Bibliography : Chromium Toxicity

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Acharya S, Mehta K, Krishnan S, Rao CV A subtoxic interactive toxicity study of ethanol and chromium in male Wistar rats. 2001 Alcohol.
Vol. 23(2), pp. 99-108 
article  
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactive toxicity of ethanol with potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7-chromium). Young, male Wistar rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups of five or six animals each and were dosed, through water, with 10% ethanol (vol./vol.) or 25 ppm chromium or were dosed with a combination of ethanol+chromium at the same concentrations for a period of 22 weeks ad libitum and were maintained on normal diet. Control animals were maintained on a normal diet and water for the same period. The serum succinate dehydrogenase and liver total triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in the three treated groups. The serum alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly reduced in ethanol-treated rats, and there was no significant change in the acid phosphatase activity. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels in the three treated groups were significantly increased. The liver glycogen significantly decreased in both the ethanol-treated and the chromium-treated rats. There was a significant increase in liver total cholesterol levels in chromium-treated rats. Total glutathione levels were significantly decreased in the livers of ethanol-treated and ethanol+chromium-treated rats. To further substantiate these findings, a histological examination of the liver and kidneys was undertaken. The livers of alcohol-treated animals showed altered hepatic architecture in the centrilobular and periportal areas, with increased sinusoidal space (space of Disse), vacuolation, and necrosis of hepatocytes. Similar changes were observed in a histological examination of the livers of chromium-treated rats, except that the damage to the hepatocytes was more confined to the periportal area. Moreover, histological examination of the livers of ethanol+chromium-treated rats revealed uniform damage in the centrilobular and periportal areas, as was observed in the groups treated either with ethanol or chromium. The histological examination of the kidneys in the three treated groups revealed significant damage to the renal tubules and Bowman's capsule, which showed vacuolation and degeneration of the basement membrane. These findings correlate well with the serum enzyme levels found in the treated groups. It is evident from this study that chronic ethanol consumption sensitizes the liver to the toxic action of agents such as chromium. It leads to impairment of the biochemical functions in the liver, and it causes liver and kidney damage. Long-term simultaneous exposure to ethanol and chromium may cause severe health problems in people who are alcoholics and work in chrome-plating and leather-tanning industries.
BibTeX:
@article{AcharyaS12001,
  author = {Acharya S1, Mehta K, Krishnan S, Rao CV},
  title = {A subtoxic interactive toxicity study of ethanol and chromium in male Wistar rats.},
  journal = {Alcohol.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {23(2)},
  pages = {99-108}
}
Adki VS, Jadhav JP, Bapat VA Nopalea cochenillifera, a potential chromium (VI) hyperaccumulator plant. 2013 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
Vol. 20(2):, pp. 1173-80 
article DOI  
Abstract: Hexavalant chromium [Cr(VI)] tolerance and accumulation in in vitro grown Nopalea cochenillifera Salm. Dyck. plants was investigated. A micropropagation protocol was establish for a rapid multiplication of N. cochenillifera and [Cr(VI)] tolerance and accumulation was studied in in vitro grown cultures. Cr concentration was estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy in roots and shoots to confirm plant's hyperaccumulation capacity. Plants showed tolerance up to 100 ?M K(2)Cr(2)O(7) without any significant changes in root growth after 16 days treatment; whereas, chlorophyll content in plants treated with 1 and 10 ?M K(2)Cr(2)O(7) were not so different than the control plant. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation increased significantly (p < 0.01) with increasing concentration of chromium. Exposures of N. cochenillifera to lower concentrations of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) (? 10 ?M) induced catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly (p < 0.001) but higher concentrations of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) (>100 ?M) inhibited the activities of CAT and SOD. Roots accumulated a maximum of 25,263.396 ± 1,722.672 mg Cr Kg(-1) dry weight (DW); while the highest concentration of Cr in N. cochenillifera shoots was 705.714 ± 32.324 mg Cr Kg(-1) DW. N. cochenillifera could be a prospective hyperaccumulator plant of Cr(VI) and a promising candidate for phytoremediation purposes.
BibTeX:
@article{AdkiVS12013,
  author = {Adki VS1, Jadhav JP, Bapat VA.},
  title = {Nopalea cochenillifera, a potential chromium (VI) hyperaccumulator plant.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {20(2):},
  pages = {1173-80},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1125-4}
}
Smith AH Hexavalent chromium, yellow water, and cancer: a convoluted saga. 2008 Epidemiology.
Vol. 19(1), pp. 24-6 
article  
Abstract: In this issue, Beaumont et al report cancer mortality rates associated with exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium in well water in Liaoning Province, China. Contamination of drinking water at these levels has been reported only once before, among a small group in Mexico. The investigation in China is a convoluted tale. The first report indicated an increase in cancer mortality, while a subsequent publication with the same lead author claimed no increased risks. In 2006, the journal publishing the latter paper retracted it because of failure to disclose financial and intellectual input to the paper by outside parties (linked to chromium polluting industries). Beaumont and his colleagues now provide a further reanalysis of these data, showing increased mortality in particular from stomach cancer, but with serious limitations in the data and methods of analysis. These limitations are counterbalanced by the importance of a study of perhaps the highest exposure to hexavalent chromium in water that will ever be experienced by a population large enough to estimate risks of cancer.
BibTeX:
@article{AH1.2008,
  author = {Smith AH1.},
  title = {Hexavalent chromium, yellow water, and cancer: a convoluted saga.},
  journal = {Epidemiology.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {19(1)},
  pages = {24-6}
}
Aneja R, Dass SK, Prakash S, Chandra R Effect of gossypol in association with chromium protoporphyrin on heme metabolic enzymes. 2004 Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol.
Vol. 32(1), pp. 159-72 
article  
Abstract: Gossypol prevents the liberation of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin and exerts a hemolytic effect on erythrocytes. In excessive dosages of gossypol, an extreme burden is placed upon the respiratory and circulatory organs owing to the reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Chromium protoporphyrin (CrPP) has been shown to either competitively suppress or to significantly ameliorate a variety of naturally occurring or experimentally induced forms of jaundice in animals and man. In this communication, a novel tissue dependent response to gossypol (50 micromol/kg bw) and gossypol in association with CrPP (50 micromol/kg bw) is described. Our results revealed that gossypol stimulated the hepatic, splenic, and renal delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALA-S) activity, the heme biosynthetic enzyme, and simultaneous administration of CrPP and gossypol synergized the gossypol-mediated increase of ALA-S activity. Gossypol was found to be a potent stimulator of heme oxygenase (HMOX) activity in rat liver and kidney to varying degrees. This tissue response contrasted with that of the spleen, where gossypol decreased the activity of the enzyme. In consonance with the increased hepatic and renal HMOX activity, a marked increase was observed in total serum bilirubin concentration in gossypol treated rats. When rats were given CrPP simultaneously with gossypol, the gossypol mediated increase in hepatic and renal HMOX activity was effectively blocked. Furthermore, the increase in enzymatic activity was accomplished by a decline in the total microsomal protein content on gossypol administration. These findings emphasize the toxic effect of gossypol in eliciting increased heme degradation by stimulating HMOX activity in the liver and the kidney and the potential usefulness of CrPP in experimental and perhaps clinical conditions in which hyperbilirubinemia occurs.
BibTeX:
@article{AnejaR12004,
  author = {Aneja R1, Dass SK, Prakash S, Chandra R.},
  title = {Effect of gossypol in association with chromium protoporphyrin on heme metabolic enzymes.},
  journal = {Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {32(1)},
  pages = {159-72}
}
Balamurugan K, Vasant C, Rajaram R, Ramasami T Hydroxopentaamminechromium(III) promoted phosphorylation of bovine serum albumin: its potential implications in understanding biotoxicity of chromium. 1999 Biochim Biophys Acta.
Vol. 1427(3), pp. 357-66 
article  
Abstract: Evidence for chromium(III) induced phosphorylation of a biomarker protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) is presented. Radiolabelled adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was reacted with BSA in the presence of various Cr(III) salts. While [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ brought about phosphorylation of BSA, several Cr(III) complexes, viz. [Cr(bpy)3]3+, [Cr(phen)3]3+, [Cr(en)3]3+, [Cr(salen)(H2O)2]+ and [Cr(salprn)(H2O)2]+, did not phosphorylate BSA. The Cr(III) mediated the transfer of gamma- and alpha-phosphates but not the adenine and the sugar moieties of the ATP molecule to BSA. The observed stoichiometry was 0.75 mol Pi to mol BSA for the gamma-phosphate and 0.5 mol Pi to mol BSA for the alpha-phosphate of ATP. The presence of serine phosphate and threonine phosphate was detected in the hydrolysate of phosphorylated BSA by means of comparison of Rf values with authentic samples of phosphoserine and phosphothreonine after chromatographic separation and autoradiography. [Cr(NH3)5(H2O)]3+ at pH 7.4 is known to exist as the conjugate base [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ and is capable of ligand substitution involving metal-oxygen bond retention. Such anation reaction of [Cr(NH3)5(OH)]2+ with ATP subsequently leads to the esterification of alcoholic hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine of BSA. Possible consequences of chromium(III) induced in vivo phosphorylation of proteins are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{BalamuruganK11999,
  author = {Balamurugan K1, Vasant C, Rajaram R, Ramasami T.},
  title = {Hydroxopentaamminechromium(III) promoted phosphorylation of bovine serum albumin: its potential implications in understanding biotoxicity of chromium.},
  journal = {Biochim Biophys Acta.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {1427(3)},
  pages = {357-66}
}
Bapu C, Purohit RC, Sood PP Fluctuation of trace elements during methylmercury toxication and chelation therapy. 1994 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 13(12), pp. 815-23 
article  
Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to check the fluctuation in essential elements, such as Na, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni in the brain, spinal cord, liver and kidney of mice during methylmercury chloride (MMC) toxication and therapy with monothiols (N-acetyl-DL-homocysteine thiolactone and glutathione) and vitamins (vitamin B complex and E). Mercury deposition and its elimination during chelation therapy were also screened for comparative purposes. The animals were dosed for 7 days with MMC 1 mg/kg/d and some were then kept without treatment for a further. 7 days. Other MMC-treated animals were immediately given one of the above antidotes for 7 days. All the animals were sacrificed on the 15th day. There was a decrease in all elements during MMC toxication with few exceptions, for example, copper was increased in the liver as was sodium in the kidney. Treatment with the thiols and vitamins restored the levels of these elements in certain tissues towards normal, but their concentrations remained abnormal in most instances. The fluctuations in the concentration of these elements were attributed to their association with various macromolecules.
BibTeX:
@article{BapuC11994,
  author = {Bapu C1, Purohit RC, Sood PP.},
  title = {Fluctuation of trace elements during methylmercury toxication and chelation therapy.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {13(12)},
  pages = {815-23}
}
Behari J, Chandra SV, Tandon SK Comparative toxicity of trivalent and hexavalent chromium to rabbits. III. Biochemical and histological changes in testicular tissue. 1978 Acta Biol Med Ger.
Vol. 37(3), pp. 463-8 
article  
Abstract: The administration of trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds produced inhibition of the activity of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphattase accompanied by cellular degeneration with complete absence of spermatocytes in the testis of rabbits. The biochemical and histological changes were more marked in the animals treated with the trivalent chromium than those exposed to hexavalent chromium and were progressive with the duration of exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{BehariJ1978,
  author = {Behari J, Chandra SV, Tandon SK.},
  title = {Comparative toxicity of trivalent and hexavalent chromium to rabbits. III. Biochemical and histological changes in testicular tissue.},
  journal = {Acta Biol Med Ger.},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {37(3)},
  pages = {463-8}
}
Bhaskar V, Subba Reddy VV Biodegradation of nickel and chromium from space maintainers: an in vitro study. 2010 J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent.
Vol. 28(1):, pp. 6-12 
article DOI  
Abstract: Band materials are often used in the practice of pediatric dentistry. Nickel and Chromium are the main ingredients of these materials. The potential health hazards of nickel and chromium and their compounds have been the focus of attention for more than 100 years. It has established that these metals could cause hypersensitivity. The study was undertaken to analyze in vitro biodegradation of space maintainers made out of stainless steel band materials from manufacturers Dentaurum and Unitek. The leaching effect simulating the use of one, two, three, and four space maintainers in clinical practice was studied by keeping the respective number of space maintainers in the artificial saliva incubating at 37 degrees C and analyzing for nickel and chromium release after 1,7,14,21 and 28 days using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that there was measurable release of both nickel and chromium which reached maximum level at the end of 7 days which was statistically significant (P < 0.05) and was very much below the dietary average intake even for four bands used and was not capable of causing any toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{BhaskarV12010,
  author = {Bhaskar V1, Subba Reddy VV.},
  title = {Biodegradation of nickel and chromium from space maintainers: an in vitro study.},
  journal = {J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {28(1):},
  pages = {6-12},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-4388.60484}
}
Bhattacharya A, Gupta A Evaluation of Acinetobacter sp. B9 for Cr (VI) resistance and detoxification with potential application in bioremediation of heavy-metals-rich industrial wastewater. 2013 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 20(9), pp. 6628-37 
article DOI  
Abstract: Present work demonstrates Cr (VI) detoxification and resistance mechanism of a newly isolated strain (B9) of Acinetobacter sp. Bioremediation potential of the strain B9 is shown by simultaneous removal of major heavy metals including chromium from heavy-metals-rich metal finishing industrial wastewater. Strain B9 tolerate up to 350 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) and also shows level of tolerance to Ni (II), Zn (II), Pb (II), and Cd (II). The strain was capable of reducing 67 % of initial 7.0 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) within 24 h of incubation, while in presence of Cu ions 100 % removal of initial 7.0 and 10 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) was observed with in 24 h. pH in the range of 6.0-8.0 and inoculum size of 2 % (v/v) were determined to be optimum for dichromate reduction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies suggested absorption or intracellular accumulation and that might be one of the major mechanisms behind the chromium resistance by strain B9. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes in the strain due to chromium stress. Relevance of the strain for treatment of heavy-metals-rich industrial wastewater resulted in 93.7, 55.4, and 68.94 % removal of initial 30 mg L(-1) Cr (VI), 246 mg L(-1) total Cr, and 51 mg L(-1) Ni, respectively, after 144 h of treatment in a batch mode.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaA12013,
  author = {Bhattacharya A1, Gupta A.},
  title = {Evaluation of Acinetobacter sp. B9 for Cr (VI) resistance and detoxification with potential application in bioremediation of heavy-metals-rich industrial wastewater.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {20(9)},
  pages = {6628-37},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1728-4}
}
Bhattacharya P, Banerjee P, Mallick K, Ghosh S, Majumdar S, Mukhopadhyay A, Bandyopadhyay S Potential of biosorbent developed from fruit peel of Trewia nudiflora for removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and industrial effluent: Analyzing phytotoxicity in germinating Vigna seeds. 2013 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 48(7), pp. 706-19 
article DOI  
Abstract: Chromium (VI) removal efficiency of a biosorbent prepared from fruit peel of Trewia nudiflora plant was studied. The effect of pH, sorbent dose, initial metal concentration and temperature was studied with synthetic Cr?? solution in batch mode. About 278 mg/g of Cr?? sorption was obtained at 293 K at an optimum pH of 2.0 and biosorbent dose of 0.75 g/L. Equilibrium sorption data with varying initial concentration of Cr?? (22-248 mg/L) at three different temperatures (293-313 K) were analyzed by various isotherms. Biosorption kinetics and thermodynamics were described using standard model equations. Encouraging results were obtained by the application of the biosorptive treatment for removal of Cr?? from wastewater collected from common effluent treatment plant of tannery industry. In addition, C??r desorption behavior was studied on different systems. Biosorbent was characterized by FESEM, FT-IR and XRD, etc. Effect of the biosorptive treatement with respect to the phytotoxicity of Cr?? was analyzed by studying the seed germination behavior and enzyme activity of a pulse seed (Vigna radiata L.). Different concentrations of Cr?? solution in both synthetic medium, as well as, in tannery effluent was employed and the results were compared with that of biosorbent treated medium. The study showed that due to efficient removal of Cr?? from aqueous phase, considerable enhancement of seed germination, as well as, increase in root length was obtained for the biosorbent treated solutions which were close to that of the control values. Significant decrease (P < 0.01) in POD activity was observed in seeds irrigated with biosorbent treated wastewater compared to untreated wastewater. The study showed that the novel biosorbent prepared might be utilized for abatement of heavy metal toxicity, i.e., Cr?? from industrial effluent.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaP12013,
  author = {Bhattacharya P1, Banerjee P, Mallick K, Ghosh S, Majumdar S, Mukhopadhyay A, Bandyopadhyay S.},
  title = {Potential of biosorbent developed from fruit peel of Trewia nudiflora for removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and industrial effluent: Analyzing phytotoxicity in germinating Vigna seeds.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {48(7)},
  pages = {706-19},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2013.744609}
}
Bisht D, Yadav SK, Gautam P, Darmwal NS Simultaneous production of alkaline lipase and protease by antibiotic and heavy metal tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 2013 J Basic Microbiol.
Vol. 53(9):, pp. 715-22 
article DOI  
Abstract: An efficient bacterial strain capable of simultaneous production of lipase and protease in a single production medium was isolated. Thirty six bacterial strains, isolated from diverse habitats, were screened for their lipolytic and proteolytic activity. Of these, only one bacterial strain was found to be lipase and protease producer. The 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain (NSD-09) was in close identity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The maximum lipase (221.4?U/ml) and protease (187.9?U/ml) activities were obtained after 28 and 24?h of incubation, respectively at pH 9.0 and 37?°C. Castor oil and wheat bran were found to be the best substrate for lipase and protease production, respectively. The strain also exhibited high tolerance to lead (1450?µg/ml) and chromium (1000?µg/ml) in agar plates. It also showed tolerance to other heavy metals, such as Co(+2) , Zn(+2) , Hg(+2) , Ni(+2) and Cd(+2) . Therefore, this strain has scope for tailing bioremediation. Presumably, this is the first attempt on P. aeruginosa to explore its potential for both industrial and environmental applications.
BibTeX:
@article{BishtD12013,
  author = {Bisht D1, Yadav SK, Gautam P, Darmwal NS.},
  title = {Simultaneous production of alkaline lipase and protease by antibiotic and heavy metal tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.},
  journal = {J Basic Microbiol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {53(9):},
  pages = {715-22},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201200157}
}
Budhwar R, Das M, Bihari V, Kumar S Exposure estimates of chromeplaters in India: an exploratory study. 2005 Biomarkers.
Vol. 10(4), pp. 252-7 
article  
Abstract: The literature has a paucity of knowledge on the exposure and effect estimates of chromeplaters in India. In an exploratory endeavour on chromium (Cr) exposure risk assessment, blood and urinary Cr levels plus the DNA-protein crosslink content were analysed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of chromeplaters (n=24). A cross-sectional study design was selected. Non-chromeplaters (n=35) were taken as the matching control. The results show that levels of blood and urinary Cr were greater in chromeplaters. A significant increase in DNA-protein crosslink coefficients of peripheral blood lymphocytes and urinary Cr levels was observed. The results demonstrate higher exposure estimates in chromeplaters and reveal exposure to a biologically effective dose of the toxic metal. The study also validated the employed biomarkers for Cr exposure risk assessment.
BibTeX:
@article{BudhwarR12005,
  author = {Budhwar R1, Das M, Bihari V, Kumar S},
  title = {Exposure estimates of chromeplaters in India: an exploratory study.},
  journal = {Biomarkers.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {10(4)},
  pages = {252-7}
}
Budhwar R, Kumar S Prevention of chromate induced oxidative stress by alpha-lipoic acid. 2005 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 43(6), pp. 531-5 
article  
Abstract: The parenteral administration of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) protected against chromate induced oxidative stress in mouse liver. A shift in Cr induced pro-oxidant state to antioxidant-state by LA was noteworthy. The degree of protection was significant and similar in different LA administration regimens (prior-, co- and post- parenteral Cr exposure) explored. An improved status of the tissue antioxidants by LA appeared to be the mechanism of mitigation. The results are of chemopreventive value and suggest a possible alternative to ascorbic acid for abrogation of Cr toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{BudhwarR12005a,
  author = {Budhwar R1, Kumar S},
  title = {Prevention of chromate induced oxidative stress by alpha-lipoic acid.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43(6)},
  pages = {531-5}
}
Chandra AK, Chatterjee A, Ghosh R, Sarkar M Effect of curcumin on chromium-induced oxidative damage in male reproductive system. 2007 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 24(2), pp. 160-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: Hexavalent chromium, an environmental contaminant, undergoes redox cycling with generation of free radicals inside the biological system. Curcumin, the yellow bioactive component of turmeric has established its antioxidant activities. The present study evaluates possible ameliorating effects of curcumin on potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) (hexavalent chromium) induced reproductivetoxicity in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three experimental groups, each consisting of eight rats, were treated with 0.4mg K(2)Cr(2)O(7)/kg bw/day, 0.4mg K(2)Cr(2)O(7)/kg bw/day+20mg curcumin/kg bw on every alternate day and 20mg curcumin/kg bw on every alternate day, respectively, for 26 days. Altered testicular histology, reduced sperm count, low testosterone level, decreased accessory sex organs weight, enhanced lipid peroxidation along with reduced SOD and catalase activities were observed following K(2)Cr(2)O(7) exposure while curcumin supplementation along with K(2)Cr(2)O(7) exposure had shown to prevent the altered parameters. The results thus suggest that curcumin may have a protective role against chromium(VI) induced oxidative damage in male reproductive system.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandraAK12007,
  author = {Chandra AK1, Chatterjee A, Ghosh R, Sarkar M},
  title = {Effect of curcumin on chromium-induced oxidative damage in male reproductive system.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {24(2)},
  pages = {160-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2007.04.009}
}
Chandra S, Chauhan LK, Pande PN, Gupta SK Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. 2004 Environ Toxicol.
Vol. 19(2), pp. 129-33 
article  
Abstract: The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandraS12004,
  author = {Chandra S1, Chauhan LK, Pande PN, Gupta SK.},
  title = {Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {19(2)},
  pages = {129-33}
}
Chowdhury BA, Chandra RK Biological and health implications of toxic heavy metal and essential trace element interactions. 1987 Prog Food Nutr Sci.
Vol. 11(1), pp. 55-113 
article  
Abstract: Human civilization and a concomitant increase in industrial activity has gradually redistributed many toxic metals from the earth's crust to the environment and increased the possibility of human exposure. Among the various toxic elements, heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury are specially prevalent in nature due to their high industrial use. These metals serve no biological function and their presence in tissues reflects contact of the organism with its environment. They are cumulative poison, and are toxic even at low dose. Studies of metabolism and toxicity of these elements have revealed important interactions between them and some essential dietary elements like calcium, zinc, iron, selenium, copper, chromium, and manganese. In general, a deficiency of these essential elements increases toxicity of heavy metals, whereas an excess appears to be protective. While most of the observations are on laboratory animals, limited human data are in agreement with the results of animal experiments. These suggest that the dietary presence of the essential elements may contribute to the protection of man and animal from the effects of heavy metal exposure, while their deficiency may increase toxicity. Appropriate dietary manipulation thus may be valuable in the prevention and treatment of heavy metal toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryBA1987,
  author = {Chowdhury BA, Chandra RK},
  title = {Biological and health implications of toxic heavy metal and essential trace element interactions.},
  journal = {Prog Food Nutr Sci.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {11(1)},
  pages = {55-113}
}
Das AP, Singh S Occupational health assessment of chromite toxicity among Indian miners. 2011 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 15(1):, pp. 6-13 
article DOI  
Abstract: Elevated concentration of hexavalent chromium pollution and contamination has contributed a major health hazard affecting more than 2 lakh mine workers and inhabitants residing in the Sukinda chromite mine of Odisha, India. Despite people suffering from several forms of ill health, physical and mental deformities, constant exposure to toxic wastes and chronic diseases as a result of chromite mining, there is a tragic gap in the availability of 'scientific' studies and data on the health hazards of mining in India. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Odisha State Pollution Control Board and the Odisha Voluntary Health Association data were used to compile the possible occupational health hazards, hexavalent chromium exposure and diseases among Sukinda chromite mines workers. Studies were reviewed to determine the routes of exposure and possible mechanism of chromium induced carcinogenicity among the workers. Our studies suggest all forms of hexavalent chromium are regarded as carcinogenic to workers however the most important routes of occupational exposure to Cr (VI) are inhalation and dermal contact. This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial occupational health hazards of chromite mining and associated metallurgical processes to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners exposed to these toxicants to foster a safe work environment. The authors anticipate that the outcome of this manuscript will have an impact on Indian chromite mining industry that will subsequently bring about improvements in work conditions, develop intervention experiments in occupational health and safety programs.
BibTeX:
@article{DasAP12011,
  author = {Das AP1, Singh S.},
  title = {Occupational health assessment of chromite toxicity among Indian miners.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15(1):},
  pages = {6-13},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.82998}
}
Dey SK, Roy S, Chatterjee AK Effect of chromium on certain aspects of metabolic toxicities. 2003 Toxicol Mech Methods.
Vol. 13(2), pp. 89-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: The impact of chromium exposure was studied in the liver, kidney, testis, spleen, cerebrum, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats (80-100 g body weight). It was observed that treatment of rats with chromium (ip, at a dose of 0.8 mg/100 g body weight/day) for a period of 28 days caused significant increase in chromium content while lowering the body weight along with the organ weight, except for the liver. It was also observed that there was a significant decrease in the DNA content of various organs tested. Also, a significant decrease in RNA content was observed in all the organs tested except for the testes. The liver, cerebrum, and cerebellum showed significant decreases in total protein content in chromium-treated animals, whereas the kidney, testes, and spleen showed insignificant alterations. The RNase activity was found to be significantly increased only in the testes and cerebrum. Pronase activity was significantly increased in the tissues, except for the liver. The glutamic-pyruvic acid transaminase activity decreased in all the tissues studied. On the other hand, glutamic-oxaloacetic acid transaminase activity increased in the liver, cerebrum, and cerebellum while decreasing in the kidney and spleen. It is suggested that chromium exposure at the present dose and duration induces metabolic toxicity in the form of depressive effects on nucleic acids and altered activities of RNase, pronase, and transaminases in tissues. The extent of such alterations varies from tissue to tissue and is in some cases diverse in nature.
BibTeX:
@article{DeySK12003,
  author = {Dey SK1, Roy S, Chatterjee AK.},
  title = {Effect of chromium on certain aspects of metabolic toxicities.},
  journal = {Toxicol Mech Methods.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {13(2)},
  pages = {89-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376510309845}
}
Dubey SK, Rai LC Toxicity of chromium and tin to Anabaena doliolum. Interaction with sulphur-containing amino acids and thiols. 1989 Biol Met.
Vol. 2(1), pp. 55-60 
article  
Abstract: Toxicity of chromium and tin on growth, heterocyst differentiation, nitrogenase activity and 14CO2 uptake of Anabaena doliolum and its amelioration by sulphur-containing amino acids and thiols has been studied. The final growth yield was found to be approximately 51% and 58% of control at sublethal concentration of chromium and tin respectively. Among various amino acids tested, cysteine (0.05 mM) significantly restored growth, heterocyst differentiation, nitrogenase and 14CO2 uptake of test alga. Dithiothreitol (1 mM) restored all the parameters and processes better than monothiol, mercaptoethanol. It is obvious from present investigation that sulphur-containing amino acids and thiols, viz. cysteine, methionine, cystine, mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol, may appreciably alleviate the toxicity of heavy metals in N2-fixing cyanobacteria if present in an aquatic ecosystem.
BibTeX:
@article{DubeySK11989,
  author = {Dubey SK1, Rai LC.},
  title = {Toxicity of chromium and tin to Anabaena doliolum. Interaction with sulphur-containing amino acids and thiols.},
  journal = {Biol Met.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {2(1)},
  pages = {55-60}
}
Dubey SP, Gopal K Application of natural adsorbent from silver impregnated Arachis hypogaea based thereon in the processes of hexavalent chromium for the purification of water. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 164(2-3), pp. 968-75 
article DOI  
Abstract: Different industries generate huge amounts of chromium, both in solid and liquid form which leached out and find their way to the aquifers. Here we report the removal of Cr(VI) by the silver impregnated activated carbon developed from agricultural waste material at pH 3 from drinking water. Result revealed that adsorption of chromium(VI) on silver impregnated groundnut husk carbon was endothermic in nature. Thermodynamic parameters such as the entropy change, enthalpy change and Gibbs free energy change were found to be 1.68 kJ mol(-1)K(-1), 0.46 kJ mol(-1) and -4.38 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The measured adsorption kinetics is well described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The effect of flow rate, column depth and initial concentration ofchromium(VI) on the removal of chromium by the impregnated adsorbent is presented. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and FTIR analysis show that the silver is impregnated on the surface. Shifts in the FTIR spectra suggest that dichromate binding occurs with silver and other functional groups and that silver treated groundnut husk carbon removes chromium. The 96h static acute toxicity test was conducted to ensure the safe disposal of the used adsorbent.
BibTeX:
@article{DubeySP12009,
  author = {Dubey SP1, Gopal K},
  title = {Application of natural adsorbent from silver impregnated Arachis hypogaea based thereon in the processes of hexavalent chromium for the purification of water.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {164(2-3)},
  pages = {968-75},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.08.111}
}
Ganguli A, Tripathi AK Bioremediation of toxic chromium from electroplating effluent by chromate-reducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A2Chr in two bioreactors. 2002 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.
Vol. 58(3), pp. 416-20 
article  
Abstract: The chromate-reducing ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa A2Chr was compared in batch culture, with cells entrapped in a dialysis sac, and with cells immobilized in an agarose-alginate film in conjunction with a rotating biological contactor. In all three systems, the maximum Cr(VI) reduction occurred at 10 mg Cr(VI)/l. Whereas at 50 mg Cr(VI)/l concentration, only 16% of the total Cr(VI) was reduced, five spikings with 10 mg chromate/l at 2-h intervals led to 96% reduction of the total input of 50 mg Cr(VI)/l. Thus maximum Cr(VI) reduction was achieved by avoiding Cr(VI) toxicity to the cells by respiking with lower Cr(VI) concentrations. At 10 mg Cr(VI)/l, the pattern of chromate reduction in dialysis-entrapped cells was almost similar to that of batch culture and 86% of the bacterially reduced chromium was retained inside the dialysis sac. In electroplating effluent containing 100 mg Cr(VI)/l, however, the amount of Cr(VI) reduced by the cells immobilized in agarose-alginate biofilm was twice and thrice the amount reduced by batch culture and cells entrapped in a dialysis sac, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{GanguliA12002,
  author = {Ganguli A1, Tripathi AK},
  title = {Bioremediation of toxic chromium from electroplating effluent by chromate-reducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A2Chr in two bioreactors.},
  journal = {Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {58(3)},
  pages = {416-20}
}
Garg SK, Tripathi M, Srinath T Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent. 2012 Rev Environ Contam Toxicol., pp. 75-140  article  
BibTeX:
@article{GargSK12012,
  author = {Garg SK1, Tripathi M, Srinath T.},
  title = {Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.},
  journal = {Rev Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {75-140}
}
Guha G, Rajkumar V, Ashok Kumar R, Mathew L Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits chromium(VI)-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-435S cells. 2010 Guha G1, Rajkumar V, Ashok Kumar R, Mathew L.
Vol. 48(1), pp. 396-401 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GuhaG12010,
  author = {Guha G1, Rajkumar V, Ashok Kumar R, Mathew L.},
  title = {Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus inhibits chromium(VI)-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-435S cells.},
  journal = {Guha G1, Rajkumar V, Ashok Kumar R, Mathew L.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {48(1)},
  pages = {396-401},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.028}
}
Guha G, Rajkumar V, Kumar RA, Mathew L Antioxidant Activity of Lawsonia inermis Extracts Inhibits Chromium(VI)-Induced Cellular and DNA Toxicity. 2011 Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.  article DOI  
Abstract: Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a very strong oxidant which consequently causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress. Prevention of Cr(VI)-induced cellular damage has been sought in this study in aqueous and methanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Lythraceae), commonly known as Henna. The extracts showed significant (P < .05) potential in scavenging free radicals (DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+)) and Fe(3+), and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. DNA damage caused by exposure of pBR322 to Cr(VI)-UV is markedly inhibited by both extracts in varying degrees. A distinct decline in Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity was noticed in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma) cells with an increase in dosage of both extracts individually. Furthermore, both extracts proved to contain a high content of phenolic compounds which were found to have a strong and significant (P < .05) positive correlation to the radical scavenging potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity and cyto-protective efficiency against Cr(VI)-induced oxidative cellular damage. HPLC analysis identified some of the major phenolic compounds in both extracts, which might be responsible for the antioxidant potential and the properties of DNA and cyto-protection. This study contributes to the search for natural resources that might yield potent therapeutic drugs against Cr(VI)-induced oxidative cell damage.
BibTeX:
@article{GuhaG12011,
  author = {Guha G1, Rajkumar V, Kumar RA, Mathew L.},
  title = {Antioxidant Activity of Lawsonia inermis Extracts Inhibits Chromium(VI)-Induced Cellular and DNA Toxicity.},
  journal = {Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.},
  year = {2011},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.}
}
Gupta K, Gaumat S, Mishra K Studies on phyto-genotoxic assessment of tannery effluent and chromium on Allium cepa. 2012 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 33(3), pp. 557-63 
article  
Abstract: Tannery effluent contributes significantly to pollution of the environment. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluent and chromium (Cr) were investigated in Allium cepa. Forthis purpose, tannery effluent was collected from "Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket" (U.A.S.B) Jajmau, Kanpur. A. cepa were exposed to various concentrations of tannery effluent (0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.50, 25.0%) and Cr (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 mgl(-1)) for 48 and 168 hr. The perusal of data revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of tannery effluent viz. pH (8.5), EC (11.94 dSm(-1)), BOD (499 mgl(-1)), COD (1382 mgl(-1)) and Cr content (2.32 mgI(-1)) were much higher than the prescribed permissible limit for industrial effluent discharged into inland waters. These substances provoked phytotoxic and genotoxic effects in A. cepa. Total chlorophyll and protein content in leaves of tannery effluent and Cr treated plants decreased significantly in dose-duration dependent manner. A maximum decrease of 86.29 and 84.26% in total chlorophyll and 81.27 and 76.16% in protein content was observed after 168 hr of exposure while carotenoid content increased up to 6.25% effluent and 2.0 mgl(-1) Cr treatment and decreased further. In all treated plants, a significant (p > or = 0.05) reduction in root length, mitotic index (MI) and induction in chromosomal (CA)/mitotic (MA) aberration and micronuclei (MNC) were observed as compared to unstressed plants. A maximum reduction of 81.15 and 79.71% in MI, and induction of 6.8 and 4.8% in CA, 29.24 and 26.66% in MA and 0.52 and 0.43% in MNC were found at 12.50% effluent and 4 mgl(-1) Cr treated plants as compared to unstressed plants, however at highest effluent and Cr concentration both the plants showed pyknosis condition after 168 hr.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaK12012,
  author = {Gupta K1, Gaumat S, Mishra K.},
  title = {Studies on phyto-genotoxic assessment of tannery effluent and chromium on Allium cepa.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {33(3)},
  pages = {557-63}
}
Gupta K, Gaumat S, Mishra K Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India. 2011 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 32(5):, pp. 591-7 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaK12011,
  author = {Gupta K1, Gaumat S, Mishra K.},
  title = {Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {32(5):},
  pages = {591-7}
}
Gurjar BR, Mohan M, Sidhu KS Potential health risks related to carcinogens in the atmospheric environment in India. 1996 Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 24(2 Pt 1), pp. 141-8 
article  
Abstract: In India, rapid urbanization and industrialization have contributed positively toward meeting the materialistic needs of the citizens, but have also resulted in contamination of the atmospheric environment. This paper deals with the assessment of potential health risks posed by carcinogenic substances, namely cadmium, chromium, and nickel, present in certain atmospheric environments in India. Average air concentrations of these carcinogenic metals have been assessed for different states and regions of India (C. R. Krishnamurti and P. Vishwanathan, Toxic Metals in the Indian Environment, Tata/McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1991). Based on these assessments, both individual and societal risks have been estimated in different states of the country, and comparisons were made. Reported concentration, release sources, potential health risks including cancer risk estimates, and ambient air interim guidelines are discussed. The reported environmental releases and cancer risk from cadmium are minimal. There is a potential for increased respiratory cancer risk from exposure to chromium and nickel in some northern Indian states. These metals are irritants to nasal passages and the respiratory tract. Chromium is also corrosive to mucus membranes. They have the potential to cause chronic respiratory problems. Since it appears that these metals may cause some adverse health effects in humans, exposure to these ambient air pollutants should be minimized by managing the release of these contaminants to the environment. There is a need for the development and strict enforcement of national and state regulatory standards.
BibTeX:
@article{GurjarBR11996,
  author = {Gurjar BR1, Mohan M, Sidhu KS.},
  title = {Potential health risks related to carcinogens in the atmospheric environment in India.},
  journal = {Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {24(2 Pt 1)},
  pages = {141-8}
}
Jadhav SH, Sarkar SN, Aggarwal M, Tripathi HC Induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of male rats subchronically exposed to a mixture of eight metals found as groundwater contaminants in different parts of India. 2007 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 52(1), pp. 145-51 
article  
Abstract: Exposure of animals and humans to different metal components through contaminated drinking water can result in a wide range of adverse clinical conditions. Toxicological consequences arising from the concurrent repeated exposure to multiple metal contaminants are not known. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress-inducing potential of a mixture of eight metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese, iron), representative of groundwater contamination in different areas of India, in erythrocytes of male rats subchronically exposed to environmentally relevant doses via drinking water. The selection of these metals, as determined by literature survey of groundwater contamination in India, was primarily based on the frequency of their occurrence and contamination level above World Health Organization maximum permissible limit (MPL) in drinking water. Male albino Wistar rats were exposed to the metal mixture at 0, 1, 10, and 100 times the mode concentrations (the most frequently occurring concentration) of the individual metals in drinking water for 90 days. In addition, one group of rats was also exposed to the mixture at a concentration equal to the MPL of individual components. The oxidative stress in erythrocytes was evaluated by assessing the magnitude of malondialdehyde production and reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) after 30, 60, and 90 days of exposure. MPL and 1x dose levels did not cause any changes. The mixture at 10x and 100x doses caused dose- and time-dependent effects. After 30 days, the 10x dose did not cause any changes except increase in SOD activity. The 100x dose increased the activities of SOD, catalase and GR and the GSH level, but caused no alterations in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and GPx activity. After 60 days, the 10x dose did not cause any changes. The 100x dose increased LPO and decreased all the antioxidant parameters, except GSH. After 90 days, both 10x and 100x levels elevated LPO. The 10x dose decreased GSH level and activities of SOD and catalase, but not of GPx and GR, whereas the 100x dose decreased all the antioxidative systems. Overall, the present study demonstrates that the subchronic exposure of male rats to the mixture of metals via drinking water results in induction of oxidative stress and concomitant reduction in antioxidative defense system in erythrocytes at 10 and 100 times the mode concentrations of the individual metals in contaminated groundwater.
BibTeX:
@article{JadhavSH12007,
  author = {Jadhav SH1, Sarkar SN, Aggarwal M, Tripathi HC.},
  title = {Induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of male rats subchronically exposed to a mixture of eight metals found as groundwater contaminants in different parts of India.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {52(1)},
  pages = {145-51}
}
Jain CK, Rao VV, Prakash BA, Kumar KM, Yoshida M Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of Hussainsagar Lake, Hyderabad, India. 2010 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 166(1-4), pp. 57-67 
article DOI  
Abstract: Hussainsagar Lake in the heart of Hyderabad City (India) receives toxic substances through five streams draining from a catchment area of 245 km(2). Of particular interest are heavy metals received from urban runoff as well as municipal sewage and industrial effluents. Heavy metals entering the lake get adsorbed onto the suspended sediments, which eventually settle down in the bottom of the lake. In this study, fractionation of metal ions has been studied on the bed sediments of Hussainsagar Lake in order to determine the ecotoxic potential of metal ions. Comparison of sediments with average shale values indicated anthropogenic enrichment with copper, nickel, lead, cadmium, and zinc. The risk assessment code as applied to the present study reveals that 10-17% of manganese, 10-18% of nickel, 14-24% of chromium, 10-19% of lead, 21-30% of cadmium, and 18-28% of zinc exist in exchangeable fraction and, therefore, comes under medium risk category and may enter into food chain. The association of these metals with the exchangeable fraction may cause deleterious effects to aquatic life. The present database will help in formulating guidelines for carrying out dredging operations under restoration programs in the Hussainsagar Lake.
BibTeX:
@article{JainCK12010,
  author = {Jain CK1, Rao VV, Prakash BA, Kumar KM, Yoshida M},
  title = {Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of Hussainsagar Lake, Hyderabad, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {166(1-4)},
  pages = {57-67},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-0984-8}
}
Jana M, Rajaram A, Rajaram R Chromium picolinate induced apoptosis of lymphocytes and the signaling mechanisms thereof. 2009 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 237(3), pp. 331-44 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cr(III)(picolinate)(3) [Cr(III)(pic)(3)] is currently used as a nutritional supplement and for treating Type-2 diabetes. The effect of Cr(III)(pic)(3) uptake in peripheral blood lymphocytes is investigated in this study. From the cytotoxicity data, DNA fragmentation pattern, Annexin V staining, TUNEL positivity and the ultrastructural characteristics such as chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies, it is clear that Cr(III)(pic)(3) induces a concentration dependent apoptosis. It is shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by treatment with Cr(III)(pic)(3) leads to apoptosis, since we find that pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine inhibits the process. Using Western blotting technique and fluorescence measurements, the downstream signaling molecules have also been identified. Cr(III)(pic)(3) treatment leads to collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, Bax expression, increase in cytosolic cytochrome c content and active caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation and all these manifestations are reduced by pretreating the lymphocytes with N-acetyl cysteine. Thus, it is shown that Cr(III)(pic)(3) is cytotoxic to lymphocytes with ROS and mitochondrial events playing a role in bringing about apoptosis.
BibTeX:
@article{JanaM12009,
  author = {Jana M1, Rajaram A, Rajaram R.},
  title = {Chromium picolinate induced apoptosis of lymphocytes and the signaling mechanisms thereof.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {237(3)},
  pages = {331-44},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.04.006}
}
Junaid M, Murthy RC, Saxena DK Chromium fetotoxicity in mice during late pregnancy. 1995 Vet Hum Toxicol.
Vol. 37(4), pp. 320-3 
article  
Abstract: Female mice received 250, 500 or 750 ppm chromium (VI) as potassium dichromate in drinking water on days 14 to 19 of pregnancy. Gestational weight gain of mothers, fetal weight and crown-rump length decreased in the 500 and 750 ppm groups. The high-dose group also had significantly higher incidences of postimplantation loss. Significant increases in drooping wrists, subdermal hemorrhagic patches, kinky and short tails, and reduced ossification were also found in the 750 ppm group. Chromium levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner in maternal blood and placenta and in fetuses. Our study suggests a risk to the developing fetus if the mother is exposed to high concentrations of chromium (VI) during pregnancy.
BibTeX:
@article{JunaidM11995,
  author = {Junaid M1, Murthy RC, Saxena DK.},
  title = {Chromium fetotoxicity in mice during late pregnancy.},
  journal = {Vet Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {37(4)},
  pages = {320-3}
}
Kanojia RK, Junaid M, Murthy RC Embryo and fetotoxicity of hexavalent chromium: a long-term study. 1998 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 95(3), pp. 165-72 
article  
Abstract: Ingestion of chromium(VI) (250, 500 or 750 ppm as potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7) through drinking water by female rats for 3 months prior to gestation was toxic to embryo and fetus. There was a significant reduction in number of implantations and number of fetuses and an increase in number of resorptions and pre-implantation and post-implantation losses. No significant visceral abnormality was found. The increase in the number of subdermal hemorrhagic patches on the thorax and abdomen was significant. Skeletal abnormality in the form of reduced ossification in parietal, interparietal and caudal bones was observed in fetuses. Chromium levels in the blood of mothers, placenta and fetuses showed a significant increase. Duration of the estrous cycle was also increased significantly. The study revealed that long-term chromium exposure in rats did not cause embryo and fetotoxicity in a duration-dependent manner compared to short-term treatment as observed earlier. A possible explanation could be that, in the 90-day study, the female rats did not mate for three estrous cycles, thus giving time for clearance of a sizable amount of chromium from their bodies
BibTeX:
@article{KanojiaRK11998,
  author = {Kanojia RK1, Junaid M, Murthy RC},
  title = {Embryo and fetotoxicity of hexavalent chromium: a long-term study.},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {95(3)},
  pages = {165-72}
}
Kaur A, Kaur K Relative susceptibility of different life stages of Channa punctatus and Cyprinus carpio to nickel-chrome electroplating effluent. 1996 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 57(5), pp. 836-41 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KaurA11996,
  author = {Kaur A1, Kaur K},
  title = {Relative susceptibility of different life stages of Channa punctatus and Cyprinus carpio to nickel-chrome electroplating effluent.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {57(5)},
  pages = {836-41}
}
Kaushal RK, Nema AK Multi-stakeholder decision analysis and comparative risk assessment for reuse-recycle oriented e-waste management strategies: a game theoretic approach. 2013 Waste Manag Res.
Vol. 31(9), pp. 881-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: This article deals with assessment of the potential health risk posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances, namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper, chromium (CrVI), zinc, nickel and mercury, present in e-waste. A multi-objective, multi-stakeholder approach based on strategic game theory model has been developed considering cost, as well as human health risk. The trade-off due to cost difference between a hazardous substances-free (HSF) and a hazardous substance (HS)-containing desktop computer, and the risk posed by them at the time of disposal, has been analyzed. The cancer risk due to dust inhalation for workers at a recycling site in Bangalore for Pb, Cr(VI) and Cd was found to be 4, 33 and 101 in 1 million respectively. Pb and Cr(VI) result in a very high risk owing to dust ingestion at slums near the recycling site--175 and 81 in 1 million for children, and 24 and 11 in 1 million for adults respectively. The concentration of Pb at a battery workshop in Mayapuri, Delhi (hazard quotient = 3.178) was found to pose adverse health hazards. The government may impose an appropriate penalty on the land disposal of computer waste and/or may give an incentive to manufacturer for producing HSF computers through, for example, relaxing taxes, but there should be no such incentive for manufacturing HS-containing computers.
BibTeX:
@article{KaushalRK12013,
  author = {Kaushal RK1, Nema AK.},
  title = {Multi-stakeholder decision analysis and comparative risk assessment for reuse-recycle oriented e-waste management strategies: a game theoretic approach.},
  journal = {Waste Manag Res.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {31(9)},
  pages = {881-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X13490983}
}
Khan FH, Ambreen K, Fatima G, Kumar S Assessment of health risks with reference to oxidative stress and DNA damage in chromium exposed population. 2012 Sci Total Environ, pp. 68-74  article DOI  
Abstract: Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is widely used in tanning industrial processes. The population living in tanning industrial area is continuously exposed to Cr(III) which appears to be associated with both acute and chronic health problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the health risk with special reference to oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde - MDA, glutathione - GSH, and superoxide dismutase - SOD) and DNA damage in 100 Cr-exposed and 100 unexposed populations. The total blood Cr level, SOD level, MDA level and DNA damage were significantly (p<0.05) higher and GSH level was significantly (p<0.05) lower in exposed group as compared to the unexposed group. The altered oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage were found to be slightly higher in female population of both groups. In simple and multiple correlation analyses (adjusted with potential confounders), blood Cr level showed negative significant correlation with GSH level and positive significant correlation with level of MDA, SOD and DNA damage in both groups. The overall prevalence of morbidity was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the exposed group as compared to the unexposed group. In the exposed group, the prevalence of respiratory illness is highest, followed by diabetes, gastrointestinal tract problems and dermal problems respectively. Our results concluded that the Cr(III) exposed population is at high risk for health hazards and the female population is slightly more susceptible to Cr(III) exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{KhanFH12012,
  author = {Khan FH1, Ambreen K, Fatima G, Kumar S.},
  title = {Assessment of health risks with reference to oxidative stress and DNA damage in chromium exposed population.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {68-74},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012}
}
Kumar P, Kumar R, Nagpure NS, Nautiyal P, Kushwaha B, Dabas A Genotoxicity and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Cyprinus carpio after in vivo exposure. 2013 Drug Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 36(4), pp. 451-60 
article DOI  
Abstract: Fish, being an important native of the aquatic ecosystem, are exposed to multipollution states and are therefore considered as model organisms for ecotoxicological studies of aquatic pollutants, including metal toxicity. We investigated oxidative stress (OS) in liver, kidney and gill tissues through antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity induced in whole blood and gill tissues through comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test in Cyprinus carpio after 96-hour in vivo static exposure to potassium dichromate at three sublethal (SL) test concentrations, including SL-I [93.95 mg/L, i.e. one quarter of half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50)], SL-II (187.9 mg/L, i.e. one half of LC50), and SL-III (281.85 mg/L, i.e. three quarters of LC50), along with a control. The 96-hour LC50 value for potassium dichromate was estimated to be 375.8 mg/L in a static system in the test species. Tissues samples were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours postexposure. Results indicated that the exposed fish experienced OS as characterized by significant (p < 0.05) variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, as compared to the control. Activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased, whereas activity of catalase decreased with the progression of the experiment. The mean percent DNA damage in comet tail and MN induction in gills and whole blood showed a concentration-dependent increase up to 96-hour exposure. The findings of this study would be helpful in organ-specific risk assessment of Cr(VI)-induced OS and genotoxicity in fishes.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarP12013,
  author = {Kumar P1, Kumar R, Nagpure NS, Nautiyal P, Kushwaha B, Dabas A.},
  title = {Genotoxicity and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Cyprinus carpio after in vivo exposure.},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {36(4)},
  pages = {451-60},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2013.776581}
}
Kumar S, Budhwar R, Nigam A, Priya S Cytoprotection against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage by alpha-lipoic acid: implications in reducing occupational cancer risk. 2009 Mutagenesis.
Vol. 24(6):, pp. 495-500 
article DOI  
Abstract: Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), the metabolic antioxidant, was evaluated for its potential to protect against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage. Potassium dichromate was administered to Swiss albino mice orally ad libitum at the doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg body weight in drinking water to set DNA damage in cells, which was characterized in mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bone marrow cells using single-cell gel electrophoresis and analyses of generated comets for Tail moment, Tail DNA and Tail length. DNA damage was dose dependent. Cytoprotection by LA was remarkable. LA (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally) in pre-, co- and post-toxicant administration schedule abrogated DNA damage substantially in both cell types. Protection by LA was also dose dependent. LA annulled DNA damage by Cr(6+) in plasmid relaxation assay. A negligible DNA damage resulted during interaction of Cr(6+) and LA. Compared to ascorbate, LA emerged as a better antioxidant and least DNA damaging. In conclusion, our study advocated an experimental therapeutic research potential in LA against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage for reduction of occupational cancer risk in humans.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS12009,
  author = {Kumar S1, Budhwar R, Nigam A, Priya S.},
  title = {Cytoprotection against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage by alpha-lipoic acid: implications in reducing occupational cancer risk.},
  journal = {Mutagenesis.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {24(6):},
  pages = {495-500},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mutage/gep033}
}
Kumar S, Nigam A, Priya S, Bajpai P, Budhwar R Lipoic acid prevents Cr(6+) induced cell transformation and the associated genomic dysregulation 2013 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol
Vol. 36(1):, pp. 182-93 
article DOI  
Abstract: Investigation of the transcription profile of cells transformed by Cr(6+) in vivo was undertaken. The objective was to elucidate genomic changes underlying the mechanism of action of the carcinogenic dose of Cr(6+)and their prevention using metabolic antioxidant lipoic acid (LA). Cr(6+) was administered intraperitoneally to LPS+TPA challenged Swiss albino mice in host mediated cell transformation assay using peritoneal macrophages in vivo. The cell transforming potential of Cr(6+) test doses was validated by gain of anchorage independent growth potential in soft agar and loss of Fc receptor on target cells. LA was administered in equimolar doses. Compared to non-transformed cells, the gene expression profile of transformed cells was found to be dysregulated substantially and in dose dependent manner. Genes showing down regulation were found to be involved in tumour suppression, apoptosis, DNA repair, and cell-cycle. A similar response was noted in the genes pertaining to immune system, morphogenesis, cell-communication, energy-metabolism, and biosynthesis. The co-administration of lipoic acid prevented the transcription dysregulation and cell transformation by Cr(6+) in vivo. The influenced pathways seem to be crucial for progression as well as mitigation of Cr toxicity; and their response to LA indicated their critical role in mechanism of anti-carcinogenic action of LA. Results are of importance to mitigate Cr(6+) induced occupational cancer hazard.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS12013,
  author = {Kumar S1, Nigam A, Priya S, Bajpai P, Budhwar R.},
  title = {Lipoic acid prevents Cr(6+) induced cell transformation and the associated genomic dysregulation},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {36(1):},
  pages = {182-93},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2013.02.016}
}
Kumari K, Khare A, Dange S The applicability of oxidative stress biomarkers in assessing chromium induced toxicity in the fish Labeo rohita. 2014 Biomed Res Int.  article  
Abstract: The evaluation of metal's toxicity in freshwater is one of the imperative areas of research and there is an emergent concern on the development of techniques for detecting toxic effects in aquatic animals. Oxidative stress biomarkers are very useful in assessing the health of aquatic life and more in depth studies are necessary to establish an exact cause effect relationship. Therefore, to study the effectiveness of this approach, a laboratory study was conducted in the fish Labeo rohita as a function of hexavalent chromium and the toxicity indices using a battery of oxidative stress biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the liver, muscle, gills, and brain have been studied along with biometric parameters, behavioral changes, and Cr bioaccumulation. A significant increased HSI was observed in contrast to CF which reduced significantly. SOD, CAT, and GR activity increased significantly in all the tissues of treated fishes. The bioaccumulation of Cr was highest in liver followed by gills, muscle, and brain. This study highlights the significance of using a set of integrated biomarker and advocate to include these parameters in National Water Quality Monitoring Program in areas potentially polluted with metals to assess the health of the ecosystem.
BibTeX:
@article{KumariK12014,
  author = {Kumari K1, Khare A1, Dange S1.},
  title = {The applicability of oxidative stress biomarkers in assessing chromium induced toxicity in the fish Labeo rohita.},
  journal = {Biomed Res Int.},
  year = {2014}
}
Kundu R, Lakshmi R, Mansuri AP Effects of Cr (VI) on ATPases in the brain and muscle of mudskipper, Boleophthalmus dentatus. 1995 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
Vol. 55(5), pp. 723-9 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KunduR11995,
  author = {Kundu R1, Lakshmi R, Mansuri AP},
  title = {Effects of Cr (VI) on ATPases in the brain and muscle of mudskipper, Boleophthalmus dentatus.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {55(5)},
  pages = {723-9}
}
Malaviya P, Singh A Bioremediation of chromium solutions and chromium containing wastewaters. 2014 Crit Rev Microbiol., pp. 1-27  article  
Abstract: Abstract Cr(VI) represents a serious threat to human health, living resources and ecological system as it is persistent, carcinogenic and toxic, whereas, Cr(III), another stable oxidation state of Cr, is less toxic and can be readily precipitated out of solution. The conventional methods of Cr(VI) removal from wastewaters comprise of chemical reduction followed by chemical precipitation. However, these methods utilize large amounts of chemicals and generate toxic sludge. This necessitates the need for devising an eco-technological strategy that would use the untapped potential of the biological world for remediation of Cr(VI) containing wastewaters. Among several viable approaches, biotransformation of Cr(VI) to relatively non-toxic Cr(III) by chromium resistant bacteria offers an economical- and environment-friendly option for its detoxification. Various studies on use of Cr(VI) tolerant viable bacterial isolates for treatment of Cr(VI) containing solutions and wastewater have been reported. Therefore, a detailed account of mechanisms and processes involved in bioreduction of Cr(VI) from solutions and wastewaters by bacterial isolates are the focus of this review article in addition to a discussion on toxicity of Cr(VI) on bacterial strains and various factors affecting Cr(VI) bioreduction.
BibTeX:
@article{MalaviyaP12014,
  author = {Malaviya P1, Singh A},
  title = {Bioremediation of chromium solutions and chromium containing wastewaters.},
  journal = {Crit Rev Microbiol.},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {1-27}
}
Mani D, Sharma B, Kumar C, Pathak N, Balak S A group of 15 heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from Barak River contaminated with paper and pulp effluents. These isolates displayed different degrees of chromium tolerance. Four isolates showed 34 %-49 % of growth at a concentration of 4.0 mM of Cr(6+) and subjected to chromium reduction assay under aerobic condition. The isolate E (4) showed highest reduction (34.38 %) followed by E (3) and K(6)PA6, both showed 28.75 % reduction and then D (2) (27.5 %) after 72 h of incubation. These 4 isolates also showed different degrees of resistance to other heavy metals like Ni, Cu, Co and Cd. Antibiotic sensitivity profile of these selected bacterial strains was determined against 10 different antibiotics. Isolate E (4) appeared to be most susceptible being inhibited by eight antibiotics and resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. The isolate E (3) was resistant to as many as five antibiotics and showed susceptible responses to the rest of the antibiotics. Both the isolates K(6)PA6 and D (2) were resistant to four antibiotics and showed intermediate to susceptible responses to the rest of the antibiotics. 2012 Int J Phytoremediation.
Vol. 14(3), pp. 235-46 
article  
Abstract: The study of phytoremediation potential of Helianthus annuus L was conducted in the sewage-irrigated Indo-Gangetic alluvial soils, India. Calcium @ 1.0% and Zn @ 40 ppm enhanced the yield of H. annuus L and minimized the toxicity of Cr in the investigated soils. The study indicated that H. annuus L is highly sensitive to Cr and Zn in terms of metallic pollution; and may be used as indicator plant. For Cr-phytoremediation, humic acid treatment @ 500 mL/acre induced the Cr-accumulation in roots (p < 0.007) and in shoots (p < 0.015), which was recorded 3.21 and 3.16 mg/kg in root and shoot of H. annuus L, respectively. We suggest that H. annuus L fulfils the necessary condition for efficiently increasing species bioaccumulation after soil treatment with humic acid in Cr-polluted sewage-irrigated soils through soil- plant rhizospheric processes.
BibTeX:
@article{ManiD12012,
  author = {Mani D1, Sharma B, Kumar C, Pathak N, Balak S.},
  title = {A group of 15 heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from Barak River contaminated with paper and pulp effluents. These isolates displayed different degrees of chromium tolerance. Four isolates showed 34 %-49 % of growth at a concentration of 4.0 mM of Cr(6+) and subjected to chromium reduction assay under aerobic condition. The isolate E (4) showed highest reduction (34.38 %) followed by E (3) and K(6)PA6, both showed 28.75 % reduction and then D (2) (27.5 %) after 72 h of incubation. These 4 isolates also showed different degrees of resistance to other heavy metals like Ni, Cu, Co and Cd. Antibiotic sensitivity profile of these selected bacterial strains was determined against 10 different antibiotics. Isolate E (4) appeared to be most susceptible being inhibited by eight antibiotics and resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. The isolate E (3) was resistant to as many as five antibiotics and showed susceptible responses to the rest of the antibiotics. Both the isolates K(6)PA6 and D (2) were resistant to four antibiotics and showed intermediate to susceptible responses to the rest of the antibiotics.},
  journal = {Int J Phytoremediation.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {14(3)},
  pages = {235-46}
}
Marwari R, Khan TI Physiological and biochemical adverse effects of heavy metals on Brassica oleracea grown in Sanganer area, India. 2012 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 54(2), pp. 249-59. 
article  
Abstract: The paper reveals results of a study carried out in agricultural fields of Sanganer town in India. This town is situated 20 km away from the heart of Jaipur city. In the study area (Amanishah Nalla Sanganer, Jaipur) vegetables are grown in the fields receiving sewerage and textile wastewater. Water, soil and crop (plant samples) were collected from the agricultural fields of Sanganer for analysis. Wastewater (from Amanishsh Nalla) used as irrigation water in agricultural fields of Sanganer town was found to contain 6.127 mg/ L of zinc, 7.116 mg/L of Copper, 5.114 mg/L of Chromium and 4.774 mg/L of lead as the highest amount of respective heavy metals. Soil from agricultural fields was found to contain 11.247 mg/g of zinc, 6.410 mg/g of Copper, 3.514 mg/g of Chromium and 2.619 mg/g of lead. Brassica oleracea (plant material) grown in the Sanganer area was analysed for heavy metal contents. Plant fruit contained 5.730 mg/g of zinc, 7.380 mg/g of Copper, 5.940 mg/g of Chromium and 2.170 mg/g of lead as the highest amount of heavy metals. Use of wasterwater alters the nutritional value of the vegetables grown here and in long run consumption of such vegetables may impose health hazards in human beings, which is a matter of concern.
BibTeX:
@article{MarwariR2012,
  author = {Marwari R, Khan TI.},
  title = {Physiological and biochemical adverse effects of heavy metals on Brassica oleracea grown in Sanganer area, India.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {54(2)},
  pages = {249-59.}
}
Mishra AK, Mohanty B Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch). 2009 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 407(18), pp. 5031-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraAK12009,
  author = {Mishra AK1, Mohanty B},
  title = {Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch).},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {407(18)},
  pages = {5031-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.042}
}
Mishra AK, Mohanty B Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch). 2009 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 407(18), pp. 5031-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraAK12009a,
  author = {Mishra AK1, Mohanty B.},
  title = {Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch).},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {407(18)},
  pages = {5031-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.042}
}
Mishra AK, Mohanty B Acute toxicity impacts of hexavalent chromium on behavior and histopathology of gill, kidney and liver of the freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). 2008 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 26(2), pp. 136-41 
article DOI  
Abstract: Alteration in behavioral patterns and histopathology of gill, kidney and liver were studied in Channa punctatus, after acute exposure to hexavalent chromium. The 96h LC(50) of chromium salt, potassium dichromate was determined to be 41.75mg/L. The exposed fish displayed erratic swimming and became lethargic. The changes in gills were characterized by epithelial hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, oedema, epithelial lifting, epithelial necrosis and desquamation, aneurism as well as curling of secondary lamellae. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules with reduced lumens, atrophy of the renal tubules, glomeruli contraction in the Bowman's capsules and necrosis of haematopoietic tissues were observed in the trunk kidney of exposed fish. The interrenal cells of the head kidney exhibited distinct hypertrophy and vacuolization. The liver hepatocytes showed cytoplasmic vacuolization with the lateral nuclei arrangement. Hepatocytes atrophy and increase in sinusoidal space were also observed. The result showed that acute chromium toxicity severely affects the vital organs and normal behavior which may be deleterious for fish populations.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraAK12008,
  author = {Mishra AK1, Mohanty B},
  title = {Acute toxicity impacts of hexavalent chromium on behavior and histopathology of gill, kidney and liver of the freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {26(2)},
  pages = {136-41},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2008.02.010}
}
Mishra K, Gupta K, Rai UN Bioconcentration and phytotoxicity of chromium in Eichhornia crassipes. 2009 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 30(4):, pp. 521-6 
article  
Abstract: Physico-chemical parameter and metal concentration in effluents of two industries i.e. Tannery industry, Jajmau, Kanpur and Electroplating industry, Scooter India Limited (SIL), Lucknow were determined to assess the toxicity of chromium. Metal accumulation in Eichhomia crassipes growing in these contaminated sites were also determined. For laboratory toxicity testing the plants were exposed to nutrient solution containing Cr concentration ranging from 0.01-10 microg ml(-1) for 24-96 hr. Accumulation of chromium was observed to be dependent on its concentration and time of exposure and was greater in roots (789.3 mg g(-1) d.wt.) than in leaves (335.6 mg g(-1) d.wt.) after 96 hrat 10 microg ml(-1) concentration. Under field conditions the accumulation of Cr was 1258 and 733.3 in roots and 94 and 53 microg g(-1) d.wt. in leaves of E. crassipes growing in Jajmau, Kanpur tanning industry and SIL effluents, respectively. It was found that lower doses (0.01-0.1 microg ml(-1)) of chromium had stimulatory effect on various metabolic activities in plants including chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll, protein, nitrate reductase and mitotic index. Whereas higher doses of chromium had inhibitory effect. The carotenoid content and number of micronuclei was found directly proportional to the concentration of chromium and increased with increase in concentration of chromium to which plants were exposed. It may be concluded from the present study that E. crassipes is tolerant to the elevated Cr concentration as there is no inhibition of chlorophyll and carotenoid up to 0.1 microg ml(-1) at 24 and 48 hr exhibiting phytotoxicity at higher concentration. Therefore, E. crassipes may be used as bioassay for biomonitoring and control of Cr pollution in the environment.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraK12009,
  author = {Mishra K1, Gupta K, Rai UN.},
  title = {Bioconcentration and phytotoxicity of chromium in Eichhornia crassipes.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(4):},
  pages = {521-6}
}
Mishra M, Sharma A, Negi MP, Dwivedi UN, Chowdhuri DK Tracing the tracks of genotoxicity by trivalent and hexavalent chromium in Drosophila melanogaster. 2011 Mutat Res.
Vol. 722(1):, pp. 44-51 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mutagen sensitive strains (mus) in Drosophila are known for their hypersensitivity to mutagens and environmental carcinogens. Accordingly, these mutants were grouped in pre- and post-replication repair pathways. However, studying mutants belonging to one particular repair pathway may not be adequate for examining chemical-induced genotoxicity when other repair pathways may neutralize its effect. To test whether both pre-and post-replication pathways are involved and effect of Cr(III)- and Cr(VI)-induced genotoxicity in absence or presence of others, we used double mutant approach in D. melanogaster. We observed DNA damage as evident by changes in Comet assay DNA migration in cells of larvae of Oregon R(+) and single mutants of pre- (mei-9, mus201 and mus210) and post- (mei-41, mus209 and mus309) replication repair pathways and also in double mutants of different combinations (pre-pre, pre-post and post-post replication repair) exposed to increasing concentrations of Cr(VI) (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 ?g/ml) for 48 h. The damage was greater in pre-replication repair mutants after exposure to 5.0 ?g/ml Cr(VI), while effects on Oregon R(+) and post replication repair mutants were insignificant. Post-replication repair mutants revealed significant DNA damage after exposure to 20.0 ?g/ml Cr(VI). Further, double mutants generated in the above repair categories were examined for DNA damage following Cr(VI) exposure and a comparison of damage was studied between single and double mutants. Combinations of double mutants generated in the pre-pre replication repair pathways showed an indifferent interaction between the two mutants after Cr(VI) exposure while a synergistic interaction was evident in exposed post-post replication repair double mutants. Cr(III) (20.0 ?g/ml) exposure to these strains did not induce any significant DNA damage in their cells. The study suggests that both pre- and post-replication pathways are affected in Drosophila by Cr(VI) leading to genotoxicity, which may have consequences for metal-induced carcinogenesis.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraM12011,
  author = {Mishra M1, Sharma A, Negi MP, Dwivedi UN, Chowdhuri DK.},
  title = {Tracing the tracks of genotoxicity by trivalent and hexavalent chromium in Drosophila melanogaster.},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {722(1):},
  pages = {44-51},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.02.010}
}
Mishra RR, Dhal B, Dutta SK, Dangar TK, Das NN, Thatoi HN Optimization and characterization of chromium(VI) reduction in saline condition by moderately halophilic Vigribacillus sp. isolated from mangrove soil of Bhitarkanika, India. 2012 J Hazard Mater., pp. 227-228  article DOI  
Abstract: A Gram-positive moderately halophilic Cr(VI) tolerant bacterial strain H4, isolated from saline mangrove soil, was identified as Vigribacillus sp. by biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA analysis. In LB medium, the strain could tolerate up to 1000 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) concentration and reduced 90.2 and 99.2% of 100 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) under optimized set of condition within 70 h in absence and presence of 6 wt.% NaCl, respectively. The fitting of time course reduction data to an exponential rate equation yielded the Cr(VI) reduction rate constants in the range (0.69-5.56)×10(-2)h(-1). Analyses of total chromium and bacterial cell associated with reduced product by AAS, SEM/EDS, TEM/SAED, FT-IR and UV-vis-DRS indicated the formation of about 35% of insoluble Cr(III) either as Cr(OH)(3) precipitate in nanometric size or immobilized on the bacterial cell surface while the remaining 65% of reduced chromium was present as soluble Cr(III) in the growth medium. Powder XRD analysis revealed the amorphous nature of the precipitated Cr(OH)(3). The high Cr(VI) reducing ability of the strain under saline condition suggests the Vigribacillus sp. as a new and efficient strain capable of remediating highly saline Cr(VI) polluted industrial effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraRR12012,
  author = {Mishra RR1, Dhal B, Dutta SK, Dangar TK, Das NN, Thatoi HN.},
  title = {Optimization and characterization of chromium(VI) reduction in saline condition by moderately halophilic Vigribacillus sp. isolated from mangrove soil of Bhitarkanika, India.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {227-228},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.063}
}
Mukherjee P, Sarkar D, Sharma A Effects of dietary consumption of black tea infusion alone and in combination with known clastogens on mouse bone marrow chromosomes in vivo. 1997 Food Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 35(7), pp. 657-61 
article  
Abstract: Black tea infusion in water, in concentrations simulating human consumption, was administered by gavage daily to male Swiss mice for 7 days. One set was given tea once daily and the other twice daily. The mice were then exposed to two known clastogens: chromium (VI) as potassium dichromate and mitomycin C on day 7, and killed after 24 hr. Chromosome damage was studied in preparations made from bone marrow following colchine injection of all mice, and examination of the cells after pretreatment in hypotonic solution, fixation, air drying one and staining with Giemsa solution. No effect was observed in mice given tea once daily. In mice administered tea twice daily, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and damaged cells were increased as compared with those of the control in distilled water. Administration of tea twice daily for 7 days could not reduce the clastogenic effects of mitomycin C significantly. The damage due to potassium dichromate was reduced significantly, almost to the level of distilled water. Dietary administration of black tea infusion could therefore significantly protect against clastogenic activity of chromium compounds though it was itself mildly clastogenic.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeP11997,
  author = {Mukherjee P1, Sarkar D, Sharma A.},
  title = {Effects of dietary consumption of black tea infusion alone and in combination with known clastogens on mouse bone marrow chromosomes in vivo.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {35(7)},
  pages = {657-61}
}
Murthy RC, Junaid M, Saxena DK Ovarian dysfunction in mice following chromium (VI) exposure. 1996 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 89(2), pp. 147-54 
article  
Abstract: Chromium (VI) was given through drinking water in two sets of adult Swiss albino female mice in three doses; 250 ppm, 500 ppm and 750 ppm for 20 days in set 1 and 0.05 ppm, 0.5 ppm and 5.0 ppm in set II for 90 days. At the termination of the treatment, the animals of both the sets were euthanized for histopathology, follicle counting, counting of the superovulated ova, duration of estrus cycle and for ultrastructural studies. Ovaries of the highest dose group (750 ppm) showed large numbers of atretic follicles and congestion in stromal tissue compared to the rest of the treated groups. Also, there was a dose-dependent reduction in the number of follicles at different stages of their maturation. The number of ova recovered from superovulated chromium (VI)-treated animals showed significant decreases in the 500 and 750 ppm dosed groups compared to lower dosed (250 ppm) and control groups. The duration of estrus cycle increased in highest dosed (750 ppm) group. A dose-dependent increase in blood chromium level was also seen in treated mice. Ultrastructural observations revealed disintegrated cell membranes of two layered follicular cells and altered villiform mitochondria in thecal cells of 5 ppm dosed group. From the study it was concluded that ovarian physiology and rate of ovulation might be altered if females are exposed to sufficiently high chromium through oral route.
BibTeX:
@article{MurthyRC11996,
  author = {Murthy RC1, Junaid M, Saxena DK},
  title = {Ovarian dysfunction in mice following chromium (VI) exposure.},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {89(2)},
  pages = {147-54}
}
Nagaraj G, Sukumar A, Nandlal B, Vellaichamy S, Thanasekaran K, Ramanathan AL Tooth element levels indicating exposure profiles in diabetic and hypertensive subjects from Mysore, India. 2009 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 131(3), pp. 255-62 
article DOI  
Abstract: Element contents of teeth elucidate exposure nature, but less is known about association of tooth element concentrations of diabetics and hypertensives with exposure profile. Present study aims to estimate copper, chromium, iron, zinc, nickel, and lead concentrations in the permanent teeth of control, diabetic, and hypertensive subjects from Mysore. The results show that lead levels of teeth (Pb-T) are higher in the hypertensives and diabetics, whereas copper levels of teeth (Cu-T) are lower in the hypertensives and users of stainless steel utensils than that of controls and users of mixed utensils. The elevated Cu-T levels found in the users of mixed utensils that being made of several metals are ascribed to leaching effect of sour and spicy food of Indian cuisine. The element levels were influenced by diet (Zn-T), place of living, sex and income (Pb-T) of the subjects, but not by age, drinking water from different sources, and certain habits viz., smoking, alcohol consumption, chewing betel, and nut. Thus, it is evident that high Pb-T and low Cu-T levels may be related with diabetes and hypertension and high Pb-T and Cu-T levels, respectively, in the urbanites, and the users of mixed utensils may show different exposure profiles from environment and utensils.
BibTeX:
@article{NagarajG12009,
  author = {Nagaraj G1, Sukumar A, Nandlal B, Vellaichamy S, Thanasekaran K, Ramanathan AL},
  title = {Tooth element levels indicating exposure profiles in diabetic and hypertensive subjects from Mysore, India.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {131(3)},
  pages = {255-62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-009-8371-4}
}
Nagpure NS1, Srivastava R, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Srivastava SK, Kumar P, Dabas A Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822). 2015 Drug Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 38(1, pp. 9-15 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of sublethal concentrations of hexavalent chromium (potassium dichromate) in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. The 96?h LC50 value of potassium dichromate estimated was 118?mg?L(-1) by probit analysis using SPSS (version 16.0) software. Based on 96?h LC50 value, three sublethal test concentrations of potassium dichromate (29.5, 59.0 and 88.5?mg?L(-)(1)) were selected and specimens were exposed in vivo to these test concentrations for 96?h. The mutagenic and genotoxic effects of potassium dichromate were evaluated in gill and blood cells using micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay. In general, significant (p ? < ? 0.05) effects due to the concentrations and the exposure durations were observed in exposed specimens. The MN induction was highest at 96?h at all the test concentrations in the peripheral blood. A similar trend was observed for the DNA damage, measured in terms of percentage of tail DNA, in erythrocyte and gill cells. The study indicated hazardous effect of the hexavalent chromium to fish and other aquatic organisms and indirectly to human beings.
BibTeX:
@article{NagpureNS12015,
  author = {Nagpure NS1, Srivastava R, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Srivastava SK, Kumar P, Dabas A.},
  title = {Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {38(1},
  pages = {9-15},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2014.900066}
}
Naik UC, Das MT, Sauran S, Thakur IS Assessment of in vitro cyto/genotoxicity of sequentially treated electroplating effluent on the human hepatocarcinoma HuH-7 cell line. 2014 Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen., pp. 9-16.  article DOI  
Abstract: The present study compares in vitro toxicity of electroplating effluent after the batch treatment process with that obtained after the sequential treatment process. Activated charcoal prepared from sugarcane bagasse through chemical carbonization, and tolerant indigenous bacteria, Bacillus sp. strain IST105, were used individually and sequentially for the treatment of electroplating effluent. The sequential treatment involving activated charcoal followed by bacterial treatment removed 99% of Cr(VI) compared with the batch processes, which removed 40% (charcoal) and 75% (bacteria), respectively. Post-treatment in vitro cyto/genotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT test and the comet assay in human HuH-7 hepatocarcinoma cells. The sequentially treated sample showed an increase in LC50 value with a 6-fold decrease in comet-assay DNA migration compared with that of untreated samples. A significant decrease in DNA migration and an increase in LC50 value of treated effluent proved the higher effectiveness of the sequential treatment process over the individual batch processes.
BibTeX:
@article{NaikUC12014,
  author = {Naik UC1, Das MT2, Sauran S3, Thakur IS4.},
  title = {Assessment of in vitro cyto/genotoxicity of sequentially treated electroplating effluent on the human hepatocarcinoma HuH-7 cell line.},
  journal = {Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen.},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {9-16.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2013.12.006}
}
Nath K, Saini S, Sharma YK Chromium in tannery industry effluent and its effect on plant metabolism and growth. 2005 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 26(2), pp. 197-204. 
article  
Abstract: Different dilution levels of tannery treated effluent and their corresponding concentration of chromium (Cr6+) were studied in a petridish culture experiment on seed germination and seedling growth in radish (Raphanus sativus L). The different concentrations of Cr6+ (2, 5 and 10 ppm) and treated tannery effluent (10, 25 and 50%) showed reduction in seedling growth and related enzymatic activities with increase in concentration of Cr6+ in treatments and effluent both. The low concentration of chromium (2 ppm) and effluent dilution (10%) showed significant growth reduction separately. At this concentration of chromium and effluent dilution chlorophyll content, amylase, catalase and protein contents remained unchanged while with increase in Cr6+ concentration (>2ppm) and effluent dilution (> 10%) in treatments showed growth inhibitory effects.
BibTeX:
@article{NathK12005,
  author = {Nath K1, Saini S, Sharma YK.},
  title = {Chromium in tannery industry effluent and its effect on plant metabolism and growth.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {26(2)},
  pages = {197-204.}
}
Nath R, Prasad R, Palinal VK, Chopra RK Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity. 1984 Prog Food Nutr Sci.
Vol. 8(1-2), pp. 109-63 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs and kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.
BibTeX:
@article{NathR1984,
  author = {Nath R, Prasad R, Palinal VK, Chopra RK.},
  title = {Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity.},
  journal = {Prog Food Nutr Sci.},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {8(1-2)},
  pages = {109-63}
}
Vadas P Group II phospholipases A2 are indirectly cytolytic in the presence of exogenous phospholipid. 1997 Biochim Biophys Acta.
Vol. 1346(2), pp. 193-7 
article  
Abstract: Systemic inflammatory response syndromes including septic shock and salicylate poisoning are associated with high circulating levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2). In septic shock, sPLA2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multisystem organ failure, presumably by a direct cytotoxic effect on cells. The cytotoxicity of recombinant human sPLA2 and a venom PLA2 were examined on human erythrocytes, erythroleukemia cells and U937 cells. Neither the human nor venom PLA2's were directly injurious to target cells. However, in the presence of liposomal phospholipids, both PLA2's induced irreversible cell injury. Whereas venom PLA2 was cytolytic in the presence of either phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), rh-sPLA2 caused cell death only in the presence of PE. These data show that normal unperturbed cells are resistant to injury from PLA2, and that additional cofactors such as PE are required to induce cell injury.
BibTeX:
@article{P11997,
  author = {Vadas P1},
  title = {Group II phospholipases A2 are indirectly cytolytic in the presence of exogenous phospholipid.},
  journal = {Biochim Biophys Acta.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {1346(2)},
  pages = {193-7}
}
Pandey AK, Pandey SD, Misra V, Srimal AK Removal of chromium and reduction of toxicity to Microtox system from tannery effluent by the use of calcium alginate beads containing humic acid. 2003 Chemosphere.
Vol. 51(4), pp. 329-33 
article  
Abstract: Removal of chromium (Cr) from tannery effluents by recovery of metal also reduces the ecotoxicological impact. To develop such a process, columns packed with calcium alginate (CA) beads with or without humic acid (HA) have been used as an adsorbent and tannery effluent was passed through it. Concentration of Cr in beads and in different fractions collected after adsorption was measured. Change in total organic carbon content during the process was also noticed. The fractions were also tested for toxicity towards Microtox assay. EC(50) values were determined with the help of Microtox analyser 500. Data showed that the CA beads along with HA could be effectively utilised in removal of 54% Cr and also in reducing thetoxicity (EC(50) (%) in 5 min=>100 in fractions collected after 72 h).
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyAK12003,
  author = {Pandey AK1, Pandey SD, Misra V, Srimal AK.},
  title = {Removal of chromium and reduction of toxicity to Microtox system from tannery effluent by the use of calcium alginate beads containing humic acid.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {51(4)},
  pages = {329-33}
}
Pandi M, Shashirekha V, Swamy M Bioabsorption of chromium from retan chrome liquor by cyanobacteria. 2009 Microbiol Res.
Vol. 164(4), pp. 420-8 
article  
Abstract: The bioaccumulation of chromium from retan chrome liquor by Spirulina fusiformis was investigated under laboratory as well as field conditions. At the optimal conditions, metal ion uptake increased with initial metal ion concentration up to 300mg/l. The effect on various physico-chemical parameters like total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorides, sulphates, phenols, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical studies related to biomass, chlorophyll-a and protein were also carried out. The present study indicates that S. fusiformis is very effective in removal of chromium (93-99%) besides removing other toxicants from retan chrome liquor. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and FTIR studies indicate the interaction/complexation between Cr and alga. The mechanism involved in bioaccumulation ofchromium is also discussed. The process when upgraded can be applied for detoxification of tannery effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{PandiM12009,
  author = {Pandi M1, Shashirekha V, Swamy M.},
  title = {Bioabsorption of chromium from retan chrome liquor by cyanobacteria.},
  journal = {Microbiol Res.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {164(4)},
  pages = {420-8}
}
Poongothai K, Shayin S, Usharani MV Induction of micronuclei in fish by polluted water and heavy metals. 1996 Cytobios.
Vol. 86(344), pp. 17-22 
article  
Abstract: Induction of micronuclei in five different species of fish from polluted sewage water and in fish exposed to heavy metals was investigated. The frequency of micronuclei was statistically significant in both the groups and among the five species tested, Lepidocephalus was found to be highly sensitive.
BibTeX:
@article{PoongothaiK11996,
  author = {Poongothai K1, Shayin S, Usharani MV.},
  title = {Induction of micronuclei in fish by polluted water and heavy metals.},
  journal = {Cytobios.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {86(344)},
  pages = {17-22}
}
Rai UN, Singh NK, Upadhyay AK, Verma S Chromate tolerance and accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris L.: role of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in detoxification of metals. 2013 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 604-9, pp. 136 
article DOI  
Abstract: A concentration-dependent increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase) and carotenoid, MDA level have been observed in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris following chromium exposure at different concentrations (0.01-100 ?g ml(-1)). Simultaneously, decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll and protein contents was observed. In case of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase a bell shaped dose response was evident, however, lipid peroxidation followed a linear relationship along with catalase activity, which could be used as biomarker of Cr toxicity and played important role in providing tolerance and subsequently, high accumulation potential of chromium in C. vulgaris. In present investigation, the green alga C. vulgaris respond better under chromium stress in terms of tolerance, growth and metal accumulating potential at higher concentration of Cr (VI) which could be employed in decontamination of chromium for environmental cleanup.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiUN12013,
  author = {Rai UN1, Singh NK, Upadhyay AK, Verma S.},
  title = {Chromate tolerance and accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris L.: role of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical changes in detoxification of metals.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {604-9},
  pages = {136},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.043}
}
Raja NS, Sankaranarayanan K, Dhathathreyan A, Nair BU Interaction of chromium(III) complexes with model lipid bilayers: implications on cellular uptake 2011 Biochim Biophys Acta
Vol. 1808(1):, pp. 332-40 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{RajaNS12011,
  author = {Raja NS1, Sankaranarayanan K, Dhathathreyan A, Nair BU.},
  title = {Interaction of chromium(III) complexes with model lipid bilayers: implications on cellular uptake},
  journal = {Biochim Biophys Acta},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {1808(1):},
  pages = {332-40},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2010.09.015}
}
Rajaram R, Nair BU, Ramasami T Chromium(III) induced abnormalities in human lymphocyte cell proliferation: evidence for apoptosis. 1995 Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
Vol. 210(2), pp. 434-40 
article  
Abstract: The occupational hazards and respiratory problems of workers associated with the chromium related industries like mining, electroplating and tanning have received much focus. Although the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of common chromium(VI) compounds are now established, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of apoptosis (programmed cell death) caused by a set of Cr(III) complexes in human lymphocyte cells. The effects of five Cr(III) complexes with differing ligand environment and structure as well as K2Cr2O7 on Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) induced lymphocyte cell proliferation have been investigated. Two of the Cr(III) complexes and K2Cr2O7 are found to cause apoptosis of lymphocytes but not the others. A case for the importance of species specific effects rather than non specific metal oxidation state dependent processes has now been made.
BibTeX:
@article{RajaramR11995,
  author = {Rajaram R1, Nair BU, Ramasami T.},
  title = {Chromium(III) induced abnormalities in human lymphocyte cell proliferation: evidence for apoptosis.},
  journal = {Biochem Biophys Res Commun.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {210(2)},
  pages = {434-40}
}
Rajkumar B, Sharma GD, Paul AK Isolation and characterization of heavy metal resistant bacteria from Barak River contaminated with pulp paper mill effluent, South Assam. 2012 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 89(2):, pp. 263-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: A group of 15 heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from Barak River contaminated with paper and pulp effluents. These isolates displayed different degrees of chromium tolerance. Four isolates showed 34 %-49 % of growth at a concentration of 4.0 mM of Cr(6+) and subjected to chromium reduction assay under aerobic condition. The isolate E (4) showed highest reduction (34.38 %) followed by E (3) and K(6)PA6, both showed 28.75 % reduction and then D (2) (27.5 %) after 72 h of incubation. These 4 isolates also showed different degrees of resistance to other heavy metals like Ni, Cu, Co and Cd. Antibiotic sensitivity profile of these selected bacterial strains was determined against 10 different antibiotics. Isolate E (4) appeared to be most susceptible being inhibited by eight antibiotics and resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. The isolate E (3) was resistant to as many as five antibiotics and showed susceptible responses to the rest of the antibiotics. Both the isolates K(6)PA6 and D (2) were resistant to four antibiotics and showed intermediate to susceptible responses to the rest of the antibiotics.
BibTeX:
@article{RajkumarB12012,
  author = {Rajkumar B1, Sharma GD, Paul AK.},
  title = {Isolation and characterization of heavy metal resistant bacteria from Barak River contaminated with pulp paper mill effluent, South Assam.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {89(2):},
  pages = {263-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0675-y}
}
Ramamoorthy S, Morgan K Physicochemical speciation of toxic fractions of wastewaters. 1983 Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 3(2), pp. 172-7 
article  
Abstract: A physicochemical speciation scheme in tandem with bioassays identified the toxic fractions of the wastewater from a base metal refining and fertilizer complex. The toxic fractions were the leachates from suspended solids, purgeables, and bound metals of the dissolved fraction. Most of the metals were bound to macrosolutes of Mr greater than 30,000 and exchangeable by cation- and weak anion-exchange resins. In contrast, total chromium and surfactants were bound strongly to microsolutes of Mr less than 1500, removable only by strong anion-exchange resin.
BibTeX:
@article{RamamoorthyS1983,
  author = {Ramamoorthy S, Morgan K.},
  title = {Physicochemical speciation of toxic fractions of wastewaters.},
  journal = {Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {3(2)},
  pages = {172-7}
}
Rathore RS, Khangarot BS Effects of temperature on the sensitivity of sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller to selected heavy metals. 2002 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 53(1), pp. 27-36 
article  
Abstract: The present study evaluates the effect of temperature on the sensitivity of the freshwater tubificid sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller to 10 heavy metal ions. Metals used in this study were cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, and zinc. The acute toxicity of these heavy metals was studied at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. The percentage mortality, relative toxicity, and EC50 values and their 95% confidence limits from 24 to 96 h were determined at varying temperatures. The EC50 values (mg/liter) of metal ions at 15 degrees C were Hg2+, 0.034; Cu2+, 0.340; Cr6+, 1.846; Zn2+, 10.99; Ni2+, 25.10; Cd2+, 56; Fe3+, 86.09; Co2+, 239.39; Pb2+, 456.76; and Mn2+, 164.55. At 30 degrees C the values were Hg2+, 0.014; Cu2+, 0.031; Cr6+, 0.872; Zn2+, 3.37; Ni2+, 18; Cd2+, 28.55; Fe3+, 71.26; Co2+, 95.35; Pb2+, 165.22; and Mn2+, 239.39. The results indicate that the acute toxicity of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc increases with temperature increase. The toxicity of manganese was not influenced by temperature, and temperature had little effect on iron toxicity. The rank order of toxicity of metal ions at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C is presented and discussed. It is concluded that temperature is an important factor in short-term acute toxicitytests. The study indicates that seasonal temperature changes are an important variable in determining the amount of heavy metals that may be safely released from metal industries and other similar sources into the aquatic environment. Influence of temperature on the short- and long-term toxicity of chemicals should be considered for establishing appropriate water-quality criteria and standards to protect aquatic flora and fauna and human health.
BibTeX:
@article{RathoreRS12002,
  author = {Rathore RS1, Khangarot BS},
  title = {Effects of temperature on the sensitivity of sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller to selected heavy metals.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {53(1)},
  pages = {27-36}
}
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. Final rule. 2006 Fed Regist.
Vol. 71(39), pp. 10099-385. 
article  
Abstract: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending the existing standard which limits occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). OSHA has determined based upon the best evidence currently available that at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Cr(VI), workers face a significant risk to material impairment of their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to Cr(VI) are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The record also indicates that occupational exposure to Cr(VI) may result in asthma, and damage to the nasal epithelia and skin. The final rule establishes an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure limit of 5 micrograms of Cr(VI) per cubic meter of air (5 [mu]g/cu m). This is a considerable reduction from the previous PEL of 1 milligram per 10 cubic meters of air (1 mg/10 cu m, or 100 [mu]g/cu m) reported as CrO3, which is equivalent to a limit of 52 [mu]g/cu m as Cr(VI). The final rule also contains ancillary provisions for worker protection such as requirements for exposure determination, preferred exposure control methods, including a compliance alternative for a small sector for which the new PEL is infeasible, respiratory protection, protective clothing and equipment, hygiene areas and practices, medical surveillance, recordkeeping, and start-up dates that include four years for the implementation of engineering controls to meet the PEL. The final standard separately regulates general industry, construction, and shipyards in order to tailor requirements to the unique circumstances found in each of these sectors. The PEL established by this rule reduces the significant risk posed to workers by occupational exposure to Cr(VI) to the maximum extent that is technologically and economically feasible.
BibTeX:
@article{Safety2006,
  author = {Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor.},
  title = {Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. Final rule.},
  journal = {Fed Regist.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {71(39)},
  pages = {10099-385.}
}
Saikia SK, Gupta R, Pant A, Pandey R Genetic revelation of hexavalent chromium toxicity using Caenorhabditis elegans as a biosensor. 2014 J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol.
Vol. 24(2):, pp. 180-4 
article  
Abstract: The interaction of heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI) with the environment drastically influences living organisms leading to an ecological imbalance. Caenorhabditis elegans, a saprophytic nematode having 60-80% homology with human genes offers a distinct advantage to be used as a biosensor for the appraisal of heavy metal-induced environmental toxicity and risk monitoring. The present study examines the toxicity effects of K2Cr2O7 as Cr (VI) on stress-related gene expression and morphometric parameters of C. elegans under in vitro conditions to identify genetic markers for environmental pollution. Alterations in growth and modified gene expression were observed in Cr (VI)-exposed N2 worms. The 24-h median lethal concentration for Cr (VI) was observed as 158.5?mgl(-1). Use of the responses of stress-related gene expression suggests that C. elegans can be used as an efficient biosensor for figuring out the precise route of Cr (VI)-induced environmental toxicity in a quick, simple, and inexpensive manner.
BibTeX:
@article{SaikiaSK12014,
  author = {Saikia SK1, Gupta R1, Pant A1, Pandey R1},
  title = {Genetic revelation of hexavalent chromium toxicity using Caenorhabditis elegans as a biosensor.},
  journal = {J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {24(2):},
  pages = {180-4}
}
Saini P, Khan S, Baunthiyal M, Sharma V Organ-wise accumulation of fluoride in Prosopis juliflora and its potential for phytoremediation of fluoride contaminated soil. 2012 Chemosphere.
Vol. Chemosphere., pp. 633-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Fluoride (F) contamination is a global environmental problem, as there is no cure of fluorosis available yet. Prosopis juliflora is a leguminous perennial, phreatophyte tree, widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of world. It extensively grows in F endemic areas of Rajasthan (India) and has been known as a "green" solution to decontaminate cadmium, chromium and copper contaminated soils. This study aims to check the tolerance potential of P. juliflora to accumulate fluoride. For this work, P. juliflora seedlings were grown for 75 d on soilrite under five different concentrations of F viz., control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg NaF kg(-1). Organ-wise accumulation of F, bioaccumulation factor (BF), translocation factor (TF), growth ratio (GR) and F tolerance index (TI) were examined. Plant accumulated high amounts of F in roots. The organ-wise distribution showed an accumulation 4.41 mg kg(-1)dw, 12.97 mg kg(-1)dw and 16.75 mg kg(-1)dw F, in stem, leaves and roots respectively. The results indicated significant translocation of F from root into aerial parts. The bioaccumulation and translocation factor values (>1.0) showed high accumulation efficiency and tolerance of P. juliflora to F. It is concluded that P. juliflora is a suitable candidate for phytoremediation purpose and can be explored further for the decontamination of F polluted soils.
BibTeX:
@article{SainiP12012,
  author = {Saini P1, Khan S, Baunthiyal M, Sharma V.},
  title = {Organ-wise accumulation of fluoride in Prosopis juliflora and its potential for phytoremediation of fluoride contaminated soil.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {Chemosphere.},
  pages = {633-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.034}
}
Sastry KV, Tyagi S Toxic effects of chromium in a freshwater teleost fish, Channa punctatus. 1982 Toxicol Lett.
Vol. 11(1-2), pp. 17-21 
article  
Abstract: The effect of in vivo exposure to a sublethal concentration of hexavalent chromium for 30 days on blood glucose, blood liver and muscle lactic acid; haemoglobin, liver and muscle glycogen; and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PHD) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in liver, muscle, kidney, gills and brain has been studied. Blood glucose and lactic acid levels were elevated. Liver glycogen was depleted but muscle glycogen content increase. The activities of LDH and SDH in liver were elevate. Elevation was also observed in muscle LDH and PDH activities, showing that the rate of glycolysis is increased. No change was noted in haemoglobin content of blood or in the activities of the three dehydrogenases in kidney and gills.
BibTeX:
@article{SastryKV1982,
  author = {Sastry KV, Tyagi S.},
  title = {Toxic effects of chromium in a freshwater teleost fish, Channa punctatus.},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {11(1-2)},
  pages = {17-21}
}
Sastry TP, Sehgal RK, Ramasami T Value added eco-friendly products from tannery solid wastes. 2005 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 47(4), pp. 250-5 
article  
Abstract: Chrome shavings are the prominent solid wastes in tanning industry. Since chromium is known for its toxicity, the disposal of chrome shavings has been identified as a serious problem from the environmental point of view. At present, the popular utilization mode for chrome shavings is the manufacture of leather boards and related products. But this does not offer complete utilization of chrome shavings. Moreover, return per ton of chrome shavings is low if used for leather board production. In view of this, two processes have been developed to offer an alternative and better solution for the disposal of chrome shavings. The first process is preparation of parchment like membrane and the second process is related to development of leather like material. These products are analyzed for their mechanical behavior and other physicochemical properties. Parchment membrane can be used in the preparation of lampshades, chandeliers, wall hangers, table tops etc. and leather like material can be used in the preparation of chappal uppers, hand bags, purses, valets etc. The utilization of the chrome shavings in preparation of those two products not only reduces the environmental pollution but at the same time value added products can also be obtained.
BibTeX:
@article{SastryTP12005,
  author = {Sastry TP1, Sehgal RK, Ramasami T},
  title = {Value added eco-friendly products from tannery solid wastes.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {47(4)},
  pages = {250-5}
}
Saxena DK, Murthy RC, Lal B, Srivastava RS, Chandra SV Effect of hexavalent chromium on testicular maturation in the rat. 1990 Reprod Toxicol.
Vol. 4(3), pp. 223-8 
article  
Abstract: Daily intraperitoneal administration of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+; 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally as potassium dichromate) in weaned rats for an entire duration of 55 and 90 days of age produced dose- and duration-dependent enzymatic and pathologic alterations. At 55 days, the pathologic changes were not seen in testes of Cr6+ treated rats, but the activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly altered. When the treatment was prolonged to sexual maturity, that is, 90 days of age, the alterations in enzyme activities were greater, and there were dose-dependent pathologic changes in the testes of Cr(6+)-treated rats. These alterations suggest a risk to growing testes if rats are exposed to Cr6+ during the prepubertal stage of development, which, in turn, may disturb normal testicular physiology at adulthood.
BibTeX:
@article{SaxenaDK11990,
  author = {Saxena DK1, Murthy RC, Lal B, Srivastava RS, Chandra SV.},
  title = {Effect of hexavalent chromium on testicular maturation in the rat.},
  journal = {Reprod Toxicol.},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {4(3)},
  pages = {223-8}
}
Selvakumari G, Murugesan M, Pattabi S, Sathishkumar M Treatment of electroplating industry effluent using maize cob carbon. 2002 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 195-202, pp. 69(2) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SelvakumariG12002,
  author = {Selvakumari G1, Murugesan M, Pattabi S, Sathishkumar M.},
  title = {Treatment of electroplating industry effluent using maize cob carbon.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {195-202},
  pages = {69(2)}
}
Shanker AK1, Djanaguiraman M, Venkateswarlu B Chromium interactions in plants: current status and future strategies. 2009 Metallomics.
Vol. 1(5, pp. 375-83 
article DOI  
Abstract: Chromium has received relatively little attention from plant scientists compared to other heavy metals in recent times in spite of it being a very a hazardous environmental pollutant. One of the reasons for this is the complexity of the metal's interactions with biological systems and the difficulty in studying them. Although the possible mode of entry into the plants, resultant toxicity mechanisms and tolerance potential has been worked out in plants there is still a need to get a complete picture of the Cr-plant interactome. With the advent of hyphenated technologies and global gene/protein and metabolite expression/quantification techniques, studies to elucidate the complete metallome are possible albeit resource intensive. This minireview focuses on the recent developments in the field of Cr-plant interactions and proposes a model using a systems biology and integrated -omics approach to decipher the intricacies of Cr-plant interaction.
BibTeX:
@article{ShankerAK12009,
  author = {Shanker AK1, Djanaguiraman M, Venkateswarlu B.},
  title = {Chromium interactions in plants: current status and future strategies.},
  journal = {Metallomics.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {1(5},
  pages = {375-83},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b904571f}
}
Shara M, Yasmin T, Kincaid AE, Limpach AL, Bartz J, Brenneman KA, Chatterjee A, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ, Bagchi D Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel niacin-bound chromium (III) complex. 2005 J Inorg Biochem.
Vol. 99(11), pp. 2161-83 
article  
Abstract: Chromium is an essential trace element required for normal protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. It also helps in energy production and increasing lean body mass. Niacin-bound chromium (NBC) is a unique form of bioavailable chromium that promotes healthy lipid profile. This study was focused on determining the broad spectrum safety of NBC. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicities of NBC were evaluated. Ames bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse lymphoma test and a dose-dependent 90-day subchronic toxicity were also conducted. In safety studies, the acute oral LD(50) of NBC was found to be greater then 5000 mg/kg in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. No changes in body weight or adverse effects were observed following necropsy. The acute dermal LD(50) of NBC was found to be >2000 mg/kg. The primary skin irritation test was conducted with NBC on New Zealand Albino rabbits. NBC was classified as slightly irritating. The primary eye irritation test was conducted with NBC on rabbits. NBC was classified as practically non-irritating to the eye. NBC did not induce mutagenic effects in the bacterial reverse mutation test in five Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA1535, TA98, TA100, TA97a and TA102), either with or without metabolic activation. Similarly, NBC did not induce mutagenic effects in the mammalian cell gene mutation test in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells TK (+/-), either with or without metabolic activation. A dose-dependent 90-day subchronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in selected organ weights individually and as percentages of body and brain weights. NBC supplementation did not cause changes in hepatic lipid peroxidation or DNA fragmentation after 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. Hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathological evaluations did not show any adverse effects in all organs tested. Taken together, the above results indicate a broad spectrum of safety for NBC.
BibTeX:
@article{SharaM12005,
  author = {Shara M1, Yasmin T, Kincaid AE, Limpach AL, Bartz J, Brenneman KA, Chatterjee A, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ, Bagchi D},
  title = {Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel niacin-bound chromium (III) complex.},
  journal = {J Inorg Biochem.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {99(11)},
  pages = {2161-83}
}
Sharma A, Shukla AK, Mishra M, Chowdhuri DK Validation and application of Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model for the detection of double strand breaks by neutral Comet assay. 2011 Mutat Res., pp. 142-6  article DOI  
Abstract: Comet assay under neutral conditions allows detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which has consequence to genome instability and carcinogenesis. The present study aims to validate the neutral Comet assay for genotoxicity assessment in Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon R(+)) with three well known DSBs inducers i.e. cyclophosphamide (CP), bleomycin (BLM), cisplatin (CPT) and subsequently its efficacy in detecting DSBs in the organism exposed to a well known environmental chemical, chromium [Cr(VI)]. Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster were fed different concentrations of BLM, CPT and CP (50.0-200.0?g/ml) or Cr(VI) (5.0-20.0?g/ml) mixed standard Drosophila food for 48h. Neutral Comet assay was performed in cells of mid gut and brain from control and treated larvae. Our results show a dose-dependent increase in the migration of DNA in cells of the exposed organisms. A comparison among DNA lesions per mole number of the test chemical in the exposed groups showed that both BLM and CPT induce more DSBs than CP. Interestingly, Cr(VI) at 20.0?g/ml was found to induce significantly increased (p<0.001) DSBs in the exposed organism as compared to the control. The study while validating neutral Comet assay in D. melanogaster suggests its use for in vivo assessment of environmental chemical induced DSBs.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaA12011,
  author = {Sharma A1, Shukla AK, Mishra M, Chowdhuri DK.},
  title = {Validation and application of Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model for the detection of double strand breaks by neutral Comet assay.},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {142-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.01.010}
}
Sharma V, Chaudhari PR, Satyanarayan S Toxicity assessment of free form of heavy metals in aqueous media on earthworm Eudrillus eugeniae. 2011 Sharma V1, Chaudhari PR, Satyanarayan S.
Vol. 63(10):, pp. 2434-45. 
article  
Abstract: Metals are found in free and also in combined forms. In order to get information on the effect of free forms of heavy metals on earthworms the aqueous extracts of metals were tested on earthworms both in individual form and also in combined form. Different concentrations, i.e. 1 ppm, 5 ppm, and 10 ppm, were selected arbitrarily and were used in the experiments. Metals like copper, cadmium, chromium, zinc and lead were used. Earthworms' Eudrillus eugeniae activity, i.e. their response to the toxicity of metals, was monitored continuously for 5 h. It can be concluded that free form/ionic form/dissolved form of heavy metals are more toxic for earthworms, concurrent with findings of workers who have drawn same inference during studies on aquatic organisms. Earthworms can serve as biomarkers for wastewater and sludge treatment studies as they have shown typical adverse body reactions and symptoms altogether different in reaction to each of the metals during aqueous medium studies. It can be inferred that, if earthworms are utilised for treating wastewater and sludges containing these five heavy metals, one can ascertain the presence of individual metal concentrations in the wastewaters and sludges by studying the typical body reactions of earthworms during the treatment.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaV12011,
  author = {Sharma V1, Chaudhari PR, Satyanarayan S.},
  title = {Toxicity assessment of free form of heavy metals in aqueous media on earthworm Eudrillus eugeniae.},
  journal = {Sharma V1, Chaudhari PR, Satyanarayan S.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {63(10):},
  pages = {2434-45.}
}
Shrivastava HY, Nair BU Protein degradation by peroxide catalyzed by chromium (III): role of coordinated ligand. 2000 Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
Vol. 270(3), pp. 749-54 
article  
Abstract: In order to understand the role of coordinated ligands in controlling the biotoxicity of chromium (III), interactions of three types of chromium (III) complexes viz. trans-diaquo [1,2 bis (salicyledeneamino) ethane chromium (III) perchlorate, [(Cr(salen)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4)); tris (ethylenediamine) chromium (III) chloride, [Cr(en)(3)]Cl(3), and monosodium ethylene diamine tetraacetato monoaquo chromiate (III), [Cr(EDTA)(H(2)O)]Na with BSA has been investigated. Spectroscopic and equilibrium dialysis studies show that the two cationic complexes Cr(salen)(H(2)O)(+)(2) and Cr(en)(3+)(3) bind to the protein with a protein-metal ratio of 1:8 and 1:4. The anionic complex Cr(EDTA)(H(2)O)(-) binds to the protein with a protein-metal ratio of 1:2. The binding constant K(b) as estimated from the fluorescence quenching studies has been found to be 7.6 +/- 0.4 x 10(3) M(-1), 3.1 +/- 0.2 x 10(2) M(-1), and 1.8 +/- 0.2 x 10(2) M(-1) for Cr(salen)(H(2)O)(+)(2), Cr(en)(3+)(3), and Cr(EDTA)(H(2)O)(-) respectively indicating that the thermodynamic stability of protein-chromium complex is Cr(salen)(H(2)O)(+)(2) > Cr(en)(3+)(3) approximately Cr(EDTA)(H(2)O)(-). The complexes Cr(salen)(H(2)O)(+)(2) and Cr(EDTA)(H(2)O)(-) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide have been found to bring about protein degradation, whereas Cr(en)(3+)(3) does not bring about any protein damage. This clearly shows that the nature of the chromium (III) complex plays a major role in the biotoxicity of chromium (III).
BibTeX:
@article{ShrivastavaHY12000,
  author = {Shrivastava HY1, Nair BU},
  title = {Protein degradation by peroxide catalyzed by chromium (III): role of coordinated ligand.},
  journal = {Biochem Biophys Res Commun.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {270(3)},
  pages = {749-54}
}
Shrivastava HY, Ravikumar T, Shanmugasundaram N, Babu M, Unni Nair B Cytotoxicity studies of chromium(III) complexes on human dermal fibroblasts. 2005 Free Radic Biol Med.
Vol. 38(1), pp. 58-69 
article  
Abstract: The cytotoxicity of certain Cr(III) complexes, such as [Cr(salen)(H(2)O)(2)](+), [Cr(edta)(H(2)O)](-), [Cr(en)(3)](3+), [Cr(ox)(3)](3-), [Cr(pic)(3)], and CrCl(3), which differ in ionic character and ligand environment in human dermal skin fibroblasts, has been studied. After 72 h of exposure to 100 microM doses of chromium(III) complexes, the order in which the complexes had an inhibitory effect on cell viability was [Cr(en)(3)](3+) > [Cr(salen)(H(2)O)(2)](+) > [Cr(ox)(3)](3-) > [Cr(edta)(H(2)O)](-) > [Cr(pic)(3)] > CrCl(3). Based on viability studies it was confirmed that [Cr(en)(3)](3+), a triply charged cation, inhibits cell proliferation, and therefore, it was chosen to carry out further investigations. [Cr(en)(3)](3+), at a dose of 50 microM, was found to bring about surface morphological changes, evidenced by cellular blebbing and spike formation accompanied by nuclear damage. TEM analysis revealed substantial intracellular damage to fibroblasts in terms of the formation of apoptotic bodies and chromatin condensation, thus reflecting cell death. FACS analysis further revealed DNA damage by formation of a sub-G(1) peak with 84.2% DNA as aneuploid DNA and arrest of the G(2) / M phase of the cell cycle. Cellular DNA damage was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis with the characteristic appearance of a DNA streak in DNA isolated from [Cr(en)(3)](3+)-treated fibroblasts. The proposed mechanism suggests the plausible role of Cr(V), formed as a result of oxidation of Cr(III) by cellular oxidative enzymes, in the cytotoxic response. Consequently, any Cr(III) complex that is absorbed by cells and can be oxidized to Cr(V) must be considered a potential carcinogen. This has potential implications for the increased use of Cr(III) complexes as dietary supplements and highlights the need to consider the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a variety of Cr(III) complexes and to understand the potential hazards of Cr(III) complexes encountered in research laboratories.
BibTeX:
@article{ShrivastavaHY12005,
  author = {Shrivastava HY1, Ravikumar T, Shanmugasundaram N, Babu M, Unni Nair B},
  title = {Cytotoxicity studies of chromium(III) complexes on human dermal fibroblasts.},
  journal = {Free Radic Biol Med.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {38(1)},
  pages = {58-69}
}
Shrivastava R, Upreti RK, Seth PK, Chaturvedi UC Effects of chromium on the immune system 2002 FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol.
Vol. 34(1), pp. 1-7 
article  
Abstract: Chromium is a naturally occurring heavy metal found commonly in the environment in trivalent, Cr(III), and hexavalent, Cr(VI), forms. Cr(VI) compounds have been declared as a potent occupational carcinogen among workers in chrome plating, stainless steel, and pigment industries. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) results in the formation of reactive intermediates that together with oxidative stress oxidative tissue damage and a cascade of cellular events including modulation of apoptosis regulatory gene p53, contribute to the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI)-containing compounds. On the other hand, chromium is an essential nutrient required to promote the action of insulin in body tissues so that the body can use sugars, proteins and fats. Chromium is of significant importance in altering the immune response by immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive processes as shown by its effects on T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, cytokine production and the immune response that may induce hypersensitivity reactions. This review gives an overview of the effects of chromium on the immune system of the body.
BibTeX:
@article{ShrivastavaR12002,
  author = {Shrivastava R1, Upreti RK, Seth PK, Chaturvedi UC.},
  title = {Effects of chromium on the immune system},
  journal = {FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {34(1)},
  pages = {1-7}
}
Singh H, Purnell E, Smith C Mechanistic study on aniline-induced erythrocyte toxicity. 2007 Arh Hig Rada Toksikol.
Vol. 58(3), pp. 275-85 
article  
Abstract: Strategies for the use of bio-indicators in the prediction of environmental damage should include mechanistic research. This study involves the relationship between the chemical structure and hemotoxic markers of aniline and its halogenated analogs. Aniline-induced methemoglobinemia, loss of circulating blood cells, blood stability, glutathione depletion and membrane cytoskeletal changes were assessed following exposure to phenylhydroxylamine (PHA), para-fluoro-, para-bromo-, and para-iodo in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methemoglobin was determined spectrophotometrically at 635 nm. Erythrocyte depletion was investigated by loss of radioactivity inchromium-labeled red blood cells in vivo. Membrane proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE using red blood ghost cells treated with various aniline analogs. Results showed dose- and time-dependent changes in the induction of methemoglobin of up to 78% with para-bromo PHA and 75% with para-iodo PHA compared to 3% to 5% in control. Treated animals lost up to three times more blood from circulation compared to control within 14 days after treatment. Erythrocytes were more stable in buffer solution than in para-iodo-treated cells. Depletion of reduced glutathione in PHA and para-iodo-PHA treated red cells was also observed. Analysis of red cell skeletal membrane treated with para-iodo-PHA showed that protein band 2.1 became broader and band 2.2 diminished completely in some treatments. Dose- and time-dependent changes suggested the use of hemotoxic endpoints as potential biomarkers for assessing chemical and drug safety.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghH12007,
  author = {Singh H1, Purnell E, Smith C.},
  title = {Mechanistic study on aniline-induced erythrocyte toxicity.},
  journal = {Arh Hig Rada Toksikol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {58(3)},
  pages = {275-85}
}
Singh IB, Singh DR Cr(VI) removal in acidic aqueous solution using iron-bearing industrial solid wastes and their stabilisation with cement. 2002 Environ Technol.
Vol. 23(1), pp. 85-95 
article  
Abstract: In this study, iron-bearing industrial solid wastes iron filings, ETP sludge of steel and red mud of aluminium industries; were used for Cr(VI) removal at pH 3. A complete removal of Cr(VI) was found for initial 10 mg 1(-1) of 100 ml solutions in the presence of 2.5 g iron filings, 8 g ETP sludge and 10 g red mud for up to one hour of shaking at room temperature. After Cr(VI) removal, inclusion of chromium on the reacted iron filing surface was demonstrated by EDAX analysis. Leachability of chromium and iron from the reacted wastes was determined by using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This test showed a very low level of leachability of chromium as Cr(III) and iron from the reacted wastes. To minimise their leachability further, Cr(VI)-reacted solid wastes were stabilised with Portland cement in their 3:1 ratio. Leachability tests of stabilised wastes by TCLP indicated a considerable decrease in leachability of chromium and iron compared with the that of reacted wastes alone. To explore the possibility of utilisation in building materials, bricks of cement-mixed Cr(VI)-reacted wastes were made and their comprehensive strength, durability and leachability under immersion conditions were measured.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghIB12002,
  author = {Singh IB1, Singh DR.},
  title = {Cr(VI) removal in acidic aqueous solution using iron-bearing industrial solid wastes and their stabilisation with cement.},
  journal = {Environ Technol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {23(1)},
  pages = {85-95}
}
Singh KP, Mohan D, Sinha S, Dalwani R Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area. 2004 Chemosphere.
Vol. 55(2), pp. 227-55 
article  
Abstract: Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and outlet points of the plants during peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours. The impact of the treated wastewater toxicants (metals and pesticides) on the environmental quality of the disposal area was assessed in terms of their levels in different media samples viz., water, soil, crops, vegetation, and food grains. The data generated show elevated levels of metals and pesticides in all the environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. The critical levels of the heavy metals in the soil for agricultural crops are found to be much higher than those observed in the study areas receiving no effluents. The sludge from the STPs has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture as it is loaded with high levels of toxic heavy metals and pesticides, but also enriched with several useful ingredients such as N, P, and K providing fertilizer values. The sludge studied had cadmium, chromium and nickel levels above tolerable levels as prescribed for agricultural and lands application. Bio-monitoring of the metals and pesticides levels in the human blood and urine of the different population groups under study areas was undertaken. All the different approaches indicated a considerable risk and impact of heavy metals and pesticides on human health in the exposed areas receiving the wastewater from the STPs.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghKP12004,
  author = {Singh KP1, Mohan D, Sinha S, Dalwani R},
  title = {Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {55(2)},
  pages = {227-55}
}
Sinha S, Gupta AK, Bhatt K Uptake and translocation of metals in fenugreek grown on soil amended with tannery sludge: involvement of antioxidants. 2007 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 67(2), pp. 267-77 
article  
Abstract: Agricultural and industrial activities cause heavy metal pollution in the soil, which adversely affect the plant growing therein. The plants of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) were grown in soil amended with different percent of tannery sludge (TS) (10%, 25%, 35%, 50%, and 100% TS) in order to study the effect on antioxidant levels due to translocation of metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb). The accumulation of the metals was found more in shoots than roots, except Fe and Cr. The level of metals in seeds of the plant increased with increase in sludge amendments ratio except Mn, which decreased in roots, shoots, and seeds of the plant. Chromium was found below detection limits in the seeds at 10% and 25% TS. Correlation coefficient (r) between total metal accumulation and extractable metals showed that Zn (P<0.01), Cr (P<0.01), and Cu (P<0.05) are significantly correlated, whereas, correlation with pH showed significant positive relation with all the studied metals except Mn. Significant positive correlation was recorded between metal accumulation (Fe, Zn, Cu) and electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic matter, however, Zn, Cr, and Cu showed significant positive correlation with bulk density, nitrate, ammonia, and available phosphorus. The analysis of the results showed that total chlorophyll content showed significant (P< 0.5) increase in lower amendment of sludge (up to 35% TS at 30 d and 25% TS at 60 d) as over their controls. In roots, malondialdehyde, cysteine, non-protein thiol, proline, protein, ascorbic acid contents increased up to 35% TS at 30 d. Principal component analysis also showed that strong association exists among malondialdehyde, nonprotein thiol, protein, and cysteine contents in the plants grown on different amendments of TS. The level of antioxidants increased which enabled the plant to cope up the stress induced in the plants grown on lower amendments of TS, however, toxicity was observed at higher amendments.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaS12007,
  author = {Sinha S1, Gupta AK, Bhatt K.},
  title = {Uptake and translocation of metals in fenugreek grown on soil amended with tannery sludge: involvement of antioxidants.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {67(2)},
  pages = {267-77}
}
Sinha S, Singh S, Mallick S, Sinam G Role of antioxidants in Cr tolerance of three crop plants: Metal accumulation in seeds. 2009 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 72(4):, pp. 1111-21 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pot experiments were conducted on three crop plants (Vigna radiata cv. PDM54, V. radiata cv. NM1, Brassica juncea cv. vaibhav) which were grown on six different tannery sludge (TS) amendments. The translocation of Cr to the seeds was found to be higher in B. juncea than the two cultivars of V. radiata, and their levels were below detectable limits in all the three plants grown on lower amendments of tannery sludge (T10 and T25). There was a gradual increase in protein content and antioxidant levels in all the plants grown on lower sludge amendments. However, the levels of all the antioxidants were higher in B. juncea than the two cultivars of V. radiata. The increase in malondialdehyde content of B. juncea was lower than the two cultivars of V. radiata as compared to their respective controls. Overall, the plants of B. juncea have shown better tolerance than both the cultivars of V. radiata.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaS12009,
  author = {Sinha S1, Singh S, Mallick S, Sinam G.},
  title = {Role of antioxidants in Cr tolerance of three crop plants: Metal accumulation in seeds.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {72(4):},
  pages = {1111-21},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.09.024}
}
Soni SK, Singh R, Awasthi A, Kalra A A Cr(VI)-reducing Microbacterium sp. strain SUCR140 enhances growth and yield of Zea mays in Cr(VI) amended soil through reduced chromium toxicity and improves colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. 2014 Soni SK1, Singh R, Awasthi A, Kalra A.
Vol. 21(3), pp. 1971-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pot culture experiments were conducted in a glasshouse to evaluate the effects of four efficient Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strains (SUCR44, SUCR140, SUCR186, and SUCR188) isolated from rhizospheric soil, and four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF-Glomus mosseae, G. aggregatum, G. fasciculatum, and G. intraradices) alone or in combination, on Zea mays in artificially Cr(VI)-amended soil. Presence of a strain of Microbacterium sp. SUCR140 reduced the chromate toxicity resulting in improved growth and yields of plants compared to control. The bioavailability of Cr(VI) in soil and its uptake by the plant reduced significantly in SUCR140-treated plants; the effects of AMF, however, either alone or in presence of SUCR140 were not significant. On the other hand, presence of AMF significantly restricted the transport of chromium from root to the aerial parts of plants. The populations of AMF chlamydospores in soil and its root colonization improved in presence of SUCR140. This study demonstrates the usefulness of an efficient Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strain SUCR140 in improving yields probably through reducing toxicity to plants by lowering bioavailability and uptake of Cr(VI) and improving nutrient availability through increased mycorrhizal colonization which also restricted the transport of chromium to the aerial parts.
BibTeX:
@article{SoniSK12014,
  author = {Soni SK1, Singh R, Awasthi A, Kalra A.},
  title = {A Cr(VI)-reducing Microbacterium sp. strain SUCR140 enhances growth and yield of Zea mays in Cr(VI) amended soil through reduced chromium toxicity and improves colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.},
  journal = {Soni SK1, Singh R, Awasthi A, Kalra A.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(3)},
  pages = {1971-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2098-7}
}
Srinivas CR, Sundaram VS, Selvaraj K Reducing the allergenic hexavalent chromium in leather to hypoallergenic trivalent chromium for prevention of leather dermatitis 2007 Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol.
Vol. 73(6), pp. 428-9 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SrinivasCR2007,
  author = {Srinivas CR, Sundaram VS, Selvaraj K},
  title = {Reducing the allergenic hexavalent chromium in leather to hypoallergenic trivalent chromium for prevention of leather dermatitis},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {73(6)},
  pages = {428-9}
}
Srinivas CR, Sundaram VS, Selvaraj K Reducing the allergenic hexavalent chromium in leather to hypoallergenic trivalent chromium for prevention of leather dermatitis. 2007 Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
Vol. 73(6), pp. 428-9 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SrinivasCR2007a,
  author = {Srinivas CR, Sundaram VS, Selvaraj K.},
  title = {Reducing the allergenic hexavalent chromium in leather to hypoallergenic trivalent chromium for prevention of leather dermatitis.},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {73(6)},
  pages = {428-9}
}
Srivastava AK, Gupta BN, Mathur N, Rastogi SK, Garg N, Chandra SV Blood chromium and nickel in relation to respiratory symptoms among industrial workers. 1992 Vet Hum Toxicol.
Vol. 34(3), pp. 232-4 
article  
Abstract: Seventy-eight workers exposed to fumes and dust of nickel and chromium in their occupation in the glass industry were studied for respiratory symptoms in relation to nickel and chromium concentrations in their blood. A significant (p less than 0.01) association was observed between respiratory symptoms and elevated blood nickel and chromium. An interaction between nickel and chromium was found in relation to the prevalence of respiratory symptoms.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaAK11992,
  author = {Srivastava AK1, Gupta BN, Mathur N, Rastogi SK, Garg N, Chandra SV.},
  title = {Blood chromium and nickel in relation to respiratory symptoms among industrial workers.},
  journal = {Vet Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {34(3)},
  pages = {232-4}
}
Srivastava R, Kumar D, Gupta SK Municipal sludge-induced phytotoxicity. 2005 Altern Lab Anim.
Vol. 33(5), pp. 501-8 
article  
Abstract: Municipal sludge (MS), containing various types of environmental pollutants, can exert phytotoxic effects in plants. Seed germination, chlorophyll content, plant weight, root and shoot growth, and metal levels, were measured as endpoints to assess the phytotoxic effects of leachates of MS from Lucknow city in three plants, Triticum aestivum, Brassica campestris and Phaseolus aureus. Among the five metals analysed, lead was found to be present at the highest concentration, and chromium at the lowest. Aqueous MS leachates had lower amounts of metals than pure MS. Seed germination was inhibited significantly in all three plants. The greatest inhibition of root and shoot growth was observed in B. campestris and T. aestivum. Total chlorophyll was depleted in all three plants, but the maximum depletion was observed in T.aestivum exposed to 10% leachate. Symptoms such as necrosis, leaf discoloration and root curling were also observed after exposure to 10% leachate, and plant weight was reduced significantly. It is evident that MS from Lucknow city exerted phytotoxic effects on all three test plant species.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaR12005,
  author = {Srivastava R1, Kumar D, Gupta SK.},
  title = {Municipal sludge-induced phytotoxicity.},
  journal = {Altern Lab Anim.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {33(5)},
  pages = {501-8}
}
Srivastava S1, Jain R In-situ monitoring of chromium cytotoxicity in sugarcane. 2011 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 32(6), pp. 759-63. 
article  
Abstract: The potential of in-situ monitoring of cytotoxic effects of chromium through root-tip assay was studied in a sugarcane cultivar CoLk 8102 (Saccharum spp. hybrid). Sugarcane setts supplied with graded concentrations of chromium (VI), exhibited a reduction of 85.92 and 95.10 % in mean root length at 40 and 80 ppm Cr dosages along with 61.25 and 82.50% reduction in mean root number/node respectively. Mitotic index of root tip cells of treated setts declined and the frequency of aberrant mitotic phases increased pari passu to the increasing chromium concentration. To compare and quantify the effect of graded chromium dosages on frequency of chromosome aberrations vis-à-vis inhibition of mitotic activity, a 'Decretion factor' (D.F.) has been used for the first time. The value of DF increased with the increase in the chromium dosages. The increase in chromosome aberration frequency was low at low chromium dosages (1 or 2 ppm), but the high Cr dosages (40 and 80 ppm), induced sharp reduction in mitotic efficiency of root system along with anomalies in the process of cell division and induced chromosome aberrations in sugarcane root meristem, which in turn affected the over all plant growth
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaS12011,
  author = {Srivastava S1, Jain R.},
  title = {In-situ monitoring of chromium cytotoxicity in sugarcane.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {32(6)},
  pages = {759-63.}
}
Srivastava S, Kumar N, Thakur RS, Roy P Role of vanadium (V) in the differentiation of C3H10t1/2 cells towards osteoblast lineage: a comparative analysis with other trace elements. 2013 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 152(1):, pp. 135-42 
article DOI  
Abstract: In recent time, vanadium compounds are being used as antidiabetic drug and in orthopedic implants. However, the exact role of this incorporated vanadium in improving the quality of bone structure and morphology is not known. The impact of vanadium ion was studied and compared to other trace metal ions with respect to the proliferation and osteoblast differentiation of C3H10t1/2 cells. Toxicity profile of these trace metal ions revealed a descending toxicity trend of Fe(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cu(2+) > Co(2+) > Mn(2+) > V(5+) > Cr(2+). The effect of vanadium and other trace metal ions on osteoblast differentiation was evaluated by culturing the cells for 10 days in osteoblastic medium supplemented with different trace ions at concentrations lower than their cytotoxic doses. The results indicated that vanadium has maximum impact on the induction of osteoblast differentiation by upregulating alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization by up to 145 and 150 %, respectively (p ? < ?0.05), over control. Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) had a mild inhibitory effect, while Mn(2+), Fe(2+), and Co(2+) demonstrated a clear decrease in osteoblast differentiation when compared to the control. The data as presented here demonstrate that orthopedic implants, if supplemented with trace metals like vanadium, may provide a source of better model for bone formation and its turnover.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaS12013,
  author = {Srivastava S1, Kumar N, Thakur RS, Roy P.},
  title = {Role of vanadium (V) in the differentiation of C3H10t1/2 cells towards osteoblast lineage: a comparative analysis with other trace elements.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {152(1):},
  pages = {135-42},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-013-9602-2}
}
Anand SS Protective effect of vitamin B6 in chromium-induced oxidative stress in liver. 2005 J Appl Toxicol.
Vol. 25(5), pp. :440-3 
article  
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of vitamin B6 against chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress. Adult male albino Wistar rats (100-120 g) were used in this study. Potassium dichromate, a Cr VI compound, was administered at a dose of 127 mg kg(-1) p.o. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride) was administered at a dose of 100 mg kg(-1) p.o. either alone or 12 h prior to Cr or simultaneously with Cr. Chromium treatment induced oxidative stress in the liver as measured by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR). Both pre- and simultaneous treatments countered Cr-induced oxidative stress; pre-treatment was more effective than concurrent administration. The results demonstrate the antioxidant potential of vitamin B6.
BibTeX:
@article{An2005,
  author = {Anand SS1},
  title = {Protective effect of vitamin B6 in chromium-induced oxidative stress in liver.},
  journal = {J Appl Toxicol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {25(5)},
  pages = {:440-3}
}
Subashini P, Manavalaramanujam R, Ramesh M, Geetha N Changes in selected biomarkers in freshwater teleost fish, Cyprinus carpio var. communis exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium sulphate toxicity. 2005 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 47(1), pp. 65-8 
article  
Abstract: The toxicity of chromium sulphate on plasma electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-) level and Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity of an economically important fish, Cyprinus carpio var. communis was evaluated. During sublethal treatment, plasma sodium level was increased, whereas plasma chloride level decreased throughout the experimental period. Plasma potassium level increased upto 10th day and then declined in the rest of the study period. The Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity decreased upto 15th day of treatment and slowly recovered showing significant increase upto 25th day of treatment. The significant changes in the plasma electrolytes levels and Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity can serve as a valuable biomarker of pollutant exposure and effects.
BibTeX:
@article{SubashiniP12005,
  author = {Subashini P1, Manavalaramanujam R, Ramesh M, Geetha N.},
  title = {Changes in selected biomarkers in freshwater teleost fish, Cyprinus carpio var. communis exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium sulphate toxicity.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {47(1)},
  pages = {65-8}
}
Sugden KD, Campo CK, Martin BD Direct oxidation of guanine and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in DNA by a high-valent chromiumcomplex: a possible mechanism for chromate genotoxicity. 2001 Chem Res Toxicol.
Vol. 14(9), pp. 1315-22 
article  
Abstract: Intracellular reductive activation of the human carcinogen chromate, Cr(VI), is a necessary step in the formation of DNA lesions that lead to cancer. Reductive activation forms the transient metastable high-valent oxidation state of Cr(V) as a precursor to the final intracellularly stable oxidation state, Cr(III). In this study, we have used a model high-valent Cr(V) complex, N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneanimato)oxochromium(V), Cr(V)-Salen, to probe the mechanism of interaction between this oxidation state of chromium and DNA. This interaction was found to be specific toward the oxidation of the nucleic acid base guanine in unmodified single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides as measured by an increased level of DNA strand cleavage at these sites following piperidine treatment. Replacement of a single guanine residue in DNA with a more readily oxidized 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G) base allowed for site-specific oxidation at this modified site within the DNA strand by the Cr(V)-Salen complex. HPLC and ESI-mass spectrometry were used to identify the modified guanine base lesions formed in the reaction of this high-valent chromium complex with the 8-oxo-G-containing DNA substrate. Two of these modified base lesions, identified as guanidinohydantoin and spiroiminodihydantoin, were found in the reaction of the Cr(V)-Salen complex with 8-oxo-G-modified DNA, while only one, spiroiminodihydantoin, was formed from oxidation of the 8-oxo-G nucleoside. A primer extension assay using the exo(-) Klenow fragment demonstrated polymerase arrest at the site of these base modifications as well as a high degree of misincorporation of adenine opposite the site of modification. These results suggest that mutations arising from G --> T transversions would predominate with these lesions. The mechanism of damage and base oxidation products for the interaction between high-valent chromium and DNA described herein may be relevant to the in vivo formation of DNA damage leading to cancer in chromate-exposed human populations. These results also suggest how high-valent chromium can act as a cocarcinogen with 8-oxo-G-forming xenobiotics.
BibTeX:
@article{SugdenKD12001,
  author = {Sugden KD1, Campo CK, Martin BD.},
  title = {Direct oxidation of guanine and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in DNA by a high-valent chromiumcomplex: a possible mechanism for chromate genotoxicity.},
  journal = {Chem Res Toxicol.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {14(9)},
  pages = {1315-22}
}
Sunilkumar MN, Ajith TA, Parvathy VK Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning in a 2 year-old child. 2014 Indian J Crit Care Med.
Vol. 18(11), pp. 757-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Hexavalent chromium compounds are most commonly used in printing, dyeing, plastics and rayon manufacturing. Poisoning in children by ammonium dichromate, an odorless and bright orange-red crystal, are rarely reported. Acute poisoning will result in death due to multi-organ failure. The target organs that are affected by this poison are the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, eyes and skin. On ingestion, initially there is a relative lack of severe symptoms and signs. Hence, the delay in seeking medical attention could lead to the increased rate of mortality. In this case study, we report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child. Despite appropriate management, such as hepatic supportive measures and plasma transfusion, the toxicity progressed to multi-organ failure and death.
BibTeX:
@article{SunilkumarMN12014,
  author = {Sunilkumar MN1, Ajith TA2, Parvathy VK},
  title = {Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning in a 2 year-old child.},
  journal = {Indian J Crit Care Med.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {18(11)},
  pages = {757-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-5229.144024}
}
Kimura T Molecular mechanism involved in chromium(VI) toxicity 2007 Yakugaku Zasshi
Vol. 127(12), pp. 1957-65 
article  
Abstract: Chromium exists in many different oxidation states in the environment, Cr(VI) and Cr(III) being the most stable forms. Chromium has been known for over 100 years to be a human carcinogen. The greatest risk of cancer from chromium exposure is associated with Cr(VI). Cr(VI) enters cells via the sulfate anion transporter system and is reduced to intermediate oxidation states, such as Cr(V) and Cr(IV), in the process of forming stable Cr(III) forms. It is known that Cr(VI) affects expression of various genes. Metal responsive element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) is involved in sensing heavy metal load and the induced transcription of several protective genes, including metallothionein (MT)-I, MT-II, zinc transporter-1, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Cr(VI) inhibits zinc-induced MT transcription via modifying transactivation potential of MTF-1. However, the molecular mechanism for the Cr(VI)-mediated inhibition of MTF-1 has not been fully elucidated. In this review, I briefly summarize the previous studies and discuss the current status of research on Cr(VI) toxicity and Cr(VI)-mediated inhibition against transcription.
BibTeX:
@article{T12007,
  author = {Kimura T1},
  title = {Molecular mechanism involved in chromium(VI) toxicity},
  journal = {Yakugaku Zasshi},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {127(12)},
  pages = {1957-65}
}
Tewari A, Gupta SK DNA damage in bone marrow and blood cells of mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates. 2006 Environ Mol Mutagen.
Vol. 47(4), pp. 271-6 
article  
Abstract: Leachates of municipal solid waste from unsecured disposal sites contaminate sources of potable water and affect human health. In the present study, we have used the Comet assay to evaluate the DNA damage in mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates. Ten percent leachates were prepared from municipal sludge obtained from two different disposal drains. Male Swiss albino mice were treated daily with 0.1-0.4 ml of the leachates by oral gavage for 15 days, and the DNA damage was evaluated in bone marrow and blood using Olive tail moment, % tail DNA, and tail length as measures of DNA damage. Physicochemical and metal analysis of the leachates detected the presence of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc, as well as elevated concentrations of sulfate and nitrate. Both of the leachates produced significant dose-responsive increases in DNA damage in both mouse tissues. There were no significant differences in the responses for any of the Comet endpoints between tissues (for the same leachate sample) or between leachate samples (for the same tissue). The results of this study indicate that municipal waste leachates produce DNA damage in vivo.
BibTeX:
@article{TewariA12006,
  author = {Tewari A1, Gupta SK},
  title = {DNA damage in bone marrow and blood cells of mice exposed to municipal sludge leachates.},
  journal = {Environ Mol Mutagen.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {47(4)},
  pages = {271-6}
}
Tikare SN, Yendigeri S, Gupta AD, Dhundasi SA, Das KK Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on hematology and erythrocyte antioxidant defense system of albino rats exposed to heavy metals (nickel II & chromium VI). 2012 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.
Vol. 56(2), pp. 137-46 
article  
Abstract: Heavy metals are stable environmental contaminants, causing various alterations in target tissues. Garlic has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal induced various alteration. The objective was to investigate the possible protective role of fresh aqueous homogenate of garlic on hematology, erythrocyte antioxidant defense system in male albino rats treated with NiSO4 and K2Cr2O7. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was untreated control. Group II was given aqueous homogenate of garlic (orally). Group III was administered with nickel sulfate (i.p). Group IV was given NiSO4 and garlic simultaneously. Group V was administered with K2Cr2O7 (i.p). Group VI were treated simultaneously with K2Cr2O7 and garlic. RBC, WBC, platelet count, PCV%, hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly and clotting time increased significantly after nickel treatment. After chromium treatment all the values decreased except clotting time. Increased malondialdehyde and glutathione level after nickel and chromium treatment was observed. Also erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities significantly increased after nickel and chromium treatment. Simultaneous garlic supplementation exhibited protective role to combat nickel toxicity, whereas no such beneficial effects were observed for chromium (VI). Garlic may partially prevent nickel and chromium induced alteration but such ameliorated effects as an antioxidant is only restricted on nickel induced alteration.
BibTeX:
@article{TikareSN12012,
  author = {Tikare SN1, Yendigeri S, Gupta AD, Dhundasi SA, Das KK.},
  title = {Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on hematology and erythrocyte antioxidant defense system of albino rats exposed to heavy metals (nickel II & chromium VI).},
  journal = {Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {56(2)},
  pages = {137-46}
}
Trivedi B, Saxena DK, Murthy RC, Chandra SV Embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity of orally administered hexavalent chromium in mice. 1989 Reprod Toxicol.
Vol. 3(4), pp. 275-8 
article  
Abstract: The embryotoxic and fetotoxic potential of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in mice was investigated by administering 250, 500, and 1000 ppm of potassium dichromate daily through drinking water during the entire gestation period. An increase in embryonic deaths was observed; however, in the mothers treated with the highest dose, there was complete absence of implantation sites. No major abnormality was observed in the fetuses except that Cr+6 exposure increased the incidences and types of external and skeletal malformations. It is concluded that oral exposure to Cr+6 causes dose-dependent embryolethal effects in mice.
BibTeX:
@article{TrivediB11989,
  author = {Trivedi B1, Saxena DK, Murthy RC, Chandra SV.},
  title = {Embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity of orally administered hexavalent chromium in mice.},
  journal = {Reprod Toxicol.},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {3(4)},
  pages = {275-8}
}
Upreti RK, Shrivastava R, Chaturvedi UC Gut microflora & toxic metals: chromium as a model. 2004 Indian J Med Res.
Vol. 119(2), pp. 49-59 
article  
Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is exposed to various environmental pollutants including metals, that contaminate food and water which may have toxic effects on body. GIT has large amount of microbes that live in symbiosis and help the host in different ways. The resident gut microflora have a significant role to play in detoxification and elimination of the harmful metals from the body. Chromium is a naturally occurring heavy metal found commonly in environment in trivalent (Cr III) and hexavalent (Cr VI) forms. Cr (VI) compounds have been shown to be potent occupational carcinogens. The reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) results in the formation of reactive intermediates that together with oxidative stress and oxidative tissue damage, and a cascade of cellular events including modulation of apoptosis regulatory gene p53 contribute to the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI)-containing compounds. The data discussed here with reference to chromium show that gut microflora have a marked capacity to cope with the increased load of ingested metals and may contribute significantly in the protection against metal toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{UpretiRK12004,
  author = {Upreti RK1, Shrivastava R, Chaturvedi UC.},
  title = {Gut microflora & toxic metals: chromium as a model.},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {119(2)},
  pages = {49-59}
}
Vaidyanathan VG, Asthana Y, Nair BU Importance of ligand structure in DNA/protein binding, mutagenicity, excision repair and nutritional aspects of chromium(III) complexes. 2013 Dalton Trans
Vol. 42(7), pp. 2337-46 
article DOI  
Abstract: Chromium is extensively used in leather, chrome plating and refining industries. On one hand the occupational exposure to chromium leads to cancer, whereas on the contrary certain Cr(III) compounds have been proposed as nutritional supplements for Type II diabetes and as muscle building agents. Despite the positive outlook of chromium as a bio-essential element, there is increasing concern over the therapeutic application of Cr(III) based supplements, its bioavailability and toxicity profile. In this perspective, we discuss the role of ligand structure in mediating the interaction of chromium(III) complexes with DNA/protein, their mutagenic outcomes, adduct reparability and as nutritional supplements.
BibTeX:
@article{VaidyanathanVG12013,
  author = {Vaidyanathan VG1, Asthana Y, Nair BU.},
  title = {Importance of ligand structure in DNA/protein binding, mutagenicity, excision repair and nutritional aspects of chromium(III) complexes.},
  journal = {Dalton Trans},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {42(7)},
  pages = {2337-46},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2dt32124f}
}
Vandana S, Ram S, Ilavazhagan M, Kumar GD, Banerjee PK Comparative cytoprotective activity of vitamin C, E and beta-carotene against chromium induced oxidative stress in murine macrophages. 2006 Biomed Pharmacother.
Vol. 60(2), pp. 71-6 
article  
Abstract: The present study reports the cytoprotective efficacy of vitamin C, E and beta-carotene against chromium (VI) induced oxidative stress in murine macrophages. Addition of chromium (VI) resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity as revealed by fall in neutral red uptake and increase in LDH release compared to control cells. Further there was an appreciable increase in apoptosis, ROS production and fall in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Chromium also inhibited macrophage proliferation and phagocytic activity. Addition of vitamin C but not vitamin E and beta-carotene inhibited chromium induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation and apoptosis. Vitamin C significantly inhibited NO production, enhanced macrophage proliferation and phagocytic activity while vitamin E and beta-carotene had marginal effect.
BibTeX:
@article{VandanaS12006,
  author = {Vandana S1, Ram S, Ilavazhagan M, Kumar GD, Banerjee PK.},
  title = {Comparative cytoprotective activity of vitamin C, E and beta-carotene against chromium induced oxidative stress in murine macrophages.},
  journal = {Biomed Pharmacother.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {60(2)},
  pages = {71-6}
}
Vaseem H, Banerjee TK Contamination of metals in different tissues of rohu (Labeo rohita, Cyprinidae) collected from the Indian River Ganga. 2013 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 91(1), pp. 36-41 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the present paper, accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) was determined in different tissues (skin, muscles, liver, gills, kidney and brain) of rohu (Labeo rohita) collected from the River Ganga in Varanasi, India. Concentrations of Cu (except gills), Fe and Cr (except brain for Cr) in most of the tissues were above the permissible safe limits for human consumption suggested by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO 1983). Concentrations of all metals were higher in River Ganga fish than those from the University fish farm. With the exception of Zn in skin, muscle and brain tissue, the studied metals were bioaccumulated in all tissues. The total metal accumulation or metal pollution index was highest in liver (20.8 ± 0.50) followed by kidney (16.8 ± 0.44), gills (15.2 ± 0.15), muscles (12.1 ± 0.08), skin (10.5 ± 0.53) and brain (7.0 ± 0.02).
BibTeX:
@article{VaseemH12013,
  author = {Vaseem H1, Banerjee TK.},
  title = {Contamination of metals in different tissues of rohu (Labeo rohita, Cyprinidae) collected from the Indian River Ganga.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {91(1)},
  pages = {36-41},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-013-1003-x}
}
Verma T, Ramteke PW, Garg SK Occurrence of chromium resistant thermotolerant coliforms in tannery effluent. 2004 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 42(11), pp. 1112-6 
article  
Abstract: Twenty six thermotolerant strains resistant to high levels of chromium (50-250 microg/ml) were isolated from treated tannery effluent. They were also found resistant to multiple heavy metals and antibiotics. Majority of them were resistant to copper and bacitracin. Nine strains representing different resistance patterns were selected for plasmid profile and conjugation studies. Agarose gel electrophoresis results revealed that 6 strains harboured a single plasmid, whereas 3 strains exhibited 2 plasmid bands. Among antimicrobials, co-trimazole and bacitracin and among metals, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ resistance were transferred most frequently at variable rates. However, chromium resistance was transferred in 6 strains with a frequency ranging 19-49x10(-2). Resistance to Co2+ and Hg2+ did not transfer under environmental conditions. Among the nine strains, three were found predominantly uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) serotype 04, whereas two strains were untypable. In addition, 4 transconjugants also showed a positive result after serotyping.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaT12004,
  author = {Verma T1, Ramteke PW, Garg SK},
  title = {Occurrence of chromium resistant thermotolerant coliforms in tannery effluent.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {42(11)},
  pages = {1112-6}
}
Virk S, Kaur K Impact of mixture of nickel and chromium on the protein content of flesh and liver of Cyprinus carpio during spawning and post-spawning phases. 1999 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 63(4), pp. 499-502 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{VirkS11999,
  author = {Virk S1, Kaur K.},
  title = {Impact of mixture of nickel and chromium on the protein content of flesh and liver of Cyprinus carpio during spawning and post-spawning phases.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {63(4)},
  pages = {499-502}
}