scalamogna D, Stemmler N, Specht S, Blanock K. et al.},
  title = {Mechanism of cross-resistance to cisplatin in a mitomycin C-resistant human bladder cancer cell line.},
  journal = {Int J Cancer.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {61(3)},
  pages = {431-6}
}
Sinha K, Pal PB, Sil PC Cadmium (Cd(2+)) exposure differentially elicits both cell proliferation and cell death related responses in SK-RC-45. 2014 Toxicol In Vitro.
Vol. 28(2), pp. 307-18 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a major nephrotoxic environmental pollutant, affecting mostly proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells of the mammalian kidney, while conditionally Cd(2+) could also elicit protective responses with great variety and variability in different systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the molecular mechanism of Cd(2+) toxicity on human PCT derived Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), SK-RC-45 and compare its responses with normal human PCT derived cell line, NKE. Exposure of SK-RC-45 cells with different concentrations of CdCl2 (e.g. 0, 10 and 20?M) in serum free medium for 24h generate considerable amount of ROS, accompanied with decreased cell viability and alternations in the cellular and nuclear morphologies, heat shock responses and GCLC mediated protective responses. Also phosphatidylserine externalization, augmentation in the level of caspase-3, PARP, BAD, Apaf1 and cleaved caspase-9 along with decreased expression of Bcl2 and release of cytochrome c confirmed that, Cd(2+) dose dependently induces solely intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in SK-RC-45, independent of JNK. Furthermore, the non-toxic concentration (10?M) of Cd(2+) induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased expression in the level of HO-1 enzyme suggesting that at the milder concentration, Cd(2+) induces protective signaling pathways. On the other hand, exposure of NKE to different concentrations of CdCl2 (e.g. 0, 10, 20, 30 and 50?M) under the same conditions elevate stronger heat shock and SOD2 mediated protective responses. In contrary to the RCC PCT, the normal PCT derived cell follows JNK dependent and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Cumulatively, these results suggest that Cd(2+) exposure dose dependently elicit both cell proliferative and cell death related responses in SK-RC-45 cells and is differentially regulated with respect to normal kidney epithelia derived NKE cells.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaK2014,
  author = {Sinha K, Pal PB, Sil PC},
  title = {Cadmium (Cd(2+)) exposure differentially elicits both cell proliferation and cell death related responses in SK-RC-45.},
  journal = {Toxicol In Vitro.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {28(2)},
  pages = {307-18},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2013.11.011}
}
Sinha S, Mandal C Microheterogeneity of C-reactive protein in the sera of fish Labeo rohita induced by metal pollutants. 1996 Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
Vol. 226(3), pp. 681-7 
article  
Abstract: A group of C-reactive proteins (CRPs) have been purified to apparent homogeneity by calcium (Ca++) dependent affinity chromatography on phosphoryl choline sepharose column from the sera of L. rohita confined in normal and nonlethal doses of cadmium (Cd++) and mercury (Hg++) polluted water. The CRPs levels are elevated in the serum of both Cd++ and Hg++ polluted fishes. All three CRPs are glycoproteins having identical subunits of Mr 33,000. The total content of carbohydrate are 21.4%, 16.4% and 14.2% and that of sialic acid are 3.5%, 2.4% and 1.5% in CRPHg++, CRPCd++ and CRPN respectively. In native gel electrophoresis all three CRPs show differences in mobility. However they move to identical position after desialylation and deglycosylation. These CRPs react differentially with different lectins which indicates a variation in the carbohydrate moieties resulting their microheterogeneity.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaS1996,
  author = {Sinha S, Mandal C},
  title = {Microheterogeneity of C-reactive protein in the sera of fish Labeo rohita induced by metal pollutants.},
  journal = {Biochem Biophys Res Commun.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {226(3)},
  pages = {681-7}
}
Sivapatham P, Lettimore JM, Alva AK, Jayaraman K, Harper LM Chemical fractionation of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Pb in sewage sludge amended soils at the end of 65-d sorghum-sudan grass growth. 2014 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 49(11), pp. 1304-15 
article DOI  
Abstract: Heavy metals are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Metal toxicity depends on chemical associations in soil. Understanding the chemical association of trace elements in soils amended with biosolids is very important since it determines their availability within rhizosphere and mobility beyond the rhizosphere. A sequential extraction method was used to determine the various chemical associations [labile (exchangeable + sorbed), organic, carbonates, and sulfides] of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Pb at the end of sorghum-sudan grass growth (65d) in Candler fine sand (pH = 6.8) and in Ogeechee loamy sand (pH = 5.2) amended with wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) obtained from two different sources at application rates of 0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, and 148.2 Mg ha(-1). Results of this study indicated that irrespective of the soil type, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Pb in the labile fractions (exchangeable + sorbed) were in the range of 0-3.0 mg kg(-1) and the amount for Zn was in the range of 0.2-6.6 mg kg(-1). Therefore, their availability to plants and mobility beyond rhizosphere would be substantially low unless further transformations occur from other fractions. Results also indicated that the presence of substantial amounts of trace elements studied were in sulfide (HNO3) fraction and in organic (NaOH) fraction irrespective of soil type with the exception of Pb which was mainly present as carbonate (Na2EDTA) fraction and the remaining Pb equally as sulfide (HNO3) and organic (NaOH) fractions. Furthermore, results indicated that Cd was mainly present as carbonate (Na2EDTA) fraction. Irrespective of soil type, source and rate of WWTS application, summation of quantities of various fractions of all the trace elements studied through sequential extraction procedure were 1 to 25 % lower than that of total recoverable quantities of these trace elements determined on acid digestion described by US EPA method 3050 B. It was further evident that growing sorghum sudan grass for 65-d following the application of WWTS either depleted labile fractions or shifted the solid phases containing the trace elements in soils away from those extractable with more severe reagents, such as 4M HNO3 to those extractable with milder reagents such as dilute NaOH and Na2EDTA.
BibTeX:
@article{SivapathamP2014,
  author = {Sivapatham P, Lettimore JM, Alva AK, Jayaraman K, Harper LM},
  title = {Chemical fractionation of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Pb in sewage sludge amended soils at the end of 65-d sorghum-sudan grass growth.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {49(11)},
  pages = {1304-15},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2014.910069}
}
Gupta SK Neutral red retention by earthworm coelomocytes: a biomarker of cadmium contamination in soil. 2000 Biomed Environ Sci.
Vol. 13(2), pp. 117-21 
article  
Abstract: The earthworm Metaphire posthuma were used as a model to assess the toxic potential of cadmium incorporated into the soil by environmental or human activities. The retention period of neutral red in the lysosomes of the coelomocytes was used as a biomarker. The viability of harvested coelomocytes by a non-invasive extrusion protocol was 93% with no alteration by the dye during experimentation. The control cells retained dye for 119 and 121 min in normal soil and KCl, respectively, whereas a linear decline in the retention time in the treated earthworm coelomocytes was observed. This illustrated that the presence of cadmium caused damage to the lysosomes of the coelomocytes.
BibTeX:
@article{SK2000,
  author = {Gupta SK},
  title = {Neutral red retention by earthworm coelomocytes: a biomarker of cadmium contamination in soil.},
  journal = {Biomed Environ Sci.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {13(2)},
  pages = {117-21}
}
Somasundaram J, Krishnasamy R, Savithri P, Mahimairaja S, Kumar BS, Sivasubramanium K, Kumar VA, Poongothai S, Coumar MV, Behera SK Accumulation of few heavy metals in sewage sludges, soils and plants of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India). 2012 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 54(1), pp. 27-42 
article  
Abstract: A study was carried out in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu (India) to assess the distribution pattern of heavy metals in the soils and plants irrigated with sewage effluent/sludge. About 69 soil samples (surface and subsurface), 65 plant samples as well as 34-sewage sludge samples were collected from various tehsils of Coimbatore. Six tehsils in Coimbatore have been identified and categorized into two groups--Class I City (densely populated tehsils) and Class II city (thinly populated tehsils). The available micronutrients like Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu; heavy metals: Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb were within the safe limits. However, the total Cr and Cd concentrations were relatively higher in the sludge samples collected from Coimbatore and Tiruppur tehsils compared to other tehsils, while for Ni, the sequence was in the order Coimbatore > Tiruppur > Palladam > Pollachi > Avinashi > Mettupalayam and for Pb, Coimbatore > Mettupalayam > Palladam > Tiruppur > Avinashi > Pollachi. Soil analysis results indicated that heavy metal concentration recorded higher level in soils of Class I city (densely populated tehsils) compared to Class II city (thinly populated tehsils). The plant samples analyzed had also registered higher concentration of total Cd, Ni and Pb, which were classified under toxic, excessive and below excessive level, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were significantly negatively correlated with pH of soil. EC had a significant positive correlation with available iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). A significant positive correlation of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb was also registered with OC. Among the plant samples collected, it was evident that heavy metal concentrations were recorded higher in grass spp followed by Amaranthus spp. It was inferred from the study that soils samples had higher levels of heavy metals even though the values recorded were below the critical value/toxic limit. However, long-term and indiscriminate application of untreated (raw) sewage sludge and/or letting of sewage effluent directly to agricultural field without prior treatment may result in accumulation of toxic metals in surface and subsurface soils and subsequent biotransfer (bioaccumlation) into the food chain, it may further lead to toxicity not only to plants and animals but also to consumers of the harvested crops.
BibTeX:
@article{SomasundaramJ2012,
  author = {Somasundaram J, Krishnasamy R, Savithri P, Mahimairaja S, Kumar BS, Sivasubramanium K, Kumar VA, Poongothai S, Coumar MV, Behera SK},
  title = {Accumulation of few heavy metals in sewage sludges, soils and plants of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India).},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {54(1)},
  pages = {27-42}
}
Srivastava AK, Gupta BN, Mathur N, Murty RC, Garg N, Chandra SV An investigation of metal concentrations in blood of industrial workers. 1991 Vet Hum Toxicol.
Vol. 33(3), pp. 280-2 
article  
Abstract: Pigments may contain chromates of zinc and lead, dioxide of manganese, oxides of copper and cobalt, and sulphides of cadmium. Workers engaged in the production of colored glass articles are exposed to fumes and dusts from these pigments. Exposure to these metals through inhalation may lead to a high concentration of these metals in blood. Correlations between biometric characteristics of workers and the blood levels of metals, and between blood levels of different metals were explored. Blood copper and chromium were correlated with occupational history. Significant correlations between blood levels of lead, copper, chromium and manganese were also observed.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaAK1991,
  author = {Srivastava AK, Gupta BN, Mathur N, Murty RC, Garg N, Chandra SV},
  title = {An investigation of metal concentrations in blood of industrial workers.},
  journal = {Vet Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {33(3)},
  pages = {280-2}
}
Srivastava AK, Mishra S Blood dyscrasia in a teleost fish, Colisa fasciatus, associated with cadmium poisoning. 1979 J Comp Pathol.
Vol. 89(4), pp. 609-13 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaAK1979,
  author = {Srivastava AK, Mishra S},
  title = {Blood dyscrasia in a teleost fish, Colisa fasciatus, associated with cadmium poisoning.},
  journal = {J Comp Pathol.},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {89(4)},
  pages = {609-13}
}
Srivastava RK, Pandey P, Rajpoot R, Rani A, Dubey RS Cadmium and lead interactive effects on oxidative stress and antioxidative responses in rice seedlings. 2014 Protoplasma.
Vol. 251(5), pp. 1047-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: Interactive effects of two heavy metal pollutants Cd and Pb in the growth medium were examined on their uptake, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of oxidative stress and antioxidative defence responses in Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. When rice seedlings in sand culture were exposed to 150 ?M Cd (NO3)2 or 600 ?M Pb (CH3COO)2 individually or in combination for 8-16 days, a significant reduction in root/shoot length, fresh weight, relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and increased production of ROS (O2?- and H2O2) was observed. Both Cd and Pb were readily taken up by rice roots and localisation of absorbed metals was greater in roots than in shoots. When present together in the growth medium, uptake of both the metals Cd and Pb declined by 25-40%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of leaf stomata revealed that Pb caused more distortion in the shape of guard cells than Cd. Dithizone staining of roots showed localisation of absorbed Cd on root hairs and epidermal cells. Both Cd and Pb caused increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, decline in protein thiol and increase in non-protein thiol. The level of reduced forms of non-enzymic antioxidants glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA) and their redox ratios (GSH/AsA) declined, whereas the activities of antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) increased in metal treated seedlings compared to controls. In-gel activity staining also revealed increased intensities of SOD and GPX isoforms with metal treatments. Catalase (CAT) activity increased during early days (8 days) of metal exposure and declined by 16 days. Results suggest that oxidative stress is an important component in expression of Cd and Pb toxicities in rice, though uptake of both metals gets reduced considerably when present together in the medium.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaRK2014,
  author = {Srivastava RK, Pandey P, Rajpoot R, Rani A, Dubey RS},
  title = {Cadmium and lead interactive effects on oxidative stress and antioxidative responses in rice seedlings.},
  journal = {Protoplasma.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {251(5)},
  pages = {1047-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-014-0614-3}
}
Sudhakar G, Jyothi B, Venkateswarlu V Metal pollution and its impact on algae in flowing waters in India. 1991 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 21(4), pp. 556-66 
article  
Abstract: Metal pollution in the river Godavari in India, due to discharges of liquid wastes from a paper mill, has been studied for a period of two years. At the discharge point and 1 km from the point of discharge, iron, manganese, and zinc were recorded in high concentrations, whereas cadmium and chromium were observed in low concentrations. No metal was in detectable concentration in water before the river receives the effluents. A considerable drop in pH values and an appreciable increase in organic matter, hardness, and calcium levels were noticed after entry of wastes. Diatoms were more diversified in fresh water, whereas cyanobacteria were more prevalent both qualitatively and quantitatively at the polluted stations. Mathematical equations involving heavy metals and physicochemical factors were drawn for better understanding of the distribution of algae.
BibTeX:
@article{SudhakarG1991,
  author = {Sudhakar G, Jyothi B, Venkateswarlu V},
  title = {Metal pollution and its impact on algae in flowing waters in India.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {21(4)},
  pages = {556-66}
}
Rana SV Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review. 2014 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 160(1), pp. 1-14 
article DOI  
Abstract: An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury,cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.
BibTeX:
@article{SV2014,
  author = {Rana SV},
  title = {Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {160(1)},
  pages = {1-14},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-0023-7}
}
Rana SV Metals and apoptosis: recent developments. 2008 J Trace Elem Med Biol.
Vol. 22(4), pp. 262-84 
article DOI  
Abstract: Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death is a highly regulated and crucial process found in all multicellular organisms. It is not only implicated in regulatory mechanisms of cells, but has been attributed to a number of diseases, i.e. inflammation, malignancy, autoimmunity and neurodegeneration. A variety of toxins can induce apoptosis. Carcinogenic transition metals, viz. cadmium, chromium and nickel promote apoptosis along with DNA base modifications, strand breaks and rearrangements. Generation of reactive oxygen species, accumulation of Ca(2+), upregulation of caspase-3, down regulation of bcl-2, and deficiency of p-53 lead to arsenic-induced apoptosis. In the case of cadmium, metallothionein expression determines the choice between apoptosis and necrosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 contribute in apoptosis caused by chromium. Immuno suppressive mechanisms contribute in lead-induced apoptosis whereas in the case of mercury, p38 mediated caspase activation regulate apoptosis. Nickel kills the cells by apoptotic pathways. Copper induces apoptosis by p53 dependent and independent pathways. Beryllium stimulates the formation of ROS that play a role in Be-induced macrophage apoptosis. Selenium induces apoptosis by producing superoxide that activates p53. Thus, disorders of apoptosis may play a critical role in some of the most debilitating metal-induced afflictions including hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, neurotoxicity, autoimmunity and carcinogenesis. An understanding of metal-induced apoptosis will be helpful in the development of preventive molecular strategies.
BibTeX:
@article{SV2008,
  author = {Rana SV},
  title = {Metals and apoptosis: recent developments.},
  journal = {J Trace Elem Med Biol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {22(4)},
  pages = {262-84},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2008.08.002}
}
Swarup D, Naresh R, Varshney VP, Balagangatharathilagar M, Kumar P, Nandi D, Patra RC Changes in plasma hormones profile and liver function in cows naturally exposed to lead and cadmiumaround different industrial areas. 2007 Res Vet Sci.
Vol. 82(1), pp. 16-21 
article  
Abstract: The present study was carried out to assess the endocrine status and liver function in adult cows reared in polluted environment around different industrial units in India. The effect on endocrine system was examined by determination of plasma level of thyroid hormones, thyroxin (T4) (n=269) and triidothyronin (T3) (n=269), stress hormone cortisol (n=266), and reproductive hormones such as estradiol (n=84) and progesterone (n=84) in cows (>3 years) reared around different polluted industrial and non-polluted areas. The respective blood lead and cadmium concentration was also determined in all the cows. The mean plasma levels of both T3 and T4 were significantly (P<0.05) higher around lead zinc smelter (2.43+/-0.26 and 41.1+/-2.9nmol/L) and closed lead cum operational zinc smelter (1.81+/-0.16 and 42.4+/-6.2nmol/L), where the mean blood lead level (0.86+/-0.06 and 0.51+/-0.09mug/ml) was also significantly higher than that of cows (0.07+/-0.01mug/ml) from unpolluted areas. Regression analysis of data from 269 cows revealed a significant (P<0.01) positive correlation between the blood lead and plasma T3 (r=0.287) and T4 (r=0.173). The correlation between thyroidal hormones and the blood cadmiumconcentration (r=-0.079 and -0.48; P>0.05) was not significant. Plasma cortisol level had also a non-significant (P>0.05) correlation (r=-0.092) with blood lead level.However, the mean cortisol level (4.02+/-1.96nmol/L) of cows in phosphate rock mining areas was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of controls (1.98+/-0.70nmol/L). The mean plasma estradiol level was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cows around closed lead cum operational zinc smelter (47.1+/-19.5pg/ml) than that of the control animals (21.8+/-3.9pg/ml) and in rest of the areas, the difference did not reach the statistical significance (P>0.05). The serum biochemical analysis in 36 cows around lead-zinc smelter with the highest mean blood lead level (0.86+/-0.06mug/ml) amongst all the industrial/urban areas surveyed, and in 15 animals from non-polluted areas revealed a significant positive correlation between blood lead and serum ALT (alanine transaminase) (r=0.688, P<0.01) and AST (aspartate transaminase) (r=0.390, P<0.01) and a negative correlation with serum total lipids (r=-0.337, P<0.05), total protein (r=-0.449, P<0.01) and albumin(r=-0.662, P<0.01). It is concluded from the study that the natural exposure to lead in polluted environments disturbs the endocrine profile and the higher blood lead level alters serum biochemical parameters indicative of liver functions.
BibTeX:
@article{SwarupD2007,
  author = {Swarup D, Naresh R, Varshney VP, Balagangatharathilagar M, Kumar P, Nandi D, Patra RC},
  title = {Changes in plasma hormones profile and liver function in cows naturally exposed to lead and cadmiumaround different industrial areas.},
  journal = {Res Vet Sci.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {82(1)},
  pages = {16-21}
}
Swarup D, Patra RC, Dwivedi SK, Dey S Blood lead and cadmium in dogs from urban India. 2000 Vet Hum Toxicol.
Vol. 42(4), pp. 232-3 
article  
Abstract: Concentrations of lead and cadmium were estimated in blood samples of 43 healthy dogs from urban India. Concentrations were 19.5+/-2.1 microg lead/dL and 0.74+/-0.13 microg cadmium/dL, which were considerably higher for rural dogs. Sex, age, and diet had no significant effect on lead and cadmium blood concentrations, yet male and adult dogs had higher levels than females and young dogs. The use of dogs as sentinels for environment quality in India was indicated by this study.
BibTeX:
@article{SwarupD2000,
  author = {Swarup D, Patra RC, Dwivedi SK, Dey S},
  title = {Blood lead and cadmium in dogs from urban India.},
  journal = {Vet Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {42(4)},
  pages = {232-3}
}
Tamás MJ, Sharma SK, Ibstedt S, Jacobson T, Christen P Heavy metals and metalloids as a cause for protein misfolding and aggregation. 2014 Biomolecules.
Vol. 4(1), pp. 252-67 
article DOI  
Abstract: While the toxicity of metals and metalloids, like arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and chromium, is undisputed, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely clear. General consensus holds that proteins are the prime targets; heavy metals interfere with the physiological activity of specific, particularly susceptible proteins, either by forming a complex with functional side chain groups or by displacing essential metal ions in metalloproteins. Recent studies have revealed an additional mode of metal action targeted at proteins in a non-native state; certain heavy metals and metalloids have been found to inhibit the in vitro refolding of chemically denatured proteins, to interfere with protein folding in vivo and to cause aggregation of nascent proteins in living cells. Apparently, unfolded proteins with motile backbone and side chains are considerably more prone to engage in stable, pluridentate metal complexes than native proteins with their well-defined 3D structure. By interfering with the folding process, heavy metal ions and metalloids profoundly affect protein homeostasis and cell viability. This review describes how heavy metals impede protein folding and promote protein aggregation, how cells regulate quality control systems to protect themselves from metal toxicity and how metals might contribute to protein misfolding disorders.
BibTeX:
@article{TamasMJ2014,
  author = {Tamás MJ, Sharma SK, Ibstedt S, Jacobson T, Christen P},
  title = {Heavy metals and metalloids as a cause for protein misfolding and aggregation.},
  journal = {Biomolecules.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {4(1)},
  pages = {252-67},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom4010252}
}
Tandon SK, Prasad S Effect of thiamine on the cadmium-chelating capacity of thiol compounds. 2000 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 19(9), pp. 523-8 
article  
Abstract: The influence of thiamine on the efficacy of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethyldimercapto succinate (DEDMS), alpha mercapto-beta-(2-furyl) acrylic acid (MFA) and alpha-mercapto-beta-(2-thienyl) acrylic acid (MTA) to mobilize cadmium and reversecadmium-induced biochemical alterations was investigated in cadmium-exposed rats. The thiamine coadministration enhanced the efficacy of MFA and MTA in reducing hepatic and renal burden of cadmium and that of DMSA and DEDMS in mobilizing hepaticcadmium. It also improved the efficacy of DMSA, DEDMS and MFA in reversing the cadmium-induced increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase and aspartate and alanine amino transaminases. The combined treatment with thiamine and DMSA or MFA restricted the urinary loss of zinc and that with thiamine and DEDMS reduced the loss of fecal copper, a general effect of chelation. In conclusion, the administration of thiamine during chelation therapy in cadmium poisoning may be beneficial and more effective than thiol chelating agents alone, which needs to be confirmed in humans.
BibTeX:
@article{TandonSK2000,
  author = {Tandon SK, Prasad S},
  title = {Effect of thiamine on the cadmium-chelating capacity of thiol compounds.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {19(9)},
  pages = {523-8}
}
Tandon SK, Sharma BL, Kachru DN Chelation in metal intoxication XXX: Alpha-mercapto-beta-aryl acrylic acids as antidotes to cadmium toxicity. 1989 Pharmacol Toxicol.
Vol. 64(4), pp. 380-2 
article  
Abstract: alpha-Mercapto-beta-(2-furyl) acrylic acid (MFA), alpha-mercapto-beta-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acrylic acid (MHA), beta-1,2-phenylene di-alpha-mercaptoacrylic acid (1,2-PDMA) and beta-1,4-phenylene di-alpha-mercapto acrylic acid (1,4-PDMA) were compared to sodium N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (NBG-DTC) an effective cadmium chelator, for their ability to mobilize Cd and influence the Cd induced tissue metallothionein (MT) in rats administered 109CdCl2, 72 hr earlier. MFA was almost as effective as NBG-DTC but more effective than MHA in enhancing urinary and faecal excretion of Cd, reducing tissue and blood levels of Cd and in lowering Cd induced increase in hepatic and renal MT contents. 1,2-PDMA and 1,4-PDMA were effective only in reducing the hepatic burden of Cd. The resuls do not indicate any direct relationship between the efficacy of alpha-mercapto-beta-aryl acrylic acids to decorporate body Cd and their lipophilic-hydrophilic character or number-arrangement of their sulfhydryl groups.
BibTeX:
@article{TandonSK1989,
  author = {Tandon SK, Sharma BL, Kachru DN},
  title = {Chelation in metal intoxication XXX: Alpha-mercapto-beta-aryl acrylic acids as antidotes to cadmium toxicity.},
  journal = {Pharmacol Toxicol.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {64(4)},
  pages = {380-2}
}
Tandon SK, Tewari PC Effect of co-exposure to ethanol and cadmium in rats. 1987 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 39(4), pp. 633-40 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{TandonSK1987,
  author = {Tandon SK, Tewari PC},
  title = {Effect of co-exposure to ethanol and cadmium in rats.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {39(4)},
  pages = {633-40}
}
Tewari A, Gupta SK DNA damage in bone marrow and blood cells of mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates. 2006 Environ Mol Mutagen.
Vol. 47(4), pp. 271-6 
article  
Abstract: Leachates of municipal solid waste from unsecured disposal sites contaminate sources of potable water and affect human health. In the present study, we have used the Comet assay to evaluate the DNA damage in mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates. Ten percent leachates were prepared from municipal sludge obtained from two different disposal drains. Male Swiss albino mice were treated daily with 0.1-0.4 ml of the leachates by oral gavage for 15 days, and the DNA damage was evaluated in bone marrow and blood using Olive tail moment, % tail DNA, and tail length as measures of DNA damage. Physicochemical and metal analysis of the leachates detected the presence of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc, as well as elevated concentrations of sulfate and nitrate. Both of the leachates produced significant dose-responsive increases in DNA damage in both mouse tissues. There were no significant differences in the responses for any of the Comet endpoints between tissues (for the same leachate sample) or between leachate samples (for the same tissue). The results of this study indicate that municipal waste leachates produce DNA damage in vivo.
BibTeX:
@article{TewariA2006,
  author = {Tewari A, Gupta SK},
  title = {DNA damage in bone marrow and blood cells of mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates.},
  journal = {Environ Mol Mutagen.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {47(4)},
  pages = {271-6}
}
Thavamani P, Megharaj M, Naidu R Multivariate analysis of mixed contaminants (PAHs and heavy metals) at manufactured gas plant site soils. 2012 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 184(6), pp. 3875-85 
article  
Abstract: Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to provide an overview of the distribution pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site soils. PCA is the powerful multivariate method to identify the patterns in data and expressing their similarities and differences. Ten PAHs (naphthalene, acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene) and four toxic heavy metals - lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) - were detected in the site soils. PAH contamination was contributed equally by both low and high molecular weight PAHs. PCA was performed using the varimax rotation method in SPSS, 17.0. Two principal components accounting for 91.7% of the total variance was retained using scree test. Principle component 1 (PC1) substantially explained the dominance of PAH contamination in the MGP site soils. All PAHs, except anthracene, were positively correlated in PC1. There was a common thread in high molecular weight PAHs loadings, where the loadings were inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and molecular weight of individual PAHs. Anthracene, which was less correlated with other individual PAHs, deviated well from the origin which can be ascribed to its lowertoxicity and different origin than its isomer phenanthrene. Among the four major heavy metals studied in MGP sites, Pb, Cd and Cr were negatively correlated in PC1 but showed strong positive correlation in principle component 2 (PC2). Although metals may not have originated directly from gaswork processes, the correlation between PAHs and metals suggests that the materials used in these sites may have contributed to high concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn. Thus, multivariate analysis helped to identify the sources of PAHs, heavy metals and their association in MGP site, and thereby better characterise the site risk, which would not be possible if one uses chemical analysis alone.
BibTeX:
@article{ThavamaniP2012,
  author = {Thavamani P, Megharaj M, Naidu R},
  title = {Multivariate analysis of mixed contaminants (PAHs and heavy metals) at manufactured gas plant site soils.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {184(6)},
  pages = {3875-85}
}
Tripathi S, Srivastav AK Cytoarchitectural alterations in kidney of Wistar rat after oral exposure to cadmium chloride. 2011 Tissue Cell.
Vol. 43(2), pp. 131-6 
article  
Abstract: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups--A, B and C. A dose of 5 mg and 10 mg of cadmium chloride/kg body weight/day was orally administered to groups B and C, respectively. Rats from group A served as control. Rats were sacrificed on 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week after initiation of the experiment. Kidneys were removed immediately, fixed in Bouin's fixative, routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The present study showed that the histopathological changes were caused in kidney of rats by cadmium exposure. The changes noticed were mainly--the glomerular swelling (at initial stage), the shrinkage of glomerulus (at later stage), the tubular dilatation, hypertrophy of tubular epithelium, degeneration of glomerulus and renal tubules and deposition of eosin-positive substances in the glomerulus and renal tubules. However, lesions were depended upon the doses and duration of the treatment.
BibTeX:
@article{TripathiS2011,
  author = {Tripathi S, Srivastav AK},
  title = {Cytoarchitectural alterations in kidney of Wistar rat after oral exposure to cadmium chloride.},
  journal = {Tissue Cell.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {43(2)},
  pages = {131-6}
}
Usha B, Venkataraman G, Parida A Heavy metal and abiotic stress inducible metallothionein isoforms from Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. show differences in binding to heavy metals in vitro. 2009 Mol Genet Genomics.
Vol. 281(1), pp. 99-108 
article DOI  
Abstract: Prosopis juliflora is a tree species that grows well in heavy metal laden industrial sites and accumulates heavy metals. To understand the possible contribution of metallothioneins (MTs) in heavy metal accumulation in P. juliflora, we isolated and compared the metal binding ability of three different types of MTs (PjMT1-3). Glutathione S-transferase fusions of PjMTs (GSTMT1-3) were purified from Escherichia coli cells grown in the presence of 0.3 mM cadmium, copper or zinc. Analysis of metal bound fusion proteins using atomic absorption spectrometry showed that PjMT1 bound higher levels of all three heavy metals as compared to PjMT2 and PjMT3. A comparative analysis of the genomic regions (including promoter for all three PjMTs) is also presented. All three PjMTs are induced by H(2)O(2) and ABA applications. PjMT1 and PjMT2 are induced by copper and zinc respectively while PjMT3 is induced by copper, zinc and cadmium. Variation in induction of PjMTs in response to metal exposure and their differential binding to metals suggests that each MT has a specific role in P. juliflora. Of the three MTs analyzed, PjMT1 shows maximum heavy metal sequestration and is thus a potential candidate for use in heavy metal phytoremediation.
BibTeX:
@article{UshaB2009,
  author = {Usha B, Venkataraman G, Parida A},
  title = {Heavy metal and abiotic stress inducible metallothionein isoforms from Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. show differences in binding to heavy metals in vitro.},
  journal = {Mol Genet Genomics.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {281(1)},
  pages = {99-108},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-008-0398-2}
}
Veeranarayanan S, Poulose AC, Mohamed MS, Nagaoka Y, Iwai S, Nakagame Y, Kashiwada S, Yoshida Y, Maekawa T, Kumar DS Synthesis and application of luminescent single CdS quantum dot encapsulated silica nanoparticles directed for precision optical bioimaging. 2012 Int J Nanomedicine.
Vol. 7 
article DOI  
Abstract: This paper presents the synthesis of aqueous cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) and silica-encapsulated CdS QDs by reverse microemulsion method and utilized as targeted bio-optical probes. We report the role of CdS as an efficient cell tag with fluorescence on par with previously documented cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide QDs, which have been considered to impart high levels oftoxicity. In this study, the toxicity of bare QDs was efficiently quenched by encapsulating them in a biocompatible coat of silica. Thetoxicity profile and uptake of bare CdS QDs and silica-coated QDs, along with the CD31-labeled, silica-coated CdS QDs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and glioma cells, were investigated. The effect of size, along with the time-dependent cellular uptake of the nanomaterials, has also been emphasized. Enhanced, high-specificity imaging toward endothelial cell lines in comparison with glioma cells was achieved with CD31 antibody-conjugated nanoparticles. The silica-coated nanomaterials exhibited excellent biocompatibility and greater photostability inside live cells, in addition to possessing an extended shelf life. In vivo biocompatibility and localization study of silica-coated CdS QDs in medaka fish embryos, following direct nanoparticle exposure for 24 hours, authenticated the nanomaterials' high potential for in vivo imaging, augmented with superior biocompatibility. As expected, CdS QD-treated embryos showed 100% mortality, whereas the silica-coated QD-treated embryos stayed viable and healthy throughout and after the experiments, devoid of any deformities. We provide highly cogent and convincing evidence for such silica-coated QDs as a model nanoparticle in practice, to achieve in vitro and in vivo precision targeted imaging.
BibTeX:
@article{VeeranarayananS2012,
  author = {Veeranarayanan S, Poulose AC, Mohamed MS, Nagaoka Y, Iwai S, Nakagame Y, Kashiwada S, Yoshida Y, Maekawa T, Kumar DS},
  title = {Synthesis and application of luminescent single CdS quantum dot encapsulated silica nanoparticles directed for precision optical bioimaging.},
  journal = {Int J Nanomedicine.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S31310}
}
Viswanadh EK, Rao BN, Rao BS Antigenotoxic effect of mangiferin and changes in antioxidant enzyme levels of Swiss albino mice treated with cadmium chloride. 2010 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 29(5), pp. 409-18 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium is an environmental metal toxin implicated in human diseases. Mangiferin (MGN), a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone, is present in Mangifera indica. In this study, the protective role of MGN against cadmium chloride (CdCl(2))-induced genotoxicity was studied in Swiss albino mice. Mice were administered with single intra-peritoneal (i.p.) optimal dose of MGN (2.5 mg/kg b.wt.) before treatment with various concentrations of CdCl(2) (7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 mg/kg b.wt.). The LD( 50(30)) was found to be 8.5 mg/kg b.wt. for DDW + CdCl(2) group, while it was increased to 9.77 mg/kg after MGN treatment resulting in increase in the LD(50(30)) value by 1.26 mg, with a dose reduction factor (DRF) of 1.14. Treatment of mice to various doses of CdCl(2) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic (MnPCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (MnNCE), with corresponding decrease in the polychromatic / normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE ratio) at various post-treatment times. MGN (2.5 mg/kg b.wt.) pretreatment significantly (p < .001) reduced the frequency of MnPCE, MnNCE and increased PCE/NCE ratio when compared with the DDW + CdCl(2) group at all post-treatment times indicating its antigenotoxic effect. Further, pretreatment of MGN declined the lipid peroxidation (LPx) content in liver, whereas significant increase was observed in hepatic Glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Our study revealed that MGN has potent antigenotoxic effect against CdCl(2)-inducedtoxicity in mice, which may be due to the scavenging of free radicals and increased antioxidant status.
BibTeX:
@article{ViswanadhEK2010,
  author = {Viswanadh EK, Rao BN, Rao BS},
  title = {Antigenotoxic effect of mangiferin and changes in antioxidant enzyme levels of Swiss albino mice treated with cadmium chloride.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29(5)},
  pages = {409-18}
}
Dixit VP Cadmium induced changes in the liver of langurs (Presbytis entellus-entellus dufresne). 1977 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.
Vol. 21(4), pp. 379-82 
article  
Abstract: 1- Cadmium-induced hepatic disturbances in Langurs have been studied following a single low dose administration of the salt (Cd Cl2 4 mg/kg s.c.). 2-Serum transaminases, choelsterol and liver glycogen levels were elevated. Alkaline phosphatase levels were in normal range. The blood sugar was at a low level. 3- Degranulation, vacuolization and distortion of the liver cells and lobules were conspicuous. 4- In conclusion this study would indicate that increased serum enzyme activity and increased plasma choelsterol levels are a manifestation of tissue damage. It would seem plausible to translate these observations in terms of similar infarcts occurring in man.
BibTeX:
@article{VP1977,
  author = {Dixit VP},
  title = {Cadmium induced changes in the liver of langurs (Presbytis entellus-entellus dufresne).},
  journal = {Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {21(4)},
  pages = {379-82}
}
Wani PA, Khan MS Screening of multiple metal and antibiotic resistant isolates and their plant growth promoting activity. 2014 Pak J Biol Sci.
Vol. 17(2), pp. 206-12 
article  
Abstract: Heavy metal contamination has accelerated due to the rapid industrialization world wide. Accumulation of metals in excess can modify the structure of essential protein or can replace an essential element. Bradyrhizobium strains showed tolerance to cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. All the isolates showed maximum tolerance towards lead and zinc which was followed by nickel and chromium. These strains also showed tolerance towards most of the antibiotics. Bradyrhizobium strains were also tested for their Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) substances, all isolates produced good amount of indole acetic acid and were positive for ammonia but only three strains were positive for HCN and siderophore (RM1, RM2 and RM8), the rest isolates showed negative result. Based on the above intrinsic abilities of Bradyrhizobium species, these strains can be used for the growth promotion, as well for the detoxification of the heavy metals in metal polluted soils.
BibTeX:
@article{WaniPA2014,
  author = {Wani PA, Khan MS},
  title = {Screening of multiple metal and antibiotic resistant isolates and their plant growth promoting activity.},
  journal = {Pak J Biol Sci.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {17(2)},
  pages = {206-12}
}
Waykar B, Deshmukh G Evaluation of bivalves as bioindicators of metal pollution in freshwater. 2012 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 88(1), pp. 48-53 
article DOI  
Abstract: The fresh water bivalves, Lamellidens corrianus, Lamellidens marginalis, and Indonaia caeruleus were exposed to chronic concentration of arsenic (0.1719 ppm), cadmium (0.1284 ppm), copper (0.033 ppm), lead (1.50 ppm), mercury (0.0443 ppm) and zinc (1.858 ppm) separately up to 30 days in laboratory. Dry weight of each animal was used to calculate metal concentrations (?g/g) and the metal body burden (?g/individual). It was observed that lead (1235.4 ?g/g) and arsenic (37.9 ?g/g) concentration were highest in Lamellidens corrianus, zinc (3,032.3 ?g/g) was highest in Lamellidens marginalis, while mercury (5.87 ?g/g), cadmium (142 ?g/g) and copper (826.7 ?g/g) was highest in Indonaia caeruleus.
BibTeX:
@article{WaykarB2012,
  author = {Waykar B, Deshmukh G},
  title = {Evaluation of bivalves as bioindicators of metal pollution in freshwater.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {88(1)},
  pages = {48-53},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0447-0}
}
Wheatley A, Sadhra S Carcinogenic risk assessment for emissions from clinical waste incineration and road traffic. 2010 Int J Environ Health Res.
Vol. 20(5), pp. 313-27 
article  
Abstract: The most significant potentially carcinogenic substances arising from a state-of-the-art clinical waste incinerator (CWI) and vehicle emissions were identified as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, 1-butadiene, arsenic,cadmium, chromium and nickel. Long-term exposures of the notional maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the local environment, together with aggregate emissions from transport of clinical waste, were estimated. Mass emission rates of PAHs from the CWI to air were compared with previously published estimates of mass emissions to land from CWI bottom ash. Aggregate emissions from road transport of clinical waste were of a similar order to stack emissions from incineration. Mass emissions of PAHs to landfill generally greatly exceeded those from stack emissions. Emissions associated with operation of the CWI present a negligible contribution to overall cancer risk from PAHs and other carcinogens. Uncertainty in the quantitative risk estimates presented here is discussed in the context of these findings.
BibTeX:
@article{WheatleyA2010,
  author = {Wheatley A, Sadhra S},
  title = {Carcinogenic risk assessment for emissions from clinical waste incineration and road traffic.},
  journal = {Int J Environ Health Res.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {20(5)},
  pages = {313-27}
}
Wheatley A, Sadhra S Carcinogenic risk assessment for emissions from clinical waste incineration and road traffic. 2010 Int J Environ Health Res.
Vol. 20(5), pp. 313-27 
article DOI  
Abstract: The most significant potentially carcinogenic substances arising from a state-of-the-art clinical waste incinerator (CWI) and vehicle emissions were identified as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, 1-butadiene, arsenic,cadmium, chromium and nickel. Long-term exposures of the notional maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the local environment, together with aggregate emissions from transport of clinical waste, were estimated. Mass emission rates of PAHs from the CWI to air were compared with previously published estimates of mass emissions to land from CWI bottom ash. Aggregate emissions from road transport of clinical waste were of a similar order to stack emissions from incineration. Mass emissions of PAHs to landfill generally greatly exceeded those from stack emissions. Emissions associated with operation of the CWI present a negligible contribution to overall cancer risk from PAHs and other carcinogens. Uncertainty in the quantitative risk estimates presented here is discussed in the context of these findings.
BibTeX:
@article{WheatleyA2010a,
  author = {Wheatley A, Sadhra S},
  title = {Carcinogenic risk assessment for emissions from clinical waste incineration and road traffic.},
  journal = {Int J Environ Health Res.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {20(5)},
  pages = {313-27},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603121003663487}
}
Wills NK, Ramanujam VM, Chang J, Kalariya N, Lewis JR, Weng TX, van Kuijk FJ Cadmium accumulation in the human retina: effects of age, gender, and cellular toxicity. 2008 Exp Eye Res.
Vol. 86(1), pp. 41-51 
article  
Abstract: Tobacco smoking and aging are among the few factors linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of blindness in the elderly. Recent studies indicate that cadmium (Cd), an environmental toxic trace metal, is approximately four-fold higher in the retinas of smokers compared to non-smokers. In this study, we determined the effects of age and gender on Cd accumulation in human retinal tissues, specifically the neural retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroid. Cadmium levels in cultured RPE cells or retinal tissues isolated from frozen donor eyes were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GF-AAS). Cadmium uptake in cultured human RPE cells (ARPE-19) was also assessed using GF-AAS. Toxic effects of cadmium were determined from cell loss (measured as a decrease in cell density) and lactate dehydrogenase release (an indicator of membrane disruption). In "young" eyes (< 55 years) Cd was highest in the retinal pigment epithelium and lowest in the neural retina. Cd was higher in all tissues in aged eyes (>or=55 years) and was significantly higher in the neural retina and RPE in older females. Cultured RPE cells exposed to Cd showed altered cell morphology, decreased cell survival, elevated ROS levels and concentration-dependent disruption of membrane integrity. We conclude that cadmium is accumulated differently in the neural retinal and RPE of older men and women. The deleterious effects of Cd on RPE cells indicate that this environmental toxin is a potentially important factor in age-related retinal disease.
BibTeX:
@article{WillsNK2008,
  author = {Wills NK, Ramanujam VM, Chang J, Kalariya N, Lewis JR, Weng TX, van Kuijk FJ},
  title = {Cadmium accumulation in the human retina: effects of age, gender, and cellular toxicity.},
  journal = {Exp Eye Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {86(1)},
  pages = {41-51}
}
Wilson AK, Bhattacharyya MH Effects of cadmium on bone: an in vivo model for the early response. 1997 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 145(1), pp. 68-73 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) exposure induces bone resorption in vitro and in vivo that can lead to low bone mass and increased incidence of fracture. We have developed an animal model for following the early skeletal response to Cd. A low-calcium (but not calcium-deficient) diet is used to increase gastrointestinal absorption of calcium so that the endogenous fecal calcium excretion is essentially the total fecal calcium excretion. The bone response is followed by quantitation of stable fecal calcium and does not require a radioactive label. After mice were adjusted to a low-calcium diet, Cd was administered by a single gavage and fecal calcium was monitored to determine the magnitude of the calcium release from bone. Fecal calcium excretion (microg Ca/hr; mean +/- SE) remained at the background level for 8 hr (13.6 +/- 1.8, n = 18) but increased during the 8- to 24-hr and 24- to 56-hr collection periods (43.8 +/- 6.8, n = 12; 50.75 +/- 3.7, n = 6, respectively). The bone response was transient and dropped to nearly background levels during the 56- to 104-hr collection period. Blood calcium levels were normal throughout the time course. Bone resorption occurred at Cd levels of 7.9 +/- 0.7 microg/liter blood (mean +/- SE, n = 6), which is in the range of occupational exposure levels. The transient nature of the bone response contrasted to the slow but continuing rise observed in blood Cd levels. These results suggest that a threshold level of Cd is required for a bone response but that chronic levels of Cd in blood do not necessarily indicate the occurrence of continuous active bone resorption. This model can be used to probe early gene changes (prior to the bone response) that may be occurring in response to Cd exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{WilsonAK1997,
  author = {Wilson AK, Bhattacharyya MH},
  title = {Effects of cadmium on bone: an in vivo model for the early response.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {145(1)},
  pages = {68-73},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/taap.1997.8164}
}
Yadav N, Khandelwal S Therapeutic efficacy of Picroliv in chronic cadmium toxicity. 2009 Food Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 47(4), pp. 871-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd), an industrial and environmental pollutant, is toxic to several tissues, most notably causing hepatotoxicity on acute administration and nephrotoxicity following chronic exposure. The therapeutic efficacy of Picroliv--a standardized fraction of Picrorhiza kurroa, was investigated in male rats treated with Cd as CdCl2 (0.5 mg/kg, sc) 5 days/week for 24 weeks and Picroliv at two doses (6 and 12 mg/kg, p.o.) was given during the last 4 weeks. The Cd induced levels of malondialdehyde and membrane fluidity and decreased levels of non protein sulphydryls and Na+K+ATPase activity of hepatic tissue, along with liver function serum enzymes were restored to near normalcy on treatment with the higher dose of Picroliv. Enhanced excretion of urinary proteins, Cd, Ca and enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase) evident at 24 weeks of Cd exposure, indicated severe renal damage. Picroliv appeared less effective in causing restoration of these urinary parameters as well as oxidative stress indices in the renal tissue. Picroliv not only reduced the accumulated levels of Cd, Zn and Ca and Cd-metallothionein in liver, but also enhanced the bile flow and biliary Cd. The morphological alterations in liver caused by Cd appeared less marked on Picroliv treatment. However, the renal morphology remained uninfluenced. Our earlier data on 18 weeks of Cd and 4 weeks of Picroliv co-treatment showed significant amelioration of both hepatic and renal manifestations of Cd. The hepatic protection by Picrilov is clearly demonstrated in this study, while marginal lowering of urinary proteins and enzymes is a positive signal of renal protective efficacy of Picroliv, which could be augmented by adopting higher doses and extended regimen.
BibTeX:
@article{YadavN2009,
  author = {Yadav N, Khandelwal S},
  title = {Therapeutic efficacy of Picroliv in chronic cadmium toxicity.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {47(4)},
  pages = {871-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.01.021}
}
Zan NR, Datta SP, Rattan RK, Dwivedi BS, Meena MC Prediction of the solubility of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium, and lead in metal-contaminated soils. 2013 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 185(12), pp. 10015-25 
article DOI  
Abstract: Risk assessment of metal-contaminated soil depends on how precisely one can predict the solubility of metals in soils. Responses of plants and soil organisms to metal toxicity are explained by the variation in free metal ion activity in soil pore water. This study was undertaken to predict the free ion activity of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb in metal-contaminated soil as a function of pH, soil organic carbon, and extractable metal content. For this purpose, 21 surface soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from agricultural lands of various locations receiving sewage sludge and industrial effluents for a long period. One soil sample was also collected from agricultural land which has been under intensive cropping and receiving irrigation through tube well water. Soil samples were varied widely in respect of physicochemical properties including metal content. Total Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb in experimental soils were 2,015 ± 3,373, 236 ± 286, 103 ± 192, 29.8 ± 6.04, and 141 ± 270 mg kg(-1), respectively. Free metal ion activity, viz., pZn(2+), pCu(2+), pNi(2+), pCd(2+), and pPb(2+), as estimated by the Baker soil test was 9.37 ± 1.89, 13.1 ± 1.96, 12.8 ± 1.89, 11.9 ± 2.00, and 11.6 ± 1.52, respectively. Free metal ion activity was predicted by pH-dependent Freundlich equation (solubility model) as a function of pH, organic carbon, and extractable metal. Results indicate that solubility model as a function of pH, Walkley-Black carbon (WBC), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-extractable metals could explain the variation in pZn(2+), pCu(2+), pNi(2+), pCd(2+), and pPb(2+) to the extent of 59, 56, 46, 52, and 51%, respectively. Predictability of the solubility model based on pH, KMnO4-oxidizable carbon, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable or CaCl2-extractable metal was inferior compared to that based on EDTA-extractable metals and WBC.
BibTeX:
@article{ZanNR2013,
  author = {Zan NR, Datta SP, Rattan RK, Dwivedi BS, Meena MC},
  title = {Prediction of the solubility of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium, and lead in metal-contaminated soils.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {185(12)},
  pages = {10015-25},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3309-x}
}