Bibliography : Industrial Effluents

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Das Sharma S, Sujatha D Characterization of the water chemistry, sediment (13)C and (18)O compositions of Kolleru Lake-a Ramsar wetland in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2016 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 188(7), pp. 409 
article DOI  
Abstract: The chemistry of surface water sampled at different locations of the Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh (India) show heterogeneous variability. The concentrations of dissolved sodium and chloride ions, total dissolved solids (TDS) together with high conductivity documented in water samples are indicative of mixing of saline seawater. This interpretation is further corroborated by enriched ?(18)O compositions of the carbonate fraction of the surface sediments collected at the same locations (as that of water) of the lake, and fairly good positive correlations of ?(18)O -Na(+) and ?(18)O-TDS. The saline water intrusion into the lake appears to be resulted due to its near stagnant to dry condition with reduced inflow and outflow. Such dry condition facilitated seawater intrusion into the lake due to several reasons: (i) proximity of lake to the sea (~35 km), (ii) overexploitation of fresh groundwater for agriculture as well as livestock farming, and (iii) incursion of tidal seawater (high sea waves) through Upputeru River, which is directly linked to the sea. We also document highly heterogeneous distribution of certain potentially toxic metal ions like chromium, copper, manganese, and zinc in the lake waters. Indiscriminate disposal of domestic and industrial effluents around the lake appears to be responsible for the presence of potentially toxic heavy metals. Based on these results, we finally suggest some measures for environmental rehabilitation of the lake and its surroundings.
BibTeX:
@article{DasSharmaS2016,
  author = {Das Sharma S, Sujatha D},
  title = {Characterization of the water chemistry, sediment (13)C and (18)O compositions of Kolleru Lake-a Ramsar wetland in Andhra Pradesh, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {188(7)},
  pages = {409},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5425-x}
}
Devi P, Saroha AK Risk assessment and technical feasibility of usage of paper mill sludge biochar-based exhausted adsorbent for geopolymeric brick formation. 2016 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.  article DOI  
Abstract: Risk assessment and technical feasibility of brick formation from exhausted paper mill sludge derived biochar obtained after its use as an adsorbent for the treatment of effluent containing pentachlorophenol was studied. The bricks were prepared by geopolymerization mechanism in presence of sodium hydroxide, and the extent of geopolymerization was determined on the basis of crystal structure, surface functionalities, and surface morphology of the bricks. The preparation parameters (sodium hydroxide dosage, initial water and calcium carbonate content and curing temperature) were optimized and the results were analyzed in terms of compressive strength, water absorption, and abrasion index. Risk assessment of heavy metals was performed to determine the contamination level and overall hazard index of the biochar-based geopolymer bricks. Hazard quotient and hazard index were calculated to assess the overall non-carcinogenic risk posed by selected heavy metals via ingestion and dermal contact. The leaching potential of heavy metal and pentachlorophenol from the biochar-based geopolymer bricks was also determined. The results showed that the biochar-based geopolymer bricks showed good mechanical properties and the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate falls within the permissible limits prescribed by Indian Standards for Industrial and Sewage Effluents Discharge (inland surface water).
BibTeX:
@article{DeviP2016,
  author = {Devi P, Saroha AK},
  title = {Risk assessment and technical feasibility of usage of paper mill sludge biochar-based exhausted adsorbent for geopolymeric brick formation.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7343-4}
}
Dudhagara DR, Rajpara RK, Bhatt JK, Gosai HB, Sachaniya BK, Dave BP Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in historically contaminated surface sediments at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat, India. 2016 Environ Pollut.
Vol. 213, pp. 338-46 
article DOI  
Abstract: The concentration, distribution and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been investigated in surface sediments near Bhavnagar coast. The concentration of ?PAHs ranged from 5.02 to 981.18 ?g g(-1) dry weight, indicating heavy pollution compared to other historically polluted study sites. It was found to be introduced via mixed origins such as burning of gas, oil, coal, production of petrochemicals, cement, and rubber tires. Domestic fuel burning and motor vehicles are also culprits for air pollution. Industrial effluents and accidental oil spillage can also be considered. PAHs can be exposed through air, water, soil and food sources including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal content in both occupational and non-occupational levels by single or sometimes multiple exposures routes concomitantly. Furthermore, diagnostic ratios, statistical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) models have confirmed that the sources of PAHs were both - petrogenic and pyrogenic. For both the sites, assessment of ecological risk of the elevated levels of these pollutants has been exercised based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and risk quotient (RQ) methods. The composite results indicated accurately that both the sites, bears potentially acute and chronic health hazards such as decreased immune functionality, genotoxicity, malignancy and developmental malfunctions in humans. The sites studied here and the workers have been exposed to hazardous pollutants for a longer period of time. Evidences indicate that mixtures of PAHs are carcinogenic to humans, based on occupational studies on workers, exposed to these pollutants. Hence, the present study and statistical approaches applied herein clearly indicate the historic mix routes of PAHs that resulted in magnified concentrations leading to high ecosystem risk. Thus, the scientific communities are urged to develop strategies to minimize the concentrations of PAHs from the historically impacted coastlines, thereby concerning for the future investigations and restoration of these sites.
BibTeX:
@article{DudhagaraDR2016,
  author = {Dudhagara DR, Rajpara RK, Bhatt JK, Gosai HB, Sachaniya BK, Dave BP},
  title = {Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of PAHs in historically contaminated surface sediments at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat, India.},
  journal = {Environ Pollut.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {213},
  pages = {338-46},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.02.030}
}
Giri DR, Singh E, Satyanarayan S Comparative study on toxicity evaluation of anaerobically treated parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater through fish bioassay. 2016 Water Sci Technol.
Vol. 73(8), pp. 1825-31 
article DOI  
Abstract: Short term aquatic bioassay has been developed into a useful tool in water quality management. These tests give information on comparative toxicity of several compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of raw and anaerobically treated effluents of the parboiled rice manufacturing industry. The acute toxicity test was carried out by using the fish Lebistes reticulatus under laboratory conditions. LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between 4.6 and 7.0% for the raw parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater. Two anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactors and two different media matrices, i.e. UV stabilized Biopac media and Fugino spirals, were used for the treatment of parboiled rice mill wastewater. Effluents from these two reactors depicted LC50 values in the range of 68-88% and 62-78% for Biopac and Fugino spiral packed reactors, respectively. From the results, it is evident that anaerobically treated effluents from Biopac packed reactor is marginally better than Fugino spiral packed reactor. Results subjected to statistical evaluation depicted regression coefficient of more than 0.9 indicating good correlation between the mortality and effluent concentration.
BibTeX:
@article{GiriDR2016,
  author = {Giri DR, Singh E, Satyanarayan S},
  title = {Comparative study on toxicity evaluation of anaerobically treated parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater through fish bioassay.},
  journal = {Water Sci Technol.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {73(8)},
  pages = {1825-31},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2016.029}
}
Kahu SS, Shekhawat A, Saravanan D, Jugade RM Two fold modified chitosan for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from simulated wastewater and industrial effluents. 2016 Carbohydr Polym.
Vol. 146, pp. 264-73 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ionic solid (Ethylhexadecyldimethylammoniumbromide) impregnated phosphated chitosan (ISPC) was synthesized and applied for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluent. The compound obtained was extensively characterized using instrumental techniques like FT-IR, TGA-DTA, XRD, SEM, BET and EDX. ISPC showed high adsorption capacity of 266.67mg/g in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model at pH 3.0 due to the presence of multiple sites which contribute for ion pair and electrostatic interactions with Cr(VI) species. The sorption kinetics and thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption of Cr(VI) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with exothermic and spontaneous behaviour. Applicability of ISPC for higher sample volumes was discerned through column studies. The real chrome plating industry effluent was effectively treated with total chromium recovery of 94%. The used ISPC was regenerated simply by dilute ammonium hydroxide treatment and tested for ten adsorption-desorption cycles with marginal decrease in adsorption efficiency.
BibTeX:
@article{KahuSS2016,
  author = {Kahu SS, Shekhawat A, Saravanan D, Jugade RM},
  title = {Two fold modified chitosan for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from simulated wastewater and industrial effluents.},
  journal = {Carbohydr Polym.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {146},
  pages = {264-73},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.03.041}
}
Mariselvam R, Ranjitsingh AJ, Mosae Selvakumar P, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA Spectral Studies of UV and Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of AZO Dye and Textile Dye EffluentsUsing Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles. 2016 Bioinorg Chem Appl.  article DOI  
Abstract: The photocatalytic degradation of the chemical dye AZO and dye effluents in different time duration has been investigated using biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Dye industry effluents and AZO dye undergo degradation to form harmless intermediate and colourless products following irradiation by UV and solar light in the presence of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. The degree of degradation was tested under the experimental conditions such as P(H), temperature, and absorbance of the dye in UV and solar light was measured. The degradation was higher in the UV light source than in the solar light source. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles in the UV light source were found to expedite the dye degradation process.
BibTeX:
@article{MariselvamR2016,
  author = {Mariselvam R, Ranjitsingh AJ, Mosae Selvakumar P, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA},
  title = {Spectral Studies of UV and Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of AZO Dye and Textile Dye EffluentsUsing Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles.},
  journal = {Bioinorg Chem Appl.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8629178}
}
Mitra M, Shah F, Bharadwaj SV, Patidar SK, Mishra S Cultivation of Nannochloropsis oceanica biomass rich in eicosapentaenoic acid utilizing wastewater as nutrient resource. 2016 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 218, pp. 1178-86 
article DOI  
Abstract: The eicosapentaenoic acid rich marine eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis oceanica was grown in wastewaters sampled from four different industries (i.e. pesticides industry, pharmaceutical industry, activated sludge treatment plant of municipality sewage and petroleum (oil) industry). Under the wastewater based growth conditions used in this study, the biomass productivity ranged from 21.78±0.87 to 27.78±0.22mgL(-1)d(-1) in relation to freeze dried biomass, while the lipid productivity varied between 5.59±0.02 and 6.81±0.04mgL(-1)d(-1). Although comparatively higher biomass, lipid and EPA productivity was observed in Conway medium, the %EPA content was similarly observed in pesticides industry and municipal effluents. The results highlight the possibility of selectively using wastewater as a growth medium, demonstrating the elevated eicosapentaenoic acid content and biodiesel properties, that complies with the European standards for biodiesel.
BibTeX:
@article{MitraM2016,
  author = {Mitra M, Shah F, Bharadwaj SV, Patidar SK, Mishra S},
  title = {Cultivation of Nannochloropsis oceanica biomass rich in eicosapentaenoic acid utilizing wastewater as nutrient resource.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {218},
  pages = {1178-86},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.07.083}
}
Shah A, Shahzad S, Munir A, Nadagouda MN, Khan GS, Shams DF, Dionysiou DD, Rana UA Micelles as Soil and Water Decontamination Agents. 2016 Chem Rev.
Vol. 116(10), pp. 6042-74 
article  
Abstract: Contaminated soil and water pose a serious threat to human health and ecosystem. For the treatment of industrial effluents or minimizing their detrimental effects, preventive and remedial approaches must be adopted prior to the occurrence of any severe environmental, health, or safety hazard. Conventional treatment methods of wastewater are insufficient, complicated, and expensive. Therefore, a method that could use environmentally friendly surfactants for the simultaneous removal of both organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater is deemed a smart approach. Surfactants containing potential donor ligands can coordinate with metal ions, and thus such compounds can be used for the removal of toxic metals and organometallic compounds from aqueous systems. Surfactants form host-guest complexes with the hydrophobic contaminants of water and soil by a mechanism involving the encapsulation of hydrophobes into the self-assembled aggregates (micelles) of surfactants. However, because undefined amounts of surfactants may be released into the aqueous systems, attention must be paid to their own environmental risks as well. Moreover, surfactant remediation methods must be carefully analyzed in the laboratory before field implementation. The use of biosurfactants is the best choice for the removal of water toxins as such surfactants are associated with the characteristics of biodegradability, versatility, recovery, and reuse. This Review is focused on the currently employed surfactant-based soil and wastewater treatment technologies owing to their critical role in the implementation of certain solutions for controlling pollution level, which is necessary to protect human health and ensure the quality standard of the aquatic environment.
BibTeX:
@article{ShahA2016,
  author = {Shah A, Shahzad S, Munir A, Nadagouda MN, Khan GS, Shams DF, Dionysiou DD, Rana UA},
  title = {Micelles as Soil and Water Decontamination Agents.},
  journal = {Chem Rev.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {116(10)},
  pages = {6042-74}
}
Skariyachan S, Prasanna A, Manjunath SP, Karanth SS, Nazre A Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India. 2016 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 188(2)(121) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.
BibTeX:
@article{SkariyachanS2016,
  author = {Skariyachan S, Prasanna A, Manjunath SP, Karanth SS, Nazre A},
  title = {Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {188(2)},
  number = {121},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5125-6}
}
Sinha T, Ahmaruzzaman M High-value utilization of egg shell to synthesize Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles and their application for the degradation of hazardous dyes from aqueous phase-A green approach. 2015 J Colloid Interface Sci.
Vol. 453, pp. 115-31 
article DOI  
Abstract: The common household material, egg shell of Anas platyrhynchos is utilized for the synthesis of Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles using greener, environment friendly and economic way. The egg shell extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates and solvents. The effects of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, concentration in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of NPs have also been presented. The synthesized Ag NPs formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of particles in the range of 6-26 nm. While, Au-Ag core shell nanoparticles formed were spherical and oval shaped, within a narrow size spectrum of 9-18 nm. Both the Ag NPs Au-and Ag core shell nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure and surface plasmon resonance at 430 nm and 365 nm, respectively. The NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B and Methylene Blue from aqueous phase. Approximately 98.2%, 98.4% and 97% degradations of Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B, and Methylene Blue were observed with Ag NPs, while the percentage degradation of these dyes was 97.3%, 97.6% and 96% with Au-Ag NPs, respectively. Therefore, the present study has opened up an innovative way for synthesizing Ag NPs and Au-Ag bimetallic nanostructures of different morphologies and sizes involving the utilization of egg shell extract. The high efficiency of the NPs as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dyes from the industrial effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaT2015,
  author = {Sinha T, Ahmaruzzaman M},
  title = {High-value utilization of egg shell to synthesize Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles and their application for the degradation of hazardous dyes from aqueous phase-A green approach.},
  journal = {J Colloid Interface Sci.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {453},
  pages = {115-31},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2015.04.053}
}
Yadav RK, Minhas PS, Lal K, Chaturvedi RK, Yadav G, Verma TP Accumulation of Metals in Soils, Groundwater and Edible Parts of Crops Grown Under Long-Term Irrigation with Sewage Mixed Industrial Effluents. 2015 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 95(2), pp. 200-6 
article  
Abstract: Farmers in developing countries irrigate crops using raw urban and industrial effluents with consequent risks from metal contamination. Therefore, soils, crops and groundwater from an effluent irrigation use site were assessed for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Total and available contents of metals in soil followed the order Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Crops accumulated more Pb, followed by Cd, Ni and Cr. Pb exceeded the permissible limit with wastewater irrigation only, but Cd exceeded the limit even with combined irrigations of wastewater and groundwater. Among crops, sugar beet assimilated highest Cd (3.14 ?g g(-1)) and Pb (6.42 ?g g(-1)) concentrations. Legumes accumulated more metals than cereals. Long-term use of wastewater and its conjunctive use with groundwater led to toxic accumulations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. Cd with higher availability and mobility indices and lower toxicity limit, posed the maximum risk of food-chain contamination.
BibTeX:
@article{YadavRK2015,
  author = {Yadav RK, Minhas PS, Lal K, Chaturvedi RK, Yadav G, Verma TP},
  title = {Accumulation of Metals in Soils, Groundwater and Edible Parts of Crops Grown Under Long-Term Irrigation with Sewage Mixed Industrial Effluents.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {95(2)},
  pages = {200-6}
}
Yeruva DK, Jukuri S, Velvizhi G, Naresh Kumar A, Swamy YV, Venkata Mohan S Integrating sequencing batch reactor with bio-electrochemical treatment for augmenting remediation efficiency of complex petrochemical wastewater. 2015 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 188, pp. 33-42. 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{YeruvaDK2015,
  author = {Yeruva DK, Jukuri S, Velvizhi G, Naresh Kumar A, Swamy YV, Venkata Mohan S},
  title = {Integrating sequencing batch reactor with bio-electrochemical treatment for augmenting remediation efficiency of complex petrochemical wastewater.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {188},
  pages = {33-42.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.014}
}
Nagpure NS, Srivastava R, Kumar R, Dabas A, Kushwaha B, Kumar P Assessment of pollution of river Ganges by tannery effluents using genotoxicity biomarkers in murrel fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). 2015 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 53(7), pp. 476-83 
article  
Abstract: River pollution due to rapid industrialization and anthropogenic activities adversely affects the aquatic organisms, especially fish. Here, we assessed the genotoxicity, mutagenicity and bioaccumulative aspects of tannery effluents in freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus, an inhabitant of river Ganges. Test specimens were collected from three different polluted sites of the river within and nearby Kanpur area during different seasons and blood samples of these specimens were processed for comet assay and micronucleus test as genotoxicity biomarkers. A significantly (P < 0.05) higher micronuclei induction, nuclear abnormalities and % tail DNA was observed in the specimens collected from the polluted sites. Bioaccumulation studies in the muscle (1.202 ?g/g) and gill tissues (< 0.300 ?g/g) of the specimens revealed the concentration of chromium (core component of tanning industry) above the maximum permissible limits as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). The findings of the present analysis indicated contamination of river Ganges with tannery effluents which induce genotoxicity in fish with seasonal variation.
BibTeX:
@article{NagpureNS2015,
  author = {Nagpure NS, Srivastava R, Kumar R, Dabas A, Kushwaha B, Kumar P},
  title = {Assessment of pollution of river Ganges by tannery effluents using genotoxicity biomarkers in murrel fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {53(7)},
  pages = {476-83}
}
Pathiratne A, Hemachandra CK, De Silva N Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities. 2015 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 187(12)(730) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types ofindustrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluentsdischarging into inland surface waters.
BibTeX:
@article{PathiratneA2015,
  author = {Pathiratne A, Hemachandra CK, De Silva N},
  title = {Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {187(12)},
  number = {730},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4954-z}
}
Kumari M, Tripathi BD Efficiency of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia for heavy metal removal from wastewater. 2015 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 112, pp. 80-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: A cost-effective and promising technology has been demonstrated for the removal of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days. With the help of P. australis and T. latifolia grown alone and in combination batch experiments were designed to assess the removal of heavy metals from the wastewater collected from 5 sampling stations. The results revealed that P. australis performed better than T. latifolia for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn removal, while mixing of the plant species further enhanced the removal of Cu to 78.0±1.2%, Cd to 60.0±1.2%, Cr to 68.1±0.4%, Ni to 73.8±0.6%, Fe to 80.1±0.3%, Pb to 61.0±1.2% and Zn to 61.0±1.2% for wastewater samples from Raj Ghat. Negative correlation coefficients of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations in wastewater with the retention time revealed that there was an increase in the heavy metal removal rate with retention time. P. australis showed higher accumulative capacities for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe than T. latifolia. P. australis and T. latifolia grown in combination can be used for the removal of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn from the urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days.
BibTeX:
@article{KumariM2015,
  author = {Kumari M, Tripathi BD},
  title = {Efficiency of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia for heavy metal removal from wastewater.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {112},
  pages = {80-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.10.034}
}
Hemachandra CK, Pathiratne A Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrialeffluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay. 2015 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 94(2), pp. 199-203 
article  
Abstract: Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.
BibTeX:
@article{HemachandraCK2015,
  author = {Hemachandra CK, Pathiratne A},
  title = {Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrialeffluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {94(2)},
  pages = {199-203}
}
Dey S, Rajguru U, Pathak DC, Goswami UC Analysis of Gill Structure from a Fresh Water Fish (Heteropneustes fossilis) Exposed to Bleached Sulfite Pulp Mill Effluents. 2015 Microsc Microanal.
Vol. 21(2), pp. 385-91 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present communication reports toxic effects of bleached sulfite pulp mill effluents in fish (Heteropneustes fossilis) gills, with optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The general adverse effects include dilation of the primary lamellar wall, curling of secondary lamellar terminals, displacement of epithelial cell layers, degeneration of secondary lamella, deposition of mucous, and severe congestion in the gill arch. The significant shortening of secondary lamellae, widening of lamellar tips, and significant decrease in the number of mitochondria in chloride cells as compared to controls are some specific effects of bleached sulfite pulp mill effluents. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated tearing of tissues in gill lamellae and arches. Transmission electron microscopy revealed membrane distortion of mitochondria in chloride cells, loss of uniformity of microvilli in pavement cells, and abnormalities in nuclear shape in different cells of effluent-exposed fish gills. Toxicity of the bleached sulfite pulp mill effluentsand its impact on fish are discussed in the light of existing literature. Further, the importance of microscopy in toxicological evaluation of environmental pollutants is emphasized in view of its specific application potential.
BibTeX:
@article{DeyS2015,
  author = {Dey S, Rajguru U, Pathak DC, Goswami UC},
  title = {Analysis of Gill Structure from a Fresh Water Fish (Heteropneustes fossilis) Exposed to Bleached Sulfite Pulp Mill Effluents.},
  journal = {Microsc Microanal.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {21(2)},
  pages = {385-91},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927615000045}
}
Adhikari G, Bhattacharyya KG Impact of pulp and paper mill effluents and solid wastes on soil mineralogical and physicochemical properties. 2015 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 187(3)(98) 
article  
Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the effluents and the solid wastes generated by a giant pulp and paper mill in the northeastern part of India on soil mineralogy of the area. The impacts were monitored by analysis of soil samples from seven sites located in the potential impact zone and a control site where any kind of effluent discharge or solid waste dumping was absent. The soil belonged to medium texture type (sandy clay loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, and silt loam), and the soil aggregate analysis indicated higher levels of organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, and mean weight diameter at sites receiving effluents and solid wastes from the pulp and paper mill. Depletion in soil silica level and in feldspar and quartz contents and rise in iron and calcium contents at the sites receiving effluents from the pulp and paper mill indicated significant influence on soil mineralogy. The soil contained a mixture of minerals consisting of tectosilicates (with silicate frameworks as in quartz or feldspar), phylosilicates (layered clays like kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illite, etc.), and carbonates. Absence of pure clay minerals indicated a state of heterogeneous intermediate soil clay transformation. The significance of the mixed mineralogy in relation to the disposal of effluents and dumping of solid wastes is discussed in details.
BibTeX:
@article{AdhikariG2015,
  author = {Adhikari G, Bhattacharyya KG},
  title = {Impact of pulp and paper mill effluents and solid wastes on soil mineralogical and physicochemical properties.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {187(3)},
  number = {98}
}
Balaji S, Kalaivani T, Rajasekaran C, Shalini M, Vinodhini S, Priyadharshini SS, Vidya AG Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. 2015 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 187(6), pp. 325 
article  
Abstract: The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.
BibTeX:
@article{BalajiS2015,
  author = {Balaji S, Kalaivani T, Rajasekaran C, Shalini M, Vinodhini S, Priyadharshini SS, Vidya AG},
  title = {Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {187(6)},
  pages = {325}
}
Bhattacharya A, Dey P, Gola D, Mishra A, Malik A, Patel N Assessment of Yamuna and associated drains used for irrigation in rural and peri-urban settings of Delhi NCR. 2015 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 187(1) 
article  
Abstract: The present study assessed the quality of Yamuna River and the Najafgarh drain water for irrigational purposes in the Delhi region in terms of spatial variations in the physicochemical characteristics as well as heavy metal concentrations. The monitoring was done for the period July 2012-August 2013 representing pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon sessions and considering six physicochemical parameters. Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead have been found in the river due to rampant discharge of industrial effluents into the river. The mean metal concentrations in the 15 sampling sites were in the range of (mg L(-1)) 0.02-0.64 (Cu), 0-0.42 (Cr), 0.13-2.22(Zn), 0.03-0.27 (Pb), 0-0.07 (Cd), and 0.01-0.13 (Ni). Multivariate statistics (PCA and HCA) were used to identify the possible sources of metal contamination and to examine the spatial changes in the Yamuna River as well as in the Najafgarh drain. This study reveals the occurrence of mean Cd concentration above the safe limit at Palla, Christian Ashram and Jagatpur of the Yamuna river while Punjabi Bagh of the Najafgarh drain necessitate treatment in terms of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn before it could be rendered useful for irrigation.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaA2015,
  author = {Bhattacharya A, Dey P, Gola D, Mishra A, Malik A, Patel N},
  title = {Assessment of Yamuna and associated drains used for irrigation in rural and peri-urban settings of Delhi NCR.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {187(1)}
}
Demirbas A Heavy metal adsorption onto agro-based waste materials: a review. 2008 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 157(2-3), pp. 220-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Adsorption has been proved to be an excellent way to treat industrial waste effluents, offering significant advantages like the low-cost, availability, profitability, easy of operation and efficiency. Biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions is a relatively new process that has proven very promising in the removal of contaminants from aqueous effluents. Biosorption is becoming a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and/or recovery of toxic metals from wastewater. The major advantages of biosorption technology are its effectiveness in reducing the concentration of heavy metal ions to very low levels and the use of inexpensive biosorbent materials. Metal adsorption and biosorption onto agricultural wastes is a rather complex process affected by several factors. Mechanisms involved in the biosorption process include chemisorption, complexation, adsorption-complexation on surface and pores, ion exchange, microprecipitation, heavy metal hydroxide condensation onto the biosurface, and surface adsorption.
BibTeX:
@article{A2008,
  author = {Demirbas A},
  title = {Heavy metal adsorption onto agro-based waste materials: a review.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {157(2-3)},
  pages = {220-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.024}
}
Afzal M, Shabir G, Hussain I, Khalid ZM Paper and board mill effluent treatment with the combined biological-coagulation-filtration pilot scale reactor. 2008 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 99(15), pp. 7383-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pilot scale reactor based on combined biological-coagulation-filtration treatments was designed and evaluated for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill. Biological treatment by fed batch reactor (FBR) followed by coagulation and sand filtration (SF) resulted in a total COD and BOD reduction of 93% and 96.5%, respectively. A significant reduction in both COD (90%) and BOD (92%) was also observed by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process followed by coagulation and filtration. Untreated effluent was found to be toxic, whereas the treated effluents by either of the above two processes were found to be non-toxic when exposed to the fish for 72h. The resultant effluent from FBR-coagulation-sand filtration system meets National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks.
BibTeX:
@article{AfzalM2008,
  author = {Afzal M, Shabir G, Hussain I, Khalid ZM},
  title = {Paper and board mill effluent treatment with the combined biological-coagulation-filtration pilot scale reactor.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {99(15)},
  pages = {7383-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.01.046}
}
Agrawal A, Sahu KK An overview of the recovery of acid from spent acidic solutions from steel and electroplating industries. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 171(1-3), pp. 61-75 
article DOI  
Abstract: Every metal and metallurgical industry is associated with the generation of waste, which may be a solid, liquid or gaseous in nature. Their impacts on the ecological bodies are noticeable due to their complex and hazardous nature affecting the living and non-living environment which is an alarming issue to the environmentalist. The increasingly stringent regulations regarding the discharge of acid and metal into the environment, and the increasing stress upon the recycling/reuse of these effluents after proper treatment have focused the interest of the research community on the development of new approaches for the recovery of acid and metals from industrial wastes. This paper is a critical review on the acidic waste streams generated from steel and electroplating industries particularly from waste pickle liquor and spent bleed streams. Various aspects on the generation of these streams and the methods used for their treatment either for the recovery of acid for reuse or disposal are being dealt with. Major stress is laid upon the hydrometallurgical methods such as solvent extraction.
BibTeX:
@article{AgrawalA2009,
  author = {Agrawal A, Sahu KK},
  title = {An overview of the recovery of acid from spent acidic solutions from steel and electroplating industries.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {171(1-3)},
  pages = {61-75},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.099}
}
Ahmad M, Bajahlan AS, Hammad WS Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management. 2008 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 147(1-3), pp. 297-306 
article DOI  
Abstract: Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.
BibTeX:
@article{AhmadM2008,
  author = {Ahmad M, Bajahlan AS, Hammad WS},
  title = {Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {147(1-3)},
  pages = {297-306},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-0121-5}
}
Alam MZ, Malik A Chromate resistance, transport and bioreduction by Exiguobacterium sp. ZM-2 isolated from agricultural soil irrigated with tannery effluent. 2008 J Basic Microbiol.
Vol. 48(5), pp. 416-20 
article DOI  
Abstract: Bacterial strain Exiguobacterium sp. ZM-2 isolated from agricultural soil irrigated with tannery effluents, was examined for its resistance to hexavalent chromium. Exiguobacterium sp. ZM-2 could resist 12.37 mM of potassium chromate. The isolate was also found resistant to other heavy metal ions. Exiguobacterium sp. ZM-2 was able to reduce 500 microM hexavalent chromium completely within 56 h under in vitro conditions. Chromate reduction was severely affected in presence of metabolic inhibitors, sodium cyanide and sodium azide. No chromate reduction was observed in presence of 1 mM sodium cyanide while only 17% of 250 microM chromate was reduced when medium contained 1 mM sodium azide. A 10 mM sodium sulphate inhibited hexavalent chromium reduction up to 35%. On the other hand, use of 1 mM 2, 4-dinitrophenol, an uncoupling agent, stimulated the chromate reduction, indicating that the respiratory-chain-linked electron transport to Cr (VI) was limited by the rate of dissipation of the proton motive force. Cell free extract of Exiguobacterium sp. ZM-2 readily reduce Cr (VI) to Cr (III). The kinetics of chromate reductase fit well in the linearized Lineweaver-Burk plot and showed a K(m) of 106.1 microM Cr (VI) and V(max) of 1.24 micromol/min per mg of protein.
BibTeX:
@article{AlamMZ2008,
  author = {Alam MZ, Malik A},
  title = {Chromate resistance, transport and bioreduction by Exiguobacterium sp. ZM-2 isolated from agricultural soil irrigated with tannery effluent.},
  journal = {J Basic Microbiol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {48(5)},
  pages = {416-20},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.200800046}
}
Anirudhan TS, Sreekumari SS Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents using activated carbon derived from waste coconut buttons. 2011 J Environ Sci (China).
Vol. 23(12), pp. 1989-98 
article  
Abstract: Activated carbon (AC) derived from waste coconut buttons (CB) was investigated as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) from industrial effluents through batch adsorption process. The AC was characterized by elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, surface area analyzer and potentiometric titrations. The effects of initial metal concentration, contact time, pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption of metal ions were studied. The adsorbent revealed a good adsorption potential for Pb(II) and Cu(II) at pH 6.0 and for Hg(II) at pH 7.0. The experimental kinetic data were a better fit with pseudo second-order equation rather than pseudo first-order equation. The Freundlich isotherm model was found to be more suitable to represent the experimental equilibrium isotherm results for the three metals than the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacities of the AC decreased in the order: Pb(II) > Hg(II) > Cu(II).
BibTeX:
@article{AnirudhanTS2011,
  author = {Anirudhan TS, Sreekumari SS},
  title = {Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents using activated carbon derived from waste coconut buttons.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci (China).},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {23(12)},
  pages = {1989-98}
}
Mukherjee B A real-time positron monitor for the estimation of stack effluent releases from PET medical cyclotron facilities. 2002 Appl Radiat Isot.
Vol. 57(6), pp. 899-905 
article  
Abstract: Large activities of short-lived positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are routinely manufactured by modern Medical Cyclotron facilities for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. During radiochemical processing, a substantial fraction of the volatile positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are released into the atmosphere. An inexpensive, fast response positron detector using a simple positron-annihilation chamber has been developed for real-time assessment of the stack release of positron emitting effluents at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron. The positron detector was calibrated by using a 3.0 ml (1.50 MBq) aliquot of 18FDG and interfaced to an industrial standard datalogger for the real-time acquisition of stack release data.
BibTeX:
@article{B2002,
  author = {Mukherjee B},
  title = {A real-time positron monitor for the estimation of stack effluent releases from PET medical cyclotron facilities.},
  journal = {Appl Radiat Isot.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {57(6)},
  pages = {899-905}
}
Bajpai P, Anand A, Bajpai PK Bleaching with lignin-oxidizing enzymes. 2006 Biotechnol Annu Rev.
Vol. 12, pp. 349-78 
article  
Abstract: General concern about the environmental impact of chlorine bleaching effluents has led to a trend towards elementary chlorine-free or totally chlorine free bleaching methods. Considerable interest has been focused on the use of biotechnology in pulp bleaching, as large number of microbes and the enzymes produced by them are known to be capable of preferential degradation of native lignin and complete degradation of wood. Enzymes of the hemicellulolytic type, particularly xylan-attacking enzymes xylanases are now used commercially in the mills for pulp treatment and subsequent incorporation into bleach sequences. Certain white-rot fungi can delignify Kraft pulps increasing their brightness and their responsiveness to brightening with chemicals. The fungal treatments are too slow but the enzymes produced from the fungi can also delignify pulps and these enzymatic processes are likely to be easier to optimize and apply than the fungal treatments. This article presents an overview of the developments in the application of lignin-oxidizing enzymes in bleaching of chemical pulps. The present knowledge of the mechanisms on the action of enzymes as well as the practical results and advantages obtained on the laboratory and industrial scale are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{BajpaiP2006,
  author = {Bajpai P, Anand A, Bajpai PK},
  title = {Bleaching with lignin-oxidizing enzymes.},
  journal = {Biotechnol Annu Rev.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {349-78}
}
Balasubramani A, Howell NL, Rifai HS Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon. 2014 Sci Total Environ., pp. 473-474  article DOI  
Abstract: Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (?209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log Koc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict.
BibTeX:
@article{BalasubramaniA2014,
  author = {Balasubramani A, Howell NL, Rifai HS},
  title = {Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {473-474},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.105.}
}
Banerjee US, Gupta S Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India. 2013 Environ Monit Assess, pp. 2083-94  article DOI  
Abstract: The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb >?Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system.
BibTeX:
@article{BanerjeeUS2013,
  author = {Banerjee US, Gupta S.},
  title = {Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {2083-94},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/.1007/s10661-012-2690-1}
}
Bansal N, Kanwar SS Peroxidase(s) in environment protection. 2013 ScientificWorldJournal.  article DOI  
Abstract: Industrial discharges of untreated effluents into water bodies and emissions into air have deteriorated the quality of water and air, respectively. The huge amount of pollutants derived from industrial activities represents a threat for the environment and ecologic equilibrium. Phenols and halogenated phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC), pesticides, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), industrial dyes, and other xenobiotics are among the most important pollutants. Peroxidases are enzymes that are able to transform a variety of compounds following a free radical mechanism, thereby yielding oxidized or polymerized products. The peroxidase transformation of these pollutants is accompanied by a reduction in their toxicity, due to loss of biological activity, reduction in the bioavailability, or the removal from aqueous phase, especially when the pollutant is found in water. The review describes the sources of peroxidases, the reactions catalyzed by them, and their applications in the management of pollutants in the environment.
BibTeX:
@article{BansalN2013,
  author = {Bansal N, Kanwar SS},
  title = {Peroxidase(s) in environment protection.},
  journal = {ScientificWorldJournal.},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/714639}
}
Barman SC, Kisku GC, Salve PR, Misra D, Sahu RK, Ramteke PW, Bhargava SK Assessment of industrial effluent and its impact on soil and plants. 2001 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 22(4), pp. 251-6 
article  
Abstract: The present study deals with the assessment of industrial water of an electronic component manufacturing unit with electroplating and its subsequent effects on soil and plants receiving the effluent. The physico-chemical parameters of the effluent samples showed higher value than that of ground water. The treated effluent was within the permissible limit. Microtox test was conducted and determined the degree of toxicity of untreated, treated effluents as well as the water sample collected at effluent discharge point of receiving river (confluence point). The physico- mechanical parameters of the soil samples were not changed due to irrigation of the treated effluent, but the concentration of metals were comparatively higher than the control soil. Higher accumulation of metals was found in the plant parts in naturally growing weeds and cultivated crop plant irrigated with treated effluent. Elevated accumulation of metals in Eichhornia crassipes and Marsilea sp. growing along the effluent channel has been identified as a potential source of biomonitoring of metals particularly for Cu and Ca and can be utilised for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater.
BibTeX:
@article{BarmanSC2001,
  author = {Barman SC, Kisku GC, Salve PR, Misra D, Sahu RK, Ramteke PW, Bhargava SK},
  title = {Assessment of industrial effluent and its impact on soil and plants.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {22(4)},
  pages = {251-6}
}
Basu N, Waye A, Trudeau VL, Arnason JT Extracts from hardwood trees used in commercial paper mills contain biologically active neurochemical disruptors. 2012 Sci Total Environ., pp. 205-9  article DOI  
Abstract: Following on our discovery that pulp and paper mill effluents can interact with, and disrupt, various neurotransmitter receptors and enzymes important to fish reproduction, we tested wood and bark extracts of 14 Eastern North American hardwood trees used in pulp and paper production. Radioligand binding to neurotransmitter receptors, including the dopamine-2 receptor (D2), the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABA(A)), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mACh-R), were significantly changed following in vitro incubations with many but not all extracts. Activities of neurotransmitter-related enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO), GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) were also significantly altered. Butternut wood extracts and the isolated compound juglone significantly inhibited the enzymatic activities of MAO and GAD which we suggest may be part of a mechanism that may negatively affect fish reproduction. Besides giving credence to the hypothesis that neuroactive compounds in pulp and paper effluent may originate in the trees used by mills, the results reported here also indicate important neuropharmacological activities in hardwoods which may help identify new sources of biologically active natural products.
BibTeX:
@article{BasuN2012,
  author = {Basu N, Waye A, Trudeau VL, Arnason JT.},
  title = {Extracts from hardwood trees used in commercial paper mills contain biologically active neurochemical disruptors.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {205-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.10.061}
}
Batta N, Subudhi S, Lal B, Devi A Isolation of a lead tolerant novel bacterial species, Achromobacter sp. TL-3: assessment of bioflocculant activity. 2013 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 51(11), pp. 1004-11 
article  
Abstract: Lead is one of the four heavy metals that has a profound damaging effects on human health. In the recent past there has been an increasing global concern for development of sustainable bioremediation technologies for detoxification of lead contaminant. Present investigation highlights for lead biosorption by a newly isolated novel bacterial species; Achromobacter sp. TL-3 strain, isolated from activated sludge samples contaminated with heavy metals (collected from oil refinery, Assam, North-East India). For isolation of lead tolerant bacteria, sludge samples were enriched into Luria Broth medium supplemented separately with a range of lead nitrate; 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500 ppm respectively. The bacterial consortium that could tolerate 1500 ppm of lead nitrate was selected further for purification of lead tolerant bacterial isolates. Purified lead tolerant bacterial isolates were then eventually inoculated into production medium supplemented with ethanol and glycerol as carbon and energy source to investigate for bioflocculant production. Bioflocculant production was estimated by monitoring the potential of lead tolerant bacterial isolate to flocculate Kaolin clay in presence of 1% CaCl2. Compared to other isolates, TL-3 isolate demonstrated for maximum bioflocculant activity of 95% and thus was identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. TL3 isolate revealed maximum homology (98%) with Achromobacter sp. and thus designated as Achromobacter sp. TL-3. Bioflocculant activity of TL-3 isolate was correlated with the change in pH and growth. Achromobacter sp. TL-3 has significant potential for lead biosorption and can be effectively employed for detoxification of lead contaminated waste effluents/waste waters.
BibTeX:
@article{BattaN2013,
  author = {Batta N, Subudhi S, Lal B, Devi A},
  title = {Isolation of a lead tolerant novel bacterial species, Achromobacter sp. TL-3: assessment of bioflocculant activity.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {51(11)},
  pages = {1004-11}
}
Bejankiwar RS, Lokesh KS, Gowda TP Colour and organic removal of biologically treated coffee curing wastewater by electrochemical oxidation method. 2003 J Environ Sci (China).
Vol. 15(3), pp. 323-7 
article  
Abstract: The treatment of biologically treated wastewater of coffee-curing industry by the electrochemical oxidation using steel anode was investigated. Bench-scale experiments were conducted for activated sludge process on raw wastewater and the treated effluents were further treated by electrochemical oxidation method for its colour and organic content removal. The efficiency of the process was determined in terms of removal percentage of COD, BOD and colour during the course of reaction. Several operating parameters like time, pH and current density were examined to ascertain their effects on the treatment efficiency. Steel anode was found to be effective for the COD and colour removal with anode efficiency of 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) and energy consumption 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD at pH 9. The decrease in pH from 9 to 3 found to increase the anode efficiency from 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) to 0.144 kWh x kg(-1) of COD while decrease the energy consumption from 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD to 12.86 kWh x kg(-1) of COD. The pH of 5 was considered an ideal from the present treatment process as it avoids the addition of chemicals for neutralization of treated effluents and also economical with respect to energy consumption. An empirical relation developed for relationship between applied current density and COD removal efficiency showed strong predictive capability with coefficient of determination of 96.5%.
BibTeX:
@article{BejankiwarRS2003,
  author = {Bejankiwar RS, Lokesh KS, Gowda TP},
  title = {Colour and organic removal of biologically treated coffee curing wastewater by electrochemical oxidation method.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci (China).},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {15(3)},
  pages = {323-7}
}
Bhat CK, Bhat CL, Lodha GS, Koul DK Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry technique as an efficient monitoring tool for mercury contamination. 1996 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 41(1), pp. 77-86 
article  
Abstract: This paper illustrates the useful early-warning role of the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique against a potential health hazard being posed by dumping effluents from an industrial unit involved in the manufacture of lead-batteries, in a nearby water-canal used for irrigation purposes by surrounding villages. These effluents were shown to contain mercury at a potentially unsafe level, resulting in timely initiation of necessary preventive measures. The standard fundamental parameter method was invoked for a quantitative estimation of the mercury (Hg) concentration. In addition, L-series (rather than the usual K-series) X-rays were used for excitation, mainly on account of the type of the available excitation source.
BibTeX:
@article{BhatCK1996,
  author = {Bhat CK, Bhat CL, Lodha GS, Koul DK},
  title = {Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry technique as an efficient monitoring tool for mercury contamination.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {41(1)},
  pages = {77-86}
}
Chakraborty D, Konar SK Ecological study on the status of pollution by steel plant waste on river Damodar at Barnpur, West Bengal. 2002 Indian J Environ Health.
Vol. 44(1), pp. 50-7 
article  
Abstract: This paper present a study of physico-chemical quality of river water and abundance and distribution of phytoplankton community in a stretch of river Damodar from November 1996 to October 1998 in relation to steel plant effluents. Phytoplankton and water quality of S1 (Control zone), S2 (Out fall zone) and S3 and S4 (Downstrean zone) were studied and compared. Low transparency and pH, and high TSS, temperature and total hardness were the characteristic of S2 and S3, indicating a stressful habitat. Effluent discharge significantly changed the phytoplankton community structure. It was also noticed that S2 and S3 were characterized by low number of taxa with their higher abundance. The discharge of steel plant effluent obviously caused habitat degradation resulting ecological modification of phytoplankton community of river Damodar at Barnpur.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyD2002,
  author = {Chakraborty D, Konar SK},
  title = {Ecological study on the status of pollution by steel plant waste on river Damodar at Barnpur, West Bengal.},
  journal = {Indian J Environ Health.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {44(1)},
  pages = {50-7}
}
Chakraborty P, Zhao J, Chakrabarti CL Copper and nickel speciation in mine effluents by combination of two independent techniques. 2009 Anal Chim Acta.
Vol. 636(1), pp. 70-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: To control potentially toxic metals in water resources it is necessary to know metal speciation and changes in the metal speciation that occur after aqueous effluents containing metals are discharged into freshwaters. This work explores the speciation of nickel and copper in metal-mining aqueous effluents. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and competing ligand exchange (CLE) method have been applied to determine the speciation of nickel and copper. The results of this investigation demonstrate that combination of two analytical techniques having complementary analytical capabilities can provide a better physicochemical picture of metal speciation than either one of the analytical technique can do alone. The combined use of these techniques revealed that copper formed labile complexes having slow diffusion coefficient along with the presence of small labile copper complexes. Nickel-dissolved organic complexes (DOC) complexes in the aqueous effluent have been found to have fast diffusion coefficient. The results are likely to have environmental significance for providing a link between the metal species in mine aqueous effluent and their bioavailability by determining the characteristics of copper and nickel complexes in metal-mine aqueous effluents. This knowledge is expected to promote a better understanding of the lability of DOC complexes of copper and nickel in mining effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyP2009,
  author = {Chakraborty P, Zhao J, Chakrabarti CL},
  title = {Copper and nickel speciation in mine effluents by combination of two independent techniques.},
  journal = {Anal Chim Acta.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {636(1)},
  pages = {70-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2009.01.030}
}
Chakravarty S, Deb MK, Mishra RK Hydroxyamidines as new extracting reagents for spectrophotometric determination of cadmium with 4-(2-pyridylazo)naphthol in industrial effluents, coal, and fly ash. 1993 J AOAC Int.
Vol. 76(3), pp. 604-8 
article  
Abstract: A simple, sensitive, and selective extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cadmium in trace quantities with N1-hydroxy-N1,N2-diphenylbenzamidine (HDPBA) and 4-(2-pyridylazo)naphthol (PAN) is described. The method is based on the extraction of cadmium with HDPBA into chloroform at pH 9.0 +/- 0.2 and simultaneous spectrophotometric determination with PAN. The binary Cd(II)-HDPBA complex extracted into chloroform has a molar absorptivity of 1.96 x 10(4) L/mol/cm at lambda max 400 nm. The sensitivity of the yellow Cd(II)-HDPBA complex was increased remarkably by the addition of PAN to the binary complex. With 6 different hydroxyamidines tested, the red-orange complex in chloroform exhibited maximum absorbance at 530-550 nm, with molar absorptivity values of 3.2-5.6 x 10(4) L/mol/cm. The method adheres to Beer's law up to 1.5 micrograms cadmium/mL organic phase. The detection limit of the method is 0.02 micrograms Cd/mL. Investigations of the effect of foreign ions revealed that the present method is free from matrix interference of most of the common ions (e.g., Fe(III), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), V(V), Co(II), Al(III), Cu(II), Mg(II), and Mo(VI)). The relative standard deviation for 10 repetitive analyses of the metal was 1.4%. The validity of the method was tested successfully with various environmental samples.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakravartyS1993,
  author = {Chakravarty S, Deb MK, Mishra RK},
  title = {Hydroxyamidines as new extracting reagents for spectrophotometric determination of cadmium with 4-(2-pyridylazo)naphthol in industrial effluents, coal, and fly ash.},
  journal = {J AOAC Int.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {76(3)},
  pages = {604-8}
}
Chanakya V, Jeevan Rao K Impact of industrial effluents on groundwater quality. 2010 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 52(1), pp. 41-6 
article  
Abstract: A survey was conducted to assess the long-term effect of industrial effluents on groundwater quality for irrigation. Kattedan industrial area (India) was selected and five contaminated locations were identified. From each location, water which is being used to irrigate the crops, was collected during the months of October 2005 and February 2006. The results indicated that the concentrations of all parameters were higher in groundwater samples of Kattedan industrial area and they were found more in water samples collected during the month of February 2006 than those collected during October 2005. Among different parameters studied in water samples, Ni, Cd, Zn, Ca, Mg, TS, Na and SO4(2-) were found within the permissible limits for drinking. The results of the water samples indicated that the water of Kattedan industrial area is not suitable for drinking and irrigation purpose.
BibTeX:
@article{ChanakyaV2010,
  author = {Chanakya V, Jeevan Rao K},
  title = {Impact of industrial effluents on groundwater quality.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {52(1)},
  pages = {41-6}
}
Chandra R, Bharagava RN, Yadav S, Mohan D Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with distillery and tannery effluents. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 162(2-3), pp. 1514-21 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the present study, accumulation and distribution of toxic metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mn, and Pb) and their biochemical effect on wheat and mustard plants irrigated with mixed distillery and tannery effluents are reported. Analyses of effluents and soil samples have shown high metal content than the permissible limit except Pb. Further, analyses of plant samples have indicated the maximum accumulation of Fe (340 mg kg(-1) in wheat root and 560 mg kg(-1) in mustard leaves) followed by Mn and Zn in root>shoot>leaves>seeds. Maximum increase in photosynthetic pigment was observed between 30 and 60 days while protein content was found maximum between 60 and 90 days of growth period in both plants. An increase in malondialdehyde, cysteine and ascorbic acid antioxidants content was also observed in root and leaves of treated plants upto 60 and 90 days of growth. Hence, wheat and mustard plants irrigated with effluents without adequate treatment are health hazards for environment, humans and animals.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandraR2009,
  author = {Chandra R, Bharagava RN, Yadav S, Mohan D},
  title = {Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with distillery and tannery effluents.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {162(2-3)},
  pages = {1514-21},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.040}
}
Chandrashekar JS, Babu KL, Somashekar RK Impact of urbanization on Bellandur Lake, Bangalore--a case study. 2003 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 24(3), pp. 24(3) 
article  
Abstract: Lake and river water is the prime source for drinking, irrigation and other domestic purposes. Bellandur Lake is one of the major Lakes of Bangalore city. The addition of effluents from urbanized Bangalore city has changed the characteristics of the Lake from being a natural ecologically healthy Lake to an artificial reservoir of domestic sewage and industrial effluents. The DO of the Bellandur Lake water ranged from 3.8-6.3 mg/l. The Bellandur lake water BOD ranged from 89-99 mg/l due to absorption of pollutants by aquatic flora in lake system. If the present state of affairs continues for long, the Bellandur Lake may soon become an ecologically inactive Lake.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandrashekarJS2003,
  author = {Chandrashekar JS, Babu KL, Somashekar RK},
  title = {Impact of urbanization on Bellandur Lake, Bangalore--a case study.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {24(3)},
  pages = {24(3)}
}
Chatterjee M, Silva Filho EV, Sarkar SK, Sella SM, Bhattacharya A, Satpathy KK, Prasad MV, Chakraborty S, Bhattacharya BD Distribution and possible source of trace elements in the sediment cores of a tropical macrotidal estuary and their ecotoxicological significance. 2007 Environ Int.
Vol. 33(3), pp. 346-56 
article  
Abstract: The paper presents the first document regarding concentration, distribution and possible sources of selected trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb, Al, B and Ba) in core sediments (<63 micro particle size) from the lower stretch of Hugli (Ganges) estuary, northeast coast of Bay of Bengal by ICP-AES and EDXRF to evaluate geochemical processes influencing their distribution and possible environmental consequences. The levels of elements showed a wide range of variations in different core depths, in upper and lower intertidal zones as well as among three sampling stations. The most interesting feature of the study is the downward increase of concentrations of majority of the elements reaching overall maximum values at a depth of 20-28 cm in upper littoral zone of the site located in the extreme downstream stretch of the estuary. Values of organic carbon showed very strong positive correlations with most of the elements as revealed by correlation matrix (r) values. The interelemental relationship revealed the identical behavior of element during its transport in the estuarine environment. The overall variation in concentration can be attributed to differential discharge of untreated effluents originating from industrial, agricultural, and aquacultural sources as well as from domestic sewage along with the fishing and boating activities. The resulting compositional dataset was tested by principal component analyses and cluster analyses. Pollution load index (PLI) and index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) revealed overall low values but the enrichment factors (EFs) for Pb were typically high for all the stations. The mean concentrations of Zn and to some extent Cu exceeded the Effects Range-Low (ER-L) values in the majority of the cases indicating that there may be some ecotoxicological risk to organisms living in sediments. The concentration of the trace elements reported in this work is useful as baselines for comparison in future sediment quality studies.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeM2007,
  author = {Chatterjee M, Silva Filho EV, Sarkar SK, Sella SM, Bhattacharya A, Satpathy KK, Prasad MV, Chakraborty S, Bhattacharya BD},
  title = {Distribution and possible source of trace elements in the sediment cores of a tropical macrotidal estuary and their ecotoxicological significance.},
  journal = {Environ Int.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {33(3)},
  pages = {346-56}
}
Chatterjee S, Chatterjee S, Chatterjee BP, Das AR, Guha AK Adsorption of a model anionic dye, eosin Y, from aqueous solution by chitosan hydrobeads. 2005 J Colloid Interface Sci.
Vol. 288(1), pp. 30-5 
article  
Abstract: The process of sorption is being increasingly used for ecofriendly and economic remediation of textile dye effluents. The present model study deals with the adsorption of a model anionic dye, eosin Y, from wastewater using conditioned chitosan hydrobeads. Conditioning reduced the pH sensitivity and maintained the maximum sorption capacity of the beads near pH 8. To understand the chemicophysical characteristics of the adsorption process we studied, the kinetics and isotherm behavior of the system. It was observed that temperature played a significant role in the process. The Langmuir model was found to be most appropriate for the description of the adsorption process. The kinetic results followed a second-order equation. It was observed that 1 g of chitosan adsorbed approximately 76 mg of eosin Y. The dye was desorbed from the beads by changing the pH of the solution, and the conditioned chitosan beads were reused five times without any loss of mechanical and chemical efficacy.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeS2005,
  author = {Chatterjee S, Chatterjee S, Chatterjee BP, Das AR, Guha AK},
  title = {Adsorption of a model anionic dye, eosin Y, from aqueous solution by chitosan hydrobeads.},
  journal = {J Colloid Interface Sci.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {288(1)},
  pages = {30-5}
}
Chatterjee S, Chetia M, Singh L, Chattopadhyay B, Datta S, Mukhopadhyay SK A study on the phytoaccumulation of waste elements in wetland plants of a Ramsar site in India. 2011 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 178(1-4), pp. 361-71 
article DOI  
Abstract: Some wetland plant species are adapted to growing in the areas of higher metal concentrations. Use of such vegetation in remediation of soil and water contaminated with heavy metals is a promising cost-effective alternative to the more established treatment methods. Throughout the year, composite industrial effluents bringing various kinds of heavy metals contaminate our study site, the East Calcutta Wetlands, a Ramsar site at the eastern fringe of Kolkata city (formerly Calcutta), India. In the present study, possible measures for remediation of contaminated soil and water (with elements namely, Ca, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe) of the ecosystem had been investigated. Ten common regional wetland plant species were selected to study their efficiency and diversity in metal uptake and accumulation. Results showed that Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) had the highest total Cr concentration (6,601 ± 33 mg kg(?-1) dw). The extent of accumulation of various elements in ten common wetland plants of the study sites was: Pb (4.4-57 mg kg(?-1) dw), Cu (6.2-39 mg kg(?-1) dw), Zn (59-364 mg kg(?-1) dw), Mn (87-376 mg kg(?-1) dw), Fe (188-8,625 mg kg(?-1) dw), Ca (969-3,756 mg kg(?-1) dw), and Cr (27-660 mg kg(?-1) dw) indicating an uptake gradient of elements by plants as Ca>Fe>Mn>Cr>Zn>Cu>Pb. The present study indicates the importance of identification and efficiency of metal uptake and accumulation capabilities by plants in relation to their applications in remediation of a contaminated East Calcutta Wetland ecosystem.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeS2011,
  author = {Chatterjee S, Chetia M, Singh L, Chattopadhyay B, Datta S, Mukhopadhyay SK},
  title = {A study on the phytoaccumulation of waste elements in wetland plants of a Ramsar site in India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {178(1-4)},
  pages = {361-71},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1695-x}
}
Chatterjee SK, Bhattacharjee I, Chandra G Water quality assessment near an industrial site of Damodar River, India. 2010 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 161(1-4), pp. 177-89 
article DOI  
Abstract: An assessment on the water quality parameters coliform including the bacterial abundance from a point source of river Damodar (24 degrees 26(') N and 86 degrees 53(') E), West Bengal, India was carried out during the period of 2004-2007. The site received mining and industrial effluents from the collieries and industries. The water samples collected on a monthly basis revealed the presence of the coliform bacteria Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp., between 2,600 and 20,000 colony-forming unit/100 ml throughout the study period with peak abundance during the months of September to December, the post-monsoon period. The relative abundance of the two bacterial species was found to be y(E. coli) = 1.41x (Streptococcus) - 8.07 and were positively correlated (r = + 0.868, df = 34). Principal component analysis revealed three factors to clarify for the observed variance of the environmental variables. The mean values of the physicochemical parameters of the river water at the sampling sites were consistently higher than the levels specified by WHO and other regulatory bodies and qualify as polluted water. The presence of the coliform bacteria in these water samples warrants for proper measure to reduce the pollution at the point source and proper remediation strategies to combat contamination in the domestic water usage from river Damodar from this site and downstream.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeSK2010,
  author = {Chatterjee SK, Bhattacharjee I, Chandra G},
  title = {Water quality assessment near an industrial site of Damodar River, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {161(1-4)},
  pages = {177-89},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0736-1}
}
Chaudhuri G, Shah GA, Dey P, S G, Venu-Babu P, Thilagaraj WR Enzymatically mediated bioprecipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastes and single ion solutions by mammalian alkaline phosphatase. 2013 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng., pp. 79-85  article DOI  
Abstract: The study was aimed at investigating the potential use of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) enzyme in the removal of heavy metals (Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+) and Cr(3+/6+)) from single ion solutions as well as tannery and electroplating effluents. CIAP mediated bioremediation (white biotechnology) is a novel technique that is eco-friendly and cost effective unlike the conventional chemical technologies. Typical reactions containing the enzyme (CIAP) and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as substrate in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8 and 11) and either single ion metal solutions (250 ppm and 1000 ppm) or effluents from tannery or electroplating industry were incubated at 37°C for 30 min, 60 min and 120 min. The inorganic phosphate (P(i)) generated due to catalytic breakdown of pNPP complexes free metal ions as metal-phosphate and the amount of metal precipitated was derived by estimating the reduction in the free metal ion present in the supernatant of reactions employing atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Better precipitation of metal was obtained at pH 11 than at pH 8 and between the two concentrations of different metals tested, an initial metal concentration of 250 ppm in the reaction gave more precipitation than with 1000 ppm. Experimental data showed that at pH 11, the percentage of removal of metal ions (for an initial concentration of 250 ppm) was in the following order: Cd(2+) (80.99%) > Ni(2+) (64.78%) > Cr(3+) > (46.15%) > Co(2+) (36.47%) > Cr(6+) (32.33%). The overall removal of Cr(3+) and Cr(6+) from tannery effluent was 32.77% and 37.39% respectively in 120 min at pH 11. Likewise, the overall removal of Cd(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) from electroplating effluent was 50.42%, 13.93% and 38.64% respectively in 120 min at pH 11. The study demonstrates that bioprecipitation by CIAP may be a viable and environmental friendly method for clean-up of heavy metals from tannery and electroplating effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{ChaudhuriG2013,
  author = {Chaudhuri G, Shah GA, Dey P, S G, Venu-Babu P, Thilagaraj WR.},
  title = {Enzymatically mediated bioprecipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastes and single ion solutions by mammalian alkaline phosphatase.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {79-85},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2012.707851}
}
Chinnasamy S, Bhatnagar A, Hunt RW, Das KC Microalgae cultivation in a wastewater dominated by carpet mill effluents for biofuel applications. 2010 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 101(9), pp. 3097-105 
article DOI  
Abstract: Industrial and municipal wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. Dalton - the Carpet Capital of the World generates 100-115 million L of wastewater d(-1). A study was conducted using a wastewater containing 85-90% carpet industry effluents with 10-15% municipal sewage, to evaluate the feasibility of algal biomass and biodiesel production. Native algal strains were isolated from carpet wastewater. Preliminary growth studies indicated both fresh water and marine algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of 15 native algal isolates showed >96% nutrient removal in treated wastewater. Biomass production potential and lipid content of this consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were approximately 9.2-17.8 tons ha(-1) year(-1) and 6.82%, respectively. About 63.9% of algal oil obtained from the consortium could be converted into biodiesel. However further studies on anaerobic digestion and thermochemical liquefaction are required to make this consortium approach economically viable for producing algae biofuels.
BibTeX:
@article{ChinnasamyS2010,
  author = {Chinnasamy S, Bhatnagar A, Hunt RW, Das KC},
  title = {Microalgae cultivation in a wastewater dominated by carpet mill effluents for biofuel applications.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {101(9)},
  pages = {3097-105},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.12.026}
}
Dahbi S, Azzi M, Saib N, de la Guardia M, Faure R, Durand R Removal of trivalent chromium from tannery waste waters using bone charcoal. 2002 Anal Bioanal Chem.
Vol. 374(3), pp. 540-6 
article  
Abstract: The ability of bone charcoal to remove Cr(III) from aqueous solutions by adsorption has been investigated. The adsorbent used was first characterised and then the adsorption was studied as a function of time and amount of charcoal. Tests were carried out with synthetic solutions whose Cr concentrations (500 mg L(-1)) were similar to those found in some effluents of Moroccan tannery industries. Cr removal efficiencies higher than 90% were obtained at pH 3.5 using 3 g of bone charcoal and a stirring time of about 30 min. Results of Cr removal by all sieved fractions of bone charcoal had shown the same interesting capabilities for Cr(III) retention. The cross interference with other elements was also investigated. Pre-treatment of bone charcoal by nitric acid led to an increase in its specific surface area but induced a drastic reduction in its Cr elimination abilities. Adsorption tests were also carried out using calcinated bone charcoal. The results obtained showed a similar percentage of Cr retention to those found with untreated bone charcoal. On the other hand, a double treatment of bone charcoal with HCl and NaOH provided an enhancement of Cr(III) retention. The role played by the mineral fraction of the solid phase of bone was thus evidenced.
BibTeX:
@article{DahbiS2002,
  author = {Dahbi S, Azzi M, Saib N, de la Guardia M, Faure R, Durand R},
  title = {Removal of trivalent chromium from tannery waste waters using bone charcoal.},
  journal = {Anal Bioanal Chem.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {374(3)},
  pages = {540-6}
}
Deshpande AM, Satyanarayan S, Ramakant S Treatment of high-strength pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation combined with anaerobic process. 2010 Water Sci Technol.
Vol. 61(2), pp. 463-72 
article  
Abstract: This article discusses a combined treatment system comprising electrocoagulation (EC) as a pre-treatment followed by anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AFFBR) for treatment of high strength pharmaceutical wastewater. The effect of various operating parameters such as pH, current density and electrolysis duration on COD, BOD and colour removal was studied. The maximum removals for COD, BOD and colour under optimal operating conditions i.e. pH 7.2, current density (CD) of 80 A/m(2) and electrolysis time of 25 minutes were 24%, 35% and 70.25% respectively. Increase in current density has resulted in decrease in electrolysis duration with marginal improvement in treatment efficiency. The efficiency of removal is discussed in terms of kg COD(r) A(-1)m(-2)h(-1) and energy consumption as Wh kg(-1)COD(r). The effluents obtained after EC were treated by AFFBR at various organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The results indicated removals in the range of 80-90% for COD and 86-94% for BOD respectively, at OLRs between 0.6 to 4.0 Kg COD/m(3) d at an HRT of 2 days. The total gas quantity increased with increase in both HRT and OLR up to a loading of 6 Kg COD/m(3)/d but it did not commensurate with organic load. The results indicated that the combined treatment option is competitive and can be used effectively for high strength wastewaters.
BibTeX:
@article{DeshpandeAM2010,
  author = {Deshpande AM, Satyanarayan S, Ramakant S},
  title = {Treatment of high-strength pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation combined with anaerobic process.},
  journal = {Water Sci Technol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {61(2)},
  pages = {463-72}
}
Devi NL, Yadav IC, Shihua QI, Singh S, Belagali SL Physicochemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study of South India Paper Mill (SIPM). 2011 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 177(1-4), pp. 23-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pulp and paper mills generate varieties of pollutants depending upon type of the pulping process being used. This paper presents the characteristics of wastewater from South India Paper Mill, Karnataka, India which is using recycled waste paper as a raw material. The raw wastewater consists of 80-90 mg L(?-?1) suspended solid and 1,010-1,015 mg L(?-?1) dissolved solid. However, pH varied from 5.5-6.8. The biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand ranged from 200-210 and 1,120-1,160 mg L(?-?1), respectively. Aerobic treatment of raw effluent attribute to significant reduction in suspended solid (range between 25 to 30 mg L(?-?1)) and total dissolved solid (range between 360 to 390 mg L(?-?1)). However, pH, temperature, and electrical conductivity were found superior after treatment. Copper, cadmium, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc were found in less quantity in raw effluent and were almost completely removed after treatment. The dendrogram of the effluent quality parameters clearly indicate that South India Paper Mill does not meet Minimal National Standard set by central Pollution Control Board to discharge in agricultural field.
BibTeX:
@article{DeviNL2011,
  author = {Devi NL, Yadav IC, Shihua QI, Singh S, Belagali SL},
  title = {Physicochemical characteristics of paper industry effluents--a case study of South India Paper Mill (SIPM).},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {177(1-4)},
  pages = {23-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1614-1}
}
Dhal B, Thatoi HN, Das NN, Pandey BD Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review. 2013 J Hazard Mater, pp. 272-91  article DOI  
Abstract: Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants, and its occurrence is rare in nature. Lower to higher chromium containing effluents and solid wastes released by activities such as mining, metal plating, wood preservation, ink manufacture, dyes, pigments, glass and ceramics, tanning and textile industries, and corrosion inhibitors in cooling water, induce pollution and may cause major health hazards. Besides, natural processes (weathering and biochemical) also contribute to the mobility of chromium which enters in to the soil affecting the plant growth and metabolic functions of the living species. Generally, chemical processes are used for Cr- remediation. However, with the inference derived from the diverse Cr-resistance mechanism displayed by microorganisms and the plants including biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux, bioremediation is emerging as a potential tool to address the problem of Cr(VI) pollution. This review focuses on the chemistry of chromium, its use, and toxicity and mobility in soil, while assessing its concentration in effluents/wastes which becomes the source of pollution. In order to conserve the environment and resources, the chemical/biological remediation processes for Cr(VI) and their efficiency have been summarised in some detail. The interaction of chromium with various microbial/bacterial strains isolated and their reduction capacity towards Cr(VI) are also discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{DhalB2013,
  author = {Dhal B, Thatoi HN, Das NN, Pandey BD.},
  title = {Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {272-91},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.01.048}
}
Dhanapakiam P, Ramasamy VK, Joseph M Changes in the level of transaminases in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita exposed to sublethal concentration of tannery and distillery effluents. 2006 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 27(3), pp. 567-70 
article  
Abstract: The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) of different tissues of fingerlings of Labeo rohita under the influence of two effluents has been studied. The alanine aminotransferase activity was increased over the control in different exposed periods of tannery and distillery effluent treatments. The alanine aminotransferase in the liver showed increased activity at different periods than that of the muscle, kidney, gill and brain (p < 0.001) (60.09%) over the control during the 40 days exposure in both the effluents treatments. The increased activity of alanine aminotransferase was highly significant (p > 0.001) in all the tissue in tannery and distillery effluents treatments. Similarly aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased over the control in all the treated tissues from 10 to 40 days exposure. But this increase, was not significant in the muscle tissue in distillery and tannery treatements after 10 days exposure. From 10 to 40 days, the activity was increased but a maxmum elevation was observed during 40 days, where the elevation was more in the liver, which was followed by muscle, kidney, gill, brain (brain < gill < kidney < muscle < liver).
BibTeX:
@article{DhanapakiamP2006,
  author = {Dhanapakiam P, Ramasamy VK, Joseph M},
  title = {Changes in the level of transaminases in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita exposed to sublethal concentration of tannery and distillery effluents.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {27(3)},
  pages = {567-70}
}
Dua A, Gupta N Mercury toxicology as assessed through fish scales. 2005 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 74(6), pp. 1105-10 
article  
Abstract: Increasing pollution in water bodies is directly or indirectly related to increasing urbanization and indiscriminate disposal of agrochemical & industrial effluents. Heavy metals are one of the important categories of such pollutants and are causing serious hazards to non target species (Mwachiro and Druve1997). Their salts constitute a serious type of pollution in fresh water and being stable compounds; they are not readily removed by oxidation, precipitation or other processes and affect the activity in recipient animal (Jagadeesan and Vijayalakshmi 1998). Increase in the concentration of heavy metals has been reported in water of Vasai Creek, Maharastra and surface as well as groundwater of Delhi (Lokhande and Kelker 1999; Dixit et al. 2003). Recently, Food and Drug Adminstration (USFDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2004) in their combined report recommended that pregnant women and lactating mothers should not eat shark, sword fish and king Mackerel as these fishes contain high levels of mercury.
BibTeX:
@article{DuaA2005,
  author = {Dua A, Gupta N},
  title = {Mercury toxicology as assessed through fish scales.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {74(6)},
  pages = {1105-10}
}
Dubey SK, Yadav R, Chaturvedi RK, Yadav RK, Sharma VK, Minhas PS Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India. 2010 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 82(3), pp. 295-300 
article DOI  
Abstract: Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 microg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11-0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.
BibTeX:
@article{DubeySK2010,
  author = {Dubey SK, Yadav R, Chaturvedi RK, Yadav RK, Sharma VK, Minhas PS},
  title = {Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {82(3)},
  pages = {295-300},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0073-2}
}
Gadhikar YA, Zade VS, Khadse T Bioremediation of industrial waste by using bat guano. 2007 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 49(2), pp. 153-6 
article  
Abstract: The present investigation is an attempt to study the effect of bat guano with its rich microbial flora on bioremediation of industrial waste effluents. The results revealed that within a period of 15 days, there was a remarkable reduction in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values up to 50%-70%, thus stabilizing the industrial effluents. In addition to this,values of various physico-chemical parameters were notably found to reduce suggesting that industrial effluents can be effectively treated by bat guano.
BibTeX:
@article{GadhikarYA2007,
  author = {Gadhikar YA, Zade VS, Khadse T},
  title = {Bioremediation of industrial waste by using bat guano.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {49(2)},
  pages = {153-6}
}
Gandhi G, Kumar N DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals residing near a wastewater drain and using underground water resources. 2004 Environ Mol Mutagen.
Vol. 43(4), pp. 235-42 
article  
Abstract: Mahal is a linear village settlement situated about 0.5 km from an open waste-water drain, the Tung Dhab drain, which carries effluents from local industrial sites. Villagers generally have a low-to-middle socio-economic status and use ground water or a combination of ground water and tap water for drinking and for their other daily activities. The land in and around Mahal is used for agriculture and is irrigated by water from the Tung Dhab. The drain water contains heavy metals, and there is a possibility that these and other contaminants may reach the ground water table of Mahal and thereby compromise the health of the residents. The comet assay was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from Mahal villagers and revealed statistically significant increases in DNA damage as compared to a control group that does not use ground water. DNA damage was also significantly related to the age of the villagers and to the length of residence in the village. In the absence of other environmental exposures, it is concluded that the elevated DNA damage in the villagers is a consequence of continuous utilization of contaminated ground water.
BibTeX:
@article{GandhiG2004,
  author = {Gandhi G, Kumar N},
  title = {DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals residing near a wastewater drain and using underground water resources.},
  journal = {Environ Mol Mutagen.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {43(4)},
  pages = {235-42}
}
Ganguli A, Tripathi AK Survival and chromate reducing ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in industrial effluents 1999 Lett Appl Microbiol
Vol. 28(1), pp. 76-80 
article  
Abstract: The ability of a chromate-reducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, isolated from tannery effluent, to survive and reduce chromate in the effluent of a tannery and an electroplating unit was evaluated. The test strain survived in the native tannery effluent but numbers fell sharply in the native electroplating effluent. Supplementation with a carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) source supported bacterial multiplication and chromate reduction in both types of effluents with almost equal efficiency. Chromate reduction, however, was not observed in the absence of C, N or P supplement, or in the chromate-reducing strain.
BibTeX:
@article{GanguliA1999,
  author = {Ganguli A, Tripathi AK},
  title = {Survival and chromate reducing ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in industrial effluents},
  journal = {Lett Appl Microbiol},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {28(1)},
  pages = {76-80}
}
Gowrishanker B, Vivekanandan OS In vivo studies of a crude extract of Phyllanthus amarus L. in modifying the genotoxicity induced in Vicia faba L. by tannery effluents. 1994 Mutat Res.
Vol. 322(3), pp. 185-92 
article  
Abstract: The genotoxic effects of two types of tannery effluent (Raw-to-Wetblue and Wetblue-to-Finish) and the antigenotoxic property of a crude extract of Phyllanthus amarus L. were evaluated using the root meristem of Vicia faba L. as the in vivo test system. The root tip cells were exposed to the tannery effluents at different concentrations for varying durations. Squash preparations were made following Haematoxylin staining procedures. Cytological investigations revealed a duration- and concentration-dependent decrease in mitotic frequency and an increase in chromosomal irregularities. The root meristems pre-treated with effluents for 8 h (Raw-to-Wetblue) and 24 h (Wetblue-to-Finish) which caused the maximum incidence of mitotic anomalies, were then exposed to the crude extract of Phyllanthus amarus (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%) to study its efficacy modifying genetic damage. It was observed that the root meristems post-treated with Phyllanthus showed a significant reduction in the frequency of chromosomal alterations. However, there was no significant variation in the mitotic frequency. The study suggests that Phyllanthin, a principle of Phyllanthus amarus, is antigenotoxic.
BibTeX:
@article{GowrishankerB1994,
  author = {Gowrishanker B, Vivekanandan OS},
  title = {In vivo studies of a crude extract of Phyllanthus amarus L. in modifying the genotoxicity induced in Vicia faba L. by tannery effluents.},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {322(3)},
  pages = {185-92}
}
Gunasundari D, Muthukumar K Simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and phenol degradation using Stenotrophomonas sp. isolated from tannery effluent contaminated soil. 2013 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.  article DOI  
Abstract: This study presents simultaneous hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction and phenol degradation using Stenotrophomonas sp., isolated from tannery effluent contaminated soil. Phenol was used as the sole carbon and energy source for Cr(VI) reduction. The optimization of different operating parameters was done using Placket-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The significant operating variables identified by PBD were initial Cr(VI) and phenol concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time. These variables were optimized by a three-level BBD and the optimum initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial phenol concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time obtained were 16.59 mg/l, 200.05 mg/l, 7.38, 31.96 °C and 4.07 days, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, 81.27 % Cr(VI) reduction and 100 % phenol degradation were observed experimentally. The results concluded that the Stenotrophomonas sp. could be used to decontaminate the effluents containing Cr(VI) and phenol effectively.
BibTeX:
@article{GunasundariD2013,
  author = {Gunasundari D, Muthukumar K.},
  title = {Simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and phenol degradation using Stenotrophomonas sp. isolated from tannery effluent contaminated soil.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/.1007/s11356-013-1718-6.}
}
Gupta A, Rai DK, Pandey RS, Sharma B Analysis of some heavy metals in the riverine water, sediments and fish from river Ganges at Allahabad. 2009 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 157(1-4), pp. 449-58 
article DOI  
Abstract: The river Ganges has been one of the major recipients of industrial effluents in India. The present paper deals with the study related to occurrence and bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn) in the riverine water, sediment, and the muscles of two cat fish species, Channa punctatus (C. punctatus) and Aorichthys aor (A. aor) procured from the river Ganges at Allahabad. The data obtained after water analysis reflected the order of occurrence of heavy metals to be Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd, respectively. The analysis of heavy metals in sediment indicated that among the five heavy metals tested; Zn was maximally accumulated followed by Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd. The trend of heavy metals accumulation in fish muscles was found to be similar to that observed in sediment and water such as Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd. Data indicated that Zn accumulated maximally in the sediment as well as muscles of both of the fish species in comparison to other metals.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaA2009,
  author = {Gupta A, Rai DK, Pandey RS, Sharma B},
  title = {Analysis of some heavy metals in the riverine water, sediments and fish from river Ganges at Allahabad.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {157(1-4)},
  pages = {449-58},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0547-4}
}
Gupta AK, Sinha S, Basant A, Singh KP Multivariate analysis of selected metals in agricultural soil receiving UASB treated tannery effluent at Jajmau, Kanpur (India). 2007 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 79(5), pp. 577-82 
article  
Abstract: Tannery effluent and soils samples were collected from 12 different sites of an agricultural area receiving treated tannery wastewater near Kanpur city (India). The samples were analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni and Pb) content with a view to assess the impact of industrial wastewater on agricultural soils. The results revealed elevated levels of Fe and Cr in agricultural soils irrigated with treated tannery effluents. Cluster analysis of tannery effluent and soil datasets yielded two groups of the metals and demonstrated their relationship in each media. Principal component analysis performed on two datasets yielded two significant factors each for the effluents and soils, suggested tanneries as the probable sources of metals in the soils.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaAK2007,
  author = {Gupta AK, Sinha S, Basant A, Singh KP},
  title = {Multivariate analysis of selected metals in agricultural soil receiving UASB treated tannery effluent at Jajmau, Kanpur (India).},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {79(5)},
  pages = {577-82}
}
Gupta S, Goyal R, Prakash NT Biosequestration of lead using Bacillus strains isolated from seleniferous soils and sediments of Punjab. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int., pp. 2  article  
Abstract: The present study was conducted to isolate and explore bacterial strains with a potential to sequester lead (Pb) and tolerate other heavy metals from industrial effluents and sediments. Out of the six bacterial strains isolated from seleniferous sites of Punjab, three isolates (RS-1, RS-2, and RS-3) were screened out for further growth-associated lead sequestration and molecular characterization on the basis of their tolerance toward lead and other heavy metals. Biomass and cell-free supernatant were analyzed for lead contents using ICP-MS after growth-associated lead sequestration studies in tryptone soya broth (pH?=?7.2?±?0.2) under aerobic conditions at 37 °C temperature. Almost 82 % and 70 % divalent lead was sequestered in cell pellets of RS-1 and RS-3, respectively while only 45 % of lead was found in cell pellet of RS-2 in the first 24 h. However, significant biosequestration of lead was observed in RS-2 after 48 h of incubation with concomitant increase in biomass. Simultaneously, morphological, biochemical, and physiological characterization of selected strains was carried out. 16S rRNA gene sequence of these isolates revealed their phylogenetic relationship with class Bacillaceae, a low G + C firmicutes showing 98 % homology with Bacillus sp.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaS2014,
  author = {Gupta S, Goyal R, Prakash NT},
  title = {Biosequestration of lead using Bacillus strains isolated from seleniferous soils and sediments of Punjab.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {2}
}
Gupta S, Nayek S, Saha RN Temporal changes and depth wise variations in pit pond hydrochemistry contaminated with industrial effluents with special emphasis on metal distribution in water-sediment system. 2010 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 183(1-3), pp. 125-31 
article DOI  
Abstract: Abstract
The investigation showed pronounced temporal and vertical variations of pit lake-water chemistry contaminated with industrial effluents. An intermixing layer of few meters at a depth of 5-8 m usually separates an upper oxic epilimnion with alkaline pH from deeper sub-oxic/anoxic zone with relatively lower pH. Metal concentrations were in higher magnitude at anoxic zone in comparison to surface layer. Most of the parameters including metals showed higher concentrations during summer, while least concentrations were observed during monsoon. In shallow sediments, metals were mainly in insoluble-residual form, while redox metals were fractionated as oxihydroxide-reducible form. Geoaccumulation of metals in bottom sediments were Fe>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cd>Mn>Zn. Toxicity assessment showed that pit pond water is highly contaminated (C(d)=7.52) and moderate pollution load (PLI=2.272) in shallow sediments, with metal evaluation index (HEI) value of 11.08 and 15.91 respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaS2010,
  author = {Gupta S, Nayek S, Saha RN},
  title = {Temporal changes and depth wise variations in pit pond hydrochemistry contaminated with industrial effluents with special emphasis on metal distribution in water-sediment system.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {183(1-3)},
  pages = {125-31},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.06.125}
}
Gupta VK, Jain R, Malathi S, Nayak A Adsorption-desorption studies of indigocarmine from industrial effluents by using deoiled mustard and its comparison with charcoal. 2010 J Colloid Interface Sci.
Vol. 348(2), pp. 628-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: Deoiled mustard obtained from local oil mills has been used as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the removal of indigocarmine dye from industrial effluents. The influence of various factors on the adsorption capacity has been studied by batch experiments. The adsorption studies validate both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG degrees, DeltaH degrees, and DeltaS degrees for the adsorption process were calculated, which indicated the feasibility of the adsorption process. Desorption profiles revealed that a significant portion (85%) could be desorbed from deoiled mustard by using 30% glycerol as eluting agent.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaVK2010,
  author = {Gupta VK, Jain R, Malathi S, Nayak A},
  title = {Adsorption-desorption studies of indigocarmine from industrial effluents by using deoiled mustard and its comparison with charcoal.},
  journal = {J Colloid Interface Sci.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {348(2)},
  pages = {628-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2010.04.085}
}
Gupta VK, Mittal A, Jain R, Mathur M, Sikarwar S Adsorption of Safranin-T from wastewater using waste materials- activated carbon and activated rice husks. 2006 J Colloid Interface Sci.
Vol. 303(1), pp. 80-6 
article  
Abstract: Textile effluents are major industrial polluters because of high color content, about 15% unfixed dyes and salts. The present paper is aimed to investigate and develop cheap adsorption methods for color removal from wastewater using waste materials activated carbon and activated rice husk-as adsorbents. The method was employed for the removal of Safranin-T and the influence of various factors such as adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, particle size, temperature, contact time, and pH was studied. The adsorption of the dye over both the adsorbents was found to follow Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Based on these models, different useful thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated for both the adsorption processes. The adsorption of Safranin-T over activated carbon and activated rice husks follows first-order kinetics and the rate constants for the adsorption processes decrease with increase in temperature.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaVK2006,
  author = {Gupta VK, Mittal A, Jain R, Mathur M, Sikarwar S},
  title = {Adsorption of Safranin-T from wastewater using waste materials- activated carbon and activated rice husks.},
  journal = {J Colloid Interface Sci.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {303(1)},
  pages = {80-6}
}
Ilias M, Rafiqullah IM, Debnath BC, Mannan KS, Mozammel Hoq M Isolation and Characterization of Chromium(VI)-Reducing Bacteria from Tannery Effluents. 2011 Indian J Microbiol., pp. 76-81  article DOI  
Abstract: Two chromium-resistant bacteria (IFR-2 and IFR-3) capable of reducing/transforming Cr(VI) to Cr(III) were isolated from tannery effluents. Isolates IFR-2 and IFR-3 were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Pediococcus pentosaceus respectively by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. Both isolates can grow well on 2,000 mg/l Cr(VI) (as K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Reduction of Cr(VI) was found to be growth-associated in both isolates and IFR-2 and IFR-3 reduced 20 mg/l Cr(VI) completely in 6 and 24 h respectively. The Cr(VI) reduction due to chromate reductase activity was detected in the culture supernatant and cell lysate but not at all in the cell extract supernatant of both isolates. Whole cells of IFR-2 and IFR-3 converted 24 and 30% of the initial Cr(VI) concentration (1 mg/l) in 45 min respectively at 37°C. NiCl(2) stimulated the growth of IFR-2 whereas HgCl(2) and CdCl(2) significantly inhibited the growth of both isolates. Optimum temperature and pH for growth of and Cr(VI) reduction by both isolates were found to be between 35 and 40°C and pH 7.0 to 8.0. The two bacterial isolates can be good candidates for detoxification of Cr(VI) in industrial effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{IliasM2011,
  author = {Ilias M, Rafiqullah IM, Debnath BC, Mannan KS, Mozammel Hoq M.},
  title = {Isolation and Characterization of Chromium(VI)-Reducing Bacteria from Tannery Effluents.},
  journal = {Indian J Microbiol.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {76-81},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-011-0095-4}
}
Jain CK, Malik DS, Yadav R Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of lake Nainital, Uttaranchal, India. 2007 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 130(1-3), pp. 129-39 
article  
Abstract: Lake Nainital in the heart of Nainital Town in the State of Uttaranchal (India) receives toxic substances through various open drains through the catchment of the lake. The toxic substances of particular interest are heavy metals derived from urban runoff as well as municipal sewage and industrial effluents. Heavy metals entering the lake get adsorbed onto the suspended sediments, which in turn settle down in the bottom of the lake. In this study fractionation of metal ions has been studied on the bed sediments of lake Nainital with the objective to determine the eco-toxic potential of metal ions. Comparison of sediments with average shae values indicated anthropogenic enrichment with nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc. The risk assessment code as applied to the present study reveals that 4-13% of manganese, 4-8% of copper, 17-24% of nickel, 3-5% of chromium, 13-26% of lead, 14-23% of cadmium and 2-3% of zinc exist in exchangeable fraction and therefore comes under low to medium risk category and may enter into food chain. The association of these metals with exchangeable fraction may cause deleterious effects to aquatic life. The present database will help in formulating guidelines for carrying out dredging operations and/or restoration programmes in the Nainital lake.
BibTeX:
@article{JainCK2007,
  author = {Jain CK, Malik DS, Yadav R},
  title = {Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of lake Nainital, Uttaranchal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {130(1-3)},
  pages = {129-39}
}
Jan FA, Ishaq M, Ihsanullah I, Asim SM Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals pollution in industrial area and its comparison with relatively less polluted area: a case study from the City of Peshawar and district Dir Lower. 2010 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 176(1-3), pp. 609-16 
article DOI  
Abstract: Multivariate and univariate statistical techniques i.e., cluster analysis PCA, regression and correlation analysis, one way ANOVA, were applied to the metal data of effluents soil and ground water to point out the contribution of different industries towards the metals pollution, their source identification and distribution. The samples were collected from different industries and different downstream points of the main effluents stream and from the relatively less polluted area considered as control area. The samples were analyzed for metal concentration levels by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The metal concentration data in the three media of the polluted area were compared with background data and control data as well as with the WHO safe limits. The results showed that soil has high metals concentration compared to effluents and water. The data also showed elevated levels of Mn and Pb in water that are 8.268 and 2.971 mg/L, respectively. Principal component analysis along with regression analysis showed that the elevated levels of metals in the effluents contaminate adjacent soil and ultimately the ground water. The other elements Co, Cd, Ni and Cu were also found to have correlation in the three media.
BibTeX:
@article{JanFA2010,
  author = {Jan FA, Ishaq M, Ihsanullah I, Asim SM},
  title = {Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals pollution in industrial area and its comparison with relatively less polluted area: a case study from the City of Peshawar and district Dir Lower.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {176(1-3)},
  pages = {609-16},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.073}
}
Jayaprakash M, Urban B, Velmurugan PM, Srinivasalu S Accumulation of total trace metals due to rapid urbanization in microtidal zone of Pallikaranai marsh, South of Chennai, India. 2010 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 17(1-4), pp. 609-29 
article DOI  
Abstract: The article presents the results for enrichment of total trace metals (TTMs) from Pallikaranai salt marsh in South Chennai, a metropolis on the southeast coast of India. TTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, Sr, V, and Hg along with sediment texture, OC, and CaCO3 were analyzed in 36 surface sediments collected during August 2008 to recognize and observe the input of TTMs in the marsh from various sources in the city limits. In view of the rapid urbanization and industrialization in Chennai City, especially on the southern side, uncontrolled input of sewage, garbage, and industrial effluents into the Pallikaranai marsh land, the elevated concentrations are not surprising. The level of enrichment of TTMs has also increased by 20% to 60% for most of the elements when compared with all other ecosystems in the world as well as the nearby area. The results also indicate that the marshy region is more heavily contaminated with Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn than other regions on the southeast coast of India. The Enrichment Factor, Contamination Factor, and I (geo) indexes are calculated, and these values are useful to assess the degree of pollution in sediments. The spatial distributions of TTMs are also controlled by other factors like geochemical, precipitation, and flocculation of particulate substances in the marsh. The results of the present study suggest the need for a regular monitoring and management program which will help to improve the quality of Pallikaranai pristine marsh land.
BibTeX:
@article{JayaprakashM2010,
  author = {Jayaprakash M, Urban B, Velmurugan PM, Srinivasalu S},
  title = {Accumulation of total trace metals due to rapid urbanization in microtidal zone of Pallikaranai marsh, South of Chennai, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {17(1-4)},
  pages = {609-29},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1261-6}
}
Jha MK, Kumar V, Bagchi D, Singh RJ, Lee JC Processing of rayon waste effluent for the recovery of zinc and separation of calcium using thiophosphinic extractant. 2007 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 145(1-2), pp. 221-6 
article  
Abstract: Zinc is used in various metallurgical, chemical and textile industries. In textile industries, waste effluent containing zinc is generated during the manufacture of rayon yarn. Due to the strict environmental regulations and the presence of toxic metallic and other constituents, the discharge of effluents in sewage is restricted. In view of above a process has been developed for the recovery of zinc from rayon waste effluent following solvent extraction technique using thiophosphinic extractants Cyanex 272 and 302. Before recycling of zinc sulphate solution in spinning bath, solution must be free from calcium, which is deleterious to the process as gypsum precipitates and forms scale. The extractant Cyanex 302 has been found selective for the recovery of 99.99% of zinc in the form of [R(2)Zn](org) from the effluent above equilibrium pH 3.4 maintaining the O/A ratio of 1/30 leaving all the calcium in the raffinate. The zinc from the loaded Cyanex 302 can be stripped with 10% sulphuric acid at even O/A ratio of 10. The stripped solution thus obtained could be recycled in the spinning bath of the rayon plant and raffinate could be disposed safely without affecting environment.
BibTeX:
@article{JhaMK2007,
  author = {Jha MK, Kumar V, Bagchi D, Singh RJ, Lee JC},
  title = {Processing of rayon waste effluent for the recovery of zinc and separation of calcium using thiophosphinic extractant.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {145(1-2)},
  pages = {221-6}
}
Jha MK, Van Nguyen N, Lee JC, Jeong J, Yoo JM Adsorption of copper from the sulphate solution of low copper contents using the cationic resin Amberlite IR 120. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 164(2-3), pp. 948-53 
article DOI  
Abstract: In view of the increasing importance of the waste processing and recycling to meet the strict environmental regulations, the present investigation reports an adsorption process using the cationic exchanger Amberlite IR 120 for the recovery/removal of copper from the synthetic sulphate solution containing copper
BibTeX:
@article{JhaMK2009,
  author = {Jha MK, Van Nguyen N, Lee JC, Jeong J, Yoo JM},
  title = {Adsorption of copper from the sulphate solution of low copper contents using the cationic resin Amberlite IR 120.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {164(2-3)},
  pages = {948-53},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.08.103}
}
Jhorar BS, Malik RS Evaporation behaviour of different organic effluents from open surfaces. 1993 Environ Pollut.
Vol. 80(1), pp. 53-6 
article  
Abstract: Production of large quantities of effluents from different industrial units and the problems of their disposal necessitated this evaporation study. The evaporation of water, sewage water, oil refinery effluent, papermill effluent and liquor distillery effluent was observed in glass beakers when placed (i) in an oven at 60 degrees C and (ii) in screen house for 30 days, by periodically weighing of the beakers. In other experiments, the effect of increasing the frequency of stirring on increasing the evaporation efficiency of the liquor distillery effluent (ELD) was examined in detail. All of the organic effluents except ELD had similar evaporation behaviours as water, but formation of a self-forming film caused the evaporation of ELD to be considerably lower. Resistance to evaporation caused by this film was found to be a decreasing function of the frequency of stirring. This study has a bearing on improving the efficiency of evaporation lagoons, and three stirrings in a day with a manually drawn stirrer in a full-scale lagoon are proposed as a practical and economically viable technique to save 44% of lagoon land in arid and semi-arid regions of the world.
BibTeX:
@article{JhorarBS1993,
  author = {Jhorar BS, Malik RS},
  title = {Evaporation behaviour of different organic effluents from open surfaces.},
  journal = {Environ Pollut.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {80(1)},
  pages = {53-6}
}
Joshi PK, Swarup A, Maheshwari S, Kumar R, Singh N Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources. 2011 Indian J Microbiol., pp. 482-7  article  
Abstract: Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiPK2011,
  author = {Joshi PK, Swarup A, Maheshwari S, Kumar R, Singh N},
  title = {Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.},
  journal = {Indian J Microbiol.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {482-7}
}
Kalidhasan S, Ganesh M, Sricharan S, Rajesh N Extractive separation and determination of chromium in tannery effluents and electroplating waste water using tribenzylamine as the extractant. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 165(1-3), pp. 886-92 
article DOI  
Abstract: A simple extractive separation method has been developed for the determination of chromium based on the extraction of Cr (VI) as its ion-pair with tribenzylamine (TBA). The ion-pair is extracted at acidic pH using toluene as the diluent. The concentration of chromium in the organic phase was measured spectrophotometrically at 309 nm. The influence of experimental variables such as pH, sample volume, equilibration time, diverse ions etc. has been studied in detail. The extracted chromium (VI) could be stripped to the aqueous phase using NaOH as the stripping agent. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy. A detection limit of 0.08 microg mL(-1) could be achieved and the validity of the method was checked in real tannery effluent, electroplating waste water and spiked water samples.
BibTeX:
@article{KalidhasanS2009,
  author = {Kalidhasan S, Ganesh M, Sricharan S, Rajesh N},
  title = {Extractive separation and determination of chromium in tannery effluents and electroplating waste water using tribenzylamine as the extractant.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {165(1-3)},
  pages = {886-92},
  note = {Jun},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.122}
}
Kanmani P, Satish Kumar R, Yuvaraj N, Paari KA, Pattukumar V, Aru V Microbial decolorization of synthetic dyes and reactive dyes of industrial effluents by using a novel fungus Aspergillus proliferans. 2011 Water Environ Res., pp. 2099-106  article  
Abstract: A decolorizing fungal strain was isolated and identified by the morphology and genotypic characterization as Aspergillus proliferans. The effect of A. proliferans on decolorization of synthetic dyes (70 mg ml(-1)) and colored effluent was evaluated in liquid culture medium. A. proliferans expressed their effective decolorization activity in effectual decolorization of synthetic dyes and industrial effluent. Synthetic dyes were decolorized by 76 to 89% within 6 days of treatment and 73.5% of color was removed in industrial effluent within 8 days. The addition of optimum carbon and nitrogen sources were effectively stimulated the decolorization activity. The high concentration of glucose repressed the decolorization activity and supplementation of yeast extract has significantly enhanced the effluent decolorization at p < 0.05. Laccase enzyme was isolated from liquid state fermentation, which showed significant enzyme activity (10,200 Uml(-1)) at p < 0.005. The crude enzyme decolorizes the dyes aniline blue and congo red in 14 hours (40.9 to 70%) and the effluent in 14 hours (88.6%). Moreover, the culture free supernatant without the fungal biomass has also effectively decolorized the effluent and synthetic dyes. The fungi Aspergillus proliferans was used not only for decolorization but also for better bioremediation of industrial effluent.
BibTeX:
@article{KanmaniP2011,
  author = {Kanmani P, Satish Kumar R, Yuvaraj N, Paari KA, Pattukumar V, Aru V.},
  title = {Microbial decolorization of synthetic dyes and reactive dyes of industrial effluents by using a novel fungus Aspergillus proliferans.},
  journal = {Water Environ Res.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {2099-106}
}
Kannan V, Ramesh R, Sasikumar C Study on ground water characteristics and the effects of discharged effluents from textile units at Karur District. 2005 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 26(2), pp. 269-72 
article  
Abstract: A study was made on the physico-chemical characteristics of water samples mixed with effluent discharged from textile industries at Chellandipalayam (Site--I), Senaparatti (Site--II) and Pasupathipalayam (Sites--III and IV) revealed the elevated levels of Ca, Mg, Na, Cr, K, Ni, Cu, Zn, CO3, SO4, NO3 and Cl- . The concentrations of these ions exceeded the limit prescribed by ISI. The increase in the concentrations of ions was revealed by higher values of electrical conductivity (EC). Water at these sites was found to be hard, brackish and unsuitable for drinking purpose. In all these sites, the seed germination of rice alone was significantly affected among the other crops tested. Irrigation of crops with ground water notably lowered the quantity of reserve food in rice, wheat (starch), and sugarcane (sugar), indicating the interference of their metabolic pathway by polluted ground water.
BibTeX:
@article{KannanV2005,
  author = {Kannan V, Ramesh R, Sasikumar C},
  title = {Study on ground water characteristics and the effects of discharged effluents from textile units at Karur District.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {26(2)},
  pages = {269-72}
}
Katnoria JK, Arora S, Bhardwaj R, Nagpal A Evaluation of genotoxic potential of industrial waste contaminated soil extracts of Amritsar, India. 2011 J Environ Biol.  article  
Abstract: The rapid increase in population together with unplanned disposal of effluents from various industries has resulted in accumulation of various heavy metals like As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil ecosystem which ultimately causes DNA damage in living systems. Considering this, the present study was designed to evaluate the content of various heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) and genotoxicity/mutagenicity of soil samples collected from the outskirts of two industries viz. zinc coating industry (SI) and copper sulphate manufacturing industry (SII) employing Allium root anaphase aberration assay (A/RAAA) and Ames assay. The physicochemical parameters like bulk density, water holding capacity, moisture content, pH, nitrates, phosphates and potassium were also estimated. It was observed that SI sample contained Ni (6.86 mg g-1), Zn (6.53 mg g-1), Co (5.05 mg g-1) and Cr (4.49 mg g-1), while SII contained Cu (32.86 mg g-1), Ni (9.66 mg g-1), Co (6.85 mg g-1) and Zn (5.41 mg g-1). In A/RAA assay, the percentage of cells with anaphase aberrations ranged from 3.63 to 10.67 and 0.38 to 4.83% for samples SI and SII, respectively. In Ames test, sample SII was found to be lethal to Salmonella tester strains at all concentrations used, while sample SI was found to be mutagenic in TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Sample SII was found to be strongly acidic with pH 3.46. The present study focuses on the increasing heavy metal pollution in Amritsar city due to industrial discharges over lands and also infers that both bioassays Ames and A/RAAA can serve as first alert indication of pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{KatnoriaJK2011,
  author = {Katnoria JK, Arora S, Bhardwaj R, Nagpal A.},
  title = {Evaluation of genotoxic potential of industrial waste contaminated soil extracts of Amritsar, India.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2011}
}
Kaur A, Gupta U Solid-phase extraction of antimony using chemically modified SiO2-PAN nanoparticles. 2010 J AOAC Int.
Vol. 93(4), pp. 1302-7 
article  
Abstract: A new analytical method using 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN)-modified SiO2 nanoparticles as solid-phase extractant has been developed for the preconcentration of trace amounts of Sb(III) in different water samples. Conditions of the analysis such as preconcentration factor, effect of pH, sample volume, shaking time, elution conditions, and effects of interfering ions for the recovery of the analyte were investigated. The adsorption capacity of nanometer SiO2-PAN was found to be 186.25 micromol/g at optimum pH and the LOD (3sigma) was 0.60 microg/L. The extractant showed rapid kinetic sorption. The adsorption equilibrium of Sb(III) on nanometer SiO2-PAN was achieved in 10 min. Adsorbed Sb(III) was easily eluted with 4 mL 2 M hydrochloric acid. The maximum preconcentration factor was 62.20. The method was applied for the determination of trace amounts of Sb(III) in various water samples (tap, mineral water, and industrial effluents).
BibTeX:
@article{KaurA2010,
  author = {Kaur A, Gupta U},
  title = {Solid-phase extraction of antimony using chemically modified SiO2-PAN nanoparticles.},
  journal = {J AOAC Int.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {93(4)},
  pages = {1302-7}
}
Kaur J, Chaudhary A, Kaur R, Arora S Assessment of mutagenic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic potential of water samples of Harike wetland: a Ramsar site in India using different ex vivo biological systems. 2014 Ecotoxicology.  article  
Abstract: Harike is a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention. The present study entails the investigation of mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic effect of surface water samples collected from five different areas of the Harike wetland by using the histidine reversion point mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) strain with or without S9, bioluminescence mutagenicity assay using Vibrio harveyi (A16) strain, plasmid-nicking assay using pBR322 and 3(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay as well as confocal imaging studies using Chinese hamster ovarian cell line, respectively. It was observed that although, the water sample of all the areas of wetland demonstrated mutagenic, genotoxic as well as cytotoxic activity, the effect was quite significant with the water samples from River Satluj and Khatan area (i.e. reservoir mainly contains Satluj water). The metal analysis of water samples was also conducted with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mutagenicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of water samples emerged to be correlated with metal concentration. The source of toxic components seems to be associated with various industrial effluents and agricultural run-off. The results of the present study carry great importance in documenting the water quality monitoring data of the wetland.
BibTeX:
@article{KaurJ2014,
  author = {Kaur J, Chaudhary A, Kaur R, Arora S.},
  title = {Assessment of mutagenic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic potential of water samples of Harike wetland: a Ramsar site in India using different ex vivo biological systems.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicology.},
  year = {2014}
}
Kaur R, Kaur J, Mahajan J, Kumar R, Arora S Oxidative stress--implications, source and its prevention. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(30, pp. 1599-613 
article DOI  
Abstract: Oxidative stress has been a major predicament of present day living. It has been the product of imbalance between the processes involved in free radical generation and their neutralization by enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence mechanisms. The oxidative stress has been contributed by numerous factors including heavy metals, organic compound-rich industrial effluents, air pollutants and changing lifestyle pattern focussing mainly on alcohol consumption, dietary habits, sun exposure, nuclear emissions, etc. The most common outcome of oxidative stress is the increased damage of lipid, DNA and proteins that resulted in the development of different pathologies. Among these pathologies, cancer is the most devastating and linked to multiple mutations arising due to oxidative DNA and protein damage that ultimately affect the integrity of the genome. The chemopreventive agents particularly nutraceuticals are found to be effective in reducing cancer incidences as these components have immense antioxidative, antimutagenic and antiproliferative potentials and are an important part of our dietary components. These secondary metabolites, due to their unique chemical structure, facilitate cell-to-cell communication, repair DNA damage by the downregulation of transcription factors and inhibit the activity of protein kinases and cytochrome P450-dependent mixed function oxidases. These phytochemicals, therefore, are most appropriate in combating oxidative stress-related disorders due to their tendency to exert better protective effect without having any distinct side effect.
BibTeX:
@article{KaurR2014,
  author = {Kaur R, Kaur J, Mahajan J, Kumar R, Arora S},
  title = {Oxidative stress--implications, source and its prevention.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(30},
  pages = {1599-613},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/.1007/s11356-013-2251-3}
}
Kaushik P, Garg VK, Singh B Effect of textile effluents on growth performance of wheat cultivars. 2005 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 96(10), pp. 1189-93 
article  
Abstract: Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of different concentrations in the range of 0-100% textile effluents (untreated and treated) on seed germination (%), delay index (DI), plant shoot length and root length, plant biomass, chlorophyll content and carotenoid of three different cultivars of wheat. The textile effluent did not show any inhibitory effect on seed germination at low concentration (6.25%). The other reported plant parameters also followed the similar trend. Seeds germinated in undiluted effluents did not survive for longer period. Based on the tolerance to textile effluent, the wheat cultivars have been arranged in the following order: PBW-343 < PBW-373 < WH-147. It has also been concluded that effect of the textile effluent is cultivar specific and due care should be taken before using the textile effluent for irrigation purpose.
BibTeX:
@article{KaushikP2005,
  author = {Kaushik P, Garg VK, Singh B},
  title = {Effect of textile effluents on growth performance of wheat cultivars.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {96(10)},
  pages = {1189-93}
}
Kaushik P, Malik A Alkali, thermo and halo tolerant fungal isolate for the removal of textile dyes. 2010 Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces.
Vol. 81(1), pp. 321-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the present study potential of a fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulusFJ172995, was investigated for the removal of textile dyes. The removal percentages of dyes such as Acid Navy Blue, Orange-HF, Fast Red A, Acid Sulphone Blue and Acid Magenta were determined as 99.43, 98.82, 98.75, 97.67 and 69.98, respectively. None of the dyes inhibited the growth of A. lentulus. Detailed studies on growth kinetics, mechanism of dye removal and effect of different parameters on dye removal were conducted using Acid Navy Blue dye. It was observed that A. lentulus could completely remove Acid Navy Blue even at high initial dye concentrations, up to 900 mg/L. Highest uptake capacity of 212.92 mg/g was observed at an initial dye concentration of 900 mg/L. Dye removing efficiency was not altered with the variation of pH; and biomass production as well as dye removal was favored at higher temperatures. Dye removal was also efficient even at high salt concentration. Through growth kinetics studies it was observed that the initial exponential growth phase coincided with the phase of maximal dye removal. Microscopic studies suggest that bioaccumulation along with biosorption is the principle mechanism involved in dye removal by A. lentulus. Thus, it is concluded that being alkali, thermo and halo tolerant, A. lentulus isolate has a great potential to be utilized for the treatment of dye bearing effluents which are usually alkaline, hot and saline.
BibTeX:
@article{KaushikP2010,
  author = {Kaushik P, Malik A},
  title = {Alkali, thermo and halo tolerant fungal isolate for the removal of textile dyes.},
  journal = {Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {81(1)},
  pages = {321-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2010.07.034}
}
Khandegar V, Saroha AK Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review. 2013 J Environ Manage., pp. 949-63  article DOI  
Abstract: Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent.
BibTeX:
@article{KhandegarV2013,
  author = {Khandegar V, Saroha AK.},
  title = {Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.},
  journal = {J Environ Manage.},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {949-63},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.06.043}
}
Kisku GC, Pandey P, Negi MP, Misra V Uptake and accumulation of potentially toxic metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in soils and plants of Durgapur industrial belt. 2011 J Environ Biol., pp. 831-8  article  
Abstract: Uptake and accumulation of metals in crops may cause possible health risks through food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the accumulation of potentially toxic metals contamination in soil and plants irrigated with complexed industrial effluents. Concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb was 205-255,101-130,118-177 microg g(-1) in rhizosphere soils and 116-223, 57-102 and 63-95 microg g(-1) d. wt. in root and 95-186, 44-75 and 27-58 microg g(-1) d. wt. in shoot, respectively. The trend in Cu and Pb was in the order: soil > root > shoot > seed while in Zn it was soil > root > seed > shoot. Roots accumulated a larger fraction of soil Cu (70%) > Zn (67%) > Pb (54%). Bioaccumulation coefficient of soil to root ranged from 51-98 for Zn, 54-85 for Cu and 43-63 for Pb.Analysis of variance showed marginal change in bioaccumulation coefficient, noticed between plants (p > 0.05) while it varied significantly (p < 0.01) between tissues and metals. It increased from root to seed/fruit (root > shoot > seed/fruit) while decreased between metals from Zn to Pb (Zn > Cu > Pb). Out of the three, two Cu and Pb accumulated to phyotoxic levels while Zn was within threshold limit of phytotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{KiskuGC2011,
  author = {Kisku GC, Pandey P, Negi MP, Misra V},
  title = {Uptake and accumulation of potentially toxic metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in soils and plants of Durgapur industrial belt.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {831-8}
}
Krishna AK, Mohan KR Risk assessments of heavy metals and their source distribution in waters of a contaminated industrial site. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(5), pp. 3653-69 
article DOI  
Abstract: Industrially contaminated sites with hazardous materials are a priority and urgent problem all over the world. Appropriate risk assessment is required to determine health risks associated with contaminated sites. The present study was conducted to investigate distribution of potentially hazardous, heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations in surface and groundwater samples collected during summer (pre-monsoon) and winter (post-monsoon) seasons from an industrially contaminated site, Hyderabad, India, with potential source of metal contamination because of industrial effluents and usage of pesticides in agriculture. Heavy metal (HM) concentrations were analysed by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and were compared with permissible limits set by the World Health Organisation. Data obtained was treated using multivariate statistical approaches like R-mode factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis, cluster analysis, geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor, contamination factor and the degree of contamination. Health risk assessment like chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were also calculated. Relatively high levels were noted in surface water with average concentrations during summer and winter seasons showing 16.13 and 11.83 for As, 7.91 and 1.64 for Cd, 88.33 and 32.90 for Cr, 58.11 and 28.26 for Cu, 53.62 and 69.96 for Ni, 173.8 and 118.6 for Pb, and 2,943 and 1,889 ?g/L for Zn. While in groundwater, the mean metal levels during two seasons were 18.18 and 3.76 for As, 1.67 and 0.40 for Cd, 29.40 and 5.15 for Cr, 17.03 and 4.19 for Cu, 25.4 and 6.09 for Ni, 81.7 and 2.87 for Pb and 953 and 989 ?g/L for Zn, respectively. FA identified two factors with cumulative loadings of F1-60.82 % and F2-76.55 % for pre-monsoon surface water and F1-48.75 % and F2-67.55 % for groundwater. Whereas, three factors with cumulative loadings of F1-39.13 %, F2-66.60 % and F3-81.01 % for post-monsoon surface water and F1-50.31 %, F2-66.18 % and F3-81.54 % for groundwater. The health risk assessment like CDI and HQ indices with increased levels of hazardous elements in the surface and groundwater were safe for drinking purposes provided some water treatment methodologies are adopted.
BibTeX:
@article{KrishnaAK2014,
  author = {Krishna AK, Mohan KR.},
  title = {Risk assessments of heavy metals and their source distribution in waters of a contaminated industrial site.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(5)},
  pages = {3653-69},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2359-5}
}
Kumar D, Kumar A, Kumar V, Kumar J, Ravi PM Study of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation and ventilation potential at Narora Atomic Power Station NPP site. 2013 Environ Monit Assess., pp. 2887-94  article DOI  
Abstract: The atmosphere is an important pathway to be considered in assessment of the environmental impact of radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities. The estimation of concentration of released effluents in air and possible ground contamination needs an understanding of relevant atmospheric dispersion. This paper describes the meteorological characteristics of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) Nuclear Power Project site by using the integral parameters developed by Allwine and Whiteman (Atmospheric Environment 28(4):713-721, 1994). Meteorological data measured during the period 2006-2010 were analysed. The integral quantities related to the occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics were studied for the NAPS site to assess the dilution potential of the atmosphere. Wind run and recirculation factors were calculated for a 24-h transport time using 5 years of hourly surface measurements of wind speed and direction. The occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics during 2006-2010 at the NAPS site is observed to be 33.8, 19.5 and 34.7 % of the time, respectively. The presence of strong winds with predominant wind direction NW and WNW during winter and summer seasons leads to higher ventilation (48.1 and 44.3 %) and recirculation (32.6 % of the summer season). The presence of more dispersed light winds during pre-winter season with predominant wind directions W and WNW results in more stagnation (59.7 % of the pre-winter season). Thus, this study will serve as an essential meteorological tool to understand the transport mechanism of atmospheric radioactive effluent release from any nuclear industry during the pre-operational as well as operational phase.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarD2013,
  author = {Kumar D, Kumar A, Kumar V, Kumar J, Ravi PM},
  title = {Study of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation and ventilation potential at Narora Atomic Power Station NPP site.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {2887-94},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2756-0}
}
Kumar NJ, Krishnamoorthi KP, Swaminathan T Studies on nitrification of aniline with acclimated activated sludge. 1984 Biotechnol Bioeng.
Vol. 26(3), pp. 197-202 
article  
Abstract: Aniline, a toxic, organic pollutant, occurs in a number of industrial effluents. Apart from carbonaceous oxygen demand, aniline imposes a nitrogenous oxygen demand, due to its nitrogen content, in excess of that required for cell growth. Incomplete biodegradation will result in ammonia production; this also exerts toxicity. Hence, nitrification of aniline should be ensured in the biological treatment before discharge into receiving streams. Aniline, however, is reported to inhibit the nitrification process. Aniline degradation was studied in laboratory continuous activated sludge with an acclimated culture developed in synthetic feed to determine the extent of complete biological degradation. Aniline-N (even at 400 mg/L aniline concentration)could be converted to nitrate-N with ammonium-N and nitrite-N formed as intermediates at a detention time of 24 h. The nitrification, however, was suppressed by aniline. The degradation of aniline to ammonia releases the suppression and the nitrification proceeds rapidly.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarNJ1984,
  author = {Kumar NJ, Krishnamoorthi KP, Swaminathan T},
  title = {Studies on nitrification of aniline with acclimated activated sludge.},
  journal = {Biotechnol Bioeng.},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {26(3)},
  pages = {197-202}
}
Kumar Sarkar S, Franciskovi?-Bilinski S, Bhattacharya A, Saha M, Bilinski H Levels of elements in the surficial estuarine sediments of the Hugli River, northeast India and their environmental implications. 2004 Environ Int.
Vol. 30(8), pp. 1089-98 
article  
Abstract: The present paper is the first document of a detailed geochemical and mineralogical study of muddy to sandy mud estuarine sediments of the Hugli River collected from five different sites along its course in the coastal areas of West Bengal, northeast India. The present work attempts to establish the status of distribution and environmental implications of 52 elements in the surficial estuarine sediments and their possible sources of derivation. The level of both metallic and non-metallic elements shows a wide range of variation all along the course of the estuary and can be attributed to their differential derivation from the source rocks and differential discharge of untreated effluents originating from industrial, agricultural, aquacultural as well as domestic sewage. The element contents, particularly the heavy metal content in the sediments, are the lowest in the upstream part of the estuary at Diamond Harbor, whereas, these are slightly higher in the intermediate stretch of the estuary at Haldia to highest in the mouth of estuary at Gangasagar. These changes indicate that the metals that are carried from upstream find their ultimate depositional sink at the delta mouth near Gangasagar, where almost all the elements showed elevated values. The majority of the elements have their highest concentrations at Canning, a site within the tidal channel network of the Hugli-Matla drainage basin away from the direct influence of the Hugli River. This site is severely contaminated with huge organic load from domestic sewage, aquaculture, intensive trawling activities and agricultural runoff. Moreover, the site suffers from heavy siltation load causing an almost moribund condition of Matla River at this point. Equi-dimensional quartzo-feldspathic mineral grains are consistent components in the siliciclastic composition of the sediments and their sizes at each station are controlled by respective hydrodynamic conditions. Various flaky minerals (mica, chlorite, hornblende) are also present but show inconsistent patterns of distribution. These flaky minerals remain in suspension for a long time and do not follow the usual law of settling of particles depending on the hydrodynamic regime prevailing in the area. Presented data will serve as a baseline against which future anthropogenic effects may be assessed. A comprehensive account of heavy metal content in sediments from different coastal regions of peninsular India has also been presented for purpose of comparison.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarSarkarS2004,
  author = {Kumar Sarkar S, Franciskovi?-Bilinski S, Bhattacharya A, Saha M, Bilinski H},
  title = {Levels of elements in the surficial estuarine sediments of the Hugli River, northeast India and their environmental implications.},
  journal = {Environ Int.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {30(8)},
  pages = {1089-98}
}
Kumar V, Majumdar C, Roy P Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system. 2008 J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol.
Vol. 111(3-5), pp. 208-16 
article DOI  
Abstract: The leather tanning industry is characterized by the production of different kinds of effluents, generated in each step of leather processing. These effluents have various chemical compounds which may cause toxicity and endocrine disruption and are thus known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). This study was aimed to examine the androgenic potential of leather industry effluents collected from northern region of India. Hershberger assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues of castrated rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change (p<0.05) in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testes namely, cytochrome P450scc, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydorgenase in castrated and intact rats. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile demonstrated a dose dependent increase in testicular and adrenal testosterone productions in intact and castrated rats, respectively. This was further supported by decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones (LH and FSH) in treated groups of animals. Further, the effluent treatment resulted in the development of hyperplasia in seminiferous tubules of testes in treated rats as evident from histopathological studies and about two-fold increases in daily sperm production. On analysis of water samples using GC-MS, it was found to contain various aromatic compounds (nonylphenol, hexaclrobenzene and several azo dyes) some of which independently demonstrated similar effects as shown by water samples. Our data suggests that the effluents from leather industry have potential EDC demonstrating androgenic activities.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarV2008,
  author = {Kumar V, Majumdar C, Roy P},
  title = {Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system.},
  journal = {J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {111(3-5)},
  pages = {208-16},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.06.005}
}
Kumari M, Tripathi BD Source apportionments of wastewater pollutants using multivariate analyses 2014 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 93(1), pp. 19-24 
article DOI  
Abstract: A faster and cost-effective methodology has been developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal variations in wastewater quality and apportion the influencing sources through multivariate statistical techniques, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Partially treated or untreated wastewater is released into the river from various industrial and domestic sources, which poses a serious threat to human health. Wastewater samples were collected from five stations along the river bank. PCA performed on overall wastewater samples revealed that in present study all the five sampling stations were influenced by sewage and industrial effluents mixed together. However, the pollutant levels were significantly different in the three groups of wastewater samples, which were confirmed by univariate analysis of principal component (PC) scores. Based on wastewater similarities, cluster analysis identified three groups (central, upstream and downstream) of sampling stations, which further confirmed univariate analysis of PCs scores. Spatial variations in wastewater quality reveled that the highest pollutant concentration was noted for group 1 and lowest for group 2. Seasonal variations in the wastewater quality revealed that highest values of pollutants were observed in low flow and lowest in high flow. Results of the present study obtained through multivariate analyses may be used to classify wastewater and identify the influencing sources of pollutants. The present study may be useful in reducing 11 % of the cost in future investigations. Thus, in future quality estimation of the representative wastewater samples would be faster as well as cost-effective approach.
BibTeX:
@article{KumariM2014,
  author = {Kumari M, Tripathi BD},
  title = {Source apportionments of wastewater pollutants using multivariate analyses},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {93(1)},
  pages = {19-24},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1242-5}
}
Malaviya P, Rathore VS Seasonal variations in different physico-chemical parameters of the effluents of Century Pulp and Paper Mill, Lal Kuan, Uttarakhand. 2007 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 28(2), pp. 219-24 
article  
Abstract: The present study was undertaken with the objective to study the characteristics of the effluent of Century Pulp and Paper Mill, Lalkuan (Uttarakhand) in different seasons. The variations in the physicochemical characteristics were observed and monitored up to 12 months at three different sites. Mean values of temperature, pH, chlorides and total phenols of the effluent were found below, whereas colour, BOD5, COD and lignin concentrations were above the minimum national standards (MINAS).
BibTeX:
@article{MalaviyaP2007,
  author = {Malaviya P, Rathore VS},
  title = {Seasonal variations in different physico-chemical parameters of the effluents of Century Pulp and Paper Mill, Lal Kuan, Uttarakhand.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {28(2)},
  pages = {219-24}
}
Malik AK, Kaur V, Verma N A review on solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography as a novel tool for the analysis of toxic metal ions. 2006 Talanta.
Vol. 68(3), pp. 842-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: This paper reviews the practical applications of solid phase microextraction-High performance liquid chromatography in the analysis of toxic metal species as these are important contaminants and are carcinogenic. Their determination in formulations, in feed and food, and in complex environmental matrices (e.g., waste water and industrial effluents) often requires analytical methods capable of high efficiency, unique selectivity, and high sensitivity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) requires low solvent consumption and is quick in use. SPME is used for extraction and online desorption of analytes with the mobile phase of HPLC and subsequent detection by UV, ICP-MS or ESI-MS as detectors. Different SPME-HPLC methods are summarized in this article to demonstrate the usefulness of this technique for metallic species of As, Cr, Pb, Hg and Se.
BibTeX:
@article{MalikAK2006,
  author = {Malik AK, Kaur V, Verma N},
  title = {A review on solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography as a novel tool for the analysis of toxic metal ions.},
  journal = {Talanta.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {68(3)},
  pages = {842-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2005.06.005}
}
Mandal S, Tripathy S, Padhi T, Sahu MK, Patel RK Removal efficiency of fluoride by novel Mg-Cr-Cl layered double hydroxide by batch process from water. 2013 J Environ Sci (China).
Vol. 25(5), pp. 993-1000 
article  
Abstract: The fluoride ion removal from aqueous solution using synthesized Mg-Cr-Cl layered double hydroxide has been reported. Mg-Cr-Cl was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared, thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscope. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode as a function of adsorption dosages, contact time, pH, and initial fluoride concentration to get optimum adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetic study showed that the adsorption process followed first order kinetics. The fluoride removal was 88.5% and 77.4% at pH 7 with an adsorbent dose of 0.6 g/100 mL solution and initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The equilibrium was established at 40 min. Adsorption experiment data were fitted well with Langmuir isotherm with R2 = 0.9924. Thermodynamic constants were also measured and concluded that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The removal percentage decreased slowly with increasing pH. This process is suitable for industrial effluents. The regeneration of the material is not possible.
BibTeX:
@article{MandalS2013,
  author = {Mandal S, Tripathy S, Padhi T, Sahu MK, Patel RK},
  title = {Removal efficiency of fluoride by novel Mg-Cr-Cl layered double hydroxide by batch process from water.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci (China).},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {25(5)},
  pages = {993-1000}
}
Mandal SS, Bhattacharyya AJ Titania nanowires as substrates for sensing and photocatalysis of common textile industry effluents. 2010 Talanta.
Vol. 82(3), pp. 876-84 
article DOI  
Abstract: Sensing and photocatalysis of textile industry effluents such as dyes using mesoporous anatase titania nanowires are discussed here. Spectroscopic investigations show that the titania nanowires preferentially sense cationic (e.g. Methylene Blue, Rhodamine B) over anionic (e.g. Orange G, Remazol Brilliant Blue R) dyes. The adsorbed dye concentration on titania nanowires increased with increase in nanowire dimensions and dye solution pH. Electrochemical sensing directly corroborated spectroscopic findings. Electrochemical detection sensitivity for Methylene Blue increased by more than two times in magnitude with tripling of nanowire average length. Photodegradation of Methylene Blue using titania nanowires is also more efficient than the commercial P25-TiO(2) nanopowders. Keeping illumination protocol and observation times constant, the Methylene Blue concentration in solution decreased by only 50% in case of P25-TiO(2) nanoparticles compared to a 100% decrease for titania nanowires. Photodegradation was also found to be function of exposure times and dye solution pH. Excellent sensing ability and photocatalytic activity of the titania nanowires is attributed to increased effective reaction area of the controlled nanostructured morphology.
BibTeX:
@article{MandalSS2010,
  author = {Mandal SS, Bhattacharyya AJ},
  title = {Titania nanowires as substrates for sensing and photocatalysis of common textile industry effluents.},
  journal = {Talanta.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {82(3)},
  pages = {876-84},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2010.04.021}
}
Manekar P, Biswas R, Karthik M, Nandy T Novel two stage bio-oxidation and chlorination process for high strength hazardous coal carbonization effluent. 2011 J Hazard Mater., pp. 92-9  article DOI  
Abstract: Effluent generated from coal carbonization to coke was characterized with high organic content, phenols, ammonium nitrogen, and cyanides. A full scale effluent treatment plant (ETP) working on the principle of single stage carbon-nitrogen bio-oxidation process (SSCNBP) revealed competition between heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria in the bio-degradation and nitrification process. The effluent was pretreated in a stripper and further combined with other streams to treat in the SSCNBP. Laboratory studies were carried on process and stripped effluents in a bench scale model of ammonia stripper and a two stage bio-oxidation process. The free ammonia removal efficiency of stripper was in the range 70-89%. Bench scale studies of the two stage bio-oxidation process achieved a carbon-nitrogen reduction at 6 days hydraulic retention time (HRT) operating in an extended aeration mode. This paper addresses the studies on selection of a treatment process for removal of organic matter, phenols, cyanide and ammonia nitrogen. The treatment scheme comprising ammonia stripping (pretreatment) followed by the two stage bio-oxidation and chlorination process met the Indian Standards for discharge into Inland Surface Waters. This treatment process package offers a techno-economically viable treatment scheme to neuter hazardous effluent generated from coal carbonization process.
BibTeX:
@article{ManekarP2011,
  author = {Manekar P, Biswas R, Karthik M, Nandy T.},
  title = {Novel two stage bio-oxidation and chlorination process for high strength hazardous coal carbonization effluent.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {92-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.02.006}
}
Manekar P, Biswas R, Urewar C, Pal S, Nandy T Feasibility of bioengineered two-stages sequential batch reactor and filtration-adsorption process for complex agrochemical effluent. 2013 Bioresour Technol., pp. 148-334  article DOI  
Abstract: In the present study, the feasibility of a bioengineered two-stages sequential batch reactor (BTSSBR) followed by filtration-adsorption process was investigated to treat the agrochemical effluent by overcoming factor affecting process stability such as microbial imbalance and substrate sensitivity. An air stripper stripped 90% of toxic ammonia, and combined with other streams for bio-oxidation and filtration-adsorption. The BTSSBR system achieved bio-oxidation at 6 days hydraulic retention time by fending off microbial imbalance and substrate sensitivity. The maximum reduction in COD and BOD by heterotrophic bacteria in the first reactor was 87% and 90%, respectively. Removal of toxic ammoniacal-nitrogen by autotrophic bacteria in a post-second stage bio-oxidation was 97%. The optimum filtration and adsorption of pollutants were achieved at a filtration rate of 10 and 9 m(3)m(-2)h(-1), respectively. The treatment scheme comprising air stripper, BTSSBR and filtration-adsorption process showed a great promise for treating the agrochemical effluent.
BibTeX:
@article{ManekarP2013,
  author = {Manekar P, Biswas R, Urewar C, Pal S, Nandy T.},
  title = {Feasibility of bioengineered two-stages sequential batch reactor and filtration-adsorption process for complex agrochemical effluent.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {148-334},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.145}
}
Manisankar P, Rani C, Viswanathan S Effect of halides in the electrochemical treatment of distillery effluent. 2004 Chemosphere.
Vol. 57(8), pp. 961-6 
article  
Abstract: Electrochemical treatment can solve the problems arising due to effluents and offer an effective alternative to the existing methods. An undivided static electrolyser was charged with distillery effluent and the organics were oxidized electrochemically. Anodized graphite plate anodes and graphite cathodes were used for the treatment of distillery effluent. The effect of pH and current density on the treatment was studied. Sodium fluoride, sodium chloride and sodium bromide were chosen as electrolyte and their influence was found out. Complete decolorization has been observed in all cases. A maximum of 93.5% of biological oxygen demand reduction, 85.2% of chemical oxygen demand reduction and 98.0% absorbance reduction were obtained in the presence of sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Probable mechanism was also proposed for the oxidation of organics present in the effluent.
BibTeX:
@article{ManisankarP2004,
  author = {Manisankar P, Rani C, Viswanathan S},
  title = {Effect of halides in the electrochemical treatment of distillery effluent.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {57(8)},
  pages = {961-6}
}
Mathivanan V, Vijayan P, Sabhanayakam S, Jeyachitra O An assessment of plankton population of Cauvery river with reference to pollution. 2007 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 28, pp. 523-6 
article  
Abstract: Studies on plankton of river Cauvery water, Mettur, Salem District, Tamil Nadu was made to assess the pollution of water from January 2003 to December 2003. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the variation in river water showed high quantity of phytoplankton and zooplankton population throughout the study period and rotifers formed dominated group over other groups of organisms. The present study revealed that the water of river Cauvery is highly polluted by direct contamination of sewage and other industrial effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{MathivananV2007,
  author = {Mathivanan V, Vijayan P, Sabhanayakam S, Jeyachitra O},
  title = {An assessment of plankton population of Cauvery river with reference to pollution.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {523-6}
}
Mathur N, Bhatnagar P Mutagenicity assessment of textile dyes from Sanganer (Rajasthan). 2007 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 28(1), pp. 123-6 
article  
Abstract: Sanganer town, district Jaipur (Rajasthan, India) is famous worldwide for its hand block dyeing and textile printing industries. These industries use a variety of chemicals and dyes during processing and finishing of raw materials. Most of the textile dyes used by these industries have not been evaluated for their impact on health and the environment. The workers in these industries are exposed to such dyes with no control over the length and frequency of exposure. Further, untreated and sometimes even treated effluents from these industries are released into surface waters of Amani Shah drainage or through the drainage systems, seep into the ground water and adjoining water bodies. Since many textile dyes are known carcinogens and mutagens, a complete evaluation of the safety of these dyes in the human environment must include an evaluation of their genotoxicity or mutagenicity. A total of 12 textile dyes from Sanganer were tested for their mutagenicity, by Ames Salmonella reversion assay using strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium. Only 1 dye, Red 12 B showed absence of mutagenic activity. The remaining 11 dyes were all positively mutagenic.
BibTeX:
@article{MathurN2007a,
  author = {Mathur N, Bhatnagar P},
  title = {Mutagenicity assessment of textile dyes from Sanganer (Rajasthan).},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {28(1)},
  pages = {123-6}
}
Mathur N, Bhatnagar P, Mohan K, Bakre P, Nagar P, Bijarnia M Mutagenicity evaluation of industrial sludge from common effluent treatment plant. 2007 Chemosphere.
Vol. 67(6), pp. 1229-35 
article  
Abstract: Sludge from common effluent treatment plant (CETP) receiving effluents from textile industries at Mandia Road, Pali, was analyzed to assess the level of mutagenicity. Mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA 98 and TA 100 gave positive results, thus suggesting presence of genotoxic contaminants in the samples investigated. Further, mutagenic activity of chemical sludge was found to be lesser than that of biological sludge. This result is very surprising and unexpected as it is indicating that some mutagenic compounds are either being formed or certain promutagenic compounds are being converted into stable mutagenic metabolites during the biological treatment of the wastewater effluents. There have been no previous reports giving similar or contrary results. Most of the previous studies have reported effects of single combined sludge.
BibTeX:
@article{MathurN2007,
  author = {Mathur N, Bhatnagar P, Mohan K, Bakre P, Nagar P, Bijarnia M},
  title = {Mutagenicity evaluation of industrial sludge from common effluent treatment plant.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {67(6)},
  pages = {1229-35}
}
Mathur N, Krishnatrey R, Sharma S, Pathak S, Sharma KP Certain haematological responses in Swiss albino mice following exposure to textile dye wastewater. 2003 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 24(2), pp. 161-4 
article  
Abstract: Adults Swiss mice were administered 5% solution of textile industry wastewater orally for 25 days and haematological parameters like RBC, WBC, Hb, and PCV were studied. Red cell indices like MCV, MCH and MCHC were calculated. Results indicate significant reduction in RBC, Hb and PCV levels. It is inferred that toxic effluents cause metabolic alteration in erythrocytes and reduce their Hb carrying capacity.
BibTeX:
@article{MathurN2003,
  author = {Mathur N, Krishnatrey R, Sharma S, Pathak S, Sharma KP},
  title = {Certain haematological responses in Swiss albino mice following exposure to textile dye wastewater.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {24(2)},
  pages = {161-4}
}
Meshram RJ, Gavhane A, Gaikar R, Bansode Ts, Maskar A, Gupta A, Sohni S, Patidar M, Pandey T, Jangle S Sequence analysis and homology modeling of laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. 2010 Bioinformation
Vol. 5(4), pp. 150-4 
article  
Abstract: Industrial effluents of textile, paper, and leather industries contain various toxic dyes as one of the waste material. It imparts major impact on human health as well as environment. The white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus Laccase is generally used to degrade these toxic dyes. In order to decipher the mechanism of process by which Laccase degrade dyes, it is essential to know its 3D structure. Homology modeling was performed in presented work, by satisfying Spatial restrains using Modeller Program, which is considered as standard in this field, to generate 3D structure of Laccase in unison, SWISSMODEL web server was also utilized to generate and verify the alternative models. We observed that models created using Modeller stands better on structure evaluation tests. This study can further be used in molecular docking techniques, to understand the interaction of enzyme with its mediators like 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and Vanillin that are known to enhance the Laccase activity.
BibTeX:
@article{MeshramRJ2010,
  author = {Meshram RJ, Gavhane A, Gaikar R, Bansode Ts, Maskar A, Gupta A, Sohni S, Patidar M, Pandey T, Jangle S},
  title = {Sequence analysis and homology modeling of laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus.},
  journal = {Bioinformation},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {5(4)},
  pages = {150-4}
}
Mishra PC, Behera PC, Patel RK Contamination of water due to major industries and open refuse dumping in the steel city of Orissa--a case study. 2005 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 47(2), pp. 141-54 
article  
Abstract: Contamination of ground water is common in the areas surrounded by industrial refuse dumping sites and the probability of contamination is more where dumping is done in low lying areas and the rate of percolation through the soil is high. In order to assess the ground water pollution by leachate around the refuse dumping site, eighteen wells were selected for study. Few wells are nearer to the dumps, few are far away and others are in between. Also an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of industrial effluents on the ground and surface water due to Integrated Rourkela Steel Plant and other major industries. From the analytical data of physico-chemical parameters, it is indicated that the river water is contaminated mainly due to the industrial and municipal effluents and the ground water of some of the analyzed areas is contaminated due to municipal and industrial solid waste dumping.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraPC2005,
  author = {Mishra PC, Behera PC, Patel RK},
  title = {Contamination of water due to major industries and open refuse dumping in the steel city of Orissa--a case study.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {47(2)},
  pages = {141-54}
}
Misra V, Pandey SD Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India. 2005 Environ Int.
Vol. 31(3), pp. 417-31 
article  
Abstract: Industry has become an essential part of modern society, and waste production is an inevitable outcome of the developmental activities. A material becomes waste when it is discarded without expecting to be compensated for its inherent value. These wastes may pose a potential hazard to the human health or the environment (soil, air, water) when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed off or managed. Currently in India even though hazardous wastes, emanations and effluents are regulated, solid wastes often are disposed off indiscriminately posing health and environmental risk. In view of this, management of hazardous wastes including their disposal in environment friendly and economically viable way is very important and therefore suggestions are made for developing better strategies. Out of the various categories of the wastes, solid waste contributes a major share towards environmental degradation. The present paper outlines the nature of the wastes, waste generating industries, waste characterization, health and environmental implications of wastes management practices, steps towards planning, design and development of models for effective hazardous waste management, treatment, approaches and regulations for disposal of hazardous waste. Appraisal of the whole situation with reference to Indian scenario is attempted so that a better cost-effective strategies for waste management be evolved in future.
BibTeX:
@article{MisraV2005,
  author = {Misra V, Pandey SD},
  title = {Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India.},
  journal = {Environ Int.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {31(3)},
  pages = {417-31}
}
Mitra A, Gupta SK Evaluation of groundwater pollution potential of sewage-irrigated vegetable growing areas of the eastern fringe of Calcutta city 2000 Schriftenr Ver Wasser Boden Lufthyg
Vol. 105, pp. 261-7 
article  
Abstract: In recent years recycling in agriculture is a common method of disposal or utilisation of waste. However, recycling of wastes may cause contamination of groundwater by toxic elements like heavy metals, cationic and anionic contaminants and pathogens. Groundwater of shallow and deep tubewells was collected during 1991 to 1997 from raw sewage effluent irrigated garbage farming areas on the eastern fringe of Calcutta city. In general raw sewage effluents, sludges and sewage-irrigated soils contain very high amounts of cations, anions, organics and heavy metals. It is found that most of the groundwater contained undesirable pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, phenolic compounds, iron and manganese and the observed values or concentrations were much above the maximum desirable limits specified by World Health Organisation (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for use as drinking water. Groundwater of that area may be used for irrigation. Dispersion by leaching of the metals, cationic and anionic contaminants from irrigated soil and from settled bottom sludge in unlined sewage channels are the principal causes of groundwater contamination. Some management plans have been suggested to control further deterioration of groundwater quality.
BibTeX:
@article{MitraA2000,
  author = {Mitra A, Gupta SK},
  title = {Evaluation of groundwater pollution potential of sewage-irrigated vegetable growing areas of the eastern fringe of Calcutta city},
  journal = {Schriftenr Ver Wasser Boden Lufthyg},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {105},
  pages = {261-7}
}
Ghose MK Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents. 2002 Water Res.
Vol. 36(5), pp. 1127-34 
article  
Abstract: Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites.
BibTeX:
@article{MK2002,
  author = {Ghose MK},
  title = {Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.},
  journal = {Water Res.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {36(5)},
  pages = {1127-34}
}
Ghose MK Sustainable supplies of water for coal washeries in India 1999 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 229(3), pp. 217-25 
article  
Abstract: The effluents from coal washeries cause serious pollution problems to surface waters. Models have been developed to evaluate the dispersion of pollutants in the river. For the removal of suspended solids from the coal washery effluents the aid of a synthetic flocculant was found to be very effective in terms of settling rate, retention time and cost. For sustainable water supplies to the coal washeries the methodology developed was found to be very effective and may also be applicable to other washeries.
BibTeX:
@article{MK1999,
  author = {Ghose MK},
  title = {Sustainable supplies of water for coal washeries in India},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {229(3)},
  pages = {217-25}
}
Mohan D, Pittman CU Jr Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents--A critical review. 2007 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 142(1-2), pp. 1-53 
article  
Abstract: Arsenic's history in science, medicine and technology has been overshadowed by its notoriety as a poison in homicides. Arsenic is viewed as being synonymous with toxicity. Dangerous arsenic concentrations in natural waters is now a worldwide problem and often referred to as a 20th-21st century calamity. High arsenic concentrations have been reported recently from the USA, China, Chile, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Mexico, Argentina, Poland, Canada, Hungary, Japan and India. Among 21 countries in different parts of the world affected by groundwater arsenic contamination, the largest population at risk is in Bangladesh followed by West Bengal in India. Existing overviews of arsenic removal include technologies that have traditionally been used (oxidation, precipitation/coagulation/membrane separation) with far less attention paid to adsorption. No previous review is available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of both available and developed sorbents used for arsenic remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on arsenic remediation by adsorption ( approximately 600 references). Existing purification methods for drinking water; wastewater; industrial effluents, and technological solutions for arsenic have been listed. Arsenic sorption by commercially available carbons and other low-cost adsorbents are surveyed and critically reviewed and their sorption efficiencies are compared. Arsenic adsorption behavior in presence of other impurities has been discussed. Some commercially available adsorbents are also surveyed. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. Some low-cost adsorbents are superior including treated slags, carbons developed from agricultural waste (char carbons and coconut husk carbons), biosorbents (immobilized biomass, orange juice residue), goethite and some commercial adsorbents, which include resins, gels, silica, treated silica tested for arsenic removal come out to be superior. Immobilized biomass adsorbents offered outstanding performances. Desorption of arsenic followed by regeneration of sorbents has been discussed. Strong acids and bases seem to be the best desorbing agents to produce arsenic concentrates. Arsenic concentrate treatment and disposal obtained is briefly addressed. This issue is very important but much less discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanD2007,
  author = {Mohan D, Pittman CU Jr},
  title = {Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents--A critical review.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {142(1-2)},
  pages = {1-53}
}
Mohan D, Singh KP, Singh VK Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth. 2006 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 135(1-3), pp. 280-95 
article  
Abstract: An efficient adsorption process is developed for the decontamination of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A low cost activated carbon (ATFAC) was prepared from coconut shell fibers (an agricultural waste), characterized and utilized for Cr(III) removal from water/wastewater. A commercially available activated carbon fabric cloth (ACF) was also studied for comparative evaluation. All the equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted at different temperatures, particle size, pHs, and adsorbent doses in batch mode. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model best fit the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacities of ATFAC and ACF at 25 degrees C are 12.2 and 39.56 mg/g, respectively. Cr(III) adsorption increased with an increase in temperature (10 degrees C: ATFAC--10.97 mg/g, ACF--36.05 mg/g; 40 degrees C: ATFAC--16.10 mg/g, ACF--40.29 mg/g). The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of temperature, initial adsorbate concentration, particle size of the adsorbent, and solid to liquid ratio. The adsorption of Cr(III) follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and entropy of activation were evaluated. The sorption capacity of activated carbon (ATFAC) and activated carbon fabric cloth is comparable to many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of trivalent chromium from water/wastewater.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanD2006,
  author = {Mohan D, Singh KP, Singh VK},
  title = {Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {135(1-3)},
  pages = {280-95}
}
Mohan D, Singh KP, Singh VK Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth. 2006 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 135(1-3), pp. 280-95 
article  
Abstract: An efficient adsorption process is developed for the decontamination of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A low cost activated carbon (ATFAC) was prepared from coconut shell fibers (an agricultural waste), characterized and utilized for Cr(III) removal from water/wastewater. A commercially available activated carbon fabric cloth (ACF) was also studied for comparative evaluation. All the equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted at different temperatures, particle size, pHs, and adsorbent doses in batch mode. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir model best fit the equilibrium isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacities of ATFAC and ACF at 25 degrees C are 12.2 and 39.56 mg/g, respectively. Cr(III) adsorption increased with an increase in temperature (10 degrees C: ATFAC--10.97 mg/g, ACF--36.05 mg/g; 40 degrees C: ATFAC--16.10 mg/g, ACF--40.29 mg/g). The kinetic studies were conducted to delineate the effect of temperature, initial adsorbate concentration, particle size of the adsorbent, and solid to liquid ratio. The adsorption of Cr(III) follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From kinetic studies various rate and thermodynamic parameters such as effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and entropy of activation were evaluated. The sorption capacity of activated carbon (ATFAC) and activated carbon fabric cloth is comparable to many other adsorbents/carbons/biosorbents utilized for the removal of trivalent chromium from water/wastewater.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanD2006a,
  author = {Mohan D, Singh KP, Singh VK},
  title = {Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {135(1-3)},
  pages = {280-95}
}
Mohan N, Balasubramanian N In situ electrocatalytic oxidation of acid violet 12 dye effluent. 2006 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 136(2), pp. 239-43 
article  
Abstract: Electrochemical treatment of organic pollutants is a promising treatment technique for substances which are recalcitrant to biodegradation. Experiments were carried out to treat acid violet 12 dye house effluent using electrochemical technique for removal color and COD reduction covering wide range in operating conditions. Ruthenium/lead/tin oxide coated titanium and stainless steel were used as anode and cathode, respectively. The influence of effluent initial concentration, pH, supporting electrolyte and the electrode material on rate of degradation has been critically examined. The results indicate that the electrochemical method can be used to treat dye house effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanN2006,
  author = {Mohan N, Balasubramanian N},
  title = {In situ electrocatalytic oxidation of acid violet 12 dye effluent.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {136(2)},
  pages = {239-43}
}
Mohan SV, Prakasham RS, Satyavathi B, Annapurna J, Ramakrishna SV Biotreatability studies of pharmaceutical wastewater using an anaerobic suspended film contact reactor. 2001 Water Sci Technol.
Vol. 43(2), pp. 271-6 
article  
Abstract: The pharmaceutical industrial effluents, which include several organic solvents and other toxic chemicals, are generally treated by aerobic process, which is cost intensive in nature. The alternative anaerobic route to degrade the toxic effluents is attractive due to the lower cost of treatment and the generation of gas, which can supplement the energy requirements. There are few reports on the anaerobic treatment of the pharmaceutical effluents. In the present investigation, the effluents from a bulk drug industry, which utilizes several organic chemicals, have been taken to assess their applicability for anaerobic treatment. The organic loading rates were varied from 0.25 kg/m3/day to 2.5 kg/m3/day and the COD reduction was found to be in the range of 60 to 80%. Long term operation of an anaerobic suspended film contact reactor carried out with 1.25 kg/m3/day was found to be optimum. The biogas generated during the degradation process was monitored and the methane content was found to be 60-70%.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanSV2001,
  author = {Mohan SV, Prakasham RS, Satyavathi B, Annapurna J, Ramakrishna SV},
  title = {Biotreatability studies of pharmaceutical wastewater using an anaerobic suspended film contact reactor.},
  journal = {Water Sci Technol.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {43(2)},
  pages = {271-6}
}
More SV, John S, Rao BS, Nair BU, Laxman RS Chromium removal and reduction in COD of tannery effluents. 2002 Indian J Environ Health.
Vol. 44(4), pp. 320-8 
article  
Abstract: Tannery effluents are highly polluting and contain chromium and high COD and BOD. Alkalotolerant/alkalophilic actinomycetes NCIM 5080 and NCIM 5109 have been shown earlier to tolerate and accumulate chromium during growth also produce alkaline protease in presence of chromium ions. These properties of the isolates are suitable for treatment of tannery effluents which are alkaline and contain chromium and proteinaceous matter. Both the actinomycetes are able to grow in undiluted tannery effluents and remove chromium almost completely and reduce the COD by 70-80% during growth as well as by pregrown biomass.
BibTeX:
@article{MoreSV2002,
  author = {More SV, John S, Rao BS, Nair BU, Laxman RS},
  title = {Chromium removal and reduction in COD of tannery effluents.},
  journal = {Indian J Environ Health.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {44(4)},
  pages = {320-8}
}
Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya S Changes in the kidney peroxidase activity in fish exposed to some industrial pollutants. 1975 Environ Physiol Biochem.
Vol. 5(5), pp. 300-7 
article  
Abstract: Fish under abnormal environmental conditions suffer from retarded growth and other physiological dysfunctions related to thyroxine deficiency. In teleosts lacking a definite thyroid gland the kidney plays a very important role in biosynthesis of the thyroidal hormone, in which peroxidase has an indirect action. Effects of some industrial pollutants and factory effluents on fish kidney peroxidase activity were recorded in Ophicephalus punctatus and Clarias batrachus. At concentrations of the pollutants at which 70-100% of the fish survive the exposure, peroxidase activity was greatly inhibited, indicating that even sub-lethal doses of toxicants may cause drastic changes in the physiological systems. The peroxidase activity increased well above the control levels at 5-h and 27-h exposures in some cases, but declined towards the end of the test.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeS1975,
  author = {Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya S},
  title = {Changes in the kidney peroxidase activity in fish exposed to some industrial pollutants.},
  journal = {Environ Physiol Biochem.},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {5(5)},
  pages = {300-7}
}
Mulani SK, Mule MB, Patil SU Studies on water quality and zooplankton community of the Panchganga river in Kolhapur city. 2009 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 30(3), pp. 455-9 
article  
Abstract: The present investigation deals with the zooplanktons together with water quality of Panchganga river, in Kolhapur city, Maharashtra. This investigation was undertaken fora period of one year. The river Panchganga is a highly contaminated downstream with untreated sewage and industrial effluents, while flowing through Kolhapur city. The high value of CO2, BOD, COD, phosphate, nitrate, Zn, Fe, Cu and low value of DO at discharge zone indicates increase in organic pollution as we go down the river strech Site III and Site IV. The discharge zone is dominated by pollution tolerant zooplankton species such as Brachionus, rotifera, Brachionus keratella, Filinia, Anuraeopsis etc.
BibTeX:
@article{MulaniSK2009,
  author = {Mulani SK, Mule MB, Patil SU},
  title = {Studies on water quality and zooplankton community of the Panchganga river in Kolhapur city.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(3)},
  pages = {455-9}
}
Naik PK, Dehury BN, Tiwari AN Groundwater pollution around an industrial area in the coastal stretch of Maharashtra State, India. 2007 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 132(1-3), pp. 207-33 
article  
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to examine pollution threat, especially to the groundwater resources, around Tarapur industrial area (also called the Tarapur MIDC area) located on the Arabian Sea Coast in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India and suggest remedial measures that may also be relevant to other industrial areas on the Indian Sea Coast. One hundred and thirty one samples were collected from various sources, such as dugwells, borewells, dug-cum-borewells, effluent sumps, drainage channels (effluent channels), creeks and ocean, for chemical analyses. These analyses show that the area in general is characterized by hard water and high salinity hazard, possibly due to its proximity and hydraulic connection with the sea. Although the potability of groundwater is questionable in certain pockets, it is good enough for irrigation purposes at present. Low pH value and high heavy metal contents in the adjoining Muramba creek water is a matter of great concern and may be attributed to the indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents to the drainage channels connecting the creek. Muramba Creek is well connected with the Arabian Sea, and there are evidences of seawater intrusion around this creek. Because of the fact that Muramba Creek is highly polluted, and is hydraulically connected with the dugwells and borewells surrounding the creek, it cannot be ruled out that the groundwater around this creek is susceptible to contamination. Unless measures are not taken immediately to stop the indiscriminate disposal of the solid wastes and liquid effluents in open ground and drainage channels, and measures are not taken to maintain the appropriate pH values at the effluent treatment facilities before their disposal, the problem would indeed be formidable one day, and it will be too late then for the authorities to take care of the resulting maladies. Few suggestions have been given for controlling and managing the industrial pollution around the Tarapur MIDC area. These suggestions are relevant to other industrial areas situated on the 7,000 km long Indian Sea Coast.
BibTeX:
@article{NaikPK2007,
  author = {Naik PK, Dehury BN, Tiwari AN},
  title = {Groundwater pollution around an industrial area in the coastal stretch of Maharashtra State, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {132(1-3)},
  pages = {207-33}
}
Nastri A, Ramieri NA, Abdayem R, Piccaglia R, Marzadori C, Ciavatta C Olive pulp and its effluents suitability for soil amendment. 2006 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 138(2), pp. 211-7 
article  
Abstract: Olive pulp (OP) and its effluents produced after digestion processes were characterised and their suitability as soil amendment materials were investigated. Results showed that OP and its effluent for hydrogen (EH2) and methane production (ECH4) contain high amount of organic matter, remarkable concentration of nutrients and negligible content of heavy metals. Decreasing concentrations of low molecular weight phenols (monomeric phenols) and increasing amount of humic-like materials were found passing from OP to EH2 and ECH4. The effects on both wheat seed germination and seedlings growth were also investigated. Addition of OP at the highest doses delayed both seed germination and seedling growth. These effects decreased when the OP and its effluents were incorporated into the soil. On the contrary an enhancement of seedlings growth was detected by addition of EH2 and ECH4. Enhancement effects also were found out by addition of lower OP concentrations. The phytotoxic effects decreased when the products were incorporated into the soil.
BibTeX:
@article{NastriA2006,
  author = {Nastri A, Ramieri NA, Abdayem R, Piccaglia R, Marzadori C, Ciavatta C},
  title = {Olive pulp and its effluents suitability for soil amendment.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {138(2)},
  pages = {211-7}
}
Nath K, Singh D, Sharma YK Combinatorial effects of distillery and sugar factory effluents in crop plants. 2007 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 28(3), pp. 577-82 
article  
Abstract: Under the reutilization and recycling strategy of industrial effluents, treated distillery and sugar factory mixed effluent was used in petridish culture experiments to investigate its effect on seed germination and seedling growth in wheat, garden pea, black gram and mustard. The seed germination and seedling growth were significantly reduced with increase in concentration of the effluent. The fresh matter was found significantly increased in barley (1.16 g per seedling in 25% dilution level of effluents in comparison to 0.93 in control), while other higher dilution levels reduce it. Wheat, garden pea, black gram, mustard invariably showed inhibition in fresh weight. Dry weight was found consistently reduced or unchanged in different treatments. Total chlorophyll contents in barley were significantly increased in different treatments (2.351 and 2.721 mg/g fresh weight of tissue at 25, 50% dilution levels in comparison to 1.781 of control) while in other crop it was reduced alloverthe treatments. Amylase activity in wheat, garden pea, black gram and mustard was reduced in all the treatments. Only in barley its level was enhanced from 0.76 to 0.85, 0.96, 0.81 in 25, 50, 75% dilution levels of the effluent mixture respectively Based on the data of different crops barley was found to be highly tolerant as the 25 and 50% dilution levels of combined effluents. It showed no change in germination %, while seedling growth was increased in lower dilution levels of combined effluent as compared to control Barley>garden pea>wheat>black gram>mustard gradually showed increased level of sensitivity respectively Most detrimental effects were seen in mustard. This toxicity might be due to excess of nutrients, beyond the limits of tolerance. Therefore, the higher concentration of mixed effluent was not advisable for irrigation purpose, however it could be used for irrigation purpose after proper treatment and dilution (one part treated effluent and five parts of available irrigation water), as this dilution level was found growth and yield promotory
BibTeX:
@article{NathK2007,
  author = {Nath K, Singh D, Sharma YK},
  title = {Combinatorial effects of distillery and sugar factory effluents in crop plants.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {28(3)},
  pages = {577-82}
}
Oves M, Khan MS, Zaidi A Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil. 2013 Saudi J Biol Sci.
Vol. 20(2), pp. 121-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: The study was navigated to examine the metal biosorbing ability of bacterial strain OSM29 recovered from rhizosphere of cauliflower grown in soil irrigated consistently with industrial effluents. The metal tolerant bacterial strain OSM29 was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis following 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In the presence of the varying concentrations (25-150 mgl(-1)) of heavy metals, such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the B. thuringiensis strain OSM29 showed an obvious metal removing potential. The effect of certain physico-chemical factors such as pH, initial metal concentration, and contact time on biosorption was also assessed. The optimum pH for nickel and chromium removal was 7, while for cadmium, copper and lead, it was 6. The optimal contact time was 30 min. for each metal at 32 ± 2 °C by strain OSM29. The biosorption capacity of the strain OSM29 for the metallic ions was highest for Ni (94%) which was followed by Cu (91.8%), while the lowest sorption by bacterial biomass was recorded for Cd (87%) at 25 mgl(-1) initial metal ion concentration. The regression coefficients obtained for heavy metals from the Freundlich and Langmuir models were significant. The surface chemical functional groups of B. thuringiensis biomass identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which may be involved in the biosorption of heavy metals. The biosorption ability of B. thuringiensis OSM29 varied with metals and was pH and metal concentration dependent. The biosorption of each metal was fairly rapid which could be an advantage for large scale treatment of contaminated sites.
BibTeX:
@article{OvesM2013,
  author = {Oves M, Khan MS, Zaidi A},
  title = {Biosorption of heavy metals by Bacillus thuringiensis strain OSM29 originating from industrial effluent contaminated north Indian soil.},
  journal = {Saudi J Biol Sci.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {20(2)},
  pages = {121-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.11.006}
}
Pandey PK, Choubey S, Verma Y, Pandey M, Kamal SS, Chandrashekhar K Biosorptive removal of Ni(Ii) from wastewater and industrial effluent. 2007 Int J Environ Res Public Health.
Vol. 4(4), pp. :332-9 
article  
Abstract: The objective of the present work was to investigate the removal of Ni(II) by the fresh biomass (FBM) and chemically treated leached biomass (LBM) of Calotropis procera. The scope of the work included screening of the biosorbents for their metal uptake potential, batch equilibrium, column mode removal studies and kinetic studies at varying pH (2-6), contact time, biosorbent dosages (1-25 g/L) and initial metal ion concentration (5-500 mg/L). The development of batch kinetic model and determination of order, desorption studies, column studies were investigated. It was observed that pH had marked effect on the Ni(II) uptake. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to correlate equilibrium data on sorption of Ni(II) metallic ion by using both FBM and LBM at 28 degrees C and pH 3 and different coefficients were calculated. It was found that both biomasses were statistically significant fit for Freundlich model. The biomass was successfully used for removal nickel from synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears industrially applicable and viable.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyPK2007,
  author = {Pandey PK, Choubey S, Verma Y, Pandey M, Kamal SS, Chandrashekhar K},
  title = {Biosorptive removal of Ni(Ii) from wastewater and industrial effluent.},
  journal = {Int J Environ Res Public Health.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4(4)},
  pages = {:332-9}
}
Parga JR, Shukla SS, Carrillo-Pedroza FR Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol. 2003 Waste Manag.
Vol. 23(2), pp. 189-91 
article  
Abstract: Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O(3)) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.
BibTeX:
@article{PargaJR2003,
  author = {Parga JR, Shukla SS, Carrillo-Pedroza FR},
  title = {Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol.},
  journal = {Waste Manag.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {23(2)},
  pages = {189-91}
}
Parikh A, Madamwar D Textile dye decolorization using cyanobacteria. 2005 Biotechnol Lett.
Vol. 27(5), pp. 323-6 
article  
Abstract: Cyanobacterial cultures isolated from sites polluted by industrial textile effluents were screened for their ability to decolorize cyclic azo dyes. Gloeocapsa pleurocapsoides and Phormidium ceylanicum decolorized Acid Red 97 and FF Sky Blue dyes by more than 80% after 26 days. Chroococcus minutus was the only culture which decolorized Amido Black 10B (55%). Chlorophyll a synthesis in all cultures was strongly inhibited by the dyes. Visible spectroscopy and TLC confirmed that color removal was due to degradation of the dyes.
BibTeX:
@article{ParikhA2005,
  author = {Parikh A, Madamwar D},
  title = {Textile dye decolorization using cyanobacteria.},
  journal = {Biotechnol Lett.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {27(5)},
  pages = {323-6}
}
Parikh A, Shah V, Madamwar D Cyanobacterial flora from polluted industrial effluents. 2006 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 116(1-3), pp. 91-102 
article  
Abstract: Effluents originating from pesticides, agro-chemicals, textile dyes and dyestuffs industries are always associated with high turbidity, colour, nutrient load, and heavy metals, toxic and persistent compounds. But even with such an anthropogenic nature, these effluents contain dynamic cyanobacterial communities. Documentation of cyanobacterial cultures along the water channels of effluents discharged by above mentioned industries along the west coast of India and their relationship with water quality is reported in this study. Intensity of pollution was evaluated by physico-chemical analysis of water. Higher load of solids, carbon and nutrients were found to be persistent throughout the analysis. Sediment and water samples were found to be colored in nature. Cyanobacterial community structure was found to be influenced by the anthropogenic pollution. 40 different cyanobacterial species were recorded from 14 genera of 5 families and an elevated occurrence of Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus genera was observed in all the sampling sites.
BibTeX:
@article{ParikhA2006,
  author = {Parikh A, Shah V, Madamwar D},
  title = {Cyanobacterial flora from polluted industrial effluents.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {116(1-3)},
  pages = {91-102}
}
Pathak H, Soni D, Chauhan K Evaluation of in vitro efficacy for decolorization and degradation of commercial azo dye RB-B by Morganella sp. HK-1 isolated from dye contaminated industrial landfill. 2014 Chemosphere.
Vol. 105, pp. 126-32 
article DOI  
Abstract: Reactive Black-B (RB-B) - one of the multi-sulphonated reactive azo dye - is being used extensively in textile as well as paper industries. Reactive azo dyes comprise of a significant group of synthetic compounds categorized as xenobiotics and its abatement from the environment still remains a challenge. In the present study, a newly isolated indigenous bacterial strain Morganella sp. HK-1 was exploited for its ability to decolorize and degrade RB-B dye. The isolate completely degraded RB-B (20 g L(-1)) within 24h under static conditions. Furthermore, the visible and FTIR spectral analysis established the bio-degradation of RB-B. The degraded metabolites of RB-B by Morganella sp. HK-1 were identified by GC-MS analysis as disodium 3,4,6-triamino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate, 4-aminophenylsulfonylethyl hydrogen sulfate, naphthalene-1-ol, aniline and benzene. Based on this information, a putative pathway of degradation of RB-B by Morganella sp. HK-1 has been proposed. This study is the first report on elucidation of mechanism of bacterial degradation of RB-B dye. Furthermore, phytotoxicity, genotoxicity and aquatic acute toxicity studies of the parent dye and the bio-degraded dye products revealed drastic reduction in the toxicity of metabolites as compared to the parent dye. This implies that the biotreatment of the dye is of non-toxic nature. This study thus indicates the effectiveness of Morganella sp. HK-1 for the treatment of textile effluents containing sulphonated azo dyes.
BibTeX:
@article{PathakH2014,
  author = {Pathak H, Soni D, Chauhan K},
  title = {Evaluation of in vitro efficacy for decolorization and degradation of commercial azo dye RB-B by Morganella sp. HK-1 isolated from dye contaminated industrial landfill.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {105},
  pages = {126-32},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.01.004}
}
Rai PK Heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, India. 2009 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 158(1-4), pp. 433-57 
article DOI  
Abstract: Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cd) and macronutrients (Mn) were measured in industrial effluents, water, bottom sediments, and wetland plants from a reservoir, Govind Ballabh (G.B.) Pant Sagar, in Singrauli Industrial region, India. The discharge point of a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and chlor-alkali effluent into the G.B. Pant Sagar were selected as sampling sites with one reference site in order to compare the findings. The concentrations of heavy metals in filtered water, sieved sediment samples (0.4-63 microm), and wetland plants were determined with particle-induced X-ray emission. The collected plants were Aponogeton natans, L. Engl. & Krause, Cyperus rotundus, L., Hydrilla verticillata, (L.f.) Royle, Ipomoea aquatica, Forssk., Marsilea quadrifolia, L., Potamogeton pectinatus, L., Eichhornia crassipes, (Mart.) Solms Monogr., Lemna minor, L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea, Azolla pinnata, R.Br., Vallisneria spiralis, L., and Polygonum amphibium, L. In general, metal concentration showed a significant positive correlation between industrial effluent, lake water, and lake sediment (p < 0.01). Likewise, significant positive correlation was recorded with metals concentration in plants and lake ambient, which further indicated the potential of aforesaid set of wetland macrophytes for pollution monitoring.
BibTeX:
@article{PK2009,
  author = {Rai PK},
  title = {Heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {158(1-4)},
  pages = {433-57},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0595-9}
}
Pokale WK, Thakre JN, Warhate SR Water quality status of Pench Reservoir (India). 2010 J Environ Sci Eng., pp. 255-8  article  
Abstract: Considering the impacts of industrial effluents on the quality of water of many dams and rivers as reported in the literature, a study of water quality of Pench Reservoir (India) has been carried out. In the present work, physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological status are evaluated to determine its suitability for drinking and irrigation. From various parameters like pH, DO, BOD, COD, EC and minerals etc, it is concluded that the water is suitable for drinking. Also contents of chlorides, TDS, SAR, Na%, and RSC are within the limits accepted for irrigation, therefore, the water can be classified as fit for irrigation purpose.
BibTeX:
@article{PokaleWK2010,
  author = {Pokale WK, Thakre JN, Warhate SR},
  title = {Water quality status of Pench Reservoir (India).},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {255-8}
}
Ponnusami V, Srivastava SN Studies on application of teak leaf powders for the removal of color from synthetic and industrial effluents. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 169(1-3), pp. 1159-62 
article DOI  
Abstract: Batch studies were conducted to investigate the potential of untreated teak leaf powder (TLP) to remove color from synthetic and industrial effluents. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best-fitting isotherm. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 99.1, 145.2, 188.7 and 207.9 mg methyleneblue/gTLP at 293, 303, 313 and 323 K, respectively. It was also found from the thermodynamic analysis that the adsorption of methylene blue onto TLP was spontaneous, chemisorption and exothermic in nature. The color of the effluent was quantified in terms of the area under absorbance spectrum. Percentage color, COD and total dissolved solids (TDS) removed from a diluted effluent (10% effluent by vol.) were found to be 57.41, 45.95 and 49.46, respectively. The monolayer capacity was calculated in terms of TDS and was found to be 219 mg/g.
BibTeX:
@article{PonnusamiV2009,
  author = {Ponnusami V, Srivastava SN},
  title = {Studies on application of teak leaf powders for the removal of color from synthetic and industrial effluents.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {169(1-3)},
  pages = {1159-62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.03.142}
}
Pophali GR, Kaul SN, Mathur S Influence of hydraulic shock loads and TDS on the performance of large-scale CETPs treating textile effluents in India. 2003 Water Res.
Vol. 37(2), pp. 353-61 
article  
Abstract: The present study relates to the influence of hydraulic shock loads and total dissolved solids (TDS) on the performance of three large-scale common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) treating textile effluents, which is generated from clusters of small-scale industries in the state of Rajasthan in India. Of the three CETPs, two having capacities 7.0 and 9.0 million liters per day (mld) are located in Pali and one of capacity 6.0 mld in Balotra, District Barmer. Wastewater from about one thousand small-scale industries is treated in these CETPs. The effects of hydraulic shock loads and TDS on effluent data from secondary clarifier for parameters biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS) for CETPs at Pali, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and SS for the CETP at Balotra were studied. It was observed that the effluent BOD and SS remained within the prescribed limits for CETP Pali at 30% increased flow rate, whereas effluent COD and SS at 30% increased flow rate for CETP Balotra exceeded the prescribed limits and the CETP could sustain 20% increased flow rate. The shock loading analysis revealed that CETP Balotra had reduced capacity to sustain shock loads by 10% as compared to CETP Pali due to the presence of high TDS (15,000-20,000 mg/l). High TDS interfered with the oxygen transfer necessary for biological metabolism, thereby affected the efficiency of activated sludge process. Hence, activated sludge process treating high TDS effluents are more sensitive to hydraulic shock loads and prone to process upsets.
BibTeX:
@article{PophaliGR2003,
  author = {Pophali GR, Kaul SN, Mathur S},
  title = {Influence of hydraulic shock loads and TDS on the performance of large-scale CETPs treating textile effluents in India.},
  journal = {Water Res.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {37(2)},
  pages = {353-61}
}
Pawar PR Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. 2013 Mar Pollut Bull
Vol. 75(1-2), pp. 291-300 
article DOI  
Abstract: Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress.
BibTeX:
@article{PR.2013,
  author = {Pawar PR.},
  title = {Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.},
  journal = {Mar Pollut Bull},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {75(1-2)},
  pages = {291-300},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.06.045}
}
Pradeep MR, Narasimha G Effect of leather industry effluents on soil microbial and protease activity. 2012 J Environ Biol, pp. 39-42  article  
Abstract: Release of leather industry effluents into the agricultural fields causes indicative changes in nutrient cycling and organic matter processing. In the present study, leather industry effluent discharged soil (test) and undischarged soil(control) were collected from the surrounding areas of industry. The physico-chemical, biological properties and soil protease activity were examined. The study reflected the average mean value of pH, electrical conductivity and water holding capacity of the test soil was found to be 7.94, 0.89 microMhos cm(-1) and 0.51 ml g(-1), respectively. In chemical parameters, organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has the mean of 6.73%, 0.23 g kg(-1), 4.28 mg g(-1) and 28 microg g(-1), respectively. In all the respects, the test soil showed higher values than the control. The soil protease enzyme activity was determined by using substrate casein and the activity was found to be higher (180 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)) in test soil than the control soil (63 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)).
BibTeX:
@article{PradeepMR2012,
  author = {Pradeep MR, Narasimha G},
  title = {Effect of leather industry effluents on soil microbial and protease activity.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {39-42}
}
Pradhan J, Das SN, Thakur RS Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution by Using Activated Red Mud 1999 J Colloid Interface Sci
Vol. 217(1), pp. 137-141 
article  
Abstract: Adsorption by activated red mud (ARM) is investigated as a possible alternative to the conventional methods of Cr(VI) removal from aqueous synthetic solutions and industrial effluents. Adsorption characteristics suggest the heterogenous nature of the adsorbent surface sites with respect to the energy of adsorption. Various factors such as pH, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, amount of adsorbent, and temperature are taken into account, and promising results are obtained. The applicability of the Langmuir as well as Freundlich adsorption isotherms for the present system is tested. The loading factor (i.e., milligrams of Cr(VI) adsorbed per gram of ARM) increased with initial Cr(VI) concentration, whereas a negative trend was observed with increasing temperature. The influence of the addition of anions on the adsorption of Cr(VI) depends on the relative affinity of the anions for the surface and the relative concentrations of the anions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
BibTeX:
@article{PradhanJ1999,
  author = {Pradhan J, Das SN, Thakur RS},
  title = {Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution by Using Activated Red Mud},
  journal = {J Colloid Interface Sci},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {217(1)},
  pages = {137-141}
}
Prathish KP, James D, Jaisy J, Prasada Rao T Dual optoelectronic visual detection and quantification of spectroscopically silent heavy metal toxins: a multi-measurand sensing strategy based on Rhodamine 6G as chromo or fluoro ionophore. 2009 Anal Chim Acta.
Vol. 647(1), pp. 84-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: A novel colorimetric chemo-sensor for the simultaneous visual detection and quantification of spectroscopically silent heavy metal toxins viz. cadmium, lead and mercury has been developed. This is based on the proposed sequential ligand exchange (SLE) mechanism of iodide from Pb-I(-)-Rhodamine 6G ion associate with citrate (without affecting ion associates of Cd and Hg) and subsequently from Cd-I(-)-Rhodamine 6G ion associate with EDTA (without affecting Hg-I(-)-Rhodamine 6G). Multi-measurand detection and quantification by colorimetry is possible as the individual toxins gives identical bathochromic shifts in aqueous solution, i.e. from 530 to 575 nm on formation of ternary ion associates in singular, binary and ternary mixtures. The visual detection provides a simple, quick and sensitive detection method in addition to quantification via spectrophotometry with Sandell sensitivities of 1.1, 15 and 2.5 microg dm(-2) for cadmium, lead and mercury, respectively. The developed procedure has been successfully tested for the analysis of environmental (cast alkali, lead acid battery and zinc manufacturing industry effluents) samples. Furthermore, the multi-measurand quantification of the above-mentioned heavy metal toxins based on fluorescence quenching and use of Pyronine G as chromo-ionophore instead of Rhodamine 6G is also described.
BibTeX:
@article{PrathishKP2009,
  author = {Prathish KP, James D, Jaisy J, Prasada Rao T},
  title = {Dual optoelectronic visual detection and quantification of spectroscopically silent heavy metal toxins: a multi-measurand sensing strategy based on Rhodamine 6G as chromo or fluoro ionophore.},
  journal = {Anal Chim Acta.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {647(1)},
  pages = {84-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2009.04.044}
}
Purushothaman P, Chakrapani GJ Heavy metals fractionation in Ganga River sediments, India. 2007 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 132(1-3), pp. 475-89 
article  
Abstract: The Ganga River is the largest river in India which, originates in the Himalayas and along with the Brahmaputra River, another Himalayan river, transports enormous amounts of sediments from the Indian sub-continent to the Bay of Bengal. Because of the important role of river sediments in the biogeochemical cycling of elements, the Ganga river sediments, collected from its origin to the down stretches, were studied in the present context, to assess the heavy metals associated with different chemical fractions of sediments. The fractionation of metals were studied in the sediments using SM&T protocol for the extraction of heavy metals and geo-accumulation index (GAI) (Muller, Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des rheins - Veranderungen seit. Umschau, 79, 778-783, 1979) and Metal Enrichment Factor (MEF) in different fractions were calculated. As with many river systems, residual fractions constitute more than 60% of total metals, except Zn, Cu and Cr. However, the reducible and organic and sulfide components also act as major sinks for metals in the down stretches of the river, which is supported by the high GAI and MEF values. The GAI values range between 4 and 5 and MEF exceed more than 20 for almost all the locations in the downstream locations indicating to the addition of metals through urban and industrial effluents, as compared to the low metals concentrations with less GAI and MEF in the pristine river sediments from the rivers in Himalayas.
BibTeX:
@article{PurushothamanP2007,
  author = {Purushothaman P, Chakrapani GJ},
  title = {Heavy metals fractionation in Ganga River sediments, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {132(1-3)},
  pages = {475-89}
}
Rajendran R, Karthik Sundaram S, Prabhavathi P, Sridevi BV, Gopi V Comparative analysis of bioremediation potential of adapted and non-adapted fungi on azo dye containing textile effluent. 2011 Pak J Biol Sci., pp. 610-8  article  
Abstract: About 4 different predominant adapted fungal strains (screened from effluent sample) Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Mucor sp. and 4 predominant non-adapted strains (screened from soil, water and fungal fruiting bodies) Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Rhizopus sp., with potential dye decolorization ability on Reactive black 5, Amido black-10B, Red 5B, Reactive red 120 and Anthraquinone violet R were isolated. These organisms were used to develop a consortium which was used in analyzing the bioremediation efficiency on textile effluents containing a mixture of azo dyes. There was about 67% of reduction in color along with 34% of COD reduction by non-adapted fungal consortium while effective bioremediation efficiency was observed in adapted fungal consortium (Color 75% and COD 50%). The regression co-efficient for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were found to be higher for adapted fungal consortium (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.92) than the non-adapted consortium (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.85) proving that both monolayer and multilayer adsorption of dyes were observed on treating the samples with the adapted fungal consortium. On analyzing the results observed through chi-square test, the calculated value (28.712) was higher than the tabulated value (9.49) at a 4 degree freedom hence the hypothesis was rejected. So, there was an association between adapted fungal consortium and non-adapted fungal consortium and hence the adapted fungal consortium could be considered potentially useful for the bioremediation of textile effluent.
BibTeX:
@article{RajendranR2011,
  author = {Rajendran R, Karthik Sundaram S, Prabhavathi P, Sridevi BV, Gopi V},
  title = {Comparative analysis of bioremediation potential of adapted and non-adapted fungi on azo dye containing textile effluent.},
  journal = {Pak J Biol Sci.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {610-8}
}
Raju P, Saseetharan MK Removal of lead (II) from metal plating effluents using sludge based activated carbon as adsorbent. 2010 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 52(1), pp. 7-10 
article  
Abstract: A novel adsorbent was prepared from waste sludge obtained from a sugar mill for removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The adsorption studies were carried out in batch and continuous modes for both sugar mill sludge based carbon and commercial carbon. In batch studies, experiments were conducted at ambient temperature to assess the influence of the parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and equilibrium concentration. Adsorption data for the prepared carbon was found to satisfy both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Column studies were carried out to delineate the effect of varying depth of carbon at constant flow rate. The breakthrough curves were drawn to establish the mechanism. The result shows that the sludge based activated carbon can be used as an alternative for commercial carbon.
BibTeX:
@article{RajuP2010,
  author = {Raju P, Saseetharan MK},
  title = {Removal of lead (II) from metal plating effluents using sludge based activated carbon as adsorbent.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {52(1)},
  pages = {7-10}
}
Ramesh R, Aarthy M, Gowthaman MK, Gabrovska K, Godjevargova T, Kamini NR Screening and production of a potent extracellular Arthrobacter creatinolyticus urease for determination of heavy metal ions. 2014 J Basic Microbiol.
Vol. 54(4), pp. 285-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: This paper describes the isolation of a potent extracellular urease producing microorganism, identified by 16S rRNA as Arthrobacter creatinolyticus MTCC 5604 and its medium optimization by classical one-factor-at-a-time method and central composite rotatable design (CCRD), a tool of response surface methodology (RSM). An optimal activity of 9.0?U?ml(-1) was obtained by classical method and statistical optimization of the medium resulted in an activity of 17.35?U?ml(-1) at 48?h and 30?°C. This activity was 4.91 times greater than the initial activity (3.53?U?ml(-1) ) from the basal medium and the enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 60?°C and was stable at pH 7.0-9.0 and temperatures up to 50?°C. Furthermore, the enzyme was assessed for its activity reduction by determining the inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of heavy metal ions and the inhibition of urease was in the order of Cu(II)?>?Cd(II)?>?Zn(II)?>?Ni(II). Urease was highly sensitive to Cu(II) and its inhibition was 94% and 100% in model solutions containing a mixture of Cu(II) with heavy metal ions Cd(II) and Zn(II), respectively. The results of these studies suggested that the enzyme could be utilized as sensors to determine the levels of Cu(II) ions in industrial effluents, contaminated soil and ground water.
BibTeX:
@article{RameshR2014,
  author = {Ramesh R, Aarthy M, Gowthaman MK, Gabrovska K, Godjevargova T, Kamini NR.},
  title = {Screening and production of a potent extracellular Arthrobacter creatinolyticus urease for determination of heavy metal ions.},
  journal = {J Basic Microbiol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {54(4)},
  pages = {285-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201200561}
}
Ramteke PW, Awasthi S, Srinath T, Joseph B Efficiency assessment of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating tannery effluents. 2010 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 169(1-4), pp. 125-31 
article DOI  
Abstract: The efficacy of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) based on activated sludge process employed for treatment of tannery effluent was analyzed for the efficiency to reduce chromium and other contaminants. Physico-chemical parameters of treated effluent were found within permissible levels of statutory limits. A significant reduction in COD and BOD levels were achieved during the course of treatment in CETP. A reduction of 98.46%, 87.5%, and 96.15% in bacterial counts especially in pathogens like Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were observed after treatment. Pathogens were not detected in the dried sludge. Complete elimination of fecal streptococci was observed in treated effluent. Around 10.8% of microbial isolates from the effluent showed ability to reduce chromate >90%. In treated effluent chromium level was 5.48 mg/L, which exceeds the statutory limit of Indian standards. Cleaner production options to reduce chromium levels before discharging into water bodies is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{RamtekePW2010,
  author = {Ramteke PW, Awasthi S, Srinath T, Joseph B},
  title = {Efficiency assessment of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating tannery effluents.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {169(1-4)},
  pages = {125-31},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1156-6}
}
Rangabhashiyam S, Suganya E, Selvaraju N, Varghese LA Significance of exploiting non-living biomaterials for the biosorption of wastewater pollutants. 2014 World J Microbiol Biotechnol.
Vol. 30(6), pp. 1669-89 
article DOI  
Abstract: Industrial effluents from various sectors have become a matter of major environmental concern. The treatment of wastewater in recent year plays a significant role in order to remove the pollutants and to safeguard the water resource. The conventional wastewater treatment is considered costlier and associated with problem of sludge generation. Biosorption methods are considered as the potential solution due to their economical efficiency, good adsorption capacity and eco-friendliness. In this review, an extensive list of biosorbents from algae, bacteria, fungi and agricultural byproducts have been compiled. The suitability of biosorbents towards the eradication of heavy metals, textile dyes and phenolic compounds were highlighted. It is evident from the literature survey of recently published research articles that the biosorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal potential towards the wastewater pollutants. Therefore, biosorbents from the source of dead microbial and agricultural byproduct can be viable alternatives to activated carbon for the wastewater treatment.
BibTeX:
@article{RangabhashiyamS2014,
  author = {Rangabhashiyam S, Suganya E, Selvaraju N, Varghese LA.},
  title = {Significance of exploiting non-living biomaterials for the biosorption of wastewater pollutants.},
  journal = {World J Microbiol Biotechnol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {30(6)},
  pages = {1669-89},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-014-1599}
}
Rao NC, Mohan SV, Muralikrishna P, Sarma PN Treatment of composite chemical wastewater by aerobic GAC-biofilm sequencing batch reactor (SBGR). 2005 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 124(1-3), pp. :59-67 
article  
Abstract: The performance of granular activated carbon (GAC)-biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBGR) in aerobic environment was investigated for the treatment of composite chemical wastewater [low BOD/COD ratio ( approximately 0.3), high sulfate content (1.75 g/l) and high TDS concentration (11 g/l)]. Composite wastewater was a combined mixture of effluents from about 100 chemical based industries. Reactor was operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic microenvironment conditions with a total cycle period of 24 h (fill: 15 min; reaction (aeration with recirculation): 23 h; settle: 30 min; decant: 15 min) and the performance of the system was studied at organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.7 kg COD/cum-day, 3.5 kg COD/cum-day and 5.5 kg COD/cum-day. The reactor showed efficient performance with respect to substrate degradation rate and sustained its performance at higher operating OLR (5.5 kg COD/cum-day) and at low BOD/COD ratio. Substrate utilization was found to increase with increase in the operating OLR. Maximum non-cumulative substrate utilization of 1.837 kg COD/cum-h, 2.99 kg COD/cum-h and 3.821 kg COD/cum-h was observed after 15 h of the cycle operation for operating OLRs of 1.7 kg COD/cum-day, 3.5 kg COD/cum-day and 5.5 kg COD/cum-day, respectively. Sulfate removal efficiency of 11+/-2% was recorded in the SBGR due to the induced anoxic conditions prevailing during the sequence phase operation of the reactor and the existing internal anoxic zones in the biofilm. Effective performance of the reactor may be attributed to sorption capacity of GAC as carrier material facilitating low toxicant concentration in the mixed liquor. The existing high flow rates around the GAC particle results in good mass transfer of the substrate from the bulk liquid. The long retention of biofilm on GAC increases the potential for the treatment of recalcitrant industrial wastewater. GAC configured biofilm configuration coupled with sequencing batch mode operation appears to be promising for the effective treatment of complex industrial wastewater containing poorly degradable compounds.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoNC2005,
  author = {Rao NC, Mohan SV, Muralikrishna P, Sarma PN},
  title = {Treatment of composite chemical wastewater by aerobic GAC-biofilm sequencing batch reactor (SBGR).},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {124(1-3)},
  pages = {:59-67}
}
Rao PH, Kumar RR, Raghavan BG, Subramanian VV, Sivasubramanian V Is phycovolatilization of heavy metals a probable (or possible) physiological phenomenon? An in situ pilot-scale study at a leather-processing chemical industry. 2011 Water Environ Res., pp. 291-7  article  
Abstract: Using algae to treat industrial effluents containing heavy metals presents an alternative to the current practice of using other biosorbents and physical and chemical methods. In this study, effluent from a leather-processing chemical industry in Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India, was treated for the removal of heavy metals using the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, which was isolated from the effluent itself. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the mass balance of a model parameter, lead, in laboratory conditions and estimate the lead adsorption capabilities of the microalga and (2) conduct pilot-scale studies for the removal of heavy metals, using the microalga, from the effluent and the solid waste accumulated over the years generated by conventional treatment methods. The results of the study show that after 8 hours, Chlorella vulgaris exhibited a better adsorption capacity under sunlight compared to laboratory conditions (i.e., 30.6 mg/g dry weight vs 10.5 mg/g dry weight, respectively). Similarly, reduction of heavy metals and mass balance in pilot-scale field studies conducted in a high-rate algal pond showed that the microalga, apart from adsorption, complexation, and entrapment mechanisms, is likely to possess phycovolatilization capability probably via biotransformation processes.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoPH2011,
  author = {Rao PH, Kumar RR, Raghavan BG, Subramanian VV, Sivasubramanian V},
  title = {Is phycovolatilization of heavy metals a probable (or possible) physiological phenomenon? An in situ pilot-scale study at a leather-processing chemical industry.},
  journal = {Water Environ Res.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {291-7}
}
Rao RN, Venkateswarlu N, Khalid S, Narsimha R LC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS separation and determination of process-related substances arising from stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agents. Application to monitoring of their photodegradation products in industrial effluents and aqueous environmental systems. 2005 J Sep Sci.
Vol. 28(5), pp. 443-52 
article  
Abstract: A simple and rapid gradient elution high-performance liquid chromatographic method using photodiode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors was developed for separation and determination of the process-related substances and photodegradation products of stilbenesulfonic acids, viz. 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNSDA), 4-amino-4'-nitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (ANSDA), and 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DASDA) in industrial waste waters. Gradient elution was carried out using ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as mobile phase and an Inertsil-ODS 3V column for separation. The negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectra containing [M-H]- ions of sulfonic acids allowed molecular mass determination of unknowns and the structures were proposed on the basis of the fragment ions in the MS/MS spectra.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoRN2005,
  author = {Rao RN, Venkateswarlu N, Khalid S, Narsimha R},
  title = {LC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS separation and determination of process-related substances arising from stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agents. Application to monitoring of their photodegradation products in industrial effluents and aqueous environmental systems.},
  journal = {J Sep Sci.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {28(5)},
  pages = {443-52}
}
Rao RN, Venkateswarlu N, Khalid S, Narasimha R Liquid chromatographic separation and determination of aromatic sulfonates in an aquatic environment using a photodiode array and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometer as detectors. 2003 Anal Sci.
Vol. 19(4), pp. 611-5 
article  
Abstract: A simple and rapid method involving high-performance liquid chromatographic separation, followed by photodiode array (PDA) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection of aromatic sulfonates in waste-water effluents of industrial units producing optical whitening agents, has been developed. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Hypersil C18 column using gradient elution of a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M ammonium formate-methanol with decreasing concentration of the buffer at room temperature. The minimum detection limits were determined to be in the range of 0.2 - 1.8 x 10(-9) g using PDA and ESI-MS detectors.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoRN2003,
  author = {Rao RN, Venkateswarlu N, Khalid S, Narasimha R},
  title = {Liquid chromatographic separation and determination of aromatic sulfonates in an aquatic environment using a photodiode array and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometer as detectors.},
  journal = {Anal Sci.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {19(4)},
  pages = {611-5}
}
Rasheed QJ, Pandian K, Muthukumar K Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater by ultrasound-dispersed nanoscale zero-valent iron particles. 2011 Ultrason Sonochem.  article DOI  
Abstract: Petroleum refineries release wastewater, which is rich in organic pollutants and cannot be treated easily. This study presents the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) in the presence of ultrasonication. NZVI characteristics were analyzed using SEM and XRD. The influence of NZVI dosage and initial pH on % chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was studied. From the results, it can be inferred that a dosage of 0.15 g/l and an initial pH are optimum for the effective degradation of effluents. The degradation data were found to follow first order kinetics. The results indicate that using NZVI in combination with ultrasonication is an efficient method for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater.
BibTeX:
@article{RasheedQJ2011,
  author = {Rasheed QJ, Pandian K, Muthukumar K.},
  title = {Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater by ultrasound-dispersed nanoscale zero-valent iron particles.},
  journal = {Ultrason Sonochem.},
  year = {2011},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.03.015}
}
Rehman A, Farooq H, Hasnain S Biosorption of copper by yeast, Loddermyces elongisporus, isolated from industrial effluents: its potential use in wastewater treatment. 2008 J Basic Microbiol.
Vol. 48(3), pp. 195-201 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study is aimed at assessing the ability of metal resistant yeast, Loddermyces elongisporus, to uptake metal from liquid medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cu(2+) against Loddermyces elongisporus ranged between 2.2-2.3 mg/l. The yeast could also tolerate Zn(2+) (2.9 mg/l), Hg(2+) (2.4 mg/l), Ni(2+) (2.2 mg/l), Cr(6+) (2.0 mg/l), Pb(2+) (1.1 mg/l), and Cd(2+) (0.8 mg/l). The yeast isolate showed typical growth curves but lag and log phases extended in the presence of copper. Yeast isolate showed optimum growth at 30 degrees C and pH 8. Metal processing ability of the isolate was determined in a medium containing 0.1 mg/l of Cu(2+). Loddermyces elongisporus could reduce Cu(2+) 15%, 26%, 39%, 50%, 60%, 67%, 75% and 81% from the medium after 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively. L. elongisporus could also efficiently remove 80% copper from the medium after 96 h and was able to remove Cu(2+) 60% and 77% from the wastewater after 4 and 8 d, respectively. The metal binding ability suggests possibility of using this yeast strain for removal of copper from metal contaminated wastewater.
BibTeX:
@article{RehmanA2008,
  author = {Rehman A, Farooq H, Hasnain S},
  title = {Biosorption of copper by yeast, Loddermyces elongisporus, isolated from industrial effluents: its potential use in wastewater treatment.},
  journal = {J Basic Microbiol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {48(3)},
  pages = {195-201},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jobm.200700324}
}
Revanasiddappa HD, Kiran Kumar TN A highly sensitive spectrophotometric determination of chromium using leuco Xylene cyanol FF. 2003 Talanta.
Vol. 60(1), pp. 1-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: A highly sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of chromium with leuco Xylene cynaol FF. The method is based on the oxidation of leuco Xylene cyanol FF (LXCFF) to its blue form of Xylene cyanol FF by chromium(VI) in sulphuric acid medium (pH 1.2-2.4), the absorbance of the formed dye is measured in an acetate buffer medium (pH 3.0-4.6) at 615 nm. The method obeys Beer's law in the concentration range of 0.05-0.45 mug ml(-l) chromium, having molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of 8.23x10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-l) and 0.00063 mug cm(-2), respectively. All the variables were studied in order to optimise the reaction conditions. The developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of chromium in steels, pharmaceutical samples, industrial effluents, natural water, and soil.
BibTeX:
@article{RevanasiddappaHD2003,
  author = {Revanasiddappa HD, Kiran Kumar TN},
  title = {A highly sensitive spectrophotometric determination of chromium using leuco Xylene cyanol FF.},
  journal = {Talanta.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {60(1)},
  pages = {1-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(02)00567-2}
}
Revathi M, Kavitha B, Vasudevan T Removal of nickel ions from industrial plating effluents using activated alumina as adsorbent. 2005 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 47(1), pp. 1-6 
article  
Abstract: Removal of nickel ions from industrial effluents has been studied using activated alumina prepared by the galvanic oxidation of aluminum metal at ambient temperature as the adsorbent. The effect of various factors, such as initial concentration of nickel, contact time, dose of adsorbent and pH of the solution has been investigated. Batch and column type of adsorption studies have been made. The results indicate that the adsorption process is favored at pH 9. The adsorption data were fitted with suitable adsorption isotherm. The optimum conditions for the best adsorption have been evaluated for the following factors: dosage, contact time, pH, initial concentration of nickel ions and temperature. The process of regeneration of the adsorbent has also been studied.
BibTeX:
@article{RevathiM2005,
  author = {Revathi M, Kavitha B, Vasudevan T},
  title = {Removal of nickel ions from industrial plating effluents using activated alumina as adsorbent.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {47(1)},
  pages = {1-6}
}
Iyer RH Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents. 2003 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 41(9), pp. 1002-11 
article  
Abstract: An update is presented on liquid membrane-based processes as viable and relevant alternatives to conventional approaches such as precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange processes and electrochemical techniques for the removal and recovery of some toxic and/or valuable trace metal ions including some actinides and fission products e.g. U, Am, Y etc and As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn etc from radioactive as well as non-radioactive aqueous waste solutions respectively. In particular, results of experiments aimed at developing supported liquid membrane(SLM)-based process using commercially available porous membranes and indigenously prepared track--etch membranes (TEMs) have been critically examined in laboratory studies to generate basic data needed to evaluate their utility for continuous operation without regeneration. These include effect of pore size, porosity, optimum pore size and their reusability. It is clearly demonstrated that indigenously prepared 10 microm thick TEMs with a porosity in the range of 2-5% give comparable transport rates for metal ions-matching with that of commercial membranes of much higher thickness (160 microm) and higher porosity of 60-85%. The smaller thickness of TEMs more than compensates for their lower porosity. It is shown that because of their well defined pore characteristics TEMs could serve as model supports in SLM studies. By comparing the values of permeability coefficient (P) for TEM and polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) supports for the transport of Pb2+ chosen as a typical divalent metal ion, and using di-2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier, it is unambiguously proved that diffusion of the metal complex across the membrane is the rate controlling step in metal ion transport in SLM-based processes. An overview of the experimental findings along with future outlook and suggestions for further work are presented in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{RH2003,
  author = {Iyer RH},
  title = {Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {41(9)},
  pages = {1002-11}
}
Riaz M, Nadeem R, Hanif MA, Ansari TM, Rehman KU Pb(II) biosorption from hazardous aqueous streams using Gossypium hirsutum (Cotton) waste biomass. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 161(1), pp. 88-94 
article DOI  
Abstract: Studies on the biosorptive ability of Gossypium hirsutum (Cotton) waste biomass outlined that smaller size of biosorbent (0.355mm), higher biomass dose (0.20g), 5 pH and 100mg/L initial Pb(II) concentration were more suitable for enhanced Pb(II) biosorption from aqueous medium. The Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model fitted well to the data of Pb(II) biosorption. Highly negative magnitude of Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees ) indicated that the process was spontaneous in nature. In addition to this surface coverage and distribution coefficient values of Pb(II) biosorption process were also determined. At optimized conditions Pb(II) uptake was more rapid in case of industrial effluents in comparison to synthetic solutions. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the main functional groups involved in the uptake of Pb(II) on the surface of G. hirsutum biomass were carboxyl, carbonyl, amino and alcoholic.
BibTeX:
@article{RiazM2009,
  author = {Riaz M, Nadeem R, Hanif MA, Ansari TM, Rehman KU},
  title = {Pb(II) biosorption from hazardous aqueous streams using Gossypium hirsutum (Cotton) waste biomass.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {161(1)},
  pages = {88-94},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.03.096}
}
Pandey S Water pollution and health. 2006 Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ).
Vol. 4(1), pp. 128-34 
article  
Abstract: Water is the important constituent of life support system. No one can live and even dream to live without water. Most of our water bodies have become polluted due to industrial growth; urbanization and man-made problems mainly the result of population growth. Poor sanitation and contaminated drinking water arising from human activity and natural phenomena create serious problems in human health. The chief sources of water pollution are sewage and other waste, industrial effluents, agricultural discharges and industrial wastes from chemical industries, fossils fuel plants and nuclear power plants. They create a larger problem of water pollution rendering water no longer fit for drinking, agriculture and, as well as for aquatic life. More than 2.6 billion people--40% of the world's population--lack basic sanitation facilities and over one billion people still use unsafe drinking water sources. As a result thousands of children die everyday from diarrhoea and other water, sanitation and hygiene-related diseases and many suffer and are weakened by illness.
BibTeX:
@article{S2006,
  author = {Pandey S},
  title = {Water pollution and health.},
  journal = {Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ).},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {4(1)},
  pages = {128-34}
}
Sagar S, Dwivedi A, Yadav S, Tripathi M, Kaistha SD Hexavalent chromium reduction and plant growth promotion by Staphylococcusarlettae strain Cr11. 2012 Chemosphere., pp. 847-52  article DOI  
Abstract: Cr(VI), a mutagenic and carcinogenic pollutant in industrial effluents, was effectively reduced by an indigenous tannery effluent isolate Staphylococcus arlettae strain Cr11 under aerobic conditions. The isolate could tolerate Cr(VI) up to 2000 and 5000 mg L(-1) in liquid and solid media respectively. S. arlettae Cr11 effectively reduced 98% of 100 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) in 24h. Reduction for initial Cr(VI) concentrations of 500 and 1000 mg L(-1) was 98% and 75%, respectively in 120 h. The isolate was also positive for siderophore, indole acetic acid, ammonia and catalase production, phosphate solubilization and biofilm formation in the presence and absence of Cr(VI). The isolate showed halotolerance (10% NaCl) and cross tolerance to other toxic heavy metals such as Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). Bacterial inoculation of Triticum aestivum in controlled petri dish and soil environment showed significant increase in percent germination, root and shoot length as well as dry and wet weight in Cr(VI) treated and untreated samples. This is the first report of simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and plant growth promotion for a S. arlettae strain.
BibTeX:
@article{SagarS2012,
  author = {Sagar S, Dwivedi A, Yadav S, Tripathi M, Kaistha SD},
  title = {Hexavalent chromium reduction and plant growth promotion by Staphylococcusarlettae strain Cr11.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {847-52},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.11.031}
}
Sahu RK, Katiyar S, Tiwari J, Kisku GC Assessment of drain water receiving effluent from tanneries and its impact on soil and plants with particular emphasis on bioaccumulation of heavy metals. 2007 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 28(3), pp. 685-90 
article  
Abstract: In the present study, impact of tannery and other industrial effluents on the physico-chemical characteristics of loamy drain water and their consequent impact on soil and plants irrigated with effluent have been studied. The study reveals most of the parameter pH, BOD5 and COD at sampling station I was higher than station II. Waste water quality at both Stations I and II exceeded prescribed limits (BIS) for safe disposal of effluents into the surface water Samples of soil and vegetables from the land irrigated with loamy drain water has been collected and analyzed for Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr Pb and Cd. The different metals showed different enrichment factor for loamy drain water irrigated soil and are as follows: Cd 30% (max), Pb 26%, Zn 18%, Cr 5%, Cu 5%, Ni 2% (min). For plant samples collected at polluted sites are Ni 46% spinach (whole plant) (max), Zn 42% spinach (whole plant), Cr 39% spinach (whole plant), Cu 33% spinach (whole plant), Pb 20% potato tuber, Cd 20% potato tuber (min). The levels of Zn 145, Cu 5.25, and Ni 39.25 microg/ g in spinach, Pb 29.25, Cr 38. 25 and Cd 3.2 microg/g in potato tuber grown on polluted soil irrigated with contaminated drain water were found more than the reference value, which may create chronic health hazard problem to human and cattle through food chain in long run. Accumulation of toxic heavy metals may be build up in the agriculturally productive land where it is treated with contaminated effluent enrich with metals in turn bio-concentrated in the edible fodder/plants.
BibTeX:
@article{SahuRK2007,
  author = {Sahu RK, Katiyar S, Tiwari J, Kisku GC},
  title = {Assessment of drain water receiving effluent from tanneries and its impact on soil and plants with particular emphasis on bioaccumulation of heavy metals.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {28(3)},
  pages = {685-90}
}
Samadi MT, Rahman AR, Zarrabi M, Shahabi E, Sameei F Adsorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution by sugar beet bagasse-based activated charcoal. 2009 Environ Technol.
Vol. 30(10), pp. 1023-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Chromium (VI) is known to be potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic in humans. A low-cost industrial solid bioadsorbent, bagasse-based activated charcoal (BAC), has been investigated for removal of chromium from aqueous solution. All the experiments were carried out in batch process with laboratory-prepared samples to study the effects of adsorbent dose, contact time, pH and initial concentration of Cr(VI). The removal of chromium ion was found to be highly dependent on the pH of the solution, adsorbent dose and contact time. Also the equilibrium adsorption was analyzed by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. It was found that the Freundlich isotherm model best described the sorption of chromium by sugar beet bagasse-based activated charcoal (r2 > 0.9927). Experimental data of kinetic studies were fitted to pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and modified pseudo-first-order models. The results showed pseudo-second order kinetics was best fitted to the collected data (r2 > 0.9893). Optimum conditions for adsorption were determined at pH 2 and a contact time of 180 minutes (92.7% removal). These retention capacities suggest that BAC can provide a simple, effective, and cheap method for removing Cr(VI) ions from effluents and water resources.
BibTeX:
@article{SamadiMT2009,
  author = {Samadi MT, Rahman AR, Zarrabi M, Shahabi E, Sameei F},
  title = {Adsorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution by sugar beet bagasse-based activated charcoal.},
  journal = {Environ Technol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(10)},
  pages = {1023-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330903045107}
}
Sani RK, Azmi W, Banerjee UC Comparison of static and shake culture in the decolorization of textile dyes and dye effluents by Phanerochaete chrysoporium. 1998 Folia Microbiol (Praha).
Vol. 43(1), pp. 85-8 
article  
Abstract: Decolorization of several dyes (Red HE-8B, Malachite Green, Navy Blue HE-2R, Magenta, Crystal Violet) and an industrial effluent with growing cells of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in shake and static culture was demonstrated. All the dyes and the industrial effluent were decolorized to some extent with varying percentages of decolorization (20-100%). The rate of decolorization was very rapid with Red HE-8B, an industrial dye. Decolorization rates for all the dyes in static condition were found to be less than the shake culture and also dependent on biomass concentration.
BibTeX:
@article{SaniRK1998,
  author = {Sani RK, Azmi W, Banerjee UC},
  title = {Comparison of static and shake culture in the decolorization of textile dyes and dye effluents by Phanerochaete chrysoporium.},
  journal = {Folia Microbiol (Praha).},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {43(1)},
  pages = {85-8}
}
Santos VL, Heilbuth NM, Braga DT, Monteiro AS, Linardi VR Phenol degradation by a Graphium sp. FIB4 isolated from industrial effluents. 2003 J Basic Microbiol.
Vol. 43(3), pp. 238-48 
article  
Abstract: In this work, we show that the fungal strain Graphium sp. FIB4 was able to use phenol as the sole carbon source. Higher degradation of phenol was accomplished by alginate-immobilized mycelial mass than by mycelial suspensions of Graphium sp. FIB4. Free mycelium exhibited higher degradation rates when compared with the alginate-immobilized mycelium in the presence of 14 mM of phenol or less. Above this concentration, degradation rates by free mycelium decreased and the immobilized mycelium showed higher values. The maximum degradation rate for 8 mM phenol was found to be 20.13 mg/l x h by free mycelia and 16.24 mg/l x h by immobilized mycelial mass in the presence of 18 mM phenol. When the fungus was grown on medium without phenol, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity was not detected. This enzyme activity was induced at phenol concentrations as low as 0.05 mM and up to 6 mM at 24 h incubation at 30 degrees C, suggesting that catechol was oxidized by the ortho type of ring fission. Addition of glucose reduced phenol consumption rate, and both substrates were used simultaneously. Glucose concentrations higher than 0.075% repressed the induction of phenol oxidation by Graphium sp. FIB4 grown on glucose. But glucose did not fully repress utilization of phenol by phenol-pre-induced cells. Immobilization and addition of calcium and barium ions were detrimental to the stability of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity and phenol degradation by Graphium sp. FIB4.
BibTeX:
@article{SantosVL2003,
  author = {Santos VL, Heilbuth NM, Braga DT, Monteiro AS, Linardi VR},
  title = {Phenol degradation by a Graphium sp. FIB4 isolated from industrial effluents.},
  journal = {J Basic Microbiol.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {43(3)},
  pages = {238-48}
}
Santos VL, Linardi VR Phenol degradation by yeasts isolated from industrial effluents. 2001 J Gen Appl Microbiol.
Vol. 47(4), pp. 213-221 
article  
Abstract: Yeast strains of the genera Aureobasidium, Rhodotorula and Trichosporon were isolated from stainless steel effluents and tested for their ability to utilize phenol as the sole carbon source. Fourteen strains grew in the presence of up to 10 mm phenol. Only the strain Trichosporon sp. LE3 was able to grow in the presence of up to 20 mm phenol. An inhibitory effect was observed at concentrations higher than 11 mm, resulting in reduction of specific growth rates. Phenol degradation was a function of strain, time of incubation and initial phenol concentration. All strains exhibited activity of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and phenol hydroxylase in free cell extracts from cells grown on phenol, suggesting that catechol was oxidized by the ortho type of ring fission. Addition of glucose and benzoate reduced the phenol consumption rate, and both substrates were used simultaneously. Glucose concentrations higher than 0.25% inhibited the induction of phenol oxidation by non-proliferating cells and inhibited phenol oxidation by pre-induced cells.
BibTeX:
@article{SantosVL2001,
  author = {Santos VL, Linardi VR},
  title = {Phenol degradation by yeasts isolated from industrial effluents.},
  journal = {J Gen Appl Microbiol.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {47(4)},
  pages = {213-221}
}
Saravanan V, Sreekrishnan TR Modelling anaerobic biofilm reactors--a review. 2006 J Environ Manage.
Vol. 81(1), pp. 1-18 
article  
Abstract: Anaerobic treatment has become a technically as well as economically feasible option for treatment of liquid effluents after the development of reactors such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, anaerobic biofilter and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). Considerable effort has gone into developing mathematical models for these reactors in order to optimize their design, design the process control systems used in their operation and enhance their operational efficiency. This article presents a critical review of the different mathematical models available for these reactors. The unified anaerobic digestion model (ADM1) and its application to anaerobic biofilm reactors are also outlined.
BibTeX:
@article{SaravananV2006,
  author = {Saravanan V, Sreekrishnan TR},
  title = {Modelling anaerobic biofilm reactors--a review.},
  journal = {J Environ Manage.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {81(1)},
  pages = {1-18}
}
Sarika R, Kalogerakis N, Mantzavinos D Treatment of olive mill effluents Part II. Complete removal of solids by direct flocculation with poly-electrolytes. 2005 Environ Int.
Vol. 31(2), pp. 297-304 
article  
Abstract: The pre-treatment of three different olive oil processing effluents by means of direct flocculation (i.e. without prior coagulation) was investigated. Four cationic and two anionic poly-electrolytes were tested and most of them were found capable of removing nearly completely total suspended solids (TSS) as well as reducing considerably the concentration of chemical (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) without altering solution pH. Flocculant dosage was crucial to achieve effective separation. For three cationic and one anionic poly-electrolytes, the minimum dosage required to initiate separation was about 2.5-3 g/L. The remaining two poly-electrolytes failed to cause separation even at dosages as high as 7 g/L. Lime and ferric chloride were also tested as reference coagulants and found quite effective in terms of TSS removal although the degree of COD reduction was generally lower than that with poly-electrolytes. However, lime treatment would require greater dosages and longer treatment times than that with poly-electrolytes and would also increase considerably solution pH. A preliminary cost analysis showed that lime treatment for complete solids removal was generally less costly than that with poly-electrolytes presumably due to its low market price. Nonetheless, cost-benefits may be defied by several drawbacks associated with the use of lime.
BibTeX:
@article{SarikaR2005,
  author = {Sarika R, Kalogerakis N, Mantzavinos D},
  title = {Treatment of olive mill effluents Part II. Complete removal of solids by direct flocculation with poly-electrolytes.},
  journal = {Environ Int.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {31(2)},
  pages = {297-304}
}
Sarin V, Singh TS, Pant KK Thermodynamic and breakthrough column studies for the selective sorption of chromium from industrial effluent on activated eucalyptus bark. 2006 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 97(16), pp. 1986-93 
article  
Abstract: Studies were carried out on adsorption of Cr(VI) on an adsorbent made from eucalyptus bark. Results revealed that sorption of chromium on activated eucalyptus bark (AEB) was endothermic in nature. Thermodynamic parameters such as the entropy change, enthalpy change and Gibb's free energy change were found out to be 100.97 J mol(-1)K(-1), 33 kJ mol(-1) and -0.737 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Industrial chrome effluent of different chromium concentration at different pH was used as feedstock for the fixed bed adsorption studies. When effluent was fed to the column at low pH of 2, the breakthrough volume increased significantly compared to effluent at higher pH of 4.85. The surface properties of sorbent were characterized by the Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and Infrared techniques. It was concluded that AEB sorbent column could be used effectively for removal of chromium from industrial effluents by reducing the pH of chrome effluent to two and at optimal column conditions.
BibTeX:
@article{SarinV2006,
  author = {Sarin V, Singh TS, Pant KK},
  title = {Thermodynamic and breakthrough column studies for the selective sorption of chromium from industrial effluent on activated eucalyptus bark.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {97(16)},
  pages = {1986-93}
}
Sarla M, Pandit M, Tyagi DK, Kapoor JC Oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution by chemical and photochemical process. 2004 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 116(1-2), pp. 49-56 
article  
Abstract: Cyanide waste is found predominantly in industrial effluents generated from metallurgical operations. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper, oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution was investigated using chemical and photochemical process. Chemical oxidation was studied at room temperature using H2O2 as oxidant and Cu2+ as catalyst. Photochemical oxidation was studied in an annular type batch photoreactor of 1l capacity using 25 W low-pressure (81.7% transmission at 254 nm wavelength) ultraviolet (UV) lamp along with H2O2 as oxidant. The effect of Cu2+ catalysis was also studied. It was observed that in absence of UV source, the degradation of cyanide by H2O2 alone was very slow, whereas copper ions accelerated the rate of reaction thereby acting as catalyst. Copper formed a complex with cyanide ion, i.e. tetracyanocuprate which had greater affinity for H2O2. Cyanate hydrolysis was also favoured by copper ions. As Cu2+ ion concentration was increased, rate of degradation also increased. Photochemical oxidation by H2O2 and Cu2+ was found to be the best system for cyanide degradation. CN- (100 mg/l) was degraded to non-detectable level in 9 min at pH 10.0 with optimum H2O2 dose of 35.5 mM and Cu2+ dose of 19 mg/l. Reaction kinetics of cyanide oxidation was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant has been determined for different processes.
BibTeX:
@article{SarlaM2004,
  author = {Sarla M, Pandit M, Tyagi DK, Kapoor JC},
  title = {Oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution by chemical and photochemical process.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {116(1-2)},
  pages = {49-56}
}
Sengupta S, Chatterjee T, Ghosh PB, Saha T Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soils around a coal fired thermal power plant (Farakka) in India. 2010 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 52(4), pp. 299-306 
article  
Abstract: Agricultural soils around the ash dumping sites of one of the largest thermal power plant (TPP) in India located at Farakka, West Bengal were assessed for some heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) distribution in association with other physicochemical components and compared with the control soils collected from far away of TPP. The toxic group metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and As) were well differentiated by their higher values of variability and non-normal distribution from the biologically essential metals (Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe). The statistical analysis of the heavy metals revealed that the two probable sources (Eigen values) in affected soils are responsible for their distribution; the more dominant one contributed the toxic metals and less dominating source contributed the essential heavy metals. While in control soils, no distinct separation of sources of the metals were found out signifying that the natural common sources could play active role in metal distributions. Although EF (Enrichment Factor) values of toxic metals are higher with large fraction of anthropogenic sources, yet (Igeo) (Geo-accumulation Index) values indicate moderate to unpolluted condition of the soils in respect to Pb, Cd and As. The calculated PLI (Pollution Load Index) values (1.88) considering all the metals also support the findings. Since there are no other sources of industrial effluents in the study area except the TPP, it can be said that the enrichment of these metals is solely attributed to their input from the ash contamination. For this, considerable degree of enrichment of toxic group of metals occurred in these soils.
BibTeX:
@article{SenguptaS2010,
  author = {Sengupta S, Chatterjee T, Ghosh PB, Saha T},
  title = {Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soils around a coal fired thermal power plant (Farakka) in India.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {52(4)},
  pages = {299-306}
}
Sharma DK, Saini HS, Singh M, Chimni SS, Chadha BS Isolation and characterization of microorganisms capable of decolorizing various triphenylmethane dyes. 2004 J Basic Microbiol.
Vol. 44(1), pp. 59-65 
article  
Abstract: Various soil and sludge samples collected from the vicinity of textile dyeing industries and waste disposal sites were used for enrichment of microbial population in the presence of triphenylmethane (TPM) dye Acid Violet-17 (AV-17). Twenty-five (25) isolates were screened for their ability to decolorize AV-17 dye added at a rate of 10 mgl(-1) in mineral salts medium (MSM) agar plates. Five bacterial isolates belonging to Bacillus sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Aeromonas sp. were selected on the basis of their higher decolorization ability and were used to develop a bacterial consortium. The consortium was able to efficiently decolorize various TPM dyes viz. Acid Violet-17 (86%), Acid Blue-15 (85%), Crystal Violet (82%), Malachite Green (82%) and Brilliant Green (85%). The consortium will be further used for designing efficient and cost effective treatment system for effluents of textile processing industries (TPI).
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaDK2004,
  author = {Sharma DK, Saini HS, Singh M, Chimni SS, Chadha BS},
  title = {Isolation and characterization of microorganisms capable of decolorizing various triphenylmethane dyes.},
  journal = {J Basic Microbiol.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {44(1)},
  pages = {59-65}
}
Sharma OP, Bangar KS, Jain R, Sharma PK Heavy metals accumulation in soils irrigated by municipal and industrial effluent. 2004 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 46(1), pp. 65-73 
article  
Abstract: Four soil profiles have been exposed in municipal, industrial effluents and municipal wastes mixed with industrial wastes (mixed effluent) and tube well irrigated areas of Indore district of Madhya Pradesh. Soil samples were collected horizon wise and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon, CaCO3, clay content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and heavy metals content viz. Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co and Pb. Results showed all the heavy metals content decreased with increase in depth of soil profile. Municipal wastes / untreated sewage affected soil of Bhangarh village depicted highest content of heavy metals. The order of percentage availability of different heavy metals irrespective of the sources of irrigation is Pb>Co>Cr>Cd. However, continuous application of sewage indicated higher accumulation of heavy metals although the rate of accumulation was faster in case of industrial effluent within 2 years of irrigation. Organic carbon content had significant positive correlation with heavy metals except Cu and Zn, and negative correlation with pH and CaCO3. ESP had a negative correlation with all the metals. Zn, Mn, Cd and Co indicated significant negative correlation with the CEC of the soil. Inter-metallic correlation indicates a significant positive correlation in between Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Pb and among themselves.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaOP2004,
  author = {Sharma OP, Bangar KS, Jain R, Sharma PK},
  title = {Heavy metals accumulation in soils irrigated by municipal and industrial effluent.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {46(1)},
  pages = {65-73}
}
Sharma YC, Srivastava V, Singh VK, Kaul SN, Weng CH Nano-adsorbents for the removal of metallic pollutants from water and wastewater. 2009 Environ Technol.
Vol. 30(6), pp. 583-609 
article DOI  
Abstract: Of the variety of adsorbents available for the removal of heavy and toxic metals, activated carbon has been the most popular. A number of minerals, clays and waste materials have been regularly used for the removal of metallic pollutants from water and industrial effluents. Recently there has been emphasis on the application of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials as efficient and viable alternatives to activated carbon. Carbon nanotubes also have been proved effective alternatives for the removal of metallic pollutants from aqueous solutions. Because of their importance from an environmental viewpoint, special emphasis has been given to the removal of the metals Cr, Cd, Hg, Zn, As, and Cu. Separation of the used nanoparticles from aqueous solutions and the health aspects of the separated nanoparticles have also been discussed. A significant number of the latest articles have been critically scanned for the present review to give a vivid picture of these exotic materials for water remediation.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaYC2009,
  author = {Sharma YC, Srivastava V, Singh VK, Kaul SN, Weng CH},
  title = {Nano-adsorbents for the removal of metallic pollutants from water and wastewater.},
  journal = {Environ Technol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(6)},
  pages = {583-609},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330902838080}
}
Shivkumar K, Biksham G Statistical approach for the assessment of water pollution around industrial areas: A case study from Patancheru, Medak district, India. 1995 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 36(3), pp. 229-49 
article DOI  
Abstract: Industrial effluents, surface waters, and subsurface groundwaters were sampled in and around the Patancheru industrial area of Nakkavagu basin, India and analysed. The parameters such as TDS, BOD, COD, and abundances of elements such as Cu, As, Se, F, Fe, are 5 to 10 times more than the permissible limits. These pollutants are contaminating the groundwaters at a faster rate than anticipated. A statistical approach is used to express the magnitude of pollution. Initially, correlation matrices of the major parameters and trace elements followed by factor analysis on them are presented to quantify the aspect of pollution. Factor 1 explaining 43.6% variance has positive loadings for variables TDS, BOD, COD, As, Cu, Se, SO 4 (-2) , and Cr, suggesting the factor is interpreted to be the 'Pollution or Migration of Pollutants'. The same variables have negative loadings in the subsurface groundwaters suggesting that Factor 1 for these samples is a 'the depositionn or precipitation' phenomenon. With a critical look at the Factor 1 of both surface and subsurface water samples it is indicated that pollutants migrated and became deposited in the environs of the Patancheru industrial area.
BibTeX:
@article{ShivkumarK1995,
  author = {Shivkumar K, Biksham G},
  title = {Statistical approach for the assessment of water pollution around industrial areas: A case study from Patancheru, Medak district, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {36(3)},
  pages = {229-49},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00547904}
}
Shroff P, Vashi RT Performance evaluation of the Common Effluent Treatment Plant at Vapi (Gujarat, India). 2011 J Environ Sci Eng., pp. 195-8  article  
Abstract: Small scale industries cannot afford to treat their effluents individually, so they adopt Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) for the same. To evaluate the performance of the CETP at Vapi industrial area of South Gujarat (India), effluent samples were collected from inlet of CETP, after primary treatment and after secondary treatment for assessing various parameters like pH, color, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), phenol, chloride and metals like copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn). It was observed that COD is reduced by 69%, BOD by 78%, color by 35% and TSS by 58% in secondary treatment.
BibTeX:
@article{ShroffP2011,
  author = {Shroff P, Vashi RT.},
  title = {Performance evaluation of the Common Effluent Treatment Plant at Vapi (Gujarat, India).},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {195-8}
}
Singh G, Bhati M Mineral toxicity and physiological functions in tree seedlings irrigated with effluents of varying chemistry in sandy soil of dry region. 2003 J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev.
Vol. 21(1), pp. 45-63 
article  
Abstract: Effluents namely canal water as control (T1); municipal effluent (T2); textile effluent (T3); steel effluent (T4); textile + municipal effluent in 1:1 ratio (T5); steel + municipal effluent in 1:2 ratio (T6); steel + municipal + textile in 1:2:2 ratio (T7); and steel + textile in 1:2 ratio (T8) were added to the seedlings of Acacia nilotica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The aim was to monitor the toxic effect of the accumulated mineral ions on the physiological functions and ultimately to utilize these effluents in tree plantation. Foliage mineral concentration, leaf water potential (LWP), rate of photosynthesis (Pn), rate of transpiration (T) and stomatal conductance (g) were recorded. Mineral accumulation increased in the seedlings of T2 treatment. However, the accumulation of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn was the highest (p<0.001) in the seedlings of T4, T6, T7, and T8 treatments affecting N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Na concentration. The seedlings of T3 treatment had less Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn and medium N, Ca, and P concentration, which were negatively correlated with Na concentration in foliage and the amount added through effluent irrigation. Concentration of N, K, Ca, Mg, and Na was higher in the foliage of A. nilotica whereas P, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were high in E. camaldulensis. Early two months data showed reduction (p<0.01) in Pn (87%), T (81%), g (67%), and LWP as a result of metal stresses (toxicity) in T6, T7, and T8 seedlings. E. camaldulensis maintained high LWP and Pn and low T and g compared to A. nilotica. High LWP in the seedlings of T2 was associated (p<0.05) high Pn, T, and g. However, these physiological parameters lowered in the seedlings of T3 and T5. Seedlings of T1, T2, and T5 maintained high LWP, Pn, T, and g throughout the experimental period. These parameters however, decreased (p<0.01) in the seedlings of T3 treatment subsequently through Na induced deficiency of Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. The enhanced physiological functions in T5 treatment were probably the result of ameliorative effect of municipal effluent through increased mineral status. The study suggests that excess accumulation of Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn leads to metal toxicity that adversely affects physiology of the tree seedlings. Mixing of effluents and/or removal of excess would ameliorate these toxic effects and could be the better management practices for their use in tree irrigation.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghG2003,
  author = {Singh G, Bhati M},
  title = {Mineral toxicity and physiological functions in tree seedlings irrigated with effluents of varying chemistry in sandy soil of dry region.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {21(1)},
  pages = {45-63}
}
Singh KP, Basant N, Malik A, Jain G Modeling the performance of "up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket" reactor based wastewater treatment plant using linear and nonlinear approaches--a case study. 2010 Anal Chim Acta.
Vol. 658(1), pp. 1-11 
article DOI  
Abstract: The paper describes linear and nonlinear modeling of the wastewater data for the performance evaluation of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Partial least squares regression (PLSR), multivariate polynomial regression (MPR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling methods were applied to predict the levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the UASB reactor effluents using four input variables measured weekly in the influent wastewater during the peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours over a period of 48 weeks. The performance of the models was assessed through the root mean squared error (RMSE), relative error of prediction in percentage (REP), the bias, the standard error of prediction (SEP), the coefficient of determination (R(2)), the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E(f)), and the accuracy factor (A(f)), computed from the measured and model predicted values of the dependent variables (BOD, COD) in the WWTP effluents. Goodness of the model fit to the data was also evaluated through the relationship between the residuals and the model predicted values of BOD and COD. Although, the model predicted values of BOD and COD by all the three modeling approaches (PLSR, MPR, ANN) were in good agreement with their respective measured values in the WWTP effluents, the nonlinear models (MPR, ANNs) performed relatively better than the linear ones. These models can be used as a tool for the performance evaluation of the WWTPs.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghKP2010,
  author = {Singh KP, Basant N, Malik A, Jain G},
  title = {Modeling the performance of "up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket" reactor based wastewater treatment plant using linear and nonlinear approaches--a case study.},
  journal = {Anal Chim Acta.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {658(1)},
  pages = {1-11},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2009.11.001}
}
Singh R, Bishnoi NR, Kirrolia A, Kumar R Synergism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Fe0 for treatment of heavy metal contaminated effluents using small scale laboratory reactor. 2013 Bioresour Technol., pp. 49-58  article DOI  
Abstract: In this study Pseudomonas aeruginosa a metal tolerant strain was not only applied for heavy metal removal but also to the solublization performance of the precipitated metal ions during effluent treatment. The synergistic effect of the isolate and Fe(0) enhanced the metal removal potential to 72.97% and 87.63% for Cr(VI) and cadmium, respectively. The decrease in cadmium ion removal to 43.65% (aeration+stirring reactors), 21.33% (aerated reactors), and 18.95% (without aerated+without stirring) with an increase in incubation period not only indicate the presence of soluble less toxic complexes, but also help in exploration of the balancing potential for valuable metal recovery. A relatively best fit and significant values of the correlation coefficient 0.912, 0.959, and 0.9314 for mixed effluent (Paint Industry effluent+CETP Wazirpur, effluent), CETP, Wazirpur, and control effluents, respectively, indicating first-order formulation and provide a reasonable description of COD kinetic data.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghR2013,
  author = {Singh R, Bishnoi NR, Kirrolia A, Kumar R.},
  title = {Synergism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Fe0 for treatment of heavy metal contaminated effluents using small scale laboratory reactor.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {49-58},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.056}
}
Singh RP, Agrawal M Variations in heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield of rice plants grown at different sewage sludge amendment rates. 2010 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 73(4), pp. 632-41 
article DOI  
Abstract: Use of sewage sludge in agriculture is an alternative disposal technique for this waste. The present field study was conducted to assess the suitability of sewage sludge amendment in soil for rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Pusa sugandha 3) by evaluating the heavy metal accumulation, growth, biomass and yield responses of plants grown at 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, 12 kgm(-2) sewage sludge amendment (SSA) rate. Sewage sludge amendment modified the physico-chemical properties of soil, thus increasing the availability of heavy metals in soil and consequently with higher accumulation in plant parts. Root length decreased, whereas shoot length, number of leaves, leaf area and total biomass increased significantly when grown under various SSA rates. Yield of rice increased by 60%, 111%, 125%, 134% and 137% at 3, 4.5, 6, 9 and 12 kgm(-2) SSA, respectively, as compared to those grown in unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment rates above 4.5 kgm(-2) though increased the yield of rice, but caused risk of food chain contamination as concentrations of Ni and Cd in rice grains were found to be above the Indian safe limits (1.5 mgkg(-1)) of human consumption above 4.5 kgm(-2) SSA and of Pb (2.5 mgkg(-1)) above 6 kgm(-2) SSA. Since aboveground parts of the rice also showed higher concentration than the permissible levels of Ni, Cd and Pb at 4.5 kgm(-2) SSA rate, it cannot be used as fodder. The rice husk may be used as bioresource for energy production. Efforts should be made to treat the effluents from small scale industries before discharge into the sewerage system.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghRP2010,
  author = {Singh RP, Agrawal M},
  title = {Variations in heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield of rice plants grown at different sewage sludge amendment rates.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {73(4)},
  pages = {632-41},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.01.020}
}
Singh S, Kumar M Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in peri-urban Delhi. 2006 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 79-91, pp. 120(1-3) 
article  
Abstract: Peri-urban lands are often used for production of vegetables for better market accessibility and higher prices. But most of these lands are contaminated with heavy metals through industrial effluents, sewage and sludge, and vehicular emission. Vegetables grown in such lands, therefore, are likely to be contaminated with heavy metals and unsafe for consumption. Samples of vegetables i.e., spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.); soil and irrigation water were collected from 5 peri-urban sites of New Delhi to monitor their heavy metal loads. While heavy metal load of the soils were below the maximum allowable limit prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO), it was higher in irrigation water and vegetable samples. The spinach and okra samples showed Zn, Pb and Cd levels higher than the WHO limits. The levels of Cu, however, were at their safe limits. Metal contamination was higher in spinach than in okra. Spatial variability of metal contamination was also observed in the study. Bio-availability of metals present in soil showed a positive relationship with their total content and organic matter content of soil but no relationship was observed with soil pH. Washing of vegetables with clean water was a very effective and easy way of decontaminating the metal pollution as it reduced the contamination by 75 to 100%.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghS2006,
  author = {Singh S, Kumar M},
  title = {Heavy metal load of soil, water and vegetables in peri-urban Delhi.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {79-91},
  pages = {120(1-3)}
}
Singh SP, Ma LQ, Hendry MJ Characterization of aqueous lead removal by phosphatic clay: equilibrium and kinetic studies. 2006 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 136(3), pp. 654-62 
article  
Abstract: Immobilization of heavy metals from contaminated environments is an emerging field of interest from both resource conservation and environmental remediation points of view. This study investigated the feasibility of using phosphatic clay, a waste by-product of the phosphate mining industry, as an effective sorbent for Pb from aqueous effluents. The major parameters controlling aqueous Pb removal, viz. initial metal ion concentrations, solution pH, sorbent amounts, ionic strength and presence of both inorganic and organic ligands were evaluated using batch experiments. Results demonstrated that aqueous Pb removal efficiency of phosphatic clay is controlled mainly by dissolution of phosphatic clay associated fluoroapatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(5)CaCO(3)(F,Cl,OH)(2)], followed by subsequent precipitation of geochemically stable pyromorphite [Pb(10)(PO(4))(6)(F,Cl,OH)(2)], which was confirmed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Lead removal efficiency of phosphatic clay increased with increasing pH, sorbent amount and decreasing ionic strength. It also depends on the nature of complexing ligands. Formation of insoluble calcium oxalate and lead oxalate in the presence of oxalic acid explained high uptake of Pb by phosphatic clay from aqueous solution. However, Pb sorption kinetics onto phosphatic clay were biphasic, with initially fast reactions followed by slow and continuous Pb removal reactions. The slow reactions may include surface sorption, co-precipitation and diffusion. The exceptional capability of phosphatic clay to remove aqueous Pb demonstrated its potential as a cost effective way to remediate Pb-contaminated water, soils and sediments.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghSP2006,
  author = {Singh SP, Ma LQ, Hendry MJ},
  title = {Characterization of aqueous lead removal by phosphatic clay: equilibrium and kinetic studies.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {136(3)},
  pages = {654-62}
}
Singh V, Singh Chandel CP Analytical study of heavy metals of industrial effluents at Jaipur, Rajasthan (India). 2006 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 48(2), pp. 103-8 
article  
Abstract: Heavy metals contamination has been recognized as a major environmental concern due to their pervasiveness and persistence. These heavy metals are not biodegradable, hence there is a need to develop such a remediation technique, which should be efficient, economical and rapidly deployable in a wide range of physical settings. For the characterization of heavy metals of various industrial effluents, some heavy metals, like Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Nickel, Lead and Zinc were analyzed. The results exhibited that As, Cd, Cr and Pb were not found in any studied wastewater samples, while some of the following heavy metals ranged from: Cu (0.0 - 1.0 mg/L), Fe (0.1 - 0.4 mg/L), Mn (0.0 - 0.4 mg/L), Ni (0.01 - 0.07 mg/L) and Zn (0.68 - 60.84 mg/L). Copper, Iron, Manganese and Zinc were found above the standard limit recommended by IS: 3307 (1977). However, Nickel was found below the regulated safety values for all studied samples.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghV2006,
  author = {Singh V, Singh Chandel CP},
  title = {Analytical study of heavy metals of industrial effluents at Jaipur, Rajasthan (India).},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {48(2)},
  pages = {103-8}
}
Singha B, Das SK Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using natural biosorbents 2012 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int., pp. 2212-26  article DOI  
Abstract: The purpose of the research is to investigate the applicability of the low-cost natural biosorbents for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution and effluent from battery industry.
METHODS:
Six different biosorbents namely rice straw, rice bran, rice husk, coconut shell, neem leaves, and hyacinth roots have been used for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution in batch process. All the biosorbents were collected from local area near Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The removal efficiency was determined in batch experiments for each biosorbent.
RESULTS:
The biosorbents were characterized by SEM, FTIR, surface area, and point of zero charge. The sorption kinetic data was best described by pseudo-second-order model for all the biosorbents except rice husk which followed intraparticle diffusion model. Pb(II) ions adsorption process for rice straw, rice bran, and hyacinth roots were governed predominately by film diffusion, but in the case of rice husk, it was intraparticle diffusion. Film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion were equally responsible for the biosorption process onto coconut shell and neem leaves. The values of mass transfer coefficient indicated that the velocity of the adsorbate transport from the bulk to the solid phase was quite fast for all cases. Maximum monolayer sorption capacities onto the six natural sorbents studied were estimated from the Langmuir sorption model and compared with other natural sorbents used by other researchers. The Elovich model, the calculated values of effective diffusivity, and the sorption energy calculated by using the Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm were indicated that the sorption process was chemical in nature. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption processes were endothermic. FTIR studies were carried out to understand the type of functional groups responsible for Pb(II) ions binding process. Regeneration of biosorbents were carried out by desorption studies using HNO3. Battery industry effluents were used for the application study to investigate applicability of the biosorbents.
CONCLUSION:
The biosorbents can be utilized as low-cost sorbents for the removal of Pb(II) ions from wastewater.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghaB2012,
  author = {Singha B, Das SK.},
  title = {Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using natural biosorbents},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {2212-26},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/.1007/s11356-011-0725-8}
}
Singhal V, Rai JP Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents. 2003 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 86(3), pp. 221-5 
article  
Abstract: The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from wastewater for their metabolic use. Slurry of the two plants used for phytoremediation produced significantly more biogas than that produced by the plants grown in deionized water; the effect being more marked with plants used for phytoremediation of 20% pulp and paper mill effluent. Biogas production from channel grass was relatively greater and quicker (maximum in 6-9 days) than that from water hyacinth (in 9-12 days). Such variation in biogas production by the two macrophytes has been correlated with the changes in C, N and C/N ratio of their slurry brought by phytoremediation.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghalV2003,
  author = {Singhal V, Rai JP},
  title = {Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {86(3)},
  pages = {221-5}
}
Sridhar R, Sivakumar V, Prince Immanuel V, Prakash Maran J Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process. 2011 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 186(2-3), pp. 1495-502 
article DOI  
Abstract: The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m(3) depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm(2) current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28°C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m(3). The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.
BibTeX:
@article{SridharR2011,
  author = {Sridhar R, Sivakumar V, Prince Immanuel V, Prakash Maran J},
  title = {Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {186(2-3)},
  pages = {1495-502},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.028}
}
Srinath T, Khare S, Ramteke PW Isolation of hexavalent chromium-reducing Cr-tolerant facultative anaerobes from tannery effluent. 2001 J Gen Appl Microbiol.
Vol. 47(6), pp. 307-312 
article  
Abstract: Several facultative anaerobes tolerant to high levels of chromate (>400 mg/ml) were isolated from tannery effluents. These isolates displayed varying degrees of Cr(VI) reduction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at room temperature (24+/-2 degrees C). Interestingly, eight isolates were efficient in reducing 70% Cr(VI) anaerobically. This includes 5 isolates of genus Aerococcus, two isolates of Micrococcus and single isolate of genus Aeromonas. These isolates were subjected to further characterization for possible use in Cr(VI) detoxification of industrial wastes. This is the first report of Aerococcus sp. capable of Cr(VI) reduction >70% anaerobically. These bacteria were further checked for tolerance to a variety of other heavy metals. Our study indicates the possible use of these bacteria in environmental clean up.
BibTeX:
@article{SrinathT2001,
  author = {Srinath T, Khare S, Ramteke PW},
  title = {Isolation of hexavalent chromium-reducing Cr-tolerant facultative anaerobes from tannery effluent.},
  journal = {J Gen Appl Microbiol.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {47(6)},
  pages = {307-312}
}
Srinath T, Verma T, Ramteke PW, Garg SK Chromium (VI) biosorption and bioaccumulation by chromate resistant bacteria. 2002 Chemosphere.
Vol. 48(4), pp. 427-35 
article  
Abstract: In this study, strains that are capable of bioaccumulating Cr(VI) were isolated from treated tannery effluent of a common effluent treatment plant. The Cr(VI) concentration in this treated effluent was 0.96 mg/l, much above the statutory limit of 0.1 mg/l for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters in India. In addition to the bioaccumulation, biosorption capabilities of living and dead cells were analysed. Two strains, identified as Bacillus circulans and Bacillus megaterium were able to bioaccumulate 34.5 and 32.0 mg Cr/g dry weight, respectively and brought the residual concentration of Cr(VI) to the permissible limit in 24 h when the initial concentration was 50 mg Cr(VI)/l. Our experimental design accounts for initial as well as final residual concentration of heavy metal while selecting heavy metal accumulating strains during batch studies. Biosorption of Cr(VI) was shown by B. megaterium and an another strain, B. coagulans. Living and dead cells of B. coagulans biosorbed 23.8 and 39.9 mg Cr/g dry weight, respectively, whereas, 15.7 and 30.7 mg Cr/g dry weight was biosorbed by living and dead cells of B. megaterium, respectively. Biosorption by the dead cells was higher than the living cells. This was due to prior pH conditioning (pH 2.5 with deionized water acidified with H2SO4) of the dead cells.
BibTeX:
@article{SrinathT2002,
  author = {Srinath T, Verma T, Ramteke PW, Garg SK},
  title = {Chromium (VI) biosorption and bioaccumulation by chromate resistant bacteria.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {48(4)},
  pages = {427-35}
}
Srivastava S, Ahmad AH, Thakur IS Removal of chromium and pentachlorophenol from tannery effluents. 2007 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 98(5), pp. 1128-32 
article  
Abstract: Three bacterial strains, including one Acinetobacter sp. PCP3, grown in the presence of minimal salt medium and pentachlorophenol (PCP) as sole carbon source in the chemostat showed higher utilization of PCP and adsorption of chromium. In sequential bioreactor, tannery effluents treated initially by bacterial consortium followed by fungus removed 90% and 67% chromium and PCP respectively, whereas in another set of bioreactor in which effluents was treated initially by fungi followed by bacteria could remove 64.7% and 58% chromium and PCP, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaS2007,
  author = {Srivastava S, Ahmad AH, Thakur IS},
  title = {Removal of chromium and pentachlorophenol from tannery effluents.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {98(5)},
  pages = {1128-32}
}
Sudha B, Veeramani H, Sumathi S Bleaching of bagasse pulp with enzyme pre-treatment. 2003 Water Sci Technol.
Vol. 47(10), pp. 163-8 
article  
Abstract: The effluent from pulp bleaching processes containing chlorinated lignin and degraded polyphenolic intermediates remains as a major source of water pollution from the pulp and paper industries. Alternative elemental chlorine free bleaching methods based on the usage of chlorine dioxide, ozone and hydrogen peroxide are potential substitutes. Bio-bleaching methods, which involve pre-treatment of pulp with microbial enzymes such as xylanases, have emerged as viable options. Investigations reported in this paper aim at exploring the suitability of commercial bacterial xylanase enzyme preparations for bio-bleaching of bagasse pulps in conjunction with specific chemical bleach sequences employing hydrogen peroxide (P), alkali extraction (E), ozonation (Z), hypochlorite (H) and chelation (Q) stages. The effluent profiles and pulp qualities obtained for each of the bleach combinations (involving bio-bleaching and chemical bleaching sequences) were monitored. Analysis of the results clearly indicates that the inclusion of enzyme pre-treatment with the TCF (total chlorine free) and ECF (elemental chlorine free) sequences has a significant effect on the effluent (COD, lignin and colour) and pulp quality (kappa number, brightness) parameters. In conclusion, the findings of this investigation indicate the potential promise of enzyme pre-treatment in combination with chemical bleaching to enhance the quality of pulps and combined effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{SudhaB2003,
  author = {Sudha B, Veeramani H, Sumathi S},
  title = {Bleaching of bagasse pulp with enzyme pre-treatment.},
  journal = {Water Sci Technol.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {47(10)},
  pages = {163-8}
}
Sukumar M, Sivasamy A, Swaminathan G Decolorization of textile dye effluent by genetically improved bacterial strains. 2007 Appl Biochem Biotechnol.
Vol. 136(1), pp. 53-62 
article  
Abstract: Synthetic dyes are released into the environment from textile industrial effluents. The discharge of this colored wastewater into rivers and lakes leads to a reduction in sunlight penetration in natural water bodies, which, in turn, decreases both photosynthetic activity and dissolved oxygen concentration and is toxic to living beings. Bacterial isolates are optimized for growth and biomass production before using them for decolorizing dye effluent. The bacterial isolates Bacillus sp. 1 and Bacillus sp. 2 were employed at different percentages by volume with standard nutrient concentration. Of these bacterial isolates Bacillus sp. 2 recorded maximum color reduction. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were reduced in the decolorized effluent, and a reduction in biologic oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also observed.
BibTeX:
@article{SukumarM2007,
  author = {Sukumar M, Sivasamy A, Swaminathan G},
  title = {Decolorization of textile dye effluent by genetically improved bacterial strains.},
  journal = {Appl Biochem Biotechnol.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {136(1)},
  pages = {53-62}
}
Sundrarajan M, Vishnu G, Joseph K Ozonation of exhausted dark shade reactive dye bath for reuse. 2006 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 48(4), pp. :285-92 
article  
Abstract: Exhausted reactive dye bath of dark shades were collected from cotton knit wear dyeing units in Tirupur. Ozonation was conducted in a column reactor system fed with ozone at the rate of 0.16 g/min to assess its efficiency in reducing the color, chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. The potential of the decolorized dye bath for its repeated reuse was also analyzed. The results from the reusability studies indicate that the dyeing quality was not affected by the reuse of decolorized dye bath for two successive cycles. Complete decolorization of the effluent was achieved in 60 minutes contact time at an ozone consumption of 183 mg/L for Red, 175 for Navy Blue and 192 for Green shades respectively. The corresponding COD removal was 60%, 54% and 63% for the three shades while TOC removal efficiency was 59%, 55% and 62% respectively. It is concluded that ozonation is efficient in decolorization of exhausted dye bath effluents containing conventional reactive dyes. However, the corresponding removal of COD from the textile effluent was not significant.
BibTeX:
@article{SundrarajanM2006,
  author = {Sundrarajan M, Vishnu G, Joseph K},
  title = {Ozonation of exhausted dark shade reactive dye bath for reuse.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {48(4)},
  pages = {:285-92}
}
Sunita M, Mitra CK Photoproduction of hydrogen from sewage by immobilized cells of Chromatium species IA. 1991 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 29(11), pp. 1062-3 
article  
Abstract: Immobilized cells of two Chromatium species produced hydrogen continuously for more than 160 hr in 60% and 80% sewage. One strain showing high optimum range of sulfide tolerance (up to 9 mM) produced more hydrogen in 80% sewage while the less sulfide tolerating strain (up to 6 mM) showed hydrogen photoproduction in 60% sewage. Cells were immobilized in alginate and stable hydrogen photoproduction was observed for more than one week. Appropriate strategy necessary for the treatment of sewage and similar industrial effluents for energy reclamation is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{SunitaM1991,
  author = {Sunita M, Mitra CK},
  title = {Photoproduction of hydrogen from sewage by immobilized cells of Chromatium species IA.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {29(11)},
  pages = {1062-3}
}
Takatsu A, Nishi S Determination of serum cholesterol by stable isotope dilution method using discharge-assisted thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. 1993 Biol Mass Spectrom.
Vol. 22(4), pp. 247-50 
article  
Abstract: A discharge-assisted thermospray (plasmaspray) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric method for the determination of total serum cholesterol is described. The method incorporates stable isotope dilution using (3,4-13C)cholesterol as an internal standard. Liquid chromatographic separation is performed using methanol as a flow solvent and effluents are directly introduced to the mass spectrometer. [MH-H2O]+ ions are monitored during liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using the selected ion monitoring method. Satisfactory agreement between the analytical result and the certified value of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards) standard reference material serum is obtained with a relative standard deviation of 0.6%.
BibTeX:
@article{TakatsuA1993,
  author = {Takatsu A, Nishi S},
  title = {Determination of serum cholesterol by stable isotope dilution method using discharge-assisted thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.},
  journal = {Biol Mass Spectrom.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {22(4)},
  pages = {247-50}
}
Tripathi S, Tripathi BD Efficiency of combined process of ozone and bio-filtration in the treatment of secondary effluent. 2011 Bioresour Technol., pp. 6850-6  article DOI  
Abstract: The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of the combined process of biofiltration with ozonation to improve the quality of secondary effluent. The secondary effluent from the Dinapur Sewage Treatment Plant Varanasi, India was used in this work. The process of biofiltration with the plant species of Eichornia crassipes and Lemna minor, at a flow rate of 262 ml min(-1) and plant density of 30 mg L(-1) for 48 h, in combination with the process of ozonation with ozone dose of 10 mg L(-1) and contact time of 5 min was applied. Results revealed that combined process was statistically most suitable for the highest degradation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters with improving BDOC value.
BibTeX:
@article{TripathiS2011,
  author = {Tripathi S, Tripathi BD},
  title = {Efficiency of combined process of ozone and bio-filtration in the treatment of secondary effluent.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {6850-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.04.035}
}
Vaghela SS, Jethva AD, Mehta BB, Dave SP, Adimurthy S, Ramachandraiah G Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent. 2005 Environ Sci Technol.
Vol. 39(8), pp. 2848-55 
article  
Abstract: Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions.
BibTeX:
@article{VaghelaSS2005,
  author = {Vaghela SS, Jethva AD, Mehta BB, Dave SP, Adimurthy S, Ramachandraiah G},
  title = {Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Technol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39(8)},
  pages = {2848-55}
}
Verma AK, Raghukumar C, Naik CG A novel hybrid technology for remediation of molasses-based raw effluents. 2011 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 102(3), pp. 2411-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: A novel three-step technology for treatment of four molasses-based raw industrial effluents, varying in their COD, color and turbidity is reported here. Sequential steps involved in this treatment are; (1) sonication of the effluents, (2) whole-fungal treatment of these by a ligninolytic marine fungus and (3) biosorption of the residual color with heat-inactivated biomass of the same fungus. Sonication reduced the foul odor and turbidity of the effluents. It increased biodegradability of the effluents in the second stage of treatment. Laccase production in the presence of all the four effluents was directly correlated with their decolorization. After the third step, a reduction of 60-80% in color, 50-70% in COD and 60-70% in total phenolics were achieved. Comparative mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated increasing degradation of the effluent components after each stage. Toxicity (LC(50) values) against Artemia larvae was reduced by two to five folds.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaAK2011,
  author = {Verma AK, Raghukumar C, Naik CG},
  title = {A novel hybrid technology for remediation of molasses-based raw effluents.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {102(3)},
  pages = {2411-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.112}
}
Verma AK, Raghukumar C, Verma P, Shouche YS, Naik CG Four marine-derived fungi for bioremediation of raw textile mill effluents. 2010 Biodegradation.
Vol. 21(2), pp. 217-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: Textile dye effluents pose environmental hazards because of color and toxicity. Bioremediation of these has been widely attempted. However, their widely differing characteristics and high salt contents have required application of different microorganisms and high dilutions. We report here decolorization and detoxification of two raw textile effluents, with extreme variations in their pH and dye composition, used at 20-90% concentrations by each of the four marine-derived fungi. Textile effluent A (TEA) contained an azo dye and had a pH of 8.9 and textile effluent B (TEB) with a pH of 2.5 contained a mixture of eight reactive dyes. The fungi isolated from mangroves and identified by 18S and ITS sequencing corresponded to two ascomycetes and two basidiomycetes. Each of these fungi decolorized TEA by 30-60% and TEB by 33-80% used at 20-90% concentrations and salinity of 15 ppt within 6 days. This was accompanied by two to threefold reduction in toxicity as measured by LC(50) values against Artemia larvae and 70-80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand and total phenolics. Mass spectrometric scan of effluents after fungal treatment revealed degradation of most of the components. The ascomycetes appeared to remove color primarily by adsorption, whereas laccase played a major role in decolorization by basidiomycetes. A process consisting of a combination of sorption by fungal biomass of an ascomycete and biodegradation by laccase from a basidiomycete was used in two separate steps or simultaneously for bioremediation of these two effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaAK2010,
  author = {Verma AK, Raghukumar C, Verma P, Shouche YS, Naik CG},
  title = {Four marine-derived fungi for bioremediation of raw textile mill effluents.},
  journal = {Biodegradation.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {21(2)},
  pages = {217-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-009-9295-6}
}
Verma BC, Datta SP, Rattan RK, Singh AK Labile and stabilised fractions of soil organic carbon in some intensively cultivated alluvial soils. 2013 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 34(4), pp. 1069-75 
article  
Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken in view of the limited information on the relative proportion of labile and stabilized fractions of soil organic carbon (SOC) in intensively cultivated lands, particularly under tropics. The specific objectives were i) to study the comparative recovery of SOC by different methods of labile carbon estimation under intensively cultivated lands and ii) to evaluate the impact of agricultural practices on carbon management index. For this purpose, in all, 105 surface soil samples were collected from intensively cultivated tube well and sewage irrigated agricultural lands. These samples were analysed for total as well as labile pools of SOC. Results indicated that Walkley and Black, KMnO4-oxidizable and microbial biomass carbon constituted the total SOC to the extent of 10.2 to 47.4, 1.66 to 23.2 and 0.30 to 5.49%, respectively with the corresponding mean values of 26.2, 9.16 and 2.15%. Lability of SOC was considerably higher in sewage irrigated soils than tube well irrigated soils under intensive cropping. Under soybean-wheat, the higher values of carbon management index (CMI) (279 and 286) were associated with the treatments where entire amount of nitrogen was supplied through FYM. Similar results were obtained under rice-wheat, whereas in case of maize-wheat the highest value of CMI was recorded under treatment receiving NPK through chemical fertilizer along with green manure. There was also a significant improvement in CMI under integrated (chemical fertilizer + organics) and chemical fertilizer-treated plots. The values of CMI ranged from 220 to 272 under cultivated lands receiving irrigation through sewage and industrial effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaBC2013,
  author = {Verma BC, Datta SP, Rattan RK, Singh AK},
  title = {Labile and stabilised fractions of soil organic carbon in some intensively cultivated alluvial soils.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {34(4)},
  pages = {1069-75}
}
Vijayaraghavan K, Palanivelu K, Velan M Crab shell-based biosorption technology for the treatment of nickel-bearing electroplating industrial effluents. 2005 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 119(1-3), pp. 251-4 
article  
Abstract: This paper discusses the possible application of a biosorption system with acid-washed crab shells in a packed bed up-flow column for the removal of nickel from electroplating industrial effluents. Between two nickel-bearing effluents, effluent-1 is characterized by considerable amount of light metals along with trace amounts of lead and copper. Effluent-2 is characterized by relatively low conductivity, total dissolved solids and total hardness compared to effluent-1. Crab shells exhibited uptakes of 15.08 and 20.04 mg Ni/g from effluent-1 and effluent-2, respectively. The crab shell bed was regenerated using 0.01 M EDTA (pH 9.8, aq. NH3) and reused for seven sorption-desorption cycles. The EDTA elution provided elution efficiencies up to 99% in all the seven cycles. This, together with the data from regeneration efficiencies for seven cycles, provided evidence that the reusability of crab shell in the treatment of nickel-bearing electroplating industrial effluents is viable.
BibTeX:
@article{VijayaraghavanK2005,
  author = {Vijayaraghavan K, Palanivelu K, Velan M},
  title = {Crab shell-based biosorption technology for the treatment of nickel-bearing electroplating industrial effluents.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {119(1-3)},
  pages = {251-4}
}
Vijayaraghavan K, Yun YS Bacterial biosorbents and biosorption. 2008 Biotechnol Adv.
Vol. 26(3), pp. 266-91 
article DOI  
Abstract: Biosorption is a technique that can be used for the removal of pollutants from waters, especially those that are not easily biodegradable such as metals and dyes. A variety of biomaterials are known to bind these pollutants, including bacteria, fungi, algae, and industrial and agricultural wastes. In this review, the biosorption abilities of bacterial biomass towards dyes and metal ions are emphasized. The properties of the cell wall constituents, such as peptidoglycan, and the role of functional groups, such as carboxyl, amine and phosphonate, are discussed on the basis of their biosorption potentials. The binding mechanisms, as well as the parameters influencing the passive uptake of pollutants, are analyzed. A detailed description of isotherm and kinetic models and the importance of mechanistic modeling are presented. A systematic comparison of literature, based on the metal/dye binding capacity of bacterial biomass under different conditions, is also provided. To enhance biosorption capacity, biomass modifications through chemical methods and genetic engineering are discussed. The problems associated with microbial biosorption are analyzed, and suitable remedies discussed. For the continuous treatment of effluents, an up-flow packed column configuration is suggested and the factors influencing its performance are discussed. The present review also highlights the necessity for the examination of biosorbents within real situations, as competition between solutes and water quality may affect the biosorption performance. Thus, this article reviews the achievements and current status of biosorption technology, and hopes to provide insights into this research frontier.
BibTeX:
@article{VijayaraghavanK2008,
  author = {Vijayaraghavan K, Yun YS},
  title = {Bacterial biosorbents and biosorption.},
  journal = {Biotechnol Adv.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {26(3)},
  pages = {266-91},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2008.02.002}
}
Sharma VK Oxidation of inorganic contaminants by ferrates (VI, V, and IV)--kinetics and mechanisms: a review. 2011 J Environ Manage.
Vol. 92(4), pp. 1051-73 
article DOI  
Abstract: Inorganic contaminants are found in water, wastewaters, and industrial effluents and their oxidation using iron based oxidants is of great interest because such oxidants possess multi-functional properties and are environmentally benign. This review makes a critical assessment of the kinetics and mechanisms of oxidation reactions by ferrates (Fe(VI)O(4)(2-), Fe(V)O(4)(3-), and Fe(IV)). The rate constants (k, M(-1) s(-1)) for a series of inorganic compounds by ferrates are correlated with thermodynamic oxidation potentials. Correlations agree with the mechanisms of oxidation involving both one-electron and two-electron transfer processes to yield intermediates and products of the reactions. Case studies are presented which demonstrate that inorganic contaminants can be degraded in seconds to minutes by ferrate(VI) with the formation of non-toxic products.
BibTeX:
@article{VK2011,
  author = {Sharma VK},
  title = {Oxidation of inorganic contaminants by ferrates (VI, V, and IV)--kinetics and mechanisms: a review.},
  journal = {J Environ Manage.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {92(4)},
  pages = {1051-73},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.11.026}
}
Sharma VK Oxidation of nitrogen-containing pollutants by novel ferrate (VI) technology: a review. 2010 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 45(6), pp. 645-67 
article DOI  
Abstract: Nitrogen-containing pollutants have been found in surface waters and industrial wastewaters due to their presence in pesticides, dyes, proteins, and humic substances. Treatment of these compounds by conventional oxidants produces disinfection by-products (DBP). Ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O(4)(2-), Fe(VI)) is a strong oxidizing agent and produces a non-toxic by-product Fe(III), which acts as a coagulant. Ferrate(VI) is also an efficient disinfectant and can inactivate chlorine resistant microorganisms. A novel ferrate(VI) technology can thus treat a wide range of pollutants and microorganisms in water and wastewater. The aim of this paper is to review the kinetics and products of the oxidation of nitrogen-containing inorganic (ammonia, hydroxylamine, hydrazine, and azide) and organic (amines, amino acids, anilines, sulfonamides, macrolides, and dyes) compounds by ferrate(VI) in order to demonstrate the feasibility of ferrate(VI) treatment of polluted waters of various origins. Several of the compounds can degraded in seconds to minutes by ferrate(VI) with the formation of non-hazardous products. The mechanism of oxidation involves either one-electron or two-electrons processes to yield oxidation products. Future research directions critical for the implementation of the ferrate(VI)-based technology for wastewater and industrial effluents treatment are recommended.
BibTeX:
@article{VK2010,
  author = {Sharma VK},
  title = {Oxidation of nitrogen-containing pollutants by novel ferrate (VI) technology: a review.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {45(6)},
  pages = {645-67},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934521003648784}
}
Volvoikar SP, Nayak GN Depositional environment and geochemical response of mangrove sediments from creeks of northern Maharashtra coast, India. 2013 Mar Pollut Bull., pp. 223-7  article DOI  
Abstract: Present study provides results of trace metal distribution in mangrove sediment cores collected from macro-tidal Khonda and Dudh creeks of Northern Maharashtra coast, India. Most of the metals showed significant higher addition in Dudh creek (core DC) as compared to Khonda creek (core KC). However, Khonda creek sediments did show anthropogenic enrichment of Mn, Zn and Ni, while Dudh creek sediments showed anthropogenic enrichment of almost all the studied metals. Large difference in metal concentration between the two creeks was attributed to their proximity to industries. The higher Mn, Zn and Ni content in Khonda creek was mainly attributed to addition from domestic and agricultural wastes. While high deterioration of Dudh creek sediments was the outcome of addition from industrial effluents.
BibTeX:
@article{VolvoikarSP2013,
  author = {Volvoikar SP, Nayak GN.},
  title = {Depositional environment and geochemical response of mangrove sediments from creeks of northern Maharashtra coast, India.},
  journal = {Mar Pollut Bull.},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {223-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.12.013}
}
Yadav A, Gopesh A, Pandey RS, Rai DK, Sharma B Acetylcholinesterase: a potential biochemical indicator for biomonitoring of fertilizer industry effluent toxicity in freshwater teleost, Channa striatus. 2009 Ecotoxicology.
Vol. 18(3), pp. 325-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: Monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (EC: 3.1.1.7, AChE) activity has been widely used in aquatic and terrestrial systems as an indicator of pollutant exposure. The reports regarding impact of fertilizer industry effluent on the level of AChE activity are very scanty. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the in vitro impact of fertilizer industry effluent upon the levels of AChE activity and protein content in different tissues of non-target aquatic fish, Channa striatus (Bloch). The fish when exposed to three sublethal concentrations (3.5, 4.7, and 7.0%; v/v) of fertilizer industry effluent for short (96 h) and long (15 days) durations registered sharp reduction in the levels of AChE activity (15-75%) and protein (10-71%) in different fish organs. The highest effluent concentration treatment for short or long duration, the fish brain and gills registered significant (P < 0.001) inhibition (64-75%) in the activity of AChE whereas other organs such as muscles, liver, and heart exhibited slightly lower inhibition (40-59%) in enzyme activity. However, kidney of C. striatus was the only organ where very less effect (14-18%) of the effluent was observed on the activity of AChE when the fish were exposed to all the three concentrations of the effluent for both treatment durations. This effluent also induced alterations in the level of protein in different fish organs; in kidney the effect was pronounced only at higher concentrations at both treatment durations. The most affected organs were muscle and gills where in 60-71% reduction in the protein content was recorded due to highest effluent concentration treatment at short or long durations. The results of present study indicated that the fertilizer industry effluents might significantly influence the neurotransmission system and protein turnover in the non-target organisms after exposure even at very low concentrations. Further, the data suggested that the fish AChE could be used as a potential biochemical marker for fertilizer industry effluent pollution in aquatic systems.
BibTeX:
@article{YadavA2009,
  author = {Yadav A, Gopesh A, Pandey RS, Rai DK, Sharma B},
  title = {Acetylcholinesterase: a potential biochemical indicator for biomonitoring of fertilizer industry effluent toxicity in freshwater teleost, Channa striatus.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicology.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {18(3)},
  pages = {325-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-008-0286-x}
}
Zan NR, Datta SP, Rattan RK, Dwivedi BS, Meena MC Prediction of the solubility of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium, and lead in metal-contaminated soils. 2013 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 185(12), pp. 10015-25 
article DOI  
Abstract: Risk assessment of metal-contaminated soil depends on how precisely one can predict the solubility of metals in soils. Responses of plants and soil organisms to metal toxicity are explained by the variation in free metal ion activity in soil pore water. This study was undertaken to predict the free ion activity of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb in metal-contaminated soil as a function of pH, soil organic carbon, and extractable metal content. For this purpose, 21 surface soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from agricultural lands of various locations receiving sewage sludge and industrial effluents for a long period. One soil sample was also collected from agricultural land which has been under intensive cropping and receiving irrigation through tube well water. Soil samples were varied widely in respect of physicochemical properties including metal content. Total Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb in experimental soils were 2,015 ± 3,373, 236 ± 286, 103 ± 192, 29.8 ± 6.04, and 141 ± 270 mg kg(-1), respectively. Free metal ion activity, viz., pZn(2+), pCu(2+), pNi(2+), pCd(2+), and pPb(2+), as estimated by the Baker soil test was 9.37 ± 1.89, 13.1 ± 1.96, 12.8 ± 1.89, 11.9 ± 2.00, and 11.6 ± 1.52, respectively. Free metal ion activity was predicted by pH-dependent Freundlich equation (solubility model) as a function of pH, organic carbon, and extractable metal. Results indicate that solubility model as a function of pH, Walkley-Black carbon (WBC), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-extractable metals could explain the variation in pZn(2+), pCu(2+), pNi(2+), pCd(2+), and pPb(2+) to the extent of 59, 56, 46, 52, and 51%, respectively. Predictability of the solubility model based on pH, KMnO4-oxidizable carbon, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable or CaCl2-extractable metal was inferior compared to that based on EDTA-extractable metals and WBC.
BibTeX:
@article{ZanNR2013,
  author = {Zan NR, Datta SP, Rattan RK, Dwivedi BS, Meena MC.},
  title = {Prediction of the solubility of zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium, and lead in metal-contaminated soils.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {185(12)},
  pages = {10015-25},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/.1007/s10661-013-3309}
}
Zutshi B, Prasad SG, Nagaraja R Alteration in hematology of Labeo rohita under stress of pollution from Lakes of Bangalore, Karnataka, India. 2010 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 168(1-4), pp. 11-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Blood is an indicator of physiological condition of an animal. Therefore, a field study was conducted to investigate the hematological parameters of wild population of rohu, Labeo rohita (Ham). The following aspects were evaluated in blood: hemoglobin content, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values, and in plasma: cholesterol, protein, and glucose levels. For this purpose, rohu fish of varying sizes and weights were sampled from Hebbal (receiving a storm water drain) and Chowkalli lake (received domestic sewage and industrial effluents from various sources and was more polluted than Hebbal lake). It revealed noticeable differences in hemoglobin content, RBC and WBC count, and PCV and MCHC values. Severe anemia can be marked by a significant decrease in RBC count (p < 0.5), hemoglobin content, and PCV and MCHC values, whereas an increase in leukocyte count and MCV values were observed in fish from Chowkalli lake. Fish from lake B had fewer RBC and low concentration of serum protein and cholesterol. Serum concentration of glucose showed initial higher levels and then low concentration (900-1,500 g) in fish from lake B when compared to lake A. The variation in values of different parameters can be attributed to exposure of fish to various types of pollutants present mainly in the Chowkalli lake which receives heavy metals, synthetic detergents, petroleum products, and other acid and alkali substances from the nearby local industries. Other observations of these fish include dark body color and aggressive nature of fish.
BibTeX:
@article{ZutshiB2010,
  author = {Zutshi B, Prasad SG, Nagaraja R},
  title = {Alteration in hematology of Labeo rohita under stress of pollution from Lakes of Bangalore, Karnataka, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {168(1-4)},
  pages = {11-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1087-2}
}
(Last Updated Upto:2016)