Bibliography : Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

Matching entries: 0
settings...
AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
Sharma A Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India. 2016 Med Leg J.
Vol. 84(2), pp. 87-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from, e.g., the use of unvented coal-burning heaters, indoor barbecues, or inhalation of exhaust of vehicles. The latter is sometimes used to commit suicide. The most common presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is cerebral hypoxia. Despite frequent use of indoor coal-burning heaters and stoves during winter months in the northern part of India,carbon monoxide poisoning has been infrequently reported. We describe two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning who reported to the Emergency Department in the early morning of a winter season with un-witnessed, unexplained development of altered level of consciousness.
BibTeX:
@article{A2016,
  author = {Sharma A},
  title = {Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India.},
  journal = {Med Leg J.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {84(2)},
  pages = {87-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025817216630661}
}
Annavarapu RN1, Kathi S Cognitive disorders in children associated with urban vehicular emissions. 2016 Environ Pollut.
Vol. 208, pp. 74-8 
article  
Abstract: This review introduces recent advances in an emerging research area that is focussed on studying the effect of exposure to vehicular emissions on cognition, with specific attention to children from urban environments. Today, air pollution is a global environmental issue, especially in urban environments, emitting particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the surroundings. The association of exposure to urban air pollution and cognitive disorders in children is a major cause of concern. We review recent findings associated with exposure to air pollutants and explained the potential mechanisms driving oxidative stress in living systems. An attempt has been made to investigate the cognitive effects of air pollutants leading to neurodegeneration, neurodysfunction, attention deficit/hypersensitivity deficiencies and autism in children. Accumulating evidence suggests that urban air pollution may have significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) of the developing brain.
BibTeX:
@article{AnnavarapuRN12016,
  author = {Annavarapu RN1, Kathi S},
  title = {Cognitive disorders in children associated with urban vehicular emissions.},
  journal = {Environ Pollut.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {208},
  pages = {74-8}
}
Nagaraja S, Soorya Prakash K, Sudhakaran R, Sathish Kumar M Investigation on the emission quality, performance and combustion characteristics of the compression ignition engine fueled with environmental friendly corn oil methyl ester - Diesel blends. 2016 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.  article DOI  
Abstract: This paper deals with emission quality of diesel engine based on eco toxicological studies with different methods of environmental standard toxicity tests satisfy the Bharath and European emission norms. Based on the emission norms, Corn Oil Methyl Ester (COME) with diesel is tested in a compression ignition engine and the performance and combustion characteristics are discussed. The corn oil was esterified and the property of corn oil methyl ester was within the limits specified in ASTM D 6751-03. The COME was blended together with diesel in different proportion percentages along with B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100. The emission and performance tests for various blends of COME was carried out using single cylinder, four stroke diesel engine, and compared with the performance obtained with 100% diesel (D100). The results give clear information that COME has low exhaust emissions and increase in performance compared to D100 without any modifications. It gives better performance, which is nearer to the obtained results of D100. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) of B100 at the full load condition is found to be 4% lower than that of (D100). The maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of B100 is found to be 8.5% higher than that of the D100 at full load. Also, the maximum BTE of part load for different blends is varied from 5.9% to 7.45% which is higher than D100. The exhaust gas emissions like CarbonMonoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Hydro Carbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) are found to be 2.3 to 18.8% lower compared to D100 for part as well as full load. The heat release rate of biodiesel and it blends are found to 16% to 35% lower as compared to D100 for part load, where as for full load it is 21% lower than D100. The results showed that the test of emissions norms are well within the limits of Bharath VI and European VI and it leads to less pollution, less effect on green eco system and potential substitute to fossil fuels.
BibTeX:
@article{NagarajaS2016,
  author = {Nagaraja S, Soorya Prakash K, Sudhakaran R, Sathish Kumar M},
  title = {Investigation on the emission quality, performance and combustion characteristics of the compression ignition engine fueled with environmental friendly corn oil methyl ester - Diesel blends.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.01.023}
}
Gowda BC, Sivapathasundharam B, Chatterji A, Chatterji BL Histological appearance of postmortem pink teeth: Report of two cases. 2015 J Forensic Dent Sci.
Vol. 7(2), pp. 168-70 
article DOI  
Abstract: This article presents images and histological changes in the dentin of two cases involving posmortem pink teeth. Postmortem pink teeth were noted among two deceased male individuals. Pink teeth were noted during autopsy examination after twelve days in one corpse, and eight days following death in the second case. During the examination decomposition and putrefaction of the body was noted. Cause of death was drowning in one case and haemorrhages and shock in another. A central incisor tooth was obtained from each body. Both teeth exhibited a pink appearance and the intensity was more pronounced in the cervical region. Although pink teeth can be noted in death due to asphyxia, carbon monoxide poisoning and so on, it is necessary to study the exact role behind the appearance of pink teeth and try to incorporate the finding medico legally.
BibTeX:
@article{GowdaBC2015,
  author = {Gowda BC, Sivapathasundharam B, Chatterji A, Chatterji BL},
  title = {Histological appearance of postmortem pink teeth: Report of two cases.},
  journal = {J Forensic Dent Sci.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {7(2)},
  pages = {168-70},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-1475.156200}
}
Banerjee M, Siddique S, Dutta A, Mukherjee B, Ranjan Ray M Cooking with biomass increases the risk of depression in pre-menopausal women in India. 2012 Soc Sci Med.
Vol. 75(3), pp. 565-72 
article  
Abstract: Cooking with biomass fuel, a common practice in rural India, is associated with a high level of indoor air pollution (IAP). The aim of this study was to investigate whether IAP from biomass burning increases the risk of depression. For this cross-sectional study, we enrolled a group of 952 women (median age 37 years) who cooked regularly with biomass and a control group of 804 age-matched women who cooked with cleaner fuel (liquefied petroleum gas). Depression was assessed using the second edition of Beck's depression inventory (BDI-II). Platelet P-selectin expression was assessed by flow cytometry and platelet serotonin was measured by ELISA. Particulate matter having diameter of less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM(10) and PM(2.5), respectively) in indoor air was measured by real-time aerosol monitor. Carbon monoxide (CO) in exhaled breath was measured by CO monitor. Compared with the control group, women who cooked with biomass had a higher prevalence of depression and depleted platelet serotonin, suggesting altered serotonergic activity in the brain. In addition, P-selectin expression on platelet surface was up-regulated implying platelet hyperactivity and consequent risk of cardiovascular disease. Biomass-using households had increased levels of PM(10) and PM(2.5), and biomass users had elevated levels of CO in expired air. Controlling potential confounders, cooking with biomass was found to be an independent and strong risk factor for depression. IAP from cooking with biomass is a risk for depression among rural women in their child-bearing age.
BibTeX:
@article{BanerjeeM2012,
  author = {Banerjee M, Siddique S, Dutta A, Mukherjee B, Ranjan Ray M},
  title = {Cooking with biomass increases the risk of depression in pre-menopausal women in India.},
  journal = {Soc Sci Med.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {75(3)},
  pages = {565-72}
}
Betterman K, Patel S Neurologic complications of carbon monoxide intoxication. 2014 Handb Clin Neurol.
Vol. 120, pp. 971-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Carbon monoxide poisoning remains a common neurologic problem as it causes more than one-half of fatal poisonings in many countries leading frequently to acute and delayed brain injury. Mild carbon monoxide intoxication is difficult to diagnose as symptoms can be nonspecific and therefore can be easily misdiagnosed. Common acute and delayed clinical presentations and their associated neuropathology and neuroimaging findings are discussed. Treatment remains limited and outcome is highly variable.
BibTeX:
@article{BettermanK2014,
  author = {Betterman K, Patel S},
  title = {Neurologic complications of carbon monoxide intoxication.},
  journal = {Handb Clin Neurol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {120},
  pages = {971-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-4087-0.00064-4}
}
Chaturvedi AK, Smith DR, Canfield DV A fatality caused by accidental production of hydrogen sulfide. 2001 Forensic Sci Int.
Vol. 123(2-3), pp. 211-4 
article  
Abstract: A 55-year-old male Caucasian truck driver was dead at the scene after breathing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) produced by an accidental transfer of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) from a tanker truck to a tank containing 4% sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) and iron(II) sulfate (FeSO(4)). Autopsy of the decedent's body revealed pulmonary edema and passive congestion in lungs, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Postmortem biological samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs. Since a potential exposure to H(2)S was involved, blood was also analyzed for sulfide (S(2-)). The analysis entailed isolating S(2-) from blood as H(2)S using 0.5M H(3)PO(4), trapping the gas in 0.1M NaOH, and determining the electromotive force using a sulfide ion specific electrode. Acetaminophen at a concentration of 14.3 microg/ml was found in blood, and metoprolol was detected in the blood, liver, and kidney samples. The blood S(2-) level was determined to be 1.68 microg/ml. It is concluded that the cause of death was H(2)S poisoning associated with a hazardous material accident in an industrial situation.
BibTeX:
@article{ChaturvediAK2001,
  author = {Chaturvedi AK, Smith DR, Canfield DV},
  title = {A fatality caused by accidental production of hydrogen sulfide.},
  journal = {Forensic Sci Int.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {123(2-3)},
  pages = {211-4}
}
Chaturvedi AK, Smith DR, Canfield DV Blood carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide concentrations in the fatalities of fire and non-fire associated civil aviation accidents, 1991-1998. 2001 Forensic Sci Int.
Vol. 121(3), pp. 183-8 
article  
Abstract: Blood samples submitted to the Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) from aviation accident fatalities are analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO), as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and hydrogen cyanide, as cyanide (CN(-)). These analyses are performed to establish possible exposure of victims to smoke from in-flight/post-crash fires or to CO from faulty exhaust/heating systems. The presence of both gases in blood would suggest that the victim was alive and inhaled smoke. If only COHb is elevated, the accident (or a death) could be the result of CO contamination of the interior. Information pertaining to blood levels of these gases in aviation fatalities, in relation to the associated accidents, is scattered or not available, particularly with regard to toxicity. Therefore, considering that COHb> or =10% and CN(-)> or =0.25 microg/ml are sufficient to produce some degree of toxicological effects, the necessary information was extracted from the CAMI database. Samples from 3857 fatalities of 2837 aviation accidents, occurring during 1991-1998, were received; 1012 accidents, encompassing 1571 (41%) fatalities, were fire associated, whereas 1820 accidents were non-fire related. The remaining five accidents were of unknown fire status. There were fewer fire related fatalities and associated accidents in the (COHb> or =10% and CN(-)> or =0.25 microg/ml) category than that in the (COHb<10% and CN(-)<0.25 microg/ml) category. No in-flight fire was documented in the former category, but in-flight fires were reported in 14 accidents (18 fatalities) in the latter category. No non-fire accident fatality was found wherein levels of both gases were determined to be at or above the stated levels. There were 15 non-fire accidents with 17 fatalities wherein only COHb (10-69%) was elevated. The present study suggests that aviation fire accidents/fatalities were fewer than aviation non-fire accidents/fatalities and confirms that aviation accidents related to in-flight fires and CO-contaminated interiors are rare.
BibTeX:
@article{ChaturvediAK2001a,
  author = {Chaturvedi AK, Smith DR, Canfield DV},
  title = {Blood carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide concentrations in the fatalities of fire and non-fire associated civil aviation accidents, 1991-1998.},
  journal = {Forensic Sci Int.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {121(3)},
  pages = {183-8}
}
Chowdhury I, Duch MC, Gits CC, Hersam MC, Walker SL Impact of synthesis methods on the transport of single walled carbon nanotubes in the aquatic environment. 2012 Environ Sci Technol.
Vol. 46(21), pp. 11752-60 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this study, a systematic approach has been followed to investigate the fate and transport of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from synthesis to environmentally relevant conditions. Three widely used SWCNT synthesis methods have been investigated in this study including high pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco), SWeNT CoMoCat, and electric arc discharge technique (EA). This study relates the transport of three SWCNTs (HiPco-D, SG65-D, and P2-D) with different synthesis methods and residual catalyst content revealing their influence on the subsequent fate of the nanotubes. To minimize nanotube bundling and aggregation, the SWCNTs were dispersed using the biocompatible triblock copolymer Pluronic, which allowed the comparison in the transport trends among these SWCNTs. After purification, the residual metal catalyst between the SWCNTs follows the trend: HiPco-D > SG65-D > P2-D. The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) and hydrodynamic diameter of SWCNTs remained insensitive to SWCNT type, pH, and presence of natural organic matter (NOM); but were affected by ionic strength (IS) and ion valence (K(+), Ca(2+)). In monovalent ions, the hydrodynamic diameter of SWCNTs was not influenced by IS, whereas larger aggregation was observed for HiPco-D with IS than P2-D and SG65-D in the presence of Ca(2+). Transport of HiPco-D in the porous media was significantly higher than SG65-D followed by P2-D. Release of HiPco-D from porous media was higher than SG65-D followed by P2-D, though negligible amount of all types of SWCNTs (<5%) was released. Both transport and release patterns follow a similar trend to what was observed for residual metal catalysts in SWCNTs. Addition of NOM increased the transport of all SWCNTs primarily due to electrosteric repulsion. HiPco-D was notably more acidic than SG65-D followed by P2-D, which is similar to the transport trend. Overall, it was observed that the synthesis methods resulted in distinctive breakthrough trends, which were correlated to metal content. These findings will facilitate the safe design of environmental friendly SWCNTs by minimizing mobility in aquatic environments.
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryI2012,
  author = {Chowdhury I, Duch MC, Gits CC, Hersam MC, Walker SL},
  title = {Impact of synthesis methods on the transport of single walled carbon nanotubes in the aquatic environment.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Technol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {46(21)},
  pages = {11752-60},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es302453k}
}
Diwan AG, Kulkarni R, Sada E History taking: still a valuable tool in today's era of modern medicine. 2012 J Assoc Physicians India., pp. 60-68  article  
Abstract: carbon monoxide poisoning
BibTeX:
@article{DiwanAG2012,
  author = {Diwan AG, Kulkarni R, Sada E},
  title = {History taking: still a valuable tool in today's era of modern medicine.},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India.},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {60-68}
}
Gandhi SK, Rich DQ, Ohman-Strickland PA, Kipen HM, Gow A Plasma nitrite is an indicator of acute changes in ambient air pollutant concentrations. 2014 Inhal Toxicol.
Vol. 26(7), pp. 426-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: CONTEXT:
Endothelial dysfunction has been suggested as a potential mechanism by which ambient air pollution may cause acute cardiovascular events. Recently, plasma nitrite has been developed as a marker of endothelial dysfunction.
OBJECTIVES:
We examined the changes in plasma nitrite concentration associated with increases in ambient air pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 d.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We linked up to three measurements of plasma nitrite concentrations obtained from 49 students to 24-h average concentrations of five criteria air pollutants [particle mass? < ?2.5?µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO?), nitrogen dioxide (NO?), and ozone (O?)] measured at two monitoring sites closest to Rutgers University campus (6-15 miles) in New Jersey during the years 2006-2009. We examined the change in plasma nitrite associated with each interquartile-range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentration in the previous 24?h and six preceding 24-?h periods, using linear mixed models.
RESULTS:
IQR increases in mean PM(2.5) (7.0?µg/m³) and CO (161.7 parts per billion) concentrations in the first 24?h before the plasma nitrite measurement were associated with increased plasma nitrite concentrations (PM(2.5): 15.5 nanomolar; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4, 28.5; CO: 15.6 nanomolar; 95% CI: 2.4, 28.9). Increased plasma nitrite associated with IQR increases in O? and SO? concentrations over longer lags were observed.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:
Rapid increases in plasma nitrite following exposure to ambient air pollutants support the hypothesis that ambient air pollution is associated with inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated systemic inflammation in humans.
BibTeX:
@article{GandhiSK2014,
  author = {Gandhi SK, Rich DQ, Ohman-Strickland PA, Kipen HM, Gow A},
  title = {Plasma nitrite is an indicator of acute changes in ambient air pollutant concentrations.},
  journal = {Inhal Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {26(7)},
  pages = {426-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2014.913216}
}
Krishnan S, Kuppuswamy G, Mani S, Majid MA Carbon monoxide poisoning. 1971 J Assoc Physicians India.
Vol. 19(5), pp. 409-11 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KrishnanS1971,
  author = {Krishnan S, Kuppuswamy G, Mani S, Majid MA},
  title = {Carbon monoxide poisoning.},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India.},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {19(5)},
  pages = {409-11}
}
Kumar P, Peers C Foreword. The emergence of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) as biologically active gases. 2012 Respir Physiol Neurobiol.
Vol. 184(2), pp. 115-6 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KumarP2012,
  author = {Kumar P, Peers C},
  title = {Foreword. The emergence of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) as biologically active gases.},
  journal = {Respir Physiol Neurobiol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {184(2)},
  pages = {115-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2012.07.020}
}
Mahapatra PS, Panda S, Walvekar PP, Kumar R, Das T, Gurjar BR Seasonal trends, meteorological impacts, and associated health risks with atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants at an Indian coastal city. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(19), pp. 11418-32 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study presents surface ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements conducted at Bhubaneswar from December 2010 to November 2012 and attempts for the very first time a health risk assessment of the atmospheric trace gases. Seasonal variation in average 24 h O3 and CO shows a distinct winter (December to February) maxima of 38.98 ± 9.32 and 604.51 ± 145.91 ppbv, respectively. O3 and CO characteristics and their distribution were studied in the form of seasonal/diurnal variations, air flow patterns, inversion conditions, and meteorological parameters. The observed winter high is likely due to higher regional emissions, the presence of a shallower boundary layer, and long-range transport of pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Large differences between daytime and nighttime O3 values during winter compared to other seasons suggest that photochemistry is much more active on this site during winter. O3 and CO observations are classified in continental and marine air masses, and continental influence is estimated to increase O3 and CO by up to 20 and 120 ppbv, respectively. Correlation studies between O3 and CO in various seasons indicated the role of CO as one of the O3 precursors. Health risk estimates predict 48 cases of total premature mortality in adults due to ambient tropospheric O3 during the study period. Comparatively low CO concentrations at the site do not lead to any health effects even during winter. This study highlights the possible health risks associated with O3 and CO pollution in Bhubaneswar, but these results are derived from point measurements and should be complemented either with regional scale observations or chemical transport models for use in design of mitigation policies.
BibTeX:
@article{MahapatraPS2014,
  author = {Mahapatra PS, Panda S, Walvekar PP, Kumar R, Das T, Gurjar BR},
  title = {Seasonal trends, meteorological impacts, and associated health risks with atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants at an Indian coastal city.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(19)},
  pages = {11418-32},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3078-2}
}
Patel SS, Goa KL Sevoflurane. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and its clinical use in general anaesthesia. 1996 Drugs.
Vol. 51(4), pp. 658-700 
article  
Abstract: Sevoflurane is an ether inhalation general anaesthetic agent with lower solubility in blood than isoflurane or halothane but not desflurane. The low solubility and the absence of pungency facilitate rapid mask induction; the low blood solubility also expedites "wash-out' and therefore recovery from anaesthesia. Sevoflurane produces dose-dependent CNS, cardiovascular and respiratory depressant effects that generally parallel those of isoflurane. Sevoflurane is degraded by carbon dioxide absorbents to nephrontoxic (in rats) haloalkenes, although renal toxicity has not been observed in humans. Compared with other inhalation anaesthetics, negligible quantities of carbon monoxide are generated from degradation of sevoflurane by carbon dioxide absorbents. Sevoflurane has negligible airway irritant effects, which facilitates a "smooth' induction, even in comparison with halothane in paediatric patients, and makes sevoflurane especially amenable to rapid induction of anaesthesia in adults and children. Emergence, orientation an postoperative cognitive and psychomotor function recovery of paediatric outpatients is singnificantly more rapid from sevoflurane than from halothane anaesthesia. In adult inpatients and outpatients, emergence and orientation are significantly faster after sevoflurane than after isoflurane but not desflurane anaesthesia. Other recovery parameters (e.g. times to sitting, ambulation) occur at similar times after either sevoflurane or desflurane anaesthesia. Recovery of psychomotor function occurs at generally similar times after sevoflurane, isoflurane or desflurane. Compared with propofol, sevoflurane facilitates more predictable extubation times and significantly better postoperative modified Aldrete scores in outpatients, although cognitive and psychomotor recovery occurs at similar times for both agents. As a supplement to opioid anaesthesia during coronary bypass graft surgery or in those at risk for myocardial ischaemia, sevoflurane is comparable to isoflurane. Limited data suggest that it is also as useful as isoflurane for the maintenance of anaesthesia during neurosurgical or obstetric procedures. Sevoflurane is well tolerated by adult and paediatric patients during induction of anaesthesia, with a low incidence of mild airway complications (breath-holding, coughing, excitement and laryngospasm). During rapid induction, it is particularly better tolerated than isoflurane or halothane. Sevoflurane has a lower potential for hepatic injury than halothane. Unlike methoxyflurane, sevoflurane undergoes minimal intrarenal defluorination, which may account for the lack of fluoride ion-induced nephrotoxicity in humans, despite elevated plasma fluoride levels after its use. In summary, sevoflurane provides for a rapid and smooth induction of, and recovery from, anaesthesia. These features combined with its favourable cardiovascular profile should make sevoflurane the agent of choice for inhalation induction in adult and paediatric anaesthesia. Although further clinical evaluation will define the role of this agent relative to that of propofol and desflurane, sevoflurane should also prove to be a valuable alternative anaesthetic agent for adults in both outpatient and inpatient surgery.
BibTeX:
@article{PatelSS1996,
  author = {Patel SS, Goa KL},
  title = {Sevoflurane. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and its clinical use in general anaesthesia.},
  journal = {Drugs.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {51(4)},
  pages = {658-700}
}
Pelekis M, Krishnan K Assessing the relevance of rodent data on chemical interactions for health risk assessment purposes: a case study with dichloromethane-toluene mixture. 1997 Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 25(1), pp. 79-86 
article  
Abstract: Several descriptive studies have reported the occurrence of infra-additive and supra-additive toxic interactions in rodents given high doses of chemicals by routes different from anticipated human exposures. In order to assess the relevance of such rodent data on chemical interactions for humans, the route, species, and dose extrapolations need to be conducted on the basis of proven/hypothetical interaction mechanisms. The present study initially developed a physiologically based model of the toxicological interaction reported in rats receiving high oral doses of dichloromethane (DCM) and toluene (TOL). This predictive model was then used to asses the relevance of DCM-TOL interaction for humans exposed to threshold limit values (TLVs) of these chemicals, following the conduct of the various, essential extrapolations (i.e., rat to human, oral to inhalation, high dose to low dose). The interaction modeling approach involved (i) obtaining validated rat and human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for TOL and DCM from the literature, and (ii) linking them via the modified Michaelis-Menten equation accounting for hypothetical mechanisms of interactions (no interaction, competitive inhibition, noncompetitive inhibition, and uncompetitive inhibition). Of the various interaction mechanisms investigated, the noncompetitive and uncompetitive metabolic inhibitions were found to adequately describe the reduction of carboxyhemoglobinemia (COHB) observed in rats during combined exposures (18.8 mmol/kg TOL, +6.2 mmol/kg DCM, po; 0.005 mmol/kg TOL, ip +5000 ppm DCM, 1 hr). The simulation model, based on noncompetitive and uncompetitive inhibition mechanisms, suggests that only < 10% reduction in the area under the COHB vs time curve (AUCCOHB) is likely to occur in humans exposed to the current TLVs of DCM and TOL (compared to AUCCOHB resulting from an 8-hr exposure to TLV of DCM alone). The present modeling approach, based on hypothetical mechanisms of interaction, then indicates that rodent data on DCM-TOL interaction are not relevant for humans, particularly with respect to the COHB effect. The application of this kind of a predictive modeling approach should be useful in screening the available reports on chemical interactions for identifying those of greater concern at relevant human exposure levels (RfD, RfC, TLV).
BibTeX:
@article{PelekisM1997,
  author = {Pelekis M, Krishnan K},
  title = {Assessing the relevance of rodent data on chemical interactions for health risk assessment purposes: a case study with dichloromethane-toluene mixture.},
  journal = {Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {25(1)},
  pages = {79-86}
}
Prasad R, Singh A, Garg R, Giridhar GB Biomass fuel exposure and respiratory diseases in India. 2012 Biosci Trends.
Vol. 6(5), pp. 219-28 
article  
Abstract: One half of the world's population relies on biomass fuel as the primary source of domestic energy. Biomass fuel exposure causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality in humans. This is especially true in the context of developing countries, which account for 99% of the world's biomass fuel use. Biomass fuel consists of fire wood, dung cakes, agricultural crop residues such as straw, grass, and shrubs, coal fuels and kerosene. Together, they supply 75% of the domestic energy in India. An estimated three-quarters of Indian households use biomass fuel as the primary means for domestic cooking. Ninety percent of rural households and 32% of urban households cook their meals on a biomass stove. There are wide variations between the rural and urban households regarding the specific type of biomass fuel used. Globally, almost 2 million deaths per year are attributable to solid fuel use, with more than 99% of these occurring in developing countries. Biomass fuel accounts for 5-6% of the national burden of disease. Burning biomass fuels emits toxic fumes into the air that consist of small solid particles, carbon monoxide, polyorganic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and formaldehyde. Exposure to biomass fuels has been found to be associated with many respiratory diseases such as acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and asthma. Biomass fuel exposure is closely related to the burden of disease in India. Hopes are that future studies will examine the morbidity associated with biomass exposure and seek to prevent it. Concerted efforts to improve stove design and transition to high-efficiency low-emission fuels may reduce respiratory disease associated with biomass fuel exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{PrasadR2012,
  author = {Prasad R, Singh A, Garg R, Giridhar GB},
  title = {Biomass fuel exposure and respiratory diseases in India.},
  journal = {Biosci Trends.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {6(5)},
  pages = {219-28}
}
Rana SV, Gautam RK, Agrawal VP Certain biochemical changes in the trachea, lungs, and heart of squirrels exposed to three principal air pollutants. 1979 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 8(2) 
article  
Abstract: The fate of total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in the trachea, lungs, and heart of the common ground squirrel, Funambulus pennanti, have been determined after separate exposure to three principal air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exposure to all of these gases produced edematous conditions; however, the moisture content of heart muscle was reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) and NO2 are more toxic to pulmonary lipids than SO2. The lipid of the heart decreased, least effects noted with SO2 treatment. Mechanical properties of the lungs were changed by alteration of the lung lipids causing changes in the surface tension. Changes in protein content were caused by altered membrane permeability. Comparative data on the carbohydrates indicated adverse effects by the pollutants.
BibTeX:
@article{RanaSV1979,
  author = {Rana SV, Gautam RK, Agrawal VP},
  title = {Certain biochemical changes in the trachea, lungs, and heart of squirrels exposed to three principal air pollutants.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {8(2)}
}
Shah SA Healing with oxygen: a history of hyperbaric medicine. 2000 Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc.
Vol. 63(2), pp. 13-9 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SA2000,
  author = {Shah SA},
  title = {Healing with oxygen: a history of hyperbaric medicine.},
  journal = {Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {63(2)},
  pages = {13-9}
}
Sekhar K, Rao SC John Scott Haldane: The father of oxygen therapy. 2014 Indian J Anaesth.
Vol. 58(3), pp. 350-2 
article DOI  
Abstract: John Scott Haldane was a versatile genius who solved several problems of great practical significance. His ability to look beyond the laboratory and investigate theory added crucial findings in the field of respiratory physiology. His work on high altitude physiology, diving physiology, oxygen therapy, and carbon monoxide poisoning led to a sea change in clinical medicine and improved safety and reduced mortality and morbidity in many high risk situations.
BibTeX:
@article{SekharK2014,
  author = {Sekhar K, Rao SC},
  title = {John Scott Haldane: The father of oxygen therapy.},
  journal = {Indian J Anaesth.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {58(3)},
  pages = {350-2},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5049.135087}
}
Sharma S, Gupta R, Paul BS, Puri S, Garg S Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes. 2009 Indian J Crit Care Med.
Vol. 13(3), pp. 169-70 
article DOI  
Abstract: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaS2009,
  author = {Sharma S, Gupta R, Paul BS, Puri S, Garg S},
  title = {Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes.},
  journal = {Indian J Crit Care Med.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {13(3)},
  pages = {169-70},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-5229.58546}
}
Singh H, Aggarwal S Carbon monoxide poisoning. 2010 Indian J Crit Care Med.
Vol. 14(2)(105), pp. 10.4103/0972-5229.68229. 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SinghH2010,
  author = {Singh H, Aggarwal S},
  title = {Carbon monoxide poisoning.},
  journal = {Indian J Crit Care Med.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {14(2)},
  number = {105},
  pages = {10.4103/0972-5229.68229.}
}
Singh S, Soumya M, Saini A, Mittal V, Singh UV, Singh V Breath carbon monoxide levels in different forms of smoking. 2011 Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci.
Vol. 53(1), pp. 25-8 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Bidi, cigarette, hookah and chillum are common modes of tobacco smoking in India. Many people consider hookah and chillum smoking less toxic because smoke is filtered through water or wet cloth. We evaluated the toxicity of tobacco smoking by measuring end-tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels after various modes of smoking.
METHODS:
Eighteen healthy smokers who smoked bidi, cigarette, hookah and chillum on six days were studied. They smoked one bidi, one cigarette, five minutes hookah, one serve (15 minutes) hookah, five minutes chillum and one serve (15 minutes) chillum on six days randomly. The eCO values were measured before initiation of smoking and for a period of one hour after the smoking session. Increase in eCO values in comparison to baseline after different modes of smoking was compared.
RESULTS:
In comparison to baseline, mean eCO levels were raised by 4.94 (0.96) parts per million (ppm) immediately and 4.17 (1.07) ppm 60 minutes after cigarette smoking. Bidi smoking caused slightly less increase in mean eCO levels (3.17 [0.82]). One serve of hookah and chillum smoking caused elevation of mean eCO values by almost eight-folds higher than that of cigarette smoking. Five minutes of smoking with hookah (22.18 [5.29]) and one serve of hookah (33.0 [8.76]) and chillum (40.14 [12.73]) caused significantly higher values of mean increase in eCO in comparison to cigarette smoking (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION:
With regard to eCO levels, hookah and chillum smoking are much more toxic than cigarette smoking.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghS2011,
  author = {Singh S, Soumya M, Saini A, Mittal V, Singh UV, Singh V},
  title = {Breath carbon monoxide levels in different forms of smoking.},
  journal = {Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {53(1)},
  pages = {25-8}
}
(Last Updated Upto:2016)