Bibliography : Lead & Health

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Bhattacharya PT, Misra SR, Hussain M Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review. 2016 Scientifica (Cairo).
Vol. 5464373 
article DOI  
Abstract: Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaPT2016,
  author = {Bhattacharya PT, Misra SR, Hussain M.},
  title = {Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review.},
  journal = {Scientifica (Cairo).},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {5464373},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5464373}
}
Chatterjee S, De S Application of novel, low-cost, laterite-based adsorbent for removal of lead from water: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. 2016 J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.
Vol. 51(3), pp. 193-203 
article DOI  
Abstract: Contamination of groundwater by carcinogenic heavy metal, e.g., lead is an important issue and possibility of using a natural rock, laterite, is explored in this work to mitigate this problem. Treated laterite (TL- prepared using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide) was successfully utilized for this purpose. The adsorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to highlight its physical and chemical properties. Optimized equilibrium conditions were 1 g L(-1) adsorbent concentration, 0.26 mm size and a pH of 7 ± 0.2. Monolayer adsorption capacity of lead on treated laterite was 15 mg/g, 14.5 and 13 mg g(-1) at temperatures of 303 K, 313 K and 323 K, respectively. The adsorption was exothermic and physical in nature. At 303 K, value of effective diffusivity of (De) and mass transfer co-efficient (Kf) of lead onto TL were 6.5 × 10(-10) m(2)/s and 3.3 × 10(-4) m/s, respectively (solved from shrinking core model of adsorption kinetics). Magnesium and sulphate show highest interference effect on the adsorption of lead by TL. Efficacy of the adsorbent has been verified using real-life contaminated groundwater. Thus, this work demonstrates performance of a cost-effective media for lead removal.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeS2016,
  author = {Chatterjee S, De S},
  title = {Application of novel, low-cost, laterite-based adsorbent for removal of lead from water: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {51(3)},
  pages = {193-203},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2015.1094321}
}
Ghanwat G, Patil AJ, Patil J, Kshirsagar M, Sontakke A, Ayachit RK Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on Blood Lead Level, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status of Battery Manufacturing Workers of Western Maharashtra, India. 2016 J Clin Diagn Res.
Vol. 10(4), pp. BC08-11. 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
The high blood lead level induces oxidative stress and alters the antioxidant status of battery manufacturing workers. Supplementation of vitamin C is beneficial to reduce the oxidative stress and to improve the antioxidant status of these workers.
AIM:
The main aim of this study was to observe the changes in blood lead levels, oxidative stress i.e. serum lipid peroxide and antioxidant status parameters such as erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase and serum nitrite after the vitamin C supplementation in battery manufacturing workers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This study included 36 battery manufacturing workers from Western Maharashtra, India, having age between 20-60 years. All study group subjects were provided vitamin C tablets (500 mg/day for one month) and a blood sample of 10 ml each was drawn by puncturing the anterior cubital vein before and after vitamin C supplementation. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using the standard methods.
RESULTS:
Blood lead levels were not significantly altered, however, serum lipid peroxide (p<0.001, -15.56%) and serum nitrite (p<0.001, -21.37%) levels showed significant decrease and antioxidant status parameters such as erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (p<0.001, 38.02%) and catalase (p<0.001, 32.36%) revealed significant increase in battery manufacturing workers after the supplementation of vitamin C.
CONCLUSION:
One month vitamin C supplementation in battery manufacturing workers is not beneficial to decrease the blood lead levels. However, it is helpful to reduce the lipid peroxidation and nitrite formation and enhances the erythrocytes superoxide dismutase and catalase activity.
BibTeX:
@article{GhanwatG2016,
  author = {Ghanwat G, Patil AJ, Patil J, Kshirsagar M, Sontakke A, Ayachit RK.},
  title = {Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on Blood Lead Level, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status of Battery Manufacturing Workers of Western Maharashtra, India.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {10(4)},
  pages = {BC08-11.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/15968.7528}
}
Lata P, Ram S, Shanker R Multiplex PCR based genotypic characterization of pathogenic vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis recovered from an Indian river along a city landscape. 2016 Springerplus.
Vol. 5(1), pp. 1199 
article DOI  
Abstract: Enterococci are normal commensals of human gut, but vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a severe threat to human health. Antimicrobial-resistant enterococci have been reported previously from Indian surface waters. However, the presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence markers in Enterococcus faecalis, the most dominant enterococci is yet to be investigated.
OBJECTIVES:
The goal of this study was to analyse concentration of enterococci and distribution of antimicrobial resistance and virulence markers in E. faecalis isolates from river waters along an important north Indian city landscape.
METHODS:
We enumerated enterococci in river water samples (n = 60) collected from five sites across the Lucknow city landscape using the most probable number and membrane-filtration methods. The antimicrobial sensitivity profile of E. faecalis isolate was generated with the Kirby-Bauer antimicrobial disc diffusion assay. The multiplex PCR was used for genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistance and virulence in E. faecalis isolates.
RESULTS:
Enterococci density (p < 0.0001) increased from up-to-down-stream sites. Multiplex PCR based genotypic characterization has shown a significant distribution of virulence-markers gelE, ace or efaA in the E. faecalis isolates (p < 0.05). The range of antimicrobial-resistance varied from 5 to 12 in the landscape with the frequency of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis (VRE) ranging from 22 to 100 %.
CONCLUSION:
The occurrence of pathogenic VRE in river Gomti surface water is an important health concern. The observed high background pool of resistance and virulence in E. faecalis in river waters has the potential to disseminate more alarming antimicrobial resistance in the environment and poses serious health risk in developing countries like India as VRE infections could lead to increased cost of healthcare.
BibTeX:
@article{LataP2016,
  author = {Lata P, Ram S, Shanker R.},
  title = {Multiplex PCR based genotypic characterization of pathogenic vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis recovered from an Indian river along a city landscape.},
  journal = {Springerplus.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {5(1)},
  pages = {1199},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2870-5}
}
Mohankumar K, Hariharan V, Rao NP Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater around Industrial Estate vs Residential Areas in Coimbatore, India. 2016 J Clin Diagn Res.
Vol. 10(4), pp. BC05-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
Water is the vital resource, necessary for all aspects of human and ecosystem survival and health. Depending on the quality, bore water may be used for human consumption, irrigation purposes and livestock watering. The quality of bore water can vary widely depending on the quality of ground water that is its source. Pollutants are being added to the ground water system through human and natural processes. Solid waste from industrial units is being dumped near the factories, which react with percolating rainwater and reaches the ground water. The percolating water picks up a large number of heavy metals and reaches the aquifer system and contaminates the ground water. The usage of the contaminated bore water causes the diseases. Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium are used or released by many industries.
AIM:
This study was conducted to investigate the pollution of bore water in the industrial region (Kurichi Industrial Cluster) of Coimbatore, in the state of Tamilnadu, India.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Four samples were taken from residential areas around Kurichi Industrial Cluster and analysed to find the concentrations of Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium. Four more samples were taken from other residential regions far from the industrial estate and served as control. Samples were analysed using Atomic absorption spectrophotometry method.
RESULTS:
We found that the ground water of the areas surrounding the industrial cluster does not contain significant amount of those metals. Instead, Heavy metal contamination of ground water were observed in some residential areas of coimbatore.
CONCLUSION:
The regulatory measures to contain and prevent ground water contamination by industries undertaken by Tamilnadu pollution control board may have lead to absence of heavy metal contamination in Kurichi Industrial cluster, Coimbatore, India.
BibTeX:
@article{MohankumarK2016,
  author = {Mohankumar K, Hariharan V, Rao NP.},
  title = {Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater around Industrial Estate vs Residential Areas in Coimbatore, India.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {10(4)},
  pages = {BC05-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/15943.7527}
}
Sodhi N In this issue August 2016: Preventive health Treatment of subclinical Streptococcus equicare of Pony Club horses Cardiac biomarker concentrations in canine tick in Thoroughbreds paralysisLead Feline leprosy syndrome (FLS) in a?toxicity diagnosis in two dogs Skin blistering in a dog exposed to Plumbago?cat Postpartum anoestrus in seasonally-calving dairy farms in?auriculata Plasmodium infection in a Leadbeater's possum.Victoria 2016 Aust Vet J.
Vol. 94(8), pp. 261-2 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{N.2016,
  author = {Sodhi N.},
  title = {In this issue August 2016: Preventive health Treatment of subclinical Streptococcus equicare of Pony Club horses Cardiac biomarker concentrations in canine tick in Thoroughbreds paralysisLead Feline leprosy syndrome (FLS) in a?toxicity diagnosis in two dogs Skin blistering in a dog exposed to Plumbago?cat Postpartum anoestrus in seasonally-calving dairy farms in?auriculata Plasmodium infection in a Leadbeater's possum.Victoria},
  journal = {Aust Vet J.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {94(8)},
  pages = {261-2},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/avj.12472}
}
Nath Roy D, Goswami R, Pal A Nanomaterial and toxicity: what can proteomics tell us about the nanotoxicology? 2016 Xenobiotica.
Vol. 14, pp. 1-12 
article DOI  
Abstract: 1. In the last few years, a substantial scientific work is focused to identify the potential toxicity of nanomaterials by studying the cellular pathways under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Owing to high surface area to volume ratio nanoparticles (NPs) can pass through cell membranes which might be responsible for creating adverse interactions in biological systems. Simultaneously, researchers are also interested to assess the fate of NP inside the living system, which may lead to altered protein expression as well as protein corona formation. 2. According to published reports, NP-mediated toxicity involves altered cellular system including cell morphology, cell differentiation, cell metabolism, cell mobility, cellular immunity, which is derived from the side effects of nanoformulation and leading to apoptosis and necrosis. These results indicate the existence of potential toxic effect of these particles to human health. 3. The advent of proteomics with sophisticated technical improvement coupled with advanced bioinformatics has led to identify altered proteins due to nanomaterial exposure that could provide a new avenue to biomarker discovery. 4. This review aims to provide the current status of safe production and use of nanomaterials.
BibTeX:
@article{NathRoyD2016,
  author = {Nath Roy D, Goswami R, Pal A},
  title = {Nanomaterial and toxicity: what can proteomics tell us about the nanotoxicology?},
  journal = {Xenobiotica.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {1-12},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00498254.2016.1205762}
}
Rao G, Verma R, Mukherjee A, Haldar C, Agrawal NK Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus 2016 Exp Gerontol.
Vol. 82, pp. 125-30 
article DOI  
Abstract: Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100?g kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-?) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach of melatonin for management of cognition and memory function in females under hyperthyroid condition.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoG12016,
  author = {Rao G, Verma R, Mukherjee A, Haldar C, Agrawal NK},
  title = {Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus},
  journal = {Exp Gerontol.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {82},
  pages = {125-30},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2016.06.014}
}
Saxena R, Gupta G, Manohar M, Debnath U, Popli P, Prabhakar YS, Konwar R, Kumar S, Kumar A, Dwivedi A Spiro-oxindole derivative 5-chloro-4',5'-diphenyl-3'-(4-(2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxy) benzoyl) spiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one triggers apoptosis in breast cancer cells via restoration of p53 function. 2016 Int J Biochem Cell Biol.
Vol. 70, pp. 105-17 
article DOI  
Abstract: Breast cancer remains a significant health problem due to the involvement of multiple aberrant and redundant signaling pathways in tumorigenesis and the development of resistance to the existing therapeutic agents. Therefore, the search for novel chemotherapeutic agents for effective management of breast cancer is still warranted. In an effort to develop new anti-breast cancer agents, we have synthesized and identified novel spiro-oxindole derivative G613 i.e. 5-chloro-4',5'-diphenyl-3'-(4-(2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxy) benzoyl) spiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one, which has shown growth inhibitory activity in breast cancer cells. The present study was aimed to explore the mechanism of anti-tumorigenic action of this newly identified spiro-oxindole compound. Compound G613 inhibited the Mdm2-p53 interaction in breast cancer cells and tumor xenograft. It caused restoration of p53 function by activating its promoter activity, triggering its nuclear accumulation and preventing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Supportively, molecular docking studies revealed considerable homology in the docking mode of G613 and the known Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, to p53 binding pocket of Mdm2. The activation of p53 led to upregulation of p53 dependent pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, Puma? and Noxa and enhanced interaction of p53 with bcl2 member proteins thus triggering both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent apoptosis, respectively. Additionally, the compound decreased estrogen receptor activity through sequestration of estrogen receptor ? by p53 thereby causing a decreased transcriptional activation and expression of proliferation markers. In conclusion, G613 represents a potent small-molecule inhibitor of the Mdm2-p53 interaction and can serve as a promising lead for developing a new class of anti-cancer therapy for breast cancer patients.
BibTeX:
@article{SaxenaR2016,
  author = {Saxena R, Gupta G, Manohar M, Debnath U, Popli P, Prabhakar YS, Konwar R, Kumar S, Kumar A, Dwivedi A.},
  title = {Spiro-oxindole derivative 5-chloro-4',5'-diphenyl-3'-(4-(2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxy) benzoyl) spiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one triggers apoptosis in breast cancer cells via restoration of p53 function.},
  journal = {Int J Biochem Cell Biol.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {105-17},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2015.11.003}
}
Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater. 2016 Springerplus
Vol. 19;5, pp. 488 
article DOI  
Abstract: Irrigation of agricultural land with wastewater leads to continuous buildup of metals at these sites which gets accumulated in the vegetables and crops growing on these sites. Not just the crops irrigated with wastewater are hazardous, in present study, we have found that vegetables growing in vicinity of wastewater drain are also not safe for human consumption. The risk associated with consumption of vegetables was assessed by calculating hazard quotient and results revealed that the hazard quotient for leafy and tuberous vegetables was higher than the safe limits in all the sites irrespective of mode of irrigation. Spinach was the most hazardous among all as the hazard quotient with respect to cobalt and copper was highest in spinach. Uptake trend of metals in all vegetables: Iron > Cobalt > Copper > Cadmium > Lead. Cadmium, a potential carcinogen was found in concentrations higher than permissible limits in many vegetables from all sites. Highest level of cadmium (1.20 mg/kg) and copper (81.33 mg/kg) was reported in site which was in vicinity of waste water drain but irrigated with ground water. Concentration of copper and lead in vegetable samples from different sites exhibited no statistically significant difference with respect to different sites.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaA2016,
  author = {Sharma A, Katnoria JK, Nagpal AK.},
  title = {Heavy metals in vegetables: screening health risks involved in cultivation along wastewater drain and irrigating with wastewater.},
  journal = {Springerplus},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {19;5},
  pages = {488},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2129-1}
}
Kawada T Cadmium, lead and kidney function with special reference to biological specimen. 2016 Int J Hyg Environ Health.
Vol. 219(6), pp. 573 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{T2016,
  author = {Kawada T},
  title = {Cadmium, lead and kidney function with special reference to biological specimen.},
  journal = {Int J Hyg Environ Health.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {219(6)},
  pages = {573},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.05.007}
}
Tiwari B, Chakraborty S, Singh S, Mishra AK Profenofos induced modulation in physiological indices, genomic template stability and protein banding patterns of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. 2016 J Environ Sci Health B.
Vol. 18, pp. 1-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: To understand the mechanism underlying organophosphate pesticide toxicity, cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 was subjected to varied concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg L-1) of profenofos and the effects were investigated in terms of changes in cellular physiology, genomic template stability and protein expression pattern. The supplementation of profenofos reduced the growth, total pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency of the test organism in a dose dependent manner with maximum toxic effect at 30 mg L-1. The high fluorescence intensity of 2', 7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate and increased production of malondialdehyde confirmed the prevalence of acute oxidative stress condition inside the cells of the cyanobacterium. Rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting and SDS-PAGE analyses showed a significant alteration in the banding patterns of DNA and proteins respectively. A marked increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase activity and a concomitant reduction in glutathione content indicated their possible role in supporting the growth of Anabaena 7120 up to 20 mg L-1. These findings suggest that the uncontrolled use of profenofos in the agricultural fields may not only lead to the destruction of the cyanobacterial population, but it would also disturb the nutrient dynamics and energy flow.
BibTeX:
@article{TiwariB2016,
  author = {Tiwari B, Chakraborty S, Singh S, Mishra AK},
  title = {Profenofos induced modulation in physiological indices, genomic template stability and protein banding patterns of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {1-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2016.1198649}
}
Varshney P, Saini R, Taneja A Trace element concentration in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and their bioavailability in different microenvironments in Agra, India: a case study. 2016 Environ Geochem Health.
Vol. 38(2), pp. 593-605 
article DOI  
Abstract: Exposure to airborne particulate matter results in the deposition of millions of particle in the lung; consequently, there is need for monitoring them particularly in indoor environments. Case study was conducted in three different microenvironments, i.e., urban, rural and roadside to examine the elemental bioavailability in fine particulate matter and its potential health risk. The samples were collected on polytetrafluoroethylene filter paper with the help of fine particulate sampler during August-September, 2012. The average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 71.23 µg m(-3) (rural), 45.33 µg m(-3) (urban) and 36.71 µg m(-3) (roadside). Elements in PM2.5 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Percentage bioavailability was determined to know the amount of soluble fraction that is actually taken across the cell membrane through inhalation pathway. Cadmium and lead were found to have cancer risk in a risk evaluation using an Integrated Risk Information system.
BibTeX:
@article{VarshneyP2016,
  author = {Varshney P, Saini R, Taneja A},
  title = {Trace element concentration in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and their bioavailability in different microenvironments in Agra, India: a case study.},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {38(2)},
  pages = {593-605},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9745-5}
}
Varshney P, Saini R, Taneja A Trace element concentration in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and their bioavailability in different microenvironments in Agra, India: a case study. 2016 Environ Geochem Health.
Vol. 38(2), pp. 593-605 
article DOI  
Abstract: Exposure to airborne particulate matter results in the deposition of millions of particle in the lung; consequently, there is need for monitoring them particularly in indoor environments. Case study was conducted in three different microenvironments, i.e., urban, rural and roadside to examine the elemental bioavailability in fine particulate matter and its potential health risk. The samples were collected on polytetrafluoroethylene filter paper with the help of fine particulate sampler during August-September, 2012. The average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 71.23 µg m(-3) (rural), 45.33 µg m(-3) (urban) and 36.71 µg m(-3) (roadside). Elements in PM2.5 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Percentage bioavailability was determined to know the amount of soluble fraction that is actually taken across the cell membrane through inhalation pathway. Cadmium and lead were found to have cancer risk in a risk evaluation using an Integrated Risk Information system.
BibTeX:
@article{VarshneyP2016a,
  author = {Varshney P, Saini R, Taneja A.},
  title = {Trace element concentration in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and their bioavailability in different microenvironments in Agra, India: a case study.},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {38(2)},
  pages = {593-605},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9745-5}
}
Basu R, Ram SS, Biswas A, Ray SS, Mukhopadhyay A, Chakraborty A, Mathummal S, Chakrabarti S Investigation on the Trace Elemental Profile of Sewage Workers in Kolkata, an Indian Megacity. 2015 J Public Health Res.
Vol. 4(2), pp. 473 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Environmental pollution has become a global health risk. Exposure to pollutants at the work place, i.e. occupational exposure, is one of the areas that need immediate attention. The civic drainage workers are exposed to pollutants present in the wastewater they handle and most of them are toxic heavy metals. Exposure to such pollutants may be a health hazard, since it can lead to the imbalance in nutrient elements status.
DESIGN AND METHODS:
In the present study, profiling of trace elements in the blood of drainage worker population from an Indian megacity, Kolkata, was carried out by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and compared with the control group population of the same area.
RESULTS:
The elements detected by EDXRF spectrometry include P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb. By using ANOVA with 5% significance level, we observed significant alterations in the trace elements status, iron over loading, selenium deficiency, and in Cu-Zn ratio. Gender specific variations within the same population were also observed.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results indicate that the drainage workers have altered elemental profile in comparison to that of control population. Significance for public healthEnvironmental pollution is a global health risk and awareness among sewage workers is growing very slowly in many developing countries. Due to this fact, workers are often exposed to different pollutants which are responsible for several health complications. Imbalances in the presence of trace elements in blood are a symptom of different health status and could also indicate new health perspectives for the future. In the present scenario, this paper is essential since this kind of analysis has not been done yet, especially regarding the health status of sewage workers. We hope this initial study will be a starting point for future investigations.
BibTeX:
@article{BasuR2015,
  author = {Basu R, Ram SS, Biswas A, Ray SS, Mukhopadhyay A, Chakraborty A, Mathummal S, Chakrabarti S.},
  title = {Investigation on the Trace Elemental Profile of Sewage Workers in Kolkata, an Indian Megacity.},
  journal = {J Public Health Res.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {4(2)},
  pages = {473},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2015.473}
}
Ravibabu K, Barman T, Rajmohan HR Serum neuron-specific enolase, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function in lead-exposed workers from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. 2015 Int J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 6(1), pp. 50-7 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied.
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin) levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs).
METHODS:
In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests---simple reaction time (SRT), symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and serial digit learning test (SDLT).
RESULTS:
There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05) between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01). NSE had a negative correlation (r -0.194, p<0.05) with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age.
CONCLUSION:
Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the "attention and perception" (SDST).
BibTeX:
@article{RavibabuK2015,
  author = {Ravibabu K, Barman T, Rajmohan HR.},
  title = {Serum neuron-specific enolase, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function in lead-exposed workers from lead-acid battery manufacturing process.},
  journal = {Int J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {6(1)},
  pages = {50-7}
}
Somasundaram S, Ravi K, Rajapandian K, Gurunathan D Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water in Chennai, Tamilnadu. 2015 J Clin Diagn Res.
Vol. 9(10), pp. ZC32-4 
article DOI  
Abstract: CONTEXT:
The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water is 0.7 to 1.2 ppm. Decreased fluoride concentration leads to increased risk of caries and increased concentration can lead to dental or skeletal fluorosis. One crore liters of water is supplied to Chennai and surrounding areas through pouches and bottles which carters about one third of city population.
AIM:
The aim of this study is to determine the fluoride concentration in top 10 bottled waters in Chennai and to check the accuracy of their labelling.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Top selling bottled waters, 6 multinational and 4 Non- multinational brands were selected for the study. Three different batches of each brand were purchased. The labels of the bottled were removed after collecting the details regarding fluoride content. All the bottles were numbered and sent for fluoride content analysis using SPADNS calorimetric method.
RESULTS:
All the brands and batches which were analysed for the study had less than optimal fluoride content and there is a significant variation in fluoride concentration of each brand and among different batches of same brand bottled waters. The range of fluoride level in tested samples was between 0.27 to 0.59. Only one brand's label had information regarding the fluoride content.
CONCLUSION:
Standardization of fluoride levels in bottled waters and labelling of fluoride content should become mandatory.
BibTeX:
@article{SomasundaramS2015,
  author = {Somasundaram S, Ravi K, Rajapandian K, Gurunathan D.},
  title = {Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water in Chennai, Tamilnadu.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {9(10)},
  pages = {ZC32-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/14691.6594}
}
Choudhari R, Sathwara NG, Shivgotra VK, Patel S, Rathod RA, Shaikh S, Shaikh MI, Dodia S, Parikh DJ, Saiyed HN Study of lead exposure to children residing near a lead-zinc mine. 2010 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 14(2), pp. 58-62 
article DOI  
Abstract: This lead exposure study was conducted in a total of 452 school children in the age group of 9-14 years. Two hundred and ninety-eight exposed children came from the villages situated within a 2.5 km radius of the lead-zinc mine whereas the comparative group children were selected from the villages at least 10 km away from mine. Environmental monitoring study suggested that lead levels in air and water samples near the mining areas were within the Central Pollution Control Board prescribed standards. Lead levels in about 80% of the children were less than 10 ?g/dl. Medical examination of all children did not show any signs related to lead toxicity but central nervous system-related symptoms, as reported by the subjects during medical examination, were found to be higher in the exposed group when compared with the comparative group. The values of physical growth parameters of the exposed group were comparable with that of the comparative group for both girls and boys. Hence, the physical growth of children was found to be unaffected by the observed level of lead exposure. To safeguard the health of the children residing near the mining area, various preventive and control measures were suggested.
BibTeX:
@article{ChoudhariR2010,
  author = {Choudhari R, Sathwara NG, Shivgotra VK, Patel S, Rathod RA, Shaikh S, Shaikh MI, Dodia S, Parikh DJ, Saiyed HN.},
  title = {Study of lead exposure to children residing near a lead-zinc mine.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {14(2)},
  pages = {58-62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.72243}
}
Dhatrak SV, Nandi SS Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners. 2009 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 13(2), pp. 60-4 
article  
Abstract: The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.
BibTeX:
@article{DhatrakSV2009,
  author = {Dhatrak SV, Nandi SS},
  title = {Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {13(2)},
  pages = {60-4}
}
Krishnan E, Lingala B, Bhalla V Low-level lead exposure and the prevalence of gout: an observational study. 2012 Ann Intern Med.
Vol. 157(4), pp. 233-41 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Blood lead levels (BLLs) less than 1.21 µmol/L (<25 µg/dL) among adults are considered acceptable by current national standards. Lead toxicity can lead to gouty arthritis (gout), but whether the low lead exposure in the contemporary general population confers risk for gout is not known.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether BLLs within the range currently considered acceptable are associated with gout.
DESIGN:
Population-based cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2005 through 2008.
PATIENTS:
6153 civilians aged 40 years or older with an estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 10 mL/min per 1.73 m2.
MEASUREMENTS:
Outcome variables were self-reported physician diagnosis of gout and serum urate level. Blood lead level was the principal exposure variable. Additional data collected were anthropometric measures, blood pressure, dietary purine intake, medication use, medical history, and serum creatinine concentration.
RESULTS:
The prevalence of gout was 6.05% (95% CI, 4.49% to 7.62%) among patients in the highest BLL quartile (mean, 0.19 µmol/L [3.95 µg/dL]) compared with 1.76% (CI, 1.10% to 2.42%) among those in the lowest quartile (mean, 0.04 µmol/L [0.89 µg/dL]). Each doubling of BLL was associated with an unadjusted odds ratio of 1.74 (CI, 1.47 to 2.05) for gout and 1.25 (CI, 1.12 to 1.40) for hyperuricemia. After adjustment for renal function, diabetes, diuretic use, hypertension, race, body mass index, income, and education level, the highest BLL quartile was associated with a 3.6-fold higher risk for gout and a 1.9-fold higher risk for hyperuricemia compared with the lowest quartile.
LIMITATION:
Blood lead level does not necessarily reflect the total body lead burden.
CONCLUSION:
Blood lead levels in the range currently considered acceptable are associated with increased prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia.
BibTeX:
@article{KrishnanE2012,
  author = {Krishnan E, Lingala B, Bhalla V},
  title = {Low-level lead exposure and the prevalence of gout: an observational study.},
  journal = {Ann Intern Med.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {157(4)},
  pages = {233-41},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-157-4-201208210-00003}
}
Mohan VR, Sharma S, Ramanujam K, Babji S, Koshy B, Bondu JD, John SM, Kang G Effects of elevated blood lead levels in preschool children in urban vellore. 2014 Indian Pediatr.
Vol. 51(8), pp. 621-5 
article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To study the burden and associated risk factors for elevated blood lead levels among pre-school children (15-24 months) in urban Vellore, and to study its effects on child cognition and anemia.
DESIGN:
An investigative study through Mal-ED cohort.
SETTING:
Eight adjacent urban slums in Vellore, Tamil Nadu.
PARTICIPANTS:
251 babies recruited through Mal-ED Network.
OUTCOME MEASURES:
Blood lead levels using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry method at 15 and 24 mo; hemoglobin estimation by azidemethemoglobin method; cognitive levels using Bayley Scales of Infant Development III.
RESULTS:
Around 45% of children at 15 months and 46.4% at 24 months had elevated blood lead levels (>10 µg/dL). Among children who had elevated blood lead levels at 15 months, 69.2% (45/65) continued to have elevated levels at 24 months. After adjusting for potential confounders, children from houses having a piped drinking water supply and houses with mud or clay floors were at significantly higher risk of having elevated blood lead levels at 15 months. Thirty one percent (21/67) of the children with elevated blood lead levels had poor cognitive scores. Children with elevated blood lead levels at 15 months had higher risk (Adjusted OR 1.80; 95% CI 0.80 - 3.99) of having poorer cognitive scores at 24 months. More than half of the children (57%) were anemic at 15 months of age, and elevated blood lead levels were not significantly associated with anemia.
CONCLUSIONS:
Elevated blood lead levels are common among preschool children living in urban slums of Vellore. Poorer conditions of the living environment are associated with elevated lead levels.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanVR2014,
  author = {Mohan VR, Sharma S, Ramanujam K, Babji S, Koshy B, Bondu JD, John SM, Kang G},
  title = {Effects of elevated blood lead levels in preschool children in urban vellore.},
  journal = {Indian Pediatr.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {51(8)},
  pages = {621-5}
}
Pant N, Kumar G, Upadhyay AD, Patel DK, Gupta YK, Chaturvedi PK Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.  article  
Abstract: Environmental toxicants viz lead or cadmium and phthalate esters (di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [DEHP], dibutyl phthalate [DBP], and diethyl phthalate [DEP]) widely found in different environmental strata are linked to deteriorating male reproductive health. The objective was to assess the relationships between the seminal lead, cadmium, and phthalate (DEHP, DBP, DEP) concentrations at environmental level and serum hormone levels and semen quality in non-occupationally exposed men and specify the effect of individual and combined exposure of toxicants on semen quality. A study of 60 male partners of couples attending the Andrology Laboratory of the Reproductive Biology Department, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India for semen analysis to assess their inability to achieve a pregnancy was selected for the study. The results of univariate and stepwise multiple regression analysis in the unadjusted model showed a significant correlation between lead or cadmium and phthalates DEHP/DBP/DEP and sperm motility, sperm concentration, and DNA damage. After adjusting for potential confounders, an association with lead or DEHP was only observed. The present data shows that lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) or phthalates might independently contribute to decline in semen quality and induce DNA damage. Phthalates might influence reproductive hormone testosterone. These findings are significant in light of the fact that men are exposed to a volley of chemicals; however, due to the small sample size, our finding needs to be confirmed in a larger population.
BibTeX:
@article{PantN2014,
  author = {Pant N, Kumar G, Upadhyay AD, Patel DK, Gupta YK, Chaturvedi PK},
  title = {Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014}
}
Patel AB, Belsare H, Banerjee A Feeding practices and blood lead levels in infants in Nagpur, India. 2011 Int J Occup Environ
Vol. 17(1), pp. 24-30 
article  
Abstract: In a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 200 infants age 4-9 months in an Indian city (Nagpur), the authors determined the prevalence of elevated blood lead level (EBLL) and mean blood lead levels with respect to feeding patterns, i.e., breastfed or fed with formula or dairy milk. The blood lead levels in this study population ranged from 0.048 microg/dl to 42.944 microg/dl; the mean blood lead level was 10.148 microg/dl (+/- 9.128); EBLL prevalence was 38.2%. EBLL risk factors included removal of house paint in the past year, odds ratio (OR), 5.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-19.65); use of surma (eye cosmetic), OR 4.27 (95% CI, 1.39-13.08); maternal use of sindur (vermillion), OR 2.118 (95% CI, 1.07-4.44). Feeding method (breastfed or not) did not appear to have an effect on blood lead level. In non-breastfed infants, boiling of water was significantly associated with EBLL, OR 1.97 (95% CI, 1.01-3.84).
BibTeX:
@article{PatelAB2011,
  author = {Patel AB, Belsare H, Banerjee A},
  title = {Feeding practices and blood lead levels in infants in Nagpur, India.},
  journal = {Int J Occup Environ},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {17(1)},
  pages = {24-30}
}
Rokadia H, Agarwal S Serum heavy metals and obstructive lung disease: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 2013 Chest.
Vol. 143(2), pp. 388-97 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Exposure to hazardous heavy metals such as cadmium and lead has been associated with several chronic diseases. Heavy metal exposure may contribute to increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs, resulting in tissue destruction manifesting clinically as obstructive lung disease (OLD). We aimed to evaluate the association between serum cadmium and lead concentration and OLD.
METHODS:
Pooled cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 were used. OLD was defined as an FEV 1 /FVC ratio , 0.7 by spirometry. Active smokers were defined as self-reported current smokers or those with measured serum cotinine 10 ng/mL. Serum cadmium and lead levels were measured using mass spectrometry.
RESULTS:
The prevalence of OLD was 12.4% (95% CI, 10.2%-13.6%). The mean (SE) cadmium levels in the OLD group were significantly higher in comparison with normal control subjects (0.51 [1.04] vs 0.33 [1.02], P , .001). Similarly, mean (SE) serum lead concentration was significantly higher in the OLD group compared with the control population (1.73 [1.02] vs 1.18 [1.0], P , .001). The association between OLD and smoking was significantly attenuated after adjusting for serum cadmium concentration. In addition, we demonstrated a progressive increase in serum cadmium concentrations with worsening FEV 1 % predicted values among smokers in our study population.
CONCLUSION:
In a large representative sample of the US population, we demonstrated a significant association between OLD and serum cadmium and lead concentrations. Cadmium appeared to partially mediate the association between smoking and OLD. A dose-response effect between increasing cadmium concentration and progressively worsening lung function was observed in smokers.
BibTeX:
@article{RokadiaH2013,
  author = {Rokadia H, Agarwal S},
  title = {Serum heavy metals and obstructive lung disease: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.},
  journal = {Chest.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {143(2)},
  pages = {388-97}
}
Singh AK, Srivastava SC, Ansari A, Kumar D, Singh R Environmental monitoring and health risk assessment of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) cultured in rural ponds, India. 2012 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 89(6), pp. 1142-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Water quality monitoring of Clarias gariepinus culture ponds (n = 27) revealed poor physico-chemical conditions and metal contaminants in fish tissues (n = 324). Human health risk assessment for some heavy metal contamination delineated low risk in general except for Aluminium (Al), Iron (Fe) and Lead (Pb) which accumulated significantly (p < 0.05) high in tissues. Health risks values were 6.3 × 10(-3)-9.6 × 10(-3) for Al; 3 × 10(-3)-9.7 × 10(-3) for Fe and 1.15 × 10(-5)-9.3 × 10(-6) for Pb respectively suggesting that contamination of Pb particularly in ponds fed with chicken waste (CW) was posing high risks.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghAK2012,
  author = {Singh AK, Srivastava SC, Ansari A, Kumar D, Singh R},
  title = {Environmental monitoring and health risk assessment of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) cultured in rural ponds, India.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {89(6)},
  pages = {1142-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0860-z}
}
Singla A, Kundu H, P B, Singh S, Singh K, Jain S Physico-chemical and bacterial evaluation of packaged drinking water marketed in delhi - potential public health implications. 2014 J Clin Diagn Res.
Vol. 8(3), pp. 246-50 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
Quality of drinking water is a powerful environmental determinant of health. The main objective of introduction of bottled water in the society was its better safety, taste and convenience over tap water. The present study was conducted to assess physicochemical and bacterial qualities of bottled water and sachet water which were available in various markets of Delhi.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Sixteen water bottles and four water sachets were selected through stratified random sampling from various public places in Delhi and their analysis was done at National Test House, Ghaziabad. RESULTS were then compared with national (IS10500, IS14543) and international (WHO, FDA, USEPA) standards.
RESULTS:
Bottled water showed better quality than sachet water. The mean value of copper (0.0746mg/l) in bottles exceeded the standard values of IS10500 and IS14543(0.05), while the mean value of lead (0.008mg/l) exceeded the FDA standard value (0.005). When the results of sachets were compared with those of standards, the mean values of selenium (0.1195mg/l) and lead (0.862mg/l) were found to exceed values of both Indian and International standards. For the biological parameter i.e. coliform count, the mean value for bottles was 0 (nil), whereas the mean value for sachets was 16.75, which showed the unhealthy nature of sachets.
CONCLUSION:
The parameters which were tested in the present study showed excess of various chemical and bacterial parameters in drinking water, which could pose serious threats to consumers. Thus, these results suggest a more stringent standardization of bottled water market with special attention to quality, identity and licensing by concerned authorities, to safeguard health of consumers.
BibTeX:
@article{SinglaA2014,
  author = {Singla A, Kundu H, P B, Singh S, Singh K, Jain S},
  title = {Physico-chemical and bacterial evaluation of packaged drinking water marketed in delhi - potential public health implications.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {8(3)},
  pages = {246-50},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/7845.4175}
}
Tiwari A, Kishore J, Tiwari A Perceptions and concerns of women undergoing Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital of India. Indian J Cancer.  article  
BibTeX:
@article{TiwariA,
  author = {Tiwari A, Kishore J, Tiwari A},
  title = {Perceptions and concerns of women undergoing Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital of India.},
  journal = {Indian J Cancer.}
}
Tripathi A Airborne lead pollution in the city of Varanasi India 1994 Atmospheric Environment
Vol. 28(14), pp. 2317-2323 
article  
Abstract: Monitoring of lead in ambient air was undertaken in the city of Varanasi, India, over a period of 2 yr from January 1988 to December 1989. Air samples were collected from 10 sampling sites and analysed by the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method. Lead levels in India are found to be low compared to western countries. The highest concentration of Pb was recorded at Andhra Pul, a busy crossing in the city and lowest at Samath, i.e. about 10 km away from the city centre. The experimental results obtained, show that the automobile emission is the predominant source for lead pollution in the city. The concentrations follow a log-normal distribution at most of the sites
BibTeX:
@article{A1994,
  author = {Tripathi A},
  title = {Airborne lead pollution in the city of Varanasi India},
  journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {28(14)},
  pages = {2317-2323}
}
Bhansali AB Medical aspects of tetra-ethyl Lead operations in a Petroleum Refinery 1958 Indian Journal of Occupational Health
Vol. 1(3), pp. 3-7 
article  
Abstract: Data concerning the medical aspects of tetraethyl-lead (TEL) use in the petroleum industry of India is reviewed. TEL compounds are used as additives to gasoline for the purpose of increasing octane ratings. The workers undergoing significant exposure to TEL are those engaged in TEL manufacture, in the blending of TEL with gasoline, and in the cleaning and repair of leaded gasoline storage tanks. When attempting to evaluate any alleged or suspected instance of TEL intoxication, the physician must give special attention to case histories and must determine whether or not a particular individual underwent exposure to TEL. TEL compounds can enter the human body by absorption through the skin, by inhalation, or by ingestion. The symptoms of TEL poisoning include disturbed sleep, nervous feelings, anxiety, nausea, loss of appetite, overall weakness, and muscle cramps. The physical signs of TEL poisoning including low blood pressure, a depressed pulse rate, a subnormal body temperature, hyperactive reflexes, visible muscle tremors, and impaired nutrition. First aid for TEL exposure victims includes removing and destroying all clothing as soon as possible, wiping contaminated skin with kerosene, thoroughly showering and bathing the eyes. The medical treatment for persons exposed to TEL includes the maintenance of a well balanced diet, a high fluid intake, adequate elimination, the prescription of mild sedatives to combat insomnia, and light outdoor exercise. The author recommends that only healthy and intelligent individuals, previously unexposed to lead and capable of carrying out instructions, should be selected to work with TEL. TEL handlers should
undergo periodic examinations, with close tabs kept on physical fitness. A list of the safety measures and precautions to be followed when working with TEL should be made available to all TEL facility workers. All cases showing even minimal signs of TEL intoxication should be admitted to a hospital and subjected to constant supervision, with advanced cases being transferred to a mental institution.
BibTeX:
@article{AB1958,
  author = {Bhansali AB},
  title = {Medical aspects of tetra-ethyl Lead operations in a Petroleum Refinery},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Occupational Health},
  year = {1958},
  volume = {1(3)},
  pages = {3-7}
}
Ahamed M, Fareed M, Kumar A, Siddiqui WA, Siddiqui MK Oxidative stress and neurological disorders in relation to blood lead levels in children 2008 Redox Rep
Vol. 13(3), pp. 117-22 
article  
Abstract: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Free radical generation appears to be the mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead levels on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from neurological disorders. Thirty children (aged 3-12 years) with neurological disorders (cerebral palsy [n=12], seizures [n=11], and encephalopathy [n= 7]) were recruited in the study group. Sixty healthy children (aged 3-12 years) from similar socio-economic environments and not suffering from any chronic disease were taken as the controls. Blood lead levels and oxidant/antioxidant status were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure, was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (P<0.05 for each). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, an end product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly higher while the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (P<0.05 for each). Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly higher in the study group than those of the control group (P<0.05 for each). There were significant negative correlations of blood lead levels with ?-ALAD (r=-0.35; P<0.05) and GSH (r=-0.31; P<0.05), and positive correlations with MDA (r=0.37; P<0.05), SOD (r=0.53; P<0.05), and CAT (r=0.31;
P<0.05). In turn, ?-ALAD had significant negative correlations with MDA (r=-0.29; P<0.05), SOD (r= -0.28; P<0.05) and CAT (r=-0.34; P<0.05), but positive correlation with GSH (r=0.32; P<0.05). Although a causal pathway cannot be determined from the present study, our findings indicate lead-induced oxidative stress in blood of children with neurological disorders. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for neurological diseases in children warranted further investigation.
BibTeX:
@article{AhamedM2008,
  author = {Ahamed M, Fareed M, Kumar A, Siddiqui WA, Siddiqui MK},
  title = {Oxidative stress and neurological disorders in relation to blood lead levels in children},
  journal = {Redox Rep},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {13(3)},
  pages = {117-22}
}
Ahamed M, Siddiqui MK Low level lead exposure and oxidative stress: current opinions 2007 Clin Chim Acta
Vol. 383(1-2), pp. 57-64 
article  
Abstract: Lead continues to pose a serious threat to the health of many children as well as adults. Concern about lead exposure as a significant public health problem has increased as evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels. This issue is complicated by the fact that there is no demonstrated biological function of lead in human. Lead potentially induces oxidative stress and evidence is accumulating to support the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of lead toxicity. Lead is capable of inducing oxidative damage to brain, heart, kidneys, and reproductive organs. The mechanisms for lead-induced oxidative stress include the effects of lead on membranes, DNA, and antioxidant defense systems of cells. Recent epidemiological and toxicological studies have reported that lead exposure causes several diseases including hypertension, kidney disease, neurodegenerative disease and cognitive impairment. Although all these diseases include components of oxidative stress, the relevance of oxidative stress to lead-related diseases with low lead exposure has been criticized because most of the mechanistic studies have been conducted at moderate to higher dose levels. The association between low level lead exposure and oxidative stress has not been explored systematically. The present review focuses on mechanisms for lead-induced oxidative stress and relevance of oxidative stress to lead-related human disease with low lead exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{AhamedM2007,
  author = {Ahamed M, Siddiqui MK},
  title = {Low level lead exposure and oxidative stress: current opinions},
  journal = {Clin Chim Acta},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {383(1-2)},
  pages = {57-64}
}
Ahamed M, Siddiqui MK Environmental lead toxicity and nutritional factors 2007 Clin Nutr
Vol. 26(4), pp. 400-8 
article  
Abstract: Environmental lead toxicity is an old but persistent public health problem throughout the world and children are more susceptible to lead than adults because of their hand to mouth activity, increased respiratory rates and higher gastrointestinal absorption per unit body weight. In the last decade children's blood lead levels have fallen significantly in a number of countries. Despite this reduction, childhood lead toxicity continues to be a major public health problem for certain at-risk groups of children, and concern remains over the effects of lead on intellectual development. The currently approved clinical intervention method is to give chelating agents, which bind and removed lead from lead burdened tissues. Studies indicate, however, that there is a lack of safety and efficacy when conventional chelating agents are used. Several studies are underway to determine the beneficial effect of nutrients supplementation following exposure to lead. Data suggest that nutrients may play an important role in abating some toxic effects of lead. To explain the importance of using exogenous nutrients in treating environmental lead toxicity the following topics are addressed: (i) different sources of lead exposure/current blood lead levels and (ii) protective effects of nutrients supplementation (some essential elements and vitamins) in lead toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{AhamedM2007a,
  author = {Ahamed M, Siddiqui MK},
  title = {Environmental lead toxicity and nutritional factors},
  journal = {Clin Nutr},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {26(4)},
  pages = {400-8}
}
Ahamed M, Singh S, Behari JR, Kumar A, Siddiqui MK Interaction of lead with some essential trace metals in the blood of anemic children from Lucknow, India 2007 Clin Chim Acta.
Vol. 377(1-2), pp. 92-7 
article  
Abstract: Background: The effects of lead on the hematological system results in the inhibition of heme synthesis and in anemia. Lead may affect the absorption and metabolism of essential trace metals also. There is little information especially from the northern region of India regarding the relationship between blood lead levels ?10?g/dl and anemia in children. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association of blood lead levels ?10?g/dl with anemia, and its effect on hematological system and some essential trace metals in children.
Methods: A total of 75 children aged 1-7 years, 50 anemic (Hb?8 g%) and 25 nonanemic (Hb>8 g%), drawn from Lucknow, India and nearby areas were recruited to determine blood levels of lead, iron, zinc, copper, and calcium along with hematological parameters [delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, and ascorbic acid].
Results: Based on Centre for Disease Control and Prevention's intervention level of blood lead, children were categorized into those with blood lead<10?g/dl (6.89?2.44) 10 (n=19) (GI) and those with blood lead<10?g/dl (21.86?7.58) (n=56) (GII). After adjustment for child's age, sex, and area of residence, children with blood lead levels ?10?g/dl were 2.87 (95% CI: 1.60-2.87) times as likely to have anemia as children with blood lead levels<10?g/dl. The differences of the adjusted mean values of Hb, delta-ALAD, and hematocrit were significantly lower in children from the GII group when compared to children from the GI group (p<0.01, p<0.01, and p<0.05, respectively). Among essential trace metals, adjusted mean levels of blood iron, zinc,
and calcium were significantly lower in GII as compared to GI (P<0.05 each). There were significant negative correlations of blood lead levels with delta-ALAD (r=-0.612,p<0.01), hematocrit (r=-0.427, p<0.05), iron (r=-0.552, p<0.05) zinc (r=-0.427, p<0.05), and calcium (r=-0.324, p<0.05).
Conclusion: Results indicate that elevated blood lead levels (?10 microg/dl) in children were significantly associated with risk of anemia and that blood lead levels also influenced the status of essential trace metals. However, results of this study may be limited due to limited sample size but certainly form the basis of a larger sample size study, taking into account all the known potential confounders of anemia in children.
BibTeX:
@article{AhamedM2007b,
  author = {Ahamed M, Singh S, Behari JR, Kumar A, Siddiqui MK},
  title = {Interaction of lead with some essential trace metals in the blood of anemic children from Lucknow, India},
  journal = {Clin Chim Acta.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {377(1-2)},
  pages = {92-7}
}
Ahamed M, Verma S, Kumar A, Siddiqui MK Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition and oxidative stress in relation to blood lead among urban adolescents 2006 Hum Exp Toxicol
Vol. 25(9), pp. 547-53 
article  
Abstract: To explore lead-induced oxidative stress among urban adolescents, the present study, the first from India, was designed to determine the proportion of urban adolescents with blood lead >10 microg/dL and its impact on selected oxidative stress parameters and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) inhibition, which could be used as biomarkers of lead intoxication. A total of 39, urban, male adolescents, drawn from Lucknow and adjoining areas, were recruited to determine lead, delta-ALAD, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in blood and catalase (CAT) in RBCs. Mean level of blood lead was 9.96?3.63?g/dL (4.62-18.64); 43% of adolescents crossed the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) intervention level of 10 pg/dL blood lead. On the basis of blood lead levels (BLLs), adolescents were categorized into two groups: Group I
and Group II had a blood lead <10?g/dL (7.40?1.62) and >10?g/dL (13.27?2.67), respectively, with significantly different mean values (P<0.001). Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), Hb level (malnutrition), and area of living as confounders of lead exposure and toxicity were not statistically different between the two groups. However, delta-ALAD activity was significantly lower (P<0.001), while CAT activity was higher in Group II than in Group I (P<0.01). MDA level was also significantly higher in Group II compared to Group I (P<0.001). There were significant negative correlation of BLL with 6-ALAD (r=-190.592, P<0.001), and positive correlations with CAT (r=0.485, P<0.01) and MDA (r=0.717, P<0.001). Interestingly, delta-ALAD, in turn, had significant negative correlations with CAT (r=-0.456, P<0.01) and MDA (r=-0.507, P<0.01). Results of the present pilot study provide clues to the possible low level of lead-induced oxidative stress in urban adolescents, suggesting that lead-induced 6-ALAD inhibition can also be an indicator of oxidative stress. The potential of oxidative stress parameters to be used as
biomarkers of lead toxicity warranted further investigation.
BibTeX:
@article{AhamedM2006,
  author = {Ahamed M, Verma S, Kumar A, Siddiqui MK},
  title = {Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition and oxidative stress in relation to blood lead among urban adolescents},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {25(9)},
  pages = {547-53}
}
Ahamed M, Verma S, Kumar A, Siddiqui MK Environmental exposure to lead and its correlation with biochemical indices in children 2005 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 346(1-3), pp. 48-55 
article  
Abstract: Lead is a global concern because of its ubiquity in the environment and known to be associated with abnormal neurobehavioral and cognitive development of young children. There is no study from India to describe a composite profile of blood lead and its biochemical influences in children. The present study was aimed at determining the proportion of children with >10?g/dL blood lead levels (BLLs), association between BLLs, and sociodemographic characteristics, if any, and alterations in biochemical indices in the blood as an underlying mechanism of lead intoxication. A total of 62 children (4-12 y) of Lucknow and nearby areas were recruited to determine BLLs, delta-amimolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the blood. Mean level of blood lead was 7.47?3.06?g/dL (2.78-15.0) and 29%-exceeded 10?g/dL, CDC intervention level. The BLLs were found to be significantly influenced by social status, 28 area of residence, source of water supply, maternal educational status (p<0.001), type
of house, and proximity to traffic density (p<0.01). delta-ALAD was significantly lower in the group of children with BLLs 11.39?1.39 ?g/dL when compared to children with BLLs 7.11?1.25?g/dL and 3.93?0.61?g/dL (p=0.0007, 0.0005, respectively).
However, CAT activity was higher in the groups of children with higher blood levels than with lower BLLs (p=0.0159, 0.0001, respectively). There was an increase in MDA level with a concomitant decrease of GSH in children with BLLs 11.39?1.39?g/dL compared with those of children with BLLs 7.11?1.25?g/dL and 3.93?0.61?g/dL (p=0.0001, 0.0002, and p=0.0001, respectively). There was statistically significant correlation of BLLs with delta-ALAD (r=-0.44, p=0.00035), MDA (r=0.46, p=0.00018), GSH (r=-0.62, p=0.00001), and CAT (r=0.44, p=0.00035). Significantly, CAT activity, MDA, and GSH levels were in turn, found to be correlated with delta-ALAD (r=-0.45, p=0.00024; r=-0.43, p=0.00053; r=0.43, p=0.00053, respectively). Results of the present study indicate a declining trend of BLLs in children when compared with those reported from metropolitan cities of India when leaded gasoline was in practice and that the BLLs were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood, which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of lead intoxication.
BibTeX:
@article{AhamedM2005,
  author = {Ahamed M, Verma S, Kumar A, Siddiqui MK},
  title = {Environmental exposure to lead and its correlation with biochemical indices in children},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {346(1-3)},
  pages = {48-55}
}
Ajmal M, Khan MA, Nomani AA Monitoring of heavy metals in the water and sediments of the Ganga River, India 1987 Water Science and Technology
Vol. 19(9), pp. 107-117 
article  
Abstract: The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the water and sediments of the Ganges River were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry in 1981. The respective ranges of concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn found in the water were ND-0.53, ND-4.89, 3.20-56.6, ND-27.57, 22.0-133.8, 35.0-93.0, ND-2.22, 2.0-5.6, and 7.37-67.36 micrograms/liter and in the sediments were ND-3.48, 2.35-14.4, 9.0-83.16, 11.27-95.0, 2168.0-11624.8, 110.5-470.0, 3.45-28.80, 0.55-21.8 and 72.0-418.6 micrograms/gram. The data showed that there was considerable variation in the elements from one sampling station to the other. The sediments collected from different sampling stations were also analyzed for pH, calcium carbonate, organic matter, potassium, and phosphorus.
BibTeX:
@article{AjmalM1987,
  author = {Ajmal M, Khan MA, Nomani AA},
  title = {Monitoring of heavy metals in the water and sediments of the Ganga River, India},
  journal = {Water Science and Technology},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {19},
  number = {9},
  pages = {107-117}
}
Ajmal M, Uddin R Studies on heavy metals in the groundwaters on the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh India 1986 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 6(2), pp. 181-194 
article  
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the levels of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn along with physico-chemical parameters in ground waters of Aligarh city, U.P. (India). Twenty seven samples of hand pump water and twenty three samples of municipal water supply were collected from different localities of the Aligarh city, five times during the period of two months at intervals of 12 days. The samples were analysed for physicochemical
characteristics (pH, electrical conductivity, chlorides, sulphates, total hardness, total alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, fluoride, calcium and magnesium) and heavy metal contents. The concentrations of heavy metals in the hand pump water samples were found in the ranges of Cd (ND-5.00); Cr (ND-30.00); Cu (ND-82.50); Fe (16.80–460.00); Mn (ND-425.00); Ni (ND-25.00); Pb (ND-25.00) and Zn (28.60–775.00) ?g l–1. The heavy metal concentrations in the municipal water supply samples were found to be Cd (ND-5.00); Cr (ND-25.00); Cu (ND-37.50); Fe (8.00–37.50); Mn (ND-320.00); Ni (ND-25.00); Pb
(ND-25.00) and Zn (2.00–271.87) ?g l–1. It appears from the results of these studies the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the ground waters of the Aligarh City were found to be lower than the prescribed limits of World Health Organisation (1984), whereas the values of Fe and Mn were found above the prescribed limits in some localities. The chloride total hardness and nitrate-nitrogen were comparatively higher in the hand pump
water than the municipal supply water. The reason of higher values of these parameters may be ascribed to the surface disposal of sewage wastes, wastes from metal processing industries and other house hold refuses.
BibTeX:
@article{AjmalM1986,
  author = {Ajmal M, Uddin R},
  title = {Studies on heavy metals in the groundwaters on the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh India},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {6(2)},
  pages = {181-194}
}
Ajmal M, Uddin R Quality of drinking water in the Aligarh Muslim University Campus Aligarh Uttar Pradesh India with respect to Heavy Metals 1986 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 6(2), pp. 195-206 
article  
Abstract: The physico-chemical characteristics of the drinking water in nine residential halls of the Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P. (India), were studied. Nine samples each of running and standing water were taken four times over a period of one month at weekly intervals from all of the residential halls and were analysed for physico-chemical characteristics and heavy metal contents. The temperature, pH and electrical conductivity of water samples ranged between 20.0–26.0°C; 7.00–8.00 and 116.00–199.04 ?mhos/cm respectively whereas the values of total alkalinity, total hardness, Cl–, SO4– , F–, NH3–N,
NO2–N; NO3–N were found between 261.00–396.00; 128.00–200.00; 8.00–69.00; 12.00–46.00; 0.90–1.35; 0.20–0.44; ND; 1.60–6.50 mg/l respectively. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations in the running water samples were as follows: Cd (0.70–3.75); Cr (ND-5.00); Co (9.50–18.75); Cu (0.75–15.00); Fe (ND-13.50); Mn (3.50–51.00); Ni (7.00–17.50); Pb (0.50–2.50) and Zn (10.00–176.50) ?g l–1. The heavy metal concentrations in standing water samples were found to be: Cd (1.20–4.90); Cr (ND-10.00); Co (10.25–19.00); Cu (1.75–20.00); Fe (ND-18.00); Mn (5.00–66.50); Ni (8.75–19.75); Pb (0.75–5.50)
and Zn (28.60–364.00) ?g/l. The concentrations of heavy metals in drinking water supplies of the Aligarh Muslim University campus were well below the guidelines for drinking water quality as prescribed by World Health Organisation (1984). It is evident from the results that the drinking water may not cause any significant health hazard to water consumers due to heavy metals but these may be hazardous if they get accumulated in the body due to continuous consumption of water.
BibTeX:
@article{AjmalM1986a,
  author = {Ajmal M, Uddin R},
  title = {Quality of drinking water in the Aligarh Muslim University Campus Aligarh Uttar Pradesh India with respect to Heavy Metals},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {6(2)},
  pages = {195-206}
}
Al-Hazzaa SA, Krahn PM Kohl: A hazardous eyeliner 1995 Int Ophthalmol
Vol. 19(2), pp. 83-8 
article  
Abstract: Kohl is a widely used traditional cosmetic. It is mainly worn around the eyes in the Middle East, Asia and Africa. The elemental composition of twenty-one kohl specimens originating from various parts of Saudi Arabia, India and the Middle East was determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The data indicates the presence of significant lead levels in two thirds (14/21) of the kohl specimens ranging from 2.9-100% (mean 48.5%). Other less frequent elements present in kohl preparations include aluminum, carbon, iron, titanium, calcium, magnesium, oxygen, silver silicon, sulfur and antimony. Seven kohl specimens were totally lead-free, four had a lead content in the range of 2.9-34.1% and ten had lead levels in excess of 84%. Carbon levels in excess of 60% were detected in six kohl samples. Antimony was present in only one kohl specimen at a concentration of 7.8%. Five western made eyeliner pencils analyzed for comparative purposes consistently revealed iron as a common constituent (mean 46%) but no lead or carbon were detected in these specimens. The findings of this study indicate that modern kohl preparations contain a number of metals derived from natural sources in addition to carbon. The predominance of lead in the kohl preparations tested is of major concern due to the documented adverse effects in humans and the increased susceptibility of children to lead intoxication. Application of lead-containing kohl needs to be considered as a source of lead in evaluating patients with symptoms of lead intoxication in regions where this tradition prevails. The documented toxic effects of lead in humans and the increased sensitivity of children to lead exposure serve to emphasize potential health risks of using traditional lead containing kohl preparations and the need for increased surveillance and
regulation of the manufacture of kohl.
BibTeX:
@article{Al-HazzaaSA1995,
  author = {Al-Hazzaa SA, Krahn PM},
  title = {Kohl: A hazardous eyeliner},
  journal = {Int Ophthalmol},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {19(2)},
  pages = {83-8}
}
Chopwdhury AR Effect of industrial chemicals on male reproductive organ 2003 Toxicology
Vol. 191(1), pp. 29-30 
article  
Abstract: Exposure to industrial chemicals like lead, mercury, selenium, chromium, benzene hexachloride cyclohexane, formaldehyde, chlordecone, carbon disulphide, vinyl chloride and many others adversely affect male reproductive function. Lead exposure causes sperm tail abnormalities. Semen lead concentration was correspondingly increased with blood lead levels in those subjects who were exposed to lead 6 h daily over an average period of 6 years. Mercury affects the process of steroidogenesis and reduces testosterone blood levels. Exposure to selenium dioxide causes significant alterations in sperm morphology. Stainless steel workers exposed to the fumes of hexavalent chromium suffer an increased risk of reduced sperm quality and count. Benzene hexachloride cyclohexane (BHC), the cheapest insecticide, is a potent male gonadotoxic agent. The industrial exposure to formaldehyde of male workers causes the diminution of steroidogenesis. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), a fumigant against nematodes, causes infertility in male workers. Chlordecone, a highly stable chlorinated hydrocarbon
pesticide, causes oligospermia and reduction in motility. Exposure to carbon disulphide causes androgenic deficiency. Vinyl chloride monomer, a plasticiser, showed wide ranging sperm abnormalities. The toxic insult of these chemicals on male gametogenic and non-gametogenic cells may be due to sperm protein damage, oxidative damage to sperm head DNA and nuclear protein or oxidative damage of sperm by ROS. Germinal cell injury due to exposure of chemicals involves the interaction of androgen binding protein-heat shock protein 27 (ABP-hsp 27) and protein kinase (PKA).
BibTeX:
@article{AR2003,
  author = {Chopwdhury AR},
  title = {Effect of industrial chemicals on male reproductive organ},
  journal = {Toxicology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {191(1)},
  pages = {29-30}
}
Ashawa SC, Kelkar DN, Mishra UC Wet deposition of cadmium, lead and copper at Deonar, Bombay India and its relationship with rainfall 1985 Water Air Soil Pollut
Vol. 25(1), pp. 63-72 
article  
Abstract: The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Cu were measured by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for event rainwater samples collected at Deonar (Bombay). A relationship between measured wet deposition of these trace metals and amount of rainfall is calculated. The power law exponent of 0.6 is found suitable to describe the relationship between wet deposition and rainfall amount of monsoonal rain.
BibTeX:
@article{AshawaSC1985,
  author = {Ashawa SC, Kelkar DN, Mishra UC},
  title = {Wet deposition of cadmium, lead and copper at Deonar, Bombay India and its relationship with rainfall},
  journal = {Water Air Soil Pollut},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {25(1)},
  pages = {63-72}
}
Awasthi S, Awasthi R, Pande VK, Srivastav RC,Frumkin H Blood lead in pregnant women in the urban slums of Lucknow, India 1996 Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 53(12), pp. 836-40 
article  
Abstract: Objectives: To determine the concentrations of blood lead (PbB) in pregnant women in the slums of Lucknow, North India.
Methods: Of the 203 designated municipal slums in Lucknow, 70 were randomly selected for study and a cohort of 500 pregnant women was enrolled. Each participant was interviewed with questions on possible sources of exposure to lead, surrogates of nutritional status were measured, and PbB was measured.
Results: The mean PbB was 14.3?g/dl and 19.2% of women had PbB ?20 micrograms/dl. PbB was not associated with age, height, weight, gestation, or history of abortions, although higher PbB was associated with higher parity. Women living inner
city neighbourhoods near heavy vehicular traffic had PbB 2.2 ?grams/dl higher (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.8 to 3.6) than those living in other neighbourhoods. The PbB was not associated with reported use of piped water or the presence of paint in homes, and increasing PbB was unexpectedly associated with decreasing use of eye cosmetic “surma”; and the duration of gestation.
Conclusions: The high PbB found in this population raises concern about fetal development and points to the urgent need to reduce exposure to lead.
BibTeX:
@article{AwasthiS1996,
  author = {Awasthi S, Awasthi R, Pande VK, Srivastav RC,Frumkin H},
  title = {Blood lead in pregnant women in the urban slums of Lucknow, India},
  journal = {Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {53(12)},
  pages = {836-40}
}
Azad AS, Arora BR, Singh B, Sekhon G Nature and extent of heavy metal pollution from industrial units in Ludhiana (India) 1984 Indian J Ecol
Vol. 11(1), pp. 1-5 
article  
Abstract: Effluents from 10 leading industrial units of Ludhiana were sampled periodically at different times of the day. Analysis of these samples for heavy metals revealed that Zn, Ni and Fe in particular and Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn and Co in general were conspicuously more in effluents obtained from a group of industries manufacturing metallic products. In contrast Ca, Mg and K were abundant in effluents of textiles and woollens units. The concentration of all the elements was more in the evening than in the morning hours. A large variation in the concentration of Zn and Cu in effluents from industries manufacturing metallic products was observed over the study period. (Human health hazards associated with heavy metals in soil and plants are discussed.)
BibTeX:
@article{AzadAS1984,
  author = {Azad AS, Arora BR, Singh B, Sekhon G},
  title = {Nature and extent of heavy metal pollution from industrial units in Ludhiana (India)},
  journal = {Indian J Ecol},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {11(1)},
  pages = {1-5}
}
Gorai B Speciation of Cu, Cd and Pb in coastal waters of Kandla-Porbander shelf region, west coast of India 1997 Indian J Of Marine Sci
Vol. 26(2), pp. 227-229 
article  
Abstract: Dissolved, labile and non-labile concentrations of Cu,Cd and Pb in coastal waters of Kandla-Porbander Shelf region have been analysed. Labile forms of these three elements are dominant over their non-labile form. While labile forms of Pb and Cd are relatively enriched in surface due to anthropogenic inputs as well as terrestrial run-off, the sources of labile Cu is of marine origin.
BibTeX:
@article{B1997,
  author = {Gorai B},
  title = {Speciation of Cu, Cd and Pb in coastal waters of Kandla-Porbander shelf region, west coast of India},
  journal = {Indian J Of Marine Sci},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {26(2)},
  pages = {227-229}
}
Kaul B Lead exposure and iron deficiency among Jammu and New Delhi children 1999 Indian J Pediatr.
Vol. 66(1), pp. 27-35 
article  
Abstract: In order to examine the prevalence of lead exposure and iron deficiency in Jammu, blood lead (B-Pb) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP-ZnPP) levels were measured in a group of 125 children and compared with B-Pb and EP levels of 46 New Delhi children. The mean B-Pb level of Jammu children was 15 ?g/dl and ZnPP level 46 ?g/dl. The frequency distribution of B-Pb in Jammu children according to the 1997 CDC stratification showed that only 33% were below the 10 ?g/dl "normal" threshold levels and 50.5% were between 10-19?g/dl, an increasing level of concern. The remaining 16.5% were in the medical intervention lead poisoned level between 20- 87?g/dl with corresponding EP levels between 29-160?g/dl. The mean B-Pb and ZnPP levels for New Delhi children were 14?g/dl and 55?g/dl respectively. This study on Jammu children shows a modest increase in mean B-Pb and EP levels from those in 1985; the percentage of children with higher levels of B-Pb>10?g/dl have significantly increased. Moreover, the continued underlying high prevalence of iron deficiency among these children predisposes them to increased lead absorption from various sources thus aggravating further, the detrimental effects of lead. Therefore, a more extensive screening of all children below 10 years of age and an ongoing B-Pb and EP monitoring and iron supplementation programme for Jammu and New Delhi is essential. An environmental assessment of the sources leading to serious lead intoxication problem in Jammu, a rapidly growing and overpopulated city of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is strongly recommended.
BibTeX:
@article{B1999,
  author = {Kaul B},
  title = {Lead exposure and iron deficiency among Jammu and New Delhi children},
  journal = {Indian J Pediatr.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {66(1)},
  pages = {27-35}
}
Bakde SN, Apte VR Polarographic method for estimation of lead in air 1978 Indian J Environ Health
Vol. 20(2), pp. 160-166 
article  
Abstract: The procedure for estimation of Pb by polarography was simplified to study the particulate matter in the atmosphere. An attempt was made to find a simplified digestion procedure, suitable supporting electrolyte and maximum suppressor. From the study it was observed that 5% nitric acid proved to be the best supporting electrolyte and the lowest concentration of Pb that can be estimated was 0.1?g/ml in cell solution.
BibTeX:
@article{BakdeSN1978,
  author = {Bakde SN, Apte VR},
  title = {Polarographic method for estimation of lead in air},
  journal = {Indian J Environ Health},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {20(2)},
  pages = {160-166}
}
Balachandran S, Meena BR, Khillare PS Particle size distribution and its elemental composition in the ambient air of Delhi 2000 Environ Int.
Vol. 26(1-2), pp. 49-54 
article  
Abstract: This study examines the chemical composition of PM10, the thoracic fraction of the atmospheric particulate matter. An eight-stage Anderson impactor is used to separate the PM10 from other fractions with different aerodynamic behaviour at three different area representative sites in Delhi from February to May 1998. PM10 particulate are subdivided into two fractions, coarse (>2.1-10?) and fine (<2.1?). The concentrations of major heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Fe are determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The average concentration of coarse fraction of PM10 is found to be 68.3?17?g/m3 while the fine fraction of PM10 is 71.3?15 ?g/m3 for Delhi. Metal concentration (except Fe) in fine fraction exceeds by a factor of up to 6, as compared to that in the coarse fraction. In order to identify the major sources of fine and coarse fraction of PM10, principle component analysis (PCA) was undertaken and three major sources were identified, namely vehicular emissions, industrial emission, and soil resuspension.
BibTeX:
@article{BalachandranS2000,
  author = {Balachandran S, Meena BR, Khillare PS},
  title = {Particle size distribution and its elemental composition in the ambient air of Delhi},
  journal = {Environ Int.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {26(1-2)},
  pages = {49-54}
}
Balaji T, Chiranjeevi P Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of chromium cobalt and lead in waste water and plant materials by extraction - atomic absorption spectrometry 1998 Analytical Letters
Vol. 31(6), pp. 1081-1094 
article  
Abstract: A simple and rapid procedure has been developed for the determination of Cr, Co and Pb in waste water and plant materials by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In this method the metals are complexed with potassium propyl xanthate and
extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and analyzed. Optimum conditions for quantitative determination of metals viz chromium, cobalt and lead are established by studying various parameters like the percentage of recovery in different solvents like butyl acetate, diisobutyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and ethyl acetate, effect of reagent concentration and effect of pH. The data showed that the method could be employed for the determination of aforesaid metals in waste water and plant materials in the concentration range of 0.06--0.8?g/ml of cobalt and 0.12--1.6?g/ml of chromium and lead. The reliability of the method was assured by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials and by inter-comparison of Cr, Co and Pb values using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.
BibTeX:
@article{BalajiT1998,
  author = {Balaji T, Chiranjeevi P},
  title = {Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of chromium cobalt and lead in waste water and plant materials by extraction - atomic absorption spectrometry},
  journal = {Analytical Letters},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {31(6)},
  pages = {1081-1094}
}
Barker DH, Rencher AC, Mittal BM, Shanbhag SV, Sharma VN, Sharma LS Metal concentrations in human hair from India Pilani Rajasthan 1976 Proc Univ Mo Annu Conf Trace Subst Environ Health
Vol. 10, pp. 71-81 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BarkerDH1976,
  author = {Barker DH, Rencher AC, Mittal BM, Shanbhag SV, Sharma VN, Sharma LS},
  title = {Metal concentrations in human hair from India Pilani Rajasthan},
  journal = {Proc Univ Mo Annu Conf Trace Subst Environ Health},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {71-81}
}
Basu N, Gogte ST, Jain SC, Sinclair S, Ghai OP, Bhide NK Lead in Delhi (India) environment 1990 Indian J Ind Med
Vol. 36(1), pp. 5-13 
article  
Abstract: A total of 232 samples of 10 types of commonly used household articles surma, kajal, sindoor, aluminium utensils, crockey kalhai tin coils, haldi (turmeric) powders, chilli (red pepper) powders, wood paints and white wash wall paints as also drinking water (65 samples) and soil (14 samples) were collected from Delhi area and analysed for their lead content. Surma samples contained 1 to 90% lead w/w and exposed a typical user to about 8 mg lead per application. 7 out of 66 crockery samples showed more leachable lead than allowed by ISI. Wood paints which can be eaten in considerable quantity by children of abnormal appetite (pica) had lead content 50-1200?g/g. Six drinking water samples had 20?g/l or more lead. Lead pipe joints and certain baked earthen pitchers seem to contribute lead to water. Considering the high water intake in a tropical country like India, the 50?g/l safe limit should be reduced to 20?g/l.
BibTeX:
@article{BasuN1990,
  author = {Basu N, Gogte ST, Jain SC, Sinclair S, Ghai OP, Bhide NK},
  title = {Lead in Delhi (India) environment},
  journal = {Indian J Ind Med},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {36(1)},
  pages = {5-13}
}
Bellinger DC, Hu H, Kalaniti K, Thomas N, Rajan P, Sambandam S, Ramaswamy P, Balakrishnan K A pilot study of blood lead levels and neurobehavioral function in children living in Chennai, India 2005 Int J Occup Environ Health.
Vol. 11(2), pp. 138-43 
article  
Abstract: The relationship between blood lead level and neurodevelopment was assessed in a pilot cross-sectional study of 74, 4-14-year-old children in Chennai, India. Mean blood lead level was 11.1?g/dL (2.5-38.3). The Binet-Kamath IQ test and the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Activity (WRAVMA) were administered to 58 children. Teachers completed the Connor's Behavioral Rating Scale. Excluding two outliers, IQ and WRAVMA composite scores were inversely related to blood lead level, with an effect size of approximately 6 points decline for a 10?g/dL increase in blood lead. Children in the highest and lowest blood lead quartiles had mean IQs of 95.6?13.3 and 102.0?22.5, respectively. Behavior ratings were not associated with blood lead level. Lead exposure is a significant problem among Indian children, with many having blood
lead levels associated with increased neurodevelopmental risk.
BibTeX:
@article{BellingerDC2005,
  author = {Bellinger DC, Hu H, Kalaniti K, Thomas N, Rajan P, Sambandam S, Ramaswamy P, Balakrishnan K},
  title = {A pilot study of blood lead levels and neurobehavioral function in children living in Chennai, India},
  journal = {Int J Occup Environ Health.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {11(2)},
  pages = {138-43}
}
Bhagwat VR, Patil AJ, Patil JA, Sontakke AV Occupational lead exposure and liver functions in battery manufacture workers around Kolhapur (Maharashtra) 2008 Al Ameen J Med Sci
Vol. 1(1), pp. 2-9 
article  
Abstract: The magnitude of occupational lead exposure and its impact on liver functions was assessed in battery manufacture workers around Kolhapur (Maharashtra). Blood lead, urine lead, erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin, urine -amino laevulinic acid and porphobilinogen levels were measured together with standard routine biochemical tests of liver functions in battery manufacture workers along with non-exposed controls subjects. Blood lead levels were considerably high in the workers (53.63±16.98; range 25.8–78g/dl) compared to the controls (12.52±4.08; range 2.8-22g/dl). The liver functions in these workers were normal, demonstrating preservation of hepatocellular and synthetic functions of liver. There was good correlation (r=0.67) between blood lead and urinary -amino laevulinic acid levels in the worker group and no such correlation was observed in case of the control group (r=0.02). The results indicates that early screening and regular monitoring of industrial workers by urinary -amino laevulinic acid levels is urgently needed to prevent long term adverse effects of lead exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{BhagwatVR2008,
  author = {Bhagwat VR, Patil AJ, Patil JA, Sontakke AV},
  title = {Occupational lead exposure and liver functions in battery manufacture workers around Kolhapur (Maharashtra)},
  journal = {Al Ameen J Med Sci},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {1(1)},
  pages = {2-9}
}
Bhat RV, Moy GG Monitoring and assessment of dietary exposure to chemical contaminants 1997 World Health Statistics Quarterly
Vol. 50(1-2), pp. 132-149 
article  
Abstract: The results of the Global Environment Monitoring Systemood Contamination Monitoring and Assessment Programme (GEMS/Food) and other monitoring programmes for priority contaminants in the diet, including lead, cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues and aflatoxin, are presented.
These results are assessed with respect to established acceptable or tolerable intakes for these contaminants. While the assessments generally confirm the effectiveness of government efforts to prevent or reduce food contamination in industrialized countries, better exposure estimates for infants and children and other vulnerable groups should be calculated. In developing countries, little reliable information is available on the occurrence of food contamination. Without such information, the health of hundreds of millions of people may be threatened. For these countries, and especially those that employ older agricultural and industrial technologies, basic food contamination monitoring and assessment programmes should be established for at least those contaminants of priority concern. These programmes form an essential basis for developing effective intervention strategies and for efficient management of health and environment resources. In all countries, accidental and sporadic contamination is an ever-present danger and continual vigilance is necessary to protect public health. All countries should identify institutions with the analytical capability to support epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of disease that may be associated with consumption of chemically contaminated food. All countries should participate in GEMS/Food to promote health-oriented, population-based monitoring at the national level.
BibTeX:
@article{BhatRV1997,
  author = {Bhat RV, Moy GG},
  title = {Monitoring and assessment of dietary exposure to chemical contaminants},
  journal = {World Health Statistics Quarterly},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {50(1-2)},
  pages = {132-149}
}
Bhatia I, Choudhri GN Lead poisoning of milk--the basic need for the foundation of human civilization 1996 Indian J Public Health
Vol. 40(1), pp. 24-6 
article  
Abstract: Three study sites along the roads with different automobile traffic densities were selected and cattle milk samples were collected every month from all the three sites. Lead concentration in samples was determined through atomic absorption spectrometer. Milk collected from area of heavy traffic contained 4.6-7.2 ppm of Pb, which is much higher than its permissible limit (0.3 ppm) according to FDA.
BibTeX:
@article{BhatiaI1996,
  author = {Bhatia I, Choudhri GN},
  title = {Lead poisoning of milk--the basic need for the foundation of human civilization},
  journal = {Indian J Public Health},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {40(1)},
  pages = {24-6}
}
Bhowal SK, Chakraburtty AK, Dhar B Heavy metal contamination in the sewage sludge of India’s metropolitan area India 1987 Ind j environ hlth
Vol. 30(1), pp. 66-71 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BhowalSK1987,
  author = {Bhowal SK, Chakraburtty AK, Dhar B},
  title = {Heavy metal contamination in the sewage sludge of India’s metropolitan area India},
  journal = {Ind j environ hlth},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {30(1)},
  pages = {66-71}
}
Bijoor AR, Venkatesh T Genetic susceptibility to lead poisoning – a case report 2007 Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry
Vol. 22(2), pp. 162-163 
article  
Abstract: Case Report: Lead poisoning is well documented in persons occupationally exposed to lead. What is less known is, that even in persons working in lead based industries, the effect of lead and the appearance of signs and symptoms of lead poisoning is genetically determined. Three genes related to lead metabolism, exhibiting polymorphism have already been demonstrated -?ALA-dehydratase, Vitamin D receptor gene and Hemochromatosis gene. These alleles determine the susceptibility of the individuals to lead. We present here a case of a lead acid battery worker, who presented without any signs and symptoms of lead poisoning except for a very high level of blood lead (82.8?g/dl and 47.5?g/dl 9 months later)
BibTeX:
@article{BijoorAR2007,
  author = {Bijoor AR, Venkatesh T},
  title = {Genetic susceptibility to lead poisoning – a case report},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {22(2)},
  pages = {162-163}
}
Caussy D, Gochfeld M, Gurzau E, Neagu C, Ruedel H Lessons from case studies of metals: investigating exposure, bioavailability, and risk 2003 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 56(1), pp. 45-51 
article  
Abstract: Since metals are widely distributed in environmental matrices, humans are exposed to them by either anthropogenic activities or inadvertently by necessity. Selected metals: arsenic, mercury, iron, tin, lead and chromium were chosen on the basis of their economic and public health importance to illustrate the diversity of exposure pathways and differences in factors governing bioavailability. Bioavailability is central to the toxicity of metals and this is discussed from the health risk paradigm standpoint of risk assessment and risk management and the impacts of including or excluding bioavailability in such assessment. The lessons from the case studies of arsenic, mercury, tin and chromium provide a unified concept of methods that can be used in investigating and controlling outbreaks due to metal poisoning in other similar situations.
BibTeX:
@article{CaussyD2003,
  author = {Caussy D, Gochfeld M, Gurzau E, Neagu C, Ruedel H},
  title = {Lessons from case studies of metals: investigating exposure, bioavailability, and risk},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {56(1)},
  pages = {45-51}
}
Chakraborti D, Das D, Chatterjee A, Jin Z, Jiang SG Direct determination of some heavy metals in urban air particulates by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction after simple acid decomposition: Part IV. Application to Calcutta air particulates 1992 Environ Technol
Vol. 13(1), pp. 95-100 
article  
Abstract: Some heavy metals in the air particulates of Calcutta city collected on Millipore membrane filter by a low volume sampler during Spring 1987 have been reported. The results have been compared with other cities of the world. For determination of heavy metals collected on Millipore membrane filter a simple digestion with nitric acid –hydrogen peroxide in small Teflon Bomb has been described. The heavy metals Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb, & As in the particulates were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with L’vov Platform & Zeeman correction. Matrix modifiers were used for Cd, Pb & As. The performance of the procedure was confirmed by Indiaks NBS-SRM 1648 “Urban Particulates”
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD1992,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Das D, Chatterjee A, Jin Z, Jiang SG},
  title = {Direct determination of some heavy metals in urban air particulates by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction after simple acid decomposition: Part IV. Application to Calcutta air particulates},
  journal = {Environ Technol},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {13(1)},
  pages = {95-100}
}
Chatterjee A, Banerjee RN Determination of lead and other metals in a residential area of greater Calcutta 1999 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 227(2-3), pp. 175-85 
article  
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the major source and extent of metal pollution in a residential area of Greater Calcutta. In this area approximately 50,000 people reside in the vicinity of a lead factory that produces lead ingots and lead alloys. Many
people, especially children, are affected by lead toxicity. Soils, waters, road dust, leaf dust, leaves and pond sediments were sampled in and around the factory area. Aliquots of the samples were mineralized with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a
microwave system. Lead and 19 other elements were quantified in the digests by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of the procedure was confirmed by analyzing NBS-BCR standard reference soil, leaves, sediment samples. The soils are highly contaminated not only with lead (4.7%), but also with Cd (0.08%), Ag (0.001%), Cu (0.02%), Zn (1.0%), As (1.0%), Mo (0.003%), Sn (0.003%) and Hg (0.03%) (metal concentrations given in parentheses are maximum). Moving away from the smelter, most of metal concentrations, especially Pb, As, Mo, Cu, Hg, Zn, Cd, Sn and Ag, decreased exponentially over increasing distance. In the residential areas near the smelter, notably to the west side of the factory, metal concentrations significantly breached the threshold trigger values set in India by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Particulate materials from the smelter stack appear to contaminate soils up to at least 0.5 km. However, abnormally high metal levels in the immediate smelter area may be due to primarily fugitive emissions. The surface waters
are only contaminated by arsenic ranges from 0.05 to 13.5 mg/l, but the ground water is currently not polluted by lead and arsenic. An appropriate treatment plant with some intervention measures should be taken to save the locality.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeA1999,
  author = {Chatterjee A, Banerjee RN},
  title = {Determination of lead and other metals in a residential area of greater Calcutta},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {227(2-3)},
  pages = {175-85}
}
Chowdhury AR, Chinoy NJ*, Gautam AK, Rao RV, Parikh DJ, Shah GM, Highland HN*, Patel KG*, Chatterjee BB Effect of lead on human semen 1986 Adv Contracept Deliv Syst
Vol. 2(2-3), pp. 208-10 
article  
Abstract: Semen qualities were studied in workers with an average age of 30 years and occupationally exposed to lead in a printing press. Another sample with the same average age but not exposed to lead were taken as control subjects. The average lead content in blood and seminal plasma of the exposed group were 42.5?g/100 ml and 14.80?g/100 ml, respectively. Their sperm counts and percentage of motile sperm were significantly affected. Significantly higher percentages of abnormal spermatozoa were also observed in these semen samples. The levels of seminal acid phosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, and fructose in them were also significantly found to be low compared with those from the unexposed subjects. Cytochemical study of sperm head DNA in the exposed groups showed a low surface reaction.
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryAR1986,
  author = {Chowdhury AR, Chinoy NJ*, Gautam AK, Rao RV, Parikh DJ, Shah GM, Highland HN*, Patel KG*, Chatterjee BB},
  title = {Effect of lead on human semen},
  journal = {Adv Contracept Deliv Syst},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {2(2-3)},
  pages = {208-10}
}
Clark CS, Rampal KG, Thuppil V, Chen CK, Clark R, Roda S The lead content of currently available new residential paint in several Asian countries 2006 Environ Res.
Vol. 102(1), pp. 9-12 
article  
Abstract: Worldwide prohibitions on lead gasoline additives were a major international public health accomplishment, the results of which are still being documented in parts of the world. Although the need to remove lead from paints has been recognized for over a century, evidence reported in this article indicates that lead-based paints for household use, some containing more than 10% lead, are readily available for purchase in some of the largest countries in the world. Sixty-six percent of new paint samples from China, India, and Malaysia were found to contain 5000 ppm (0.5%) or more of lead, the US definition of lead-based paint in existing housing, and 78% contained 600 ppm (0.06%) or more, the limit for new paints. In contrast, the comparable levels in a nearby-developed country, Singapore, were 0% and 9%. In examining lead levels in paints of the same brands purchased in different countries, it was found that some brands had lead-based paints in one of the countries and paints meeting US limits in another; another had lead-free paint available in all countries where samples were obtained. Lead-based paints have already poisoned millions of children and likely will cause similar damage in the future as paint use increases as countries in Asia and elsewhere continue their rapid development. The ready availability of lead-based paints documented in this article provides stark evidence of the urgent need for efforts to accomplish an effective worldwide ban on the use of lead in paint.
BibTeX:
@article{ClarkCS2006,
  author = {Clark CS, Rampal KG, Thuppil V, Chen CK, Clark R, Roda S},
  title = {The lead content of currently available new residential paint in several Asian countries},
  journal = {Environ Res.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {102(1)},
  pages = {9-12}
}
Clark CS, Thuppil V, Clark R, Sinha S, Menezes G, D'Souza H, Nayak N, Kuruvilla A, Law T, Dave P, Shah S Lead in paint and soil in Karnataka and Gujarat, India 2005 J Occup Environ Hyg.
Vol. 2(1), pp. 38-44 
article  
Abstract: Blood lead surveys in several areas of India have found very high percentages of children with elevated blood lead levels. Fifty-three percent of children under 12 years of age in a seven-city screening had blood lead levels equal to or greater than
10?g/dL, the level currently considered elevated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A number of these surveys focused on populations near lead smelters or in areas with high lead levels from combustion of lead-containing gasoline. There is little information available, however, on the levels of lead in paint in India and in soil. Field portable X-ray fluorescence analyzers were used to determine environmental lead levels in paint, dust, air, soil, and other bulk samples near several lead-using industries and in the residential environments of children with very high blood lead levels, at least four times as high as the CDC limit. Soils near industrial operations, such as secondary lead smelters, and battery dismantling units contained levels up to 100,000 ppm of lead. Four of 29 currently available paints from five manufacturers measured 1.0 mg/cm2 or above--the current U.S. definition of leadbased paint in housing-after the application of a single coat; four others measured at least 1.0 after three coats, and three others likely reached this level after the application of an additional one or two coats. In 5 of 10 homes of the elevated blood lead children, three or more locations in or around the home were found to have lead paint levels of 1.0 mg/cm2 or higher. Soil exceeding the U.S. standard for residential areas (400 ppm) was found at only one of the houses. Other sources of lead exposure, including traditional ayurvedic medicine tablets, were also observed. Similar surveys would be useful elsewhere in India and in other developing countries.
BibTeX:
@article{ClarkCS2005,
  author = {Clark CS, Thuppil V, Clark R, Sinha S, Menezes G, D'Souza H, Nayak N, Kuruvilla A, Law T, Dave P, Shah S},
  title = {Lead in paint and soil in Karnataka and Gujarat, India},
  journal = {J Occup Environ Hyg.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {2(1)},
  pages = {38-44}
}
Cynthia Moore, Adler R EXPERIENCE AND REASON: Herbal Vitamins: Lead Toxicity and Developmental Delay 2000 Pediatrics
Vol. 106(3), pp. 600-602 
article  
Abstract: A case of lead poisoning from an Indian herbal vitamin is presented. The patient who was developmentally delayed was given an herbal vitamin from India to strengthen his brain. The tablet contained large amounts of lead and mercury, leading to significant lead burden. Vulnerability of families and lack of awareness of health care professionals of dangers of unknown herbal supplementation are discussed. Low levels of lead ingestion can lead to cognitive deficits and even long-lasting neurodevelopmental deficits.1 In the United States the most common source of lead is paint, whereas, in other countries, folk remedies are a significant source. Families with developmentally delayed children are always seeking ways to improve their child's status. This quest makes families especially vulnerable to nonstandard medical intervention and to folk remedies. Many immigrant families are acculturated to non-American remedies. Many of these products have become available and are being used in the United States. We present a case of chronic lead poisoning in the United States in an Indian child who had an established neurodevelopmental delay. His mother was giving him a natural medication to strengthen his brain.
BibTeX:
@article{CynthiaMoore2000,
  author = {Cynthia Moore, Adler R},
  title = {EXPERIENCE AND REASON: Herbal Vitamins: Lead Toxicity and Developmental Delay},
  journal = {Pediatrics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {106(3)},
  pages = {600-602}
}
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Lead poisoning associated with Ayurvedic medications-five states, 2000-2003 2004 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.
Vol. 53(26), pp. 582-4 
article  
Abstract: Although approximately 95% of lead poisoning among U.S. adults results from occupational exposure, lead poisoning also can occur from use of traditional or folk remedies. Ayurveda is a traditional form of medicine practiced in India and other South
Asian countries. Ayurvedic medications can contain herbs, minerals, metals, or animal products and are made in standardized and nonstandardized formulations. During 2000-2003, a total of 12 cases of lead poisoning among adults in five states associated with ayurvedic medications or remedies were reported to CDC. This report summarizes these 12 cases. Culturally appropriate educational efforts are needed to inform persons in populations using traditional or folk medications of the potential health risks posed by these remedies.
BibTeX:
@article{DiseaseControl2004,
  author = {Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)},
  title = {Lead poisoning associated with Ayurvedic medications-five states, 2000-2003},
  journal = {MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {53(26)},
  pages = {582-4}
}
Dixit RC, Verma SR, Nitnaware V, Thacker NP Heavy metals contamination in surface and groundwater supply of an urban city 2003 Indian J Environ Health.
Vol. 45(2), pp. 107-12 
article  
Abstract: There is a continuous increase in the demand of water supply in cities due to the industrialization and growing population. This extra supply is generally met by groundwaters or nearby available surface waters. It may lead into incomplete treatment and substandard supply of drinking water. To ensure that the intake water derived from surface and groundwater is clear, palatable, neither corrosive nor scale forming, free from undesirable taste, odor and acceptable from aesthetic and health point of view, the final water quality at Delhi have been evaluated. The final water supply of four treatment plants and 80 tubewells at Delhi were surveyed in 2000-2001 for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium and zinc. The levels of manganese, copper, selenium and cadmium were found marginally above the Indian Standards (IS) specification regulated for drinking water. The data was used to assess the final water quality supplied at Delhi.
BibTeX:
@article{DixitRC2003,
  author = {Dixit RC, Verma SR, Nitnaware V, Thacker NP},
  title = {Heavy metals contamination in surface and groundwater supply of an urban city},
  journal = {Indian J Environ Health.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {45(2)},
  pages = {107-12}
}
Parikh DJ Dr. CKR Memorial Oration 1990 Human exposure assessment to lead an overview in India 1990 Indian J Ind Med
Vol. 36(2), pp. 63-75 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{DJ1990,
  author = {Parikh DJ},
  title = {Dr. CKR Memorial Oration 1990 Human exposure assessment to lead an overview in India},
  journal = {Indian J Ind Med},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {36(2)},
  pages = {63-75}
}
D’Souza SJ, Narurkar LM, Narurkar MV Effect of Environmental Exposures to Lead and Cadmium on Human Lymphocytic Detoxifying Enzymes 1994 Bulletin of Environ Contamination and Toxico
Vol. 53(3), pp. 458-463 
article  
Abstract: The effect of environmental exposures to lead(Pb) and cadmium(Cd) on human lymphocyte detoxifying enzymes was investigated. Blood samples were obtained from subjects exposed environmentally to Pb near an alloy factory in Bombay, India. Blood from Cd exposed subjects was provided from Bhaba Atomic Research Center samples. Lymphocytes were isolated and assayed for the enzymes NADPH cytochrome-creductase (CYT-cR), aminopyridine-demethylase (APD), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities, as well as for total protein. Results showed that the blood Pb levels
ranged from 13.17 to 75.83 micrograms per deciliter (?g/dl). Levels in the general Bombay population ranged from 10.7 to 14.1?g/dl. Very low levels of NADPH CYT-cR (0.79 to 3.3 nanomoles per minute per milligram (nmol/min/ml) protein) were found in the Pb exposed population, versus 4.1 to 12.5nmol/min/mg protein in the general population. APD levels were considerably higher in exposed individuals (11.67) versus those of the normal population (6.73nmol/min/mg protein). GST activity was extremely low in exposed individuals (20.12) versus that in the general population
(62.4nmol/min/mg protein). The authors conclude that changes in the detoxicating enzymes and resultant metabolic alterations are probably responsible for the lymphocytic enzyme changes and other indices indicative of serious health hazards including susceptibility to environmental carcinogens in Pb and Cd exposed subjects.
BibTeX:
@article{D’SouzaSJ1994,
  author = {D’Souza SJ, Narurkar LM, Narurkar MV},
  title = {Effect of Environmental Exposures to Lead and Cadmium on Human Lymphocytic Detoxifying Enzymes},
  journal = {Bulletin of Environ Contamination and Toxico},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {53(3)},
  pages = {458-463}
}
Ernst E Heavy metals in traditional Indian remedies 2002 Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
Vol. 57(12), pp. 891-6 
article  
Abstract: The growing popularity of traditional Indian remedies necessitates a critical evaluation of risks associated with their use. This systematic review aims at summarising all available data relating to the heavy metal content in such remedies. Computerised
literature searches were carried out to identify all articles with original data on this subject. Fifteen case reports and six case series were found. Their collective results suggest that heavy metals, particularly lead, have been a regular constituent of traditional Indian remedies. This has repeatedly caused serious harm to patients taking such remedies. The incidence of heavy metal contamination is not known, but one study shows that 64% of samples collected in India contained significant amounts of lead (64% mercury, 41% arsenic and 9% cadmium). These findings should alert us to the possibility of heavy metal content in traditional Indian remedies and motivate us to consider means of protecting consumers from such risks.
BibTeX:
@article{E2002,
  author = {Ernst E},
  title = {Heavy metals in traditional Indian remedies},
  journal = {Eur J Clin Pharmacol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {57(12)},
  pages = {891-6}
}
Flora SJ, Flora G, Saxena G, Mishra M Arsenic and lead induced free radical generation and their reversibility following chelation 2007 Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand)
Vol. 53(1), pp. 26-47 
article  
Abstract: Health hazards caused by heavy metals have become a great concern to the population. Lead and arsenic are one of the most important current global environmental toxicants. Their toxic manifestations are being considered caused primarily due to the imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis and also due to a high affinity of these metals for thiol groups on functional proteins. They also interfere with a number of other body functions and are known to affect central nervous system (CNS), hematopoietic system, liver and kidneys and produce serious disorders. They produce both acute and chronic poisoning, of which chronic poisoning is more dangerous as it is very difficult to revert back to normal condition after chronic exposure to these insidious metals present in our life. Despite many years of research, we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic plumbism and arsenicosis. Current approved treatment lies in the administration of chelating agents that forms an insoluble complex with the metal and removes it. They have been used clinically as antidotes for treating acute and chronic poisoning. The most widely used chelating agents are calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (CaNa2EDTA), D-penicillamine and British anti-lewisite (BAL). Meso 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), an analogue of BAL, has been tried successfully in animals as well as in humans. But it is unable to remove the metal from intracellular sites. Effective chelation therapy for intoxication by heavy metals depends on whether the chelating agents are able to reach the intracellular site where the heavy metal is firmly bound. One of the important approaches has been the use of combination therapy. This includes use of structurally different chelators or a combination of an adjuvant/ antioxidant/ herbal extracts and a chelator to provide better clinical/ biochemical recovery. A number of other strategies have been suggested to minimize the numerous problems. This article presents the recent development made in this area with possible directions for future research.
BibTeX:
@article{FloraSJ2007,
  author = {Flora SJ, Flora G, Saxena G, Mishra M},
  title = {Arsenic and lead induced free radical generation and their reversibility following chelation},
  journal = {Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand)},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {53(1)},
  pages = {26-47}
}
Flora SJS, Singh S, Tandon SK Plumbism among Indian Silver Jewellery Industry Workers 1990 J of Environ Sci and Hlth, Part A: Environ Sci and Eng
Vol. 25A(2), pp. 105-113 
article  
Abstract: A study of the incidence of plumbism, lead poisoning, among Indian silver jewelry industry workers was conducted. The cohort consisted of 105 persons, 13 to 60 years old, employed in recovering silver from lead containing materials and making silver plated jewelry in workshops in Hupu, India. They had 2 to 30 years exposure. The comparisons consisted of 16 persons, 15 to 68 years old, with no known exposure to lead. Twenty three jewelry workers had symptoms of lead poisoning such as acute abdominal colic, metallic taste, weakness, constipation, and bluish gums. Blood lead and zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations and urine lead and delta-aminolevulinicacid (ALA) concentrations were significantly elevated in these subjects while blood
delta-aminolevulinic- acid-dehydratase (ALAD) activity and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly decreased. Blood lead and ZPP concentrations, blood lead concentration and ALAD activity, blood lead concentration and the ZPP/hemoglobin ratio, and urinary lead and ALA concentrations were significantly correlated with each other. Airborne lead concentrations as high as 347.99?g/m3 were measured at some worksites. The authors conclude that Indian silver jewelry workers are exposed to airborne lead concentrations above the permissible limit.
BibTeX:
@article{FloraSJS1990,
  author = {Flora SJS, Singh S, Tandon SK},
  title = {Plumbism among Indian Silver Jewellery Industry Workers},
  journal = {J of Environ Sci and Hlth, Part A: Environ Sci and Eng},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {25A(2)},
  pages = {105-113}
}
Mehta FR Lead absorption in workers handling lead products 1991 Ind J of Indust Med
Vol. 37(4), pp. 171-5 
article  
Abstract: An evaluation study of workers handling lead products was undertaken. Blood lead levels of 180 workers employed in various workshops have been determined employing atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. The mean blood lead concentration was 60.09±umg/100 ml. Blood lead levels of workers employed in Paint, Battery, Foundry and Sheet Metal Shops have been compared. Melting of lead and welding operations carried out in the Battery and Sheet Matal Shops (emission of lead fumes) were associated with evidence of excessive lead absorption. Mean blood lead levels amongst workers were found to increase significantly with length of service. Smokers and Tobacco chewers showed significantly higher mean blood lead levels.
BibTeX:
@article{FR1991,
  author = {Mehta FR},
  title = {Lead absorption in workers handling lead products},
  journal = {Ind J of Indust Med},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {37(4)},
  pages = {171-5}
}
Mehta FR Lead absorption in workers handling lead products 1990 Ind J Ind Med
Vol. 36(1), pp. 15-20 
article  
Abstract: An evaluation study of workers handling lead products was undertaken. Blood lead levels of 180 workers employed in various workshops have been determined employing Atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. The mean blood lead concentration was 50.09?g/100 ml, SD | 25.05. Blood lead levels of workers employed in Paint, Battery, Foundry and Sheet Metal Shops have been compared. Melting of lead and welding operations carried out in the Battery and Sheet Metal Shops (emission of lead fumes) were associated with evidence of excessive lead absorption. Mean blood lead levels amongst workers were found to increase significantly with length of service. Smokers and Tobacco chewers showed significantly higher mean blood lead levels.
BibTeX:
@article{FR1990,
  author = {Mehta FR},
  title = {Lead absorption in workers handling lead products},
  journal = {Ind J Ind Med},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {36(1)},
  pages = {15-20}
}
Friberg L, Vahter M Assessment of exposure to lead and cadmium through biological monitoring: results of a UNEP/WHO global study 1983 Environ Res
Vol. 30(1), pp. 95-128 
article  
Abstract: This paper describes a UNEP/WHO project on the assessment of human exposure to lead and cadmium through analysis of blood and kidneys. The following countries have participated: Belgium, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico, People's Republic of China, Peru, Sweden, United States, and Yugoslavia. No laboratory started the monitoring before achieving satisfactory results of quality control (QC) analysis (samples of cow blood spiked with lead and cadmium and freeze-dried horse kidney cortex for cadmium analysis) according to predetermined criteria based on a linear regression model. Two hundred
teachers from one urban area in each country constituted the target group for lead and cadmium in blood and cases of "sudden, unexpected death" for cadmium in kidney cortex. QC samples were analyzed in parallel with the monitoring samples to assure validity of the obtained results. The quality assurance program also included preanalytical quality control. There was considerable variation in metal exposure between areas. Geometric means for lead in blood ranged from about 60 ?grams Pb/liter in Beijing and Tokyo to 225 in Mexico City. The values were below 100 ?grams Pb/liter also in Baltimore, Jerusalem, Lima, Stockholm, and Zagreb, and between 100 and 200 ?grams Pb/liter in Brussels and India. In general, males had higher blood levels than females and smokers higher than nonsmokers. With a few exceptions the values were lower than results reported in a recent study within the European Communities. Geometric means for cadmium in blood ranged from 0.5 ?gram Cd/liter in Stockholm and Jerusalem to 1.2 in Brussels and Tokyo. Cadmium levels were considerably higher among smokers than among nonsmokers. Tokyo had the highest values for cadmium in kidney cortex with a geometric mean in the age group 40-60 years of 60-70 mg Cd/kg wet wt. Lowest values were found in Baltimore, Beijing, India, and Jerusalem, with means around 20-25 mg Cd/kg wet wt. There was a tendency toward higher values for smokers than for nonsmokers, but no differences related to sex. Data were not received from Mexico and Peru.
BibTeX:
@article{FribergL1983,
  author = {Friberg L, Vahter M},
  title = {Assessment of exposure to lead and cadmium through biological monitoring: results of a UNEP/WHO global study},
  journal = {Environ Res},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {30(1)},
  pages = {95-128}
}
Gaghate DG, Hasan MZ Ambient lead levels in urban areas 1999 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 62(4), pp. 403-8 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{GaghateDG1999,
  author = {Gaghate DG, Hasan MZ},
  title = {Ambient lead levels in urban areas},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {62(4)},
  pages = {403-8}
}
Garg N, Mathur N, Modak DP, Singh KP, Murthy RC, Ahmed S, Chandra SV, Ray PK Trace metals trend analysis in river ganges at Kanpur 1992 Environ Int
Vol. 18(3), pp. 297-305 
article  
Abstract: Kanpur (India), one of the largest industrial cities located on the bank of the river Ganges, discharges large quantities of industrial effluents into it. Heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn) were monitored monthly from July 1986 to June 1989. Samples were collected at locations where the river entered Kanpur (up-stream, U) and left Kanpur (down-stream, D/S). Time series analysis was carried out using a moving average model to estimate the trend values free from auto-correlation. The two independent and identically distributed deseasonalized series for upstream and down-stream were compared by the ANOVA technique to find out the space and time effect of different metal levels in the Ganges water. The measured and trend values were completely in accordance with the observed pattern. A significantly temporary effect for iron and zinc was observed. Significant site-related effects were observed from chromium due to the presence of a large number of industrial establishments.
BibTeX:
@article{GargN1992,
  author = {Garg N, Mathur N, Modak DP, Singh KP, Murthy RC, Ahmed S, Chandra SV, Ray PK},
  title = {Trace metals trend analysis in river ganges at Kanpur},
  journal = {Environ Int},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {18(3)},
  pages = {297-305}
}
Geraldine M, Herman DS, Venkatesh T Lead poisoning as a result of infertility treatment using herbal
remedies
2007 Arch Gynecol Obstet
Vol. 275(4), pp. 279-81 
article  
Abstract: Introduction: Lead poisoning remains a major problem in our society due to the lack of awareness of its ill effects among the clinical community. The non-availability of blood lead levels at primary health centers results in many lead-poisoned cases being treated symptomatically, without the diagnosis being sought. 12 Case
Report: We report a case here, presenting with colicky abdominal pain receiving symptomatic treatment initially; lead poisoning was confirmed following the estimation of blood lead levels.
Discussion: The consumption of unbranded herbal medicines as a causative factor for lead poisoning was confirmed by high lead content in the medicines. Surely, this demands public health programs to disseminate strategies to the medical personnel about the clinical implication of lead poisoning, as well as the general public for awareness and to prevent lead poisoning.
BibTeX:
@article{GeraldineM2007,
  author = {Geraldine M, Herman DS, Venkatesh T},
  title = {Lead poisoning as a result of infertility treatment using herbal
remedies}, journal = {Arch Gynecol Obstet}, year = {2007}, volume = {275(4)}, pages = {279-81} }
Ghodasara NB, Rathod RA, Vyas JB, Parikh DJ, Chattopadhyay P, Kashyap SK Paint aerosols and heavy metals in the work environment of paint spray section of the transport workshop 1991 Indian J Ind Med
Vol. 37(4), pp. 49-155 
article  
Abstract: Environmental hygiene survey was carried out to assess the paint aerosol pollution in the work environment of paint spray section of a transport workshop. Air samples & paint samples were analysed to estimate the lead and other heavy metals like Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Zn and Fe. Total aerosol concentration in the work environment was found in the range of 7.84 to 104.8 mg/m3. Concentrations of lead and other heavy metals (except Fe) in the work environment at different locations was found below the recommended Threshold Limit Values, (TLV). Heavy metal content of paints sample was found below 0.1%. In primer paint iron (Fe) content was found about 5%. Over all results revealed that in paint spray section aerosol pollution is very high yet heavy metal pollution was found below the Threshold Limit Values.
BibTeX:
@article{GhodasaraNB1991,
  author = {Ghodasara NB, Rathod RA, Vyas JB, Parikh DJ, Chattopadhyay P, Kashyap SK},
  title = {Paint aerosols and heavy metals in the work environment of paint spray section of the transport workshop},
  journal = {Indian J Ind Med},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {37(4)},
  pages = {49-155}
}
Ghoodasara NB, Patel NC, Pandya CB, Saiyed HN, Parikh DJ, Kashyap SK Lead exposure study in glaze workers employed in small and medium scale ceramic industry 1990 Indian J Ind Med
Vol. 36(1), pp. 22-31 
article  
Abstract: Lead compounds are used in ceramic glaze preparation hence workers engaged in glaze work are exposed to inorganic lead during the process of glaze application on ceramic wares. Twenty-eight glaze workers selected from one medium ceramic and six small-scale ceramic industries and twentyfive comparable control subjects were investigated for the evaluation of lead absorption. Biochemical parameters indicative of lead such as lead in blood (Pb-B), lead in urine (Pb-U), delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase in erythrocytes (ALA-D) coproporphyrin in urine (CP-U), amino levulinic acid in urine (ALA-U) and haematological values i.e. Hb, RBC, WBC and PCV were determined in these workers. The exposed group of workers showed higher absorption of lead in comparison to control group, however all the biochemical findings observed in both the groups were well within the normal range. Mean blood lead levels in control, glaze sprayers and glaze dippers were observed 13.8, 20.5 and 19.8?g/100 ml, respectively, while mean urinary lead in the same group were observed 74.8,103.0 and 95.3?g/lit respectively. Glaze dust concentration at various glaze spray operations in these ceramic industries were found very high, however, ambient lead concentration was observed very much found 31.3?g/gm with the range of 13-65?g/gm. Therefore, it was revealed that the lead exposure is not a major health problem, however, preventive control measures were suggested to improve the work environment of these ceramic factories.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoodasaraNB1990,
  author = {Ghoodasara NB, Patel NC, Pandya CB, Saiyed HN, Parikh DJ, Kashyap SK},
  title = {Lead exposure study in glaze workers employed in small and medium scale ceramic industry},
  journal = {Indian J Ind Med},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {36(1)},
  pages = {22-31}
}
Ghose MK, Paul R, Banerjee RK Assessment of the status of urban air pollution and its impact on human health in the city of Kolkata 2005 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 108(1-3), pp. 151-67 
article  
Abstract: Air pollution has significant effects on exacerbation of asthma, allergy and other respiratory diseases. Like many other magacities in the world the ambient air quality of Kolkata is also being deteriorated day by day. Automobile exhausts and certain industrial 30 pollutants produce O3 by photochemical reactions. The particulate matter, particularly less than 10 ?m in size, can pass through the natural protective mechanism of human respiratory system and plays an important role in genesis and augmentation of allergic disorders. Sources of air pollution in the area and the unique problem arising out of the emission from the vehicles, industries, etc. have been described. Ambient air quality was monitored along with micrometeorological data and the results are discussed. The status of air pollution in the area has been evaluated and a questionnaire survey was conducted to estimate the allergic symptoms and exposure to assess the respiratory disorders. The data are analysed to evaluate the critical situation arising out of the emission of air pollutants and the impact on human health due to respirable diseases (RDs) to middle class sub-population (activity-wise) in the area are assessed. A strategic air quality management plan has been proposed. For the mitigation of air pollution problems in the city, the different measures to be adopted to maintain the balance between sustainable development and environmental management have been discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoseMK2005,
  author = {Ghose MK, Paul R, Banerjee RK},
  title = {Assessment of the status of urban air pollution and its impact on human health in the city of Kolkata},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {108(1-3)},
  pages = {151-67}
}
Ghosh NC, Seth SM Atmospheric Pollutants and their Effects on Quality of Water 1994 Ind J of Environ Hlth
Vol. 36(2), pp. 104-114 
article  
Abstract: Atmospheric pollutants get deposited on the earth’s surface through various physical and chemical processes. Precipitation, being a pathway for deposition of atmospheric aerosols and anthropogenic materials, contain pollutants of varying nature, causing deterioration or physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of waters.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshNC1994,
  author = {Ghosh NC, Seth SM},
  title = {Atmospheric Pollutants and their Effects on Quality of Water},
  journal = {Ind J of Environ Hlth},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {36(2)},
  pages = {104-114}
}
Girija Shankar PN, Narayana BV, Vasu KI Metallic Pollutants 1983 Journal of the Electrochemical Society of India
Vol. 32(1), pp. 86-96 
article  
Abstract: Metals as pollutants are reviewed. Among industrial pollutants, metals generally show the greatest cumulative toxicity, frequently causing irreversible damage. The urgent need to conserve nonrenewable sources of metals reinforces the need to prevent pollution problems arising from their dispersion in the environment. Effects of pollutants are discussed. The effects of pollutants on health are difficult to evaluate because some pollutants are cumulative over a number of years, whereas others act almost immediately. Many substances exert their greatest effect on rapidly growing and developing tissues. Metal exposures necessary to cause adverse health effects are less for children than for adults, and the effects are more likely to be permanent. Brief summaries of the uses and toxicities of lead, mercury, cadmium, beryllium, chromium, tin, antimony, manganese, vanadium, nickel, zinc, and selenium are presented. Information regarding their pathological effects, tolerance limits, and possible methods of treatment are tabulated. Analytical methods for determining metals at trace concentrations are discussed. The most widely used analytical method is atomic absorption spectroscopy. Recent developments in analytical instrumentation have enhanced its sensitivity and accuracy so that almost all metallic pollutants can be determined. Methods of controlling the environmental concentrations of individual metals are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{GirijaShankarPN1983,
  author = {Girija Shankar PN, Narayana BV, Vasu KI},
  title = {Metallic Pollutants},
  journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society of India},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {32(1)},
  pages = {86-96}
}
Gogte ST, Basu N, Sinclair S, Ghai OP, Bhide NK Blood lead levels of children with pica and surma use 1991 Indian J Pediatr
Vol. 58(4), pp. 513-9 
article  
Abstract: Blood lead levels of 253 Delhi children were estimated by dithizone method. In 82 (controls) children with no symptoms mean blood lead level was 9.6?g/dl (?SD 6.8: median 10?g); only 6 had high levels between 30-33?g/dl. In 88 children with pica, the mean blood lead level was 23.0?g/dl (?SD 13.82; median 17?g) which was significantly higher than the control; 26 had high levels between 30-92?g/dl. Sixteen children with pica and surma-use and 46 children suspected of lead poisoning showed lead level patterns like the pica group. However, 21 surma-using children without pica resembled the control group. Children with pica were significantly more anemic than the controls and showed higher prevalence of abdominal-neurological symptoms. Because, in India, blood lead cannot be estimated in most of the hospitals, it is suggested that children with severe pica, anemia, abdominal-neurological symptoms and exposure to surma or lead, be suspected of lead poisoning, kept in lead-free environment with corrected nutrition, and be given a short cautious therapeutic trial with oral penicillamine.
BibTeX:
@article{GogteST1991,
  author = {Gogte ST, Basu N, Sinclair S, Ghai OP, Bhide NK},
  title = {Blood lead levels of children with pica and surma use},
  journal = {Indian J Pediatr},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {58(4)},
  pages = {513-9}
}
Gokhale SB, Patil RS Size distribution of aerosols (PM10) and lead (Pb) near traffic intersections in Mumbai (India) 2004 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 95(1-3), pp. 311-24 
article  
Abstract: The size distribution of aerosols was measured near traffic intersections of Marol link road in air quality control region (AQCR1), which is a moderately industrial area and Dadar Khodad circle in AQCR2, which is a heavily commercial core of the Mumbai City. The reason behind selecting the two unidentical regions was to study the contribution from vehicles to the size separated PM10 and that of Pb. It is recognised that particulates in urban air are responsible for serious health effects. As very small particles are assumed to be important for the adverse health effects, the particle size distribution is thus an important factor that needs to be addressed whenever the particulates pollution is concerned. The size measurements were done with a cascade impactor of eight stages with a back-up filter. It effectively separates the particulate matter into nine-sizes ranging from 0.0-0.4 to 9.0-10.0?m. Samples were analysed in nine-particle size fractions with special reference to a toxic metal - lead (Pb) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). It was found that PM10 and Pb at both the intersections could easily be classified by the size distribution. The fractions of the PM10 and that of Pb showing a tendency of trimodal distributions with the first peak at coarse mode approximately 9.0-10.0?m, second at approximately 5.8?m and the third at coarse mode approximately 1.1?m. The significant percentage of Pb was found in the range below 2.5?m at both the intersections. However, Pb in AQCR1 is found in the coarser range as well, which could probably be the influence of various industrial
37 activities in the area. PM10 concentration values in the coarser range in AQCR2 are associated with the resuspension of dust particles and mechanical erosions.
BibTeX:
@article{GokhaleSB2004,
  author = {Gokhale SB, Patil RS},
  title = {Size distribution of aerosols (PM10) and lead (Pb) near traffic intersections in Mumbai (India)},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {95(1-3)},
  pages = {311-24}
}
Goswami K, Gachhui R, Bandopadhyay A Hepatorenal dysfunctions in lead pollution 2005 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 47(1), pp. 75-80 
article  
Abstract: Environmental and occupational lead pollution is a common problem in both developing and industrialised countries. Both hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity are known to occur in persons with exposure to heavy metals. We studied both liver function and renal function and blood lead concentraton in random population sample of 372 men (age range, 24 to 55 years). In all the subjects we measured both liver and renal function tests and both blood lead and urinary concentration of lead. Raised blood and urinary lead concentrations were associated with moderate changes in liver function and abnormal renal function, reflected in decrease of albumin and increased levels of liver enzymes and raised urea and creatinine concentrations, and with a reduction in creatinine clearance rate as compared to apparently normal subjects. These findings emphasis the
importance of measurement of blood lead concentrations in adults in the genereal population to combat the effects of lead toxicity before the clinical signs predominate.
BibTeX:
@article{GoswamiK2005,
  author = {Goswami K, Gachhui R, Bandopadhyay A},
  title = {Hepatorenal dysfunctions in lead pollution},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {47(1)},
  pages = {75-80}
}
Gupta BN, Rastogi SK, Husain T, Mathur N, Pangtey BS A study of respiratory morbidity and pulmonary function among solderers in the electronics industry 1991 American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal
Vol. 52(2), pp. 45-51 
article  
Abstract: Pulmonary function assessment of 197 solderers using lead-tin alloy impregnated solder was compared with findings observed in 143 unexposed controls. Findings showed an excessive prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the exposed workers, with a higher prevalence among females. The solder fumes mainly induced a restrictive type of ventilatory disturbance followed by a mixed variety. A small fraction of the exposed group suffered from bronchial obstruction, although only a mild degree of ventilatory abnormalities was observed. The concentrations of lead fumes and organic solvents were found to be below recommended TLV values. Recommendations include provision of improved ventilation with local exhaust ducts for each worker.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaBN1991,
  author = {Gupta BN, Rastogi SK, Husain T, Mathur N, Pangtey BS},
  title = {A study of respiratory morbidity and pulmonary function among solderers in the electronics industry},
  journal = {American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {52(2)},
  pages = {45-51}
}
Gupta GS, Singh J, Gupta A Trace metals and metalloenzymes in placenta after oral administration of lead acetate 1997 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 60(1-2), pp. 145-52 
article  
Abstract: The present study was carried out to find the effects of Pb acetate (10-50 mg/kg body wt) after oral administration on: 1. The distribution of elements, such as Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn; 2. The activity of 6-amino levulenic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) and alkaline phosphatase (PAP); and 3. On the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in murine placenta. Pb toxicity expressed on a dry-wt basis was reflected in terms of deficiency of delta-ALAD and PAP and enhanced content of GSH. Analysis of trace elements following Pb exposure showed low levels of Mn and Cu. Although Fe composition of placenta remained within normal range with increasing load of endogeneous Pb, Zn decline was not consistent after oral feeding of Pb acetate. Deficiency of PAP after Pb exposure did not correlate with the endogeneous levels of Pb or Zn therein, but correlated with endogeneous levels of Mn. Placental deficiencies of Cu and Mn have been related to the disturbed placental functions by Pb accumulation.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaGS1997,
  author = {Gupta GS, Singh J, Gupta A},
  title = {Trace metals and metalloenzymes in placenta after oral administration of lead acetate},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {60(1-2)},
  pages = {145-52}
}
Hu H Study of Lead Exposure & Outcomes amongst Children in Chennai 2003 Crisp Data Base National Institutes of Health  article  
Abstract: Lead exposure poses a major environmental health problem in India. No direct studies have yet been performed in India to investigate the impact of lead exposure on outcomes such as neurobehavioral development. We propose to build upon a collaborative effort initiated during the proposed PI's work as a Senior Fulbright Scholar and work with colleagues at the Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute of Chennai (formerly known as Madras), Tamil Nadu, India, to study 750 children aged 4-6 attending specific public schools in the area of Chennai. These schools will be chose to represent
areas of the city that are high-high, high-low, low-high, and low-low with respect to traffic and industry. For each child we will measure levels of lead in blood and shed primary teeth; assess visuospatial function (using Raven's Progressive Matrices), visuomotor function (using the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities), behavior (using Conners' Rating Scale-Revised), and IQ (using the Binet-Kamath test); collect blood for the extraction of DNA and genotyping for polymorphisms of the Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD), apoliproprotein E, and transferrin genes; and collect data on
covariates. With this information we will describe lead exposure and exposure-dose relationships and test specific hypotheses on the relationship of lead dose to neurobehavioral outcomes and the modifying effect of genetic polymorphisms on these same relationships. This research promises to provide novel scientific information on lead toxicity as well as important information on the impact of lead exposure on pediatric neurobehavioral development in urban India. It will also serve as a nidus for building collaborative environmental health research between the U.S. and India.
BibTeX:
@article{H2003,
  author = {Hu H},
  title = {Study of Lead Exposure & Outcomes amongst Children in Chennai},
  journal = {Crisp Data Base National Institutes of Health},
  year = {2003}
}
Hanif SA, Rahman A, Rizvi SJ A study of occupation-related lead toxicity in lock factory workers in district Aligarh 2007 Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology
Vol. 24(2) 
article  
Abstract: The present study was conducted to assess lead toxicity in lock factory workers in district Aligarh. Blood samples were collected from the workers and lead was estimated by standard method using beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In all factory workers the level was found to be high and the ‘p’ value was determined for statistical significance. To carry the study further the effect of lead on kidneys and blood pressure was sought. Individual renal function tests were performed and blood pressure was taken as detained in the text. Statistically the level determined was insignificant. A fall in hemoglobin was statistically significant. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure reading were subjected to ‘t’ test and showed no association with blood lead level.
BibTeX:
@article{HanifS.A*2007,
  author = {Hanif S.A*, Rahman A, Rizvi SJ},
  title = {A study of occupation-related lead toxicity in lock factory workers in district Aligarh},
  journal = {Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {24(2)}
}
Hanif SA, Rahman A, Rizvi SJ A study of occupation-related lead toxicity in lock factory workers in district Aligarh 2007 Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology
Vol. 24(2) 
article  
Abstract: The present study was conducted to assess lead toxicity in lock factory workers in district Aligarh. Blood samples were collected from the workers and lead was estimated by standard method using beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In all factory workers the level was found to be high and the ‘p’ value was determined for statistical significance. To carry the study further the effect of lead on kidneys and blood pressure was sought. Individual renal function tests were performed and blood pressure was taken as detained in the text. Statistically the level determined was insignificant. A fall in hemoglobin was statistically significant. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure reading were subjected to ‘t’ test and showed no association with blood lead level.
BibTeX:
@article{HanifSA2007,
  author = {Hanif SA, Rahman A, Rizvi SJ},
  title = {A study of occupation-related lead toxicity in lock factory workers in district Aligarh},
  journal = {Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {24(2)}
}
Hasan MZ, Pande SP Comparative study on methods of determination of lead in drinking water 1978 Indian J Environ Health
Vol. 20(3), pp. 232-248 
article  
Abstract: A comparative study was made on the methods of Pb, a potential pollutant, determination in drinking water. The criteria for comparison was based on
reproducibility, sensitivity, limit of detection, accuracy, precision, simplicity and feasibility of the methods for the routine analysis. Primary investigations revealed that spectrophotometric method based on colored Pb complex formation with dithizone and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-methyl iso butyl ketone (APDC-MIBK) system were suitable methods for water analysis. APDC-MIBK system of AAS was studied in detail. The limit of detection and sensitivity of this method were 0.001 and 0.002 mg/l, respectively. This method was free from matrices interference. Both dithizone and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (APDC-MIBK) methods gave comparable results.
BibTeX:
@article{HasanMZ1978,
  author = {Hasan MZ, Pande SP},
  title = {Comparative study on methods of determination of lead in drinking water},
  journal = {Indian J Environ Health},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {20(3)},
  pages = {232-248}
}
Hegde SN, Puranik SC Trace elements in groundwaters of Hubli City, Karnataka, India 1992 Curr Sci (Bangalore
Vol. 63(1), pp. 43-44 
article  
Abstract: Twenty-two groundwater samples from Hubli city, Dharwad district, Karnataka (India), have been analyzed for Fe,Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd. High concentration of toxic elements, viz. Pb and Cd, is noticed in a few samples. The probable sources for these elements are industries and also highway contamination. Immediate quality monitoring of groundwater is suggested in this area.
BibTeX:
@article{HegdeSN1992,
  author = {Hegde SN, Puranik SC},
  title = {Trace elements in groundwaters of Hubli City, Karnataka, India},
  journal = {Curr Sci (Bangalore},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {63(1)},
  pages = {43-44}
}
Herman DS, Geraldine M, Scott CC, Venkatesh T Health hazards by lead exposure: evaluation using ASV and XRF 2006 Toxicol Ind Health.
Vol. 22(6), pp. 249-54 
article  
Abstract: Globally, of many toxic heavy metals, lead is the most widely used for various purposes, resulting in a variety of health hazards due to environmental contamination. Lead in the workplace enters the workers through inhalation of lead-contaminated air,
by ingestion, and sometimes through dermal exposure. Furthermore, exposure outside the workplace can occur from inhalation of lead-contaminated air, ingestion of leadcontaminated dust and soil, consumption of lead polluted water, lead adulterated food and lead supplemented medicine. In the present study, an evaluation of blood lead was carried out with the aid of a 3010 B lead analyser, based on the principle of anodic stripping voltametry (ASV), and environmental lead in paint, soil and dust samples by a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser. This revealed a high incidence of lead toxicity in most of the lead-based industrial workers in the four facilities tested in India and high levels of lead in the environmental samples. Developed countries have complied with the global standards for regulating environmental lead poisoning in the workplace, eliminating to some degree excessive exposure to lead. A developing country, such as India, can tackle this problem by implementing national and international policies. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, which are of prime importance, or similar regulations, can be adapted for use in India and implemented to minimize lead exposure and to reduce the resultant health hazards.
BibTeX:
@article{HermanDS2006,
  author = {Herman DS, Geraldine M, Scott CC, Venkatesh T},
  title = {Health hazards by lead exposure: evaluation using ASV and XRF},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {22(6)},
  pages = {249-54}
}
Herman DS, Geraldine M, Venkatesh T Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in a patient with occupational lead exposure: a case presentation 2007 J Occup Med Toxicol  article  
Abstract: Amongst toxic heavy metals, lead ranks as one of the most serious environmental poisons all over the world. Exposure to lead in the home and the workplace results in health hazards to many adults and children causing economic damage, which is due to the lack of awareness of the ill effects of lead. We report the case of a 22 year old man working in an unorganized lead acid battery manufacturing unit, complaining about a longer history of general body ache, lethargy, fatigue, shoulder joint pain, shaking of hands and wrist drop. 13 Patient had blue line at gingivodental junction. Central nervous system (CNS) examination showed having grade 0 power of extensors of right wrist &amp; fingers. Reflexes: Supinator- absent, Triceps- weak and other deep tendon reflexes- normal. Investigations carried out during the admission showed hemoglobin levels of 8.3 g/dl and blood lead level of 128.3?g/dl. The patient was subjected to chelation therapy, which was accompanied by
aggressive environmental intervention and was advised not to return to the same environmental exposure situation. After repeated course of chelation therapy he has shown the signs of improvement and is on follow up presently.
BibTeX:
@article{HermanDS2007,
  author = {Herman DS, Geraldine M, Venkatesh T},
  title = {Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in a patient with occupational lead exposure: a case presentation},
  journal = {J Occup Med Toxicol},
  year = {2007}
}
Iyer VN, Sarin R Chemical speciation and bioavailability of lead and cadmium in an aquatic system polluted by sewage discharges 1992 Chem Speciation Bioavailability
Vol. 4(4), pp. 135-142 
article  
Abstract: A physico-chemical scheme encompassing anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as an analytical tool, and ultraviolet irradiation techniques, has been applied to determine the species of lead and cadmium in sewage polluted and unpolluted fresh-waters of a major perennial river located downstream of a metropolitan city in media. The physico-chemical and bioavailable species that have been identified and quantified include ASV-labile (bioavailable), particulate bound, total dissolved, non-labile or bound and organically bound metal. For precise and rapid assessment of the toxic bioavailable fraction, the
ASV technique has been proposed as an analytical tool. The river stretch, divided into reference, impact and recovery zones, has been monitored for any alteration in the distribution and partitioning of Pb and Cd amongst various physico-chemical forms.
BibTeX:
@article{IyerVN1992,
  author = {Iyer VN, Sarin R},
  title = {Chemical speciation and bioavailability of lead and cadmium in an aquatic system polluted by sewage discharges},
  journal = {Chem Speciation Bioavailability},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {4(4)},
  pages = {135-142}
}
Sen J Human scalp hair as an indicator of environmental lead pollution and lead exposure 1996 Journal Of Human Ecology
Vol. 7(2), pp. 133-141 
article  
Abstract: Today, assessing human exposure to lead has assumed paramount importance. Human scalp hair can be successfully used to document population exposure to lead. Elevated human scalp hair concentrations have been found among the residents of urban/industrial areas over those of rural/agricultural areas. The prevalent methods of determining lead concentrations in human scalp hair and its applications are discussed. In modern day research, trace element analysis of Human Scalp Hair (HSH) bears a lot of potential in environmental, clinical, forensic and archaeological sciences. The following presentation discusses the different aspects of lead pollution, effects of lead on the human body and the role HSH plays in tracing and documenting lead pollution and exposure in human groups.
BibTeX:
@article{J1996,
  author = {Sen J},
  title = {Human scalp hair as an indicator of environmental lead pollution and lead exposure},
  journal = {Journal Of Human Ecology},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {7(2)},
  pages = {133-141}
}
Jain NB, Hu H Childhood correlates of blood lead levels in Mumbai and Delhi 2006 Environ Health Perspect.
Vol. 114(3), pp. 466-70 
article  
Abstract: Background: Lead exposure has previously been associated with intellectual impairment in children in a number of international studies. In India, it has been reported that nearly half of the children have elevated blood lead levels (BLLs). However, little is known about risk factors for these elevated BLLs.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of data from the Indian National Family Health Survey, a population-based study conducted in 1998-1999. We assessed potential correlates of BLLs in 1,081 children who were <3 years of age and living in Mumbai or Delhi, India. We examined factors such as age, sex, religion, caste, mother's education, standard of living, breast-feeding, and weight/height percentile.
Results: Most children (76%) had BLLs between 5 and 20 microg/dL. Age, standard of living, weight/height percentile, and total number of children ever born to the mother were significantly associated with BLLs (log transformed) in multivariate regression 21 models. Compared with children ? 3 months of age, children 4-11 and 12-23 month of age had 84 and 146% higher BLLs, respectively (p<0.001). A low standard of living correlated with a 32.3% increase in BLLs (p=0.02). Children greater than the 95th percentile for their weight/height had 31% (p=0.03) higher BLLs compared with those
who were below the 5th percentile for their weight/height.
Conclusions: Our study found various factors correlated with elevated BLLs in children. The correlation between greater than the 95th percentile weight/height and higher BLL may reflect an impact of lead exposure on body habitus. Our study may
help in targeting susceptible populations and identifying correctable factors for elevated BLLs in Mumbai and Delhi.
BibTeX:
@article{JainNB2006,
  author = {Jain NB, Hu H},
  title = {Childhood correlates of blood lead levels in Mumbai and Delhi},
  journal = {Environ Health Perspect.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {114(3)},
  pages = {466-70}
}
Jain NB, Laden F, Guller U, Shankar A, Kazani S, Garshick E Relation between blood lead levels and childhood anemia in India 2005 Am J Epidemiol.
Vol. 161(10), pp. 968-73 
article  
Abstract: Lead pollution is a substantial problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has defined an elevated blood lead level in children as ?10?g/dl, on the basis of neurologic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold lead level of 20-40?g/dl for risk of childhood anemia, but there is little information relating lead levels <40?g/dl to anemia. Therefore, the authors examined the association between lead levels as low as 10 mug/dl and anemia in Indian children under 3 years of age. Anemia was divided into categories of mild (hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl), moderate (hemoglobin level 8-9.9 g/dl), and severe (hemoglobin level < 8 g/dl). Lead levels <10?g/dl were detected in 568 children (53%), whereas 413 (38%) had lead levels ?10-19.9?g/dl and 97 (9%) had levels ?20?g/dl. After adjustment for child's age, duration of breastfeeding, standard of living, parent's education, father's occupation, maternal anemia, and number of children in the immediate family, children with lead levels ?10?g/dl were 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.7) times as likely to have moderate anemia as children with lead levels < 10?g/dl. Similarly, the odds ratio for severe anemia was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.6). Health agencies in India should note the association of elevated blood lead levels with anemia and make further efforts to curb lead pollution and childhood anemia.
BibTeX:
@article{JainNB2005,
  author = {Jain NB, Laden F, Guller U, Shankar A, Kazani S, Garshick E},
  title = {Relation between blood lead levels and childhood anemia in India},
  journal = {Am J Epidemiol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {161(10)},
  pages = {968-73}
}
Jain SK, Vasudevan P, Jha NK Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Lemna minor L. for removal of lead and zinc from polluted water 1990 Water Res
Vol. 24(2), pp. 177-184 
article  
Abstract: The uptake of lead and zinc by Azolla pinnata R.Br. (water velvet) and Lemna minor L. (duckweed) was investigated in solutions, enriched with 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/l of these two metal ions, which were renewed on alternate days over a 14 days test period. The uptake rate of both metal ions was highest when the initial concentration in the test solution was 1.0 mg/l. The concentration of lead or zinc remaining in the residual solutions after treatment with duckweed or water velvet at 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l levels, increased with the passage of time. At 4.0 and 8.0 mg/l levels, the concentrations of lead or zinc remaining in the residual solutions either continuously increased with the passage of time or, first sharply increased (8-10 days) and remained almost constant.
BibTeX:
@article{JainSK1990,
  author = {Jain SK, Vasudevan P, Jha NK},
  title = {Azolla pinnata R.Br. and Lemna minor L. for removal of lead and zinc from polluted water},
  journal = {Water Res},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {24(2)},
  pages = {177-184}
}
Jeyabaskaran KJ, Ramulu USS Distribution of heavy metals in soils of various sewage farms in Tamil Nadu 1996 Journal of the indian society of soil science
Vol. 44(3), pp. 401-404 
article  
Abstract: The vertical and horizontal distribution of DTPA extractable metals due to continuous application of sewage was studied in soils of sewage farms at Avaniyapuram (Madurai South), Sakkimangalam (Madurai North) and Ukkadam (Coimbatore). The DTPA - extractable Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni accumulated more in the surface soil and decreased with increasing soil depth and distance from the sewage entry point. The vertical movement of extractable metals was more in light textured soils of Avaniyapuram and Sakkimangalam than in the heavy textured soils of Ukkadam. But the reverse was true in the
lateral or horizontal movement of extractable metals. The soil texture and location of the sewage farms played a major role in distribution pattern of the metals in the soils of different sewage farms. The duration of sewage irrigation did not have major effect.
BibTeX:
@article{JeyabaskaranKJ1996,
  author = {Jeyabaskaran KJ, Ramulu USS},
  title = {Distribution of heavy metals in soils of various sewage farms in Tamil Nadu},
  journal = {Journal of the indian society of soil science},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {44(3)},
  pages = {401-404}
}
Jhingran AG, Joshi HC Heavy metals in water, sediments and fish in the River Yamuna (India) 1987 J Inl Fish Soc India
Vol. 19(1), pp. 13-23 
article  
Abstract: Six heavy metals of ecotoxicological importance viz., zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead and mercury were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in water, sediments, fish and ndiaks in the river Yamuna at seven locations within its stretch from the upstream of Delhi to Allahabad, before its confluence with the river Ganga. Metal contents were in the ranges, Zn, 22.0-54.76; Cu, 2.34-18.03; Cr, nd-1.32; Cd, nd-0.38; Pb, 082-6.90 and Hg, nd-0.17?g/l in filtered water, Zn, 43.04-284.8; Cu, 10.54-81.35; Cr, 3.09-59.45; Cd, nd-3.85; Pb, 16.04-105.12 and Hg, 0.06-1.052?g/g(dry wt.) in sediments,
Zn, 6.16-36.3; Cu, 0.41-3.57; Cr, nd-1.25; Cd, nd-0.188; Pb, 0.46-1.56 and Hg, nd-1.38?g/g(wet wt.) in fish and Zn, 28.1-193; Cu, 2.3-18.8; Cr, nd-6.72; Cd, nd-1.8; Pb, 7.3-38.6 and Hg, nd-0.62?g/g(wet wt.) in ndiaks. Maximum metal levels in water and sediments were found at Delhi, near I.T.O., followed by Agra, Mathura and Allahabad.
BibTeX:
@article{JhingranAG1987,
  author = {Jhingran AG, Joshi HC},
  title = {Heavy metals in water, sediments and fish in the River Yamuna (India)},
  journal = {J Inl Fish Soc India},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {19(1)},
  pages = {13-23}
}
Joshi LU, Mahadevan TN Seasonal variations of Radium-D (lead-210) in ground level air in India 1968 Health Phys
Vol. 15(1), pp. 67-7 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiLU1968,
  author = {Joshi LU, Mahadevan TN},
  title = {Seasonal variations of Radium-D (lead-210) in ground level air in India},
  journal = {Health Phys},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {15(1)},
  pages = {67-7}
}
Joshi LU, Rangarajan C, Gopalakrishnan SS Investigations on 210 Pb concentrations in various regions of India 1971 Health Phys.
Vol. 20(6), pp. 665-8 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiLU1971,
  author = {Joshi LU, Rangarajan C, Gopalakrishnan SS},
  title = {Investigations on 210 Pb concentrations in various regions of India},
  journal = {Health Phys.},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {20(6)},
  pages = {665-8}
}
Kachru DN, Tandon SK, Misra UK, Nag D Occupational lead poisoning among silver jewellery workers 1989 Indian J Med Sci
Vol. 43(4), pp. 89-91 
article  
Abstract: Seven male silver jewellery workers aged between 25 to 70 years complained of acute abdominal colic, sweet metallic taste, constipation and anorexia. Clinical, aematological examinations and urinalysis confirmed lead poisoning. Oral therapy with D-Penicillamine for seven days led to significant improvement in patients.
BibTeX:
@article{KachruDN1989,
  author = {Kachru DN, Tandon SK, Misra UK, Nag D},
  title = {Occupational lead poisoning among silver jewellery workers},
  journal = {Indian J Med Sci},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {43(4)},
  pages = {89-91}
}
Kalia K, Flora SJ Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning 2005 J Occup Health.
Vol. 47(1), pp. 1-21 
article  
Abstract: Exposure to toxic metals remains a widespread occupational and environmental problem in world. There have been a number of reports in the recent past suggesting an incidence of childhood lead poisoning and chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated drinking water in many areas of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh has become a national calamity. Low level metal exposure in humans is caused by air, food and water intake. Lead and arsenic generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the central nervous system (CNS), the haematopoietic system, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there has been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at a lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research, we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic plumbism and arsenicosis. Medical treatment of acute and chronic lead and arsenic toxicity is furnished by chelating agents. Chelating agents are organic compounds capable of linking together metal ions to form complex ring-like structures 32 called chelates. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL) has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been tried successfully in animals as well as in a few cases of human lead and arsenic poisoning. DMSA could be a safe and effective method for treating lead or arsenic poisoning, but
one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove lead from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy is to use combined treatment. This includes the use of structurally different chelators or a combination of an adjuvant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to lead mobilization. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being adopted for a safe, effective and specific treatment for two major toxic metals or metalloid.
BibTeX:
@article{KaliaK2005,
  author = {Kalia K, Flora SJ},
  title = {Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning},
  journal = {J Occup Health.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {47(1)},
  pages = {1-21}
}
Kalra V, Chitralekha KT, Dua T, Pandey RM, Gupta Y Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead toxicity in children from schools and an urban slum in Delhi 2003 J Trop Pediatr.
Vol. 49(2), pp. 121-3 
article  
Abstract: This cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the mean blood lead levels (BLL) and prevalence of lead toxicity in a representative sample of schoolchildren and children residing in an urban slum. In addition, the association of potential
environmental risk factors with elevated BLL was studied. Children aged 4-6 years were selected from schools of the South zone of Delhi (n=125) and from an urban slum (n= 65). Risk factors were recorded using a pre-tested questionnaire and blood
lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were estimated. The mean BLL was 7.8 ?g/dl (SD 3.9) and the proportion of children with blood lead ?10 ?g/dl was 18.4 percent. Distance of the residence or school from a main road appeared to be associated
with higher blood lead concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. In our setting, vehicular pollution may be a major contributing factor in lead contamination of the environment.
BibTeX:
@article{KalraV2003,
  author = {Kalra V, Chitralekha KT, Dua T, Pandey RM, Gupta Y},
  title = {Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead toxicity in children from schools and an urban slum in Delhi},
  journal = {J Trop Pediatr.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {49(2)},
  pages = {121-3}
}
Kaphalia BS, Chandra H, Bhargava SK, Seth TD, Gupta BN Lead in drinking water. 1983 Indian J Public Health.
Vol. 27(2), pp. 64-9 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KaphaliaBS1983,
  author = {Kaphalia BS, Chandra H, Bhargava SK, Seth TD, Gupta BN},
  title = {Lead in drinking water.},
  journal = {Indian J Public Health.},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {27(2)},
  pages = {64-9}
}
Kaul PS, Kaul B Erythrocyte protoporphyrin and blood lead levels of children from Jammu and Srinagar India and papier-mache trainees 1986 Indian J Pediatr
Vol. 53(5), pp. 641-646 
article  
Abstract: In order to examine the prevalence of iron deficiency and environmental lead absorption in children, erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (B-Pb) levels were measured in a group of 112 children from Jammu and Srinagar. The mean EP levels were 50 and 59?g/dl and mean B-Pb were 15 and 8?g/dl respectively. Similarly, the mean B-Pb and EP levels of Papeir mache trainees/workers were 23/25 and 96/98?g/dl respectively. These results suggest higher incidence of iron deficiency in Srinagar children compared with those in Jammu. However, the mean B-Pb level of Jammu children was twice those
in Srinagar. While this follow-up study on paper mache trainees/workers shows significant improvement in B-Pb since 1981, these levels are close to the currently recognized cut-off levels of children. Moreover, the continued underlying iron deficiency predisposes these young female trainees/workers to enhanced lead absorption, thus regular monitoring of both EP and B-Pb is recommended.
BibTeX:
@article{KaulPS1986,
  author = {Kaul PS, Kaul B},
  title = {Erythrocyte protoporphyrin and blood lead levels of children from Jammu and Srinagar India and papier-mache trainees},
  journal = {Indian J Pediatr},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {53(5)},
  pages = {641-646}
}
Kaushik CP, Gupta S, Kumar S, Kaushik A Delta-aminolevulinic acid of children as an index of lead exposure 1995 Ind J Of Environ Hlth
Vol. 37(2), pp. 115-119 
article  
Abstract: Urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (delta-ALA) in urban and suburban children of Rohtak area as an index of their exposure to lead is reported. Fifty six samples of urinary delta-ALA of children from urban and suburban areas in four age groups (i.e., 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 years) and the same number of their street soil, house floor dust and hand dust as a source of lead were also analysed. In both the categories of urban and suburban children the urinary delta-ALA shoed an increase with age and w significantly higher in suburban than the urban children in the lower age group. The level of significance decreased with increase in age and became non-significant in 4-5 year age group.
BibTeX:
@article{KaushikCP1995,
  author = {Kaushik CP, Gupta S, Kumar S, Kaushik A},
  title = {Delta-aminolevulinic acid of children as an index of lead exposure},
  journal = {Ind J Of Environ Hlth},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {37(2)},
  pages = {115-119}
}
Khandekar RN, Ashawa SC, Kelkar DN Dental lead levels in Bombay inhabitants 1978 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 10(2), pp. 129-33 
article  
Abstract: Lead content in teeth of Bombay inhabitants has been measured. The lead concentration in teeth ranged from 4.27-82.5?g/g of whole tooth with a geometrical mean concentration of 15.5?g/g of tooth. There is no significant difference between the lead content in the teeth of males and females. The mean lead value is compared with those from other countries.
BibTeX:
@article{KhandekarRN1978,
  author = {Khandekar RN, Ashawa SC, Kelkar DN},
  title = {Dental lead levels in Bombay inhabitants},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {10(2)},
  pages = {129-33}
}
Khandekar RN, Raghunath R, Mishra UC Levels of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper in the blood of an urban population 1987 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 66, pp. 185-91 
article  
Abstract: Levels of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper were measured in the blood of normal children and adults of Greater Bombay, India using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The median concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in the whole blood of children and adults were 11.54, 0.21, 484.2 and 86.2?g/dl, respectively. The blood lead concentration showed an increase with age. Children living in industrial zones with high vehicular traffic have significantly higher blood lead concentrations than their counterparts living in the cleaner suburban parts of the city. The mean levels of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in blood of Bombay children and adults are compared with those from other countries.
BibTeX:
@article{KhandekarRN1987,
  author = {Khandekar RN, Raghunath R, Mishra UC},
  title = {Levels of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper in the blood of an urban population},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {66},
  pages = {185-91}
}
Khandekar RN, Raghunath R, Mishra UC Lead levels in teeth of an urban Indian population 1986 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 58(3), pp. 231-6 
article  
Abstract: The lead content of teeth of Bombay residents has been determined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The median tooth lead concentrations for adults and children in Bombay are estimated to be 8.31 and 3.01 micrograms/g of tooth, respectively. The data indicate that the lead concentration of a tooth increases with the age of the donor. For children the tooth lead content varies with the type of tooth. Further, children living in industrial areas have a higher tooth lead content than children living in the cleaner suburbs of Greater Bombay.
BibTeX:
@article{KhandekarRN1986,
  author = {Khandekar RN, Raghunath R, Mishra UC},
  title = {Lead levels in teeth of an urban Indian population},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {58(3)},
  pages = {231-6}
}
Joseph KO Assessment of heavy metal pollution by analysis of sediments contaminated by industrial effluents 1989 J Indian Soc Soil Sci
Vol. 37(3), pp. 571-573 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KO1989,
  author = {Joseph KO},
  title = {Assessment of heavy metal pollution by analysis of sediments contaminated by industrial effluents},
  journal = {J Indian Soc Soil Sci},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {37(3)},
  pages = {571-573}
}
Konhauser KO, Powell MA, Fyfe WS, Longstaffe FJ, Tripathy S Trace element chemistry of major rivers in Orissa State, India 1997 Environmental geology
Vol. 29(1-2), pp. 132-141 
article  
Abstract: Geochemical analyses of surface waters from rivers flowing through Orissa State, India, indicated that trace element concentrations were extremely variable and consistently higher than world river average. The Brahmani River was the most solute-rich river studied, followed by the Baitarani and Mahanadi Rivers. Although all three rivers drain similar geology, the Brahmani River catchment is heavily industrialized, and water samples collected upstream and downstream from industries indicated that anthropogenic activity directly influenced its chemical composition. Samples collected from several towns, in all three-river systems, did not invariably show similar patterns, with various elements having higher dissolved concentrations upstream. Because the concentration of total solids increased downstream, this implied that some components of the sewage had effectively sequestered available elements from solution and converted them to particulate material. Although the impact
BibTeX:
@article{KonhauserKO1997,
  author = {Konhauser KO, Powell MA, Fyfe WS, Longstaffe FJ, Tripathy S},
  title = {Trace element chemistry of major rivers in Orissa State, India},
  journal = {Environmental geology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {29(1-2)},
  pages = {132-141}
}
Kumar A, Dey PK, Singla PN, Ambasht RS, Upadhyay SK Blood lead levels in children with neurological disorders 1998 J Trop Pediatr.
Vol. 44(6), pp. 320-2 
article  
Abstract: Blood lead levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 82 children suffering from various neurological disorders (cerebral palsy 42, seizure disorders 35, acute encephalopathy of unknown origin 5) and in 28 healthy children, aged 1 to 12 years. Mean blood lead levels were 11.96?10.97?g/dl in control children and 19.30?17.65?g/dl in children with neurological disorders. A significant number of control children as well as those who had neurological disorders were found to have blood lead concentrations of ?10?g/dl and ?20?g/dl, the cut-off limits for lead poisoning and medical evaluation, respectively. Blood lead levels were, statistically, elevated in children with cerebral palsy compared to controls. Children with pica behaviour exhibited higher blood lead concentrations.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA1998,
  author = {Kumar A, Dey PK, Singla PN, Ambasht RS, Upadhyay SK},
  title = {Blood lead levels in children with neurological disorders},
  journal = {J Trop Pediatr.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {44(6)},
  pages = {320-2}
}
Kumar A, Pastore P Lead and cadmium in soft plastic toys 2007 Current Science
Vol. 93(6) 
article  
Abstract: It is widely accepted that no level of lead or cadmium in the blood should be considered safe for children and hence every effort should be made to ensure that their environment remains free from any such toxic metals. Toys made of polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) are potentially toxic to children as PVC contains both lead and cadmium. Lead or cadmium compounds act as stabilizers but they readily leach out. Moreover, they can also be used in pigments to impart bright colours to toys in order to
attract children. Chewing and swallowing beha-viour of children is a common source of lead and cad-mium exposure. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the levels of total lead and cadmium in soft plastic toys. A total of 111 non-branded toy samples, purchased randomly from three metropolitan cities of Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai, were analysed for levels of lead and cadmium. Lead and cadmium were found to be present in all tested samples in varying concentrations.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2007,
  author = {Kumar A, Pastore P},
  title = {Lead and cadmium in soft plastic toys},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {93(6)}
}
Kumar BD, Krishnaswamy Detection of occupational lead nephropathy using early renal markers 1995 J Toxico Clin Toxicol
Vol. 33(4), pp. 331-335 
article  
Abstract: Automotive use of leaded gasoline continues to be an important source of occupational exposure to lead in India and other countries. The present study assessed the renal function and markers of early renal damage of 22 mechanics at three automobile garages. Urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity and beta-2-microglobulin levels were significantly increased in auto garage mechanics with blood leads of 30-69 mug/dL. A significant correlation was observed between blood lead levels and urinary N-acetyl-3-Dglucosaminidase activity but not with urine beta-2-microglobulin levels. A marginal
impairment in creatinine clearance was not statistically significant. Urinary N-acetyl-3-Dglucosaminidase activity offers a sensitive monitor of blood lead and renal tubular injury.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarBD1995,
  author = {Kumar BD, Krishnaswamy},
  title = {Detection of occupational lead nephropathy using early renal markers},
  journal = {J Toxico Clin Toxicol},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {33(4)},
  pages = {331-335}
}
Kumar P, Husain SG, Murthy RC, Srivastava SP, Anand M, Ali MM, Seth PK Neuropsychological studies on lead battery workers 2002 Vet Hum Toxicol.
Vol. 44(2), pp. 76-8 
article  
Abstract: This study assessed the psychological status of 60 lead-acid battery workers occupationally exposed to low level lead and 30 referents in Lucknow. Digit spans and symbol, Bourdon-wiersma vigilance and Raven's Progressive matrices tests were administered. Significant impairments in concentration, attention, auditory and visual memory, psychomotor speed, perceptual accuracy, and visual reasoning were observed in the workers compared to the referents. The deficits were not related to
exposure duration since the magnitude of the impairments observed in workers with 1-y duration was the same as in those with more (up to 30 years) work duration. The blood lead of the battery workers was significantly elevated. There were functional deficits of the central nervous system in the lead-acid battery workers.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarP2002,
  author = {Kumar P, Husain SG, Murthy RC, Srivastava SP, Anand M, Ali MM, Seth PK},
  title = {Neuropsychological studies on lead battery workers},
  journal = {Vet Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {44(2)},
  pages = {76-8}
}
Kumar S, Gautam AK, Saiyed HN Occupational exposure and male reproductive dysfunction: a growing concern 2000 Ind J of Occ and Environ Med
Vol. 4(2), pp. 89-95 
article  
Abstract: A number of chemicals such as lead, dibromochloropropane (DBCP), mercury, etc. and also physical agents such as intense heat, ionizing radiation are having adverse effects on male reproductive system of human. In addition to the effects on male
reproductive system, there is every possibility of adverse effects on young ones if the father was exposed to the environmental chemicals/or physical agents at higher doses during the critical time period of spermatogenesis before conception. Further, workers are exposed to very low doses of mixture of pollutants for years together in most of the occupational situations and reproductive dysfunction among them may go unnoticed due to lack of any apparent clinical sign and symptoms. Thus there is a need to monitor the reproductive health of the workers regularly during occupation.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS2000,
  author = {Kumar S, Gautam AK, Saiyed HN},
  title = {Occupational exposure and male reproductive dysfunction: a growing concern},
  journal = {Ind J of Occ and Environ Med},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {4(2)},
  pages = {89-95}
}
Kumar S, Kaushik A, Kaushik CP Blood lead levels among populations differentially exposed to vehicular exhaust in Rothak, India 1993 Environ Pollut
Vol. 80(2), pp. 173-176 
article  
Abstract: In the absence of local industrial sources of lead, leaded gasoline has been suggested as the major source of lead in the urban atmosphere of Rohtak town, situated near Delhi metropolitan city (India) and with a high vehicular density. Blood lead levels were measured in 42 male volunteers from within the Rohtak area with varying degrees of exposure to vehicular exhaust. The occupationally exposed group with a daily exposure of 10-12 h in automobile workshops was found to have the highest levels blood lead (mean value 21.26?g/dl) followed by roadside population (mean value 14.91?g/dl). This
group of people had a daily exposure of 8-10 h in their business establishments, situated at a distance of less than 5 to about 10 ft (<1.5-c. 3.0 m) from the road with an average traffic density of 8000 vehicles/day. Urban residents were found to have higher blood lead levels (mean value 9.85?g/dl) than the rural ones (mean value 3.34?g/dl). The values were found to increase correspondingly with the increase in age and smoking habits within the particular categories of volunteers. The levels found in the present study are comparable to those reported from other major cities of India, but well within the tolerable limits as recommended by the European Economic Community.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS1993,
  author = {Kumar S, Kaushik A, Kaushik CP},
  title = {Blood lead levels among populations differentially exposed to vehicular exhaust in Rothak, India},
  journal = {Environ Pollut},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {80(2)},
  pages = {173-176}
}
Kuruvilla A, Pillay VV, Adhikari P, Venkatesh T, Chakrapani M, Rao HT, Bastia BK, Rajeev A, Saralaya KM, Rai M Clinical manifestations of lead workers of Mangalore, India 2006 Toxicology and Industrial Health,
Vol. 22(9), pp. 405-413 
article  
Abstract: Objective: To correlate blood lead levels and clinical manifestations. Participants: Battery workers and painters (occupationally exposed to lead in and around Mangalore, India) and occupationally unexposed controls. Main Outcome Measures: We measured the blood lead levels by anodic stripping voltammetry, and a clinical examination was carried out on all participants.
Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the lead-exposed group and controls with respect to clinical manifestations. The prominent findings among the lead-exposed group were fatigue, abdominal colic, abdominal discomfort,
backache, muscular exhaustability, myalgia and paresthesia, at a blood lead level ranging from 0.4 to 116.6?g/dL. Conclusions: Such a study on battery workers and painters has not been reported in India. Several attempts have been made over the years to relate blood lead levels to adverse health effects. It was not possible to determine a precise blood lead level below which symptoms never occur or a blood lead level at which symptoms are always reported.
BibTeX:
@article{KuruvillaA2006,
  author = {Kuruvilla A, Pillay VV, Adhikari P, Venkatesh T, Chakrapani M, Rao HT, Bastia BK, Rajeev A, Saralaya KM, Rai M},
  title = {Clinical manifestations of lead workers of Mangalore, India},
  journal = {Toxicology and Industrial Health,},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {22(9)},
  pages = {405-413}
}
Kuruvilla A, Pillay VV, Venkatesh T, Adhikari P, Chakrapani M, Clark CS, D'Souza H, Menezes G, Nayak N, Clark R, Sinha S Portable lead analyzer to locate source of lead 2004 Indian J Pediatr.
Vol. 71(6), pp. 495-9 
article  
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the sources of lead in the environment in children with elevated blood, with the help of a Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer. Methods: One hundred and seven school children were chosen for this study on a
random basis, from Mangalore and Karnataka. Their blood lead was analyzed. Of the cases analyzed, 10 students whose blood lead level was more than 40 microg/dl were investigated using a field portable X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer. This is the first time such a device has been available for this purpose in India. Results: The 'likely' source of lead exposure could be determined in eight cases which was from the immediate environment of the children like 'lead-based' paint on surfaces in the house, on playground and other exterior equipment; lead storage batteries, contaminated dust and soil and other lead-containing substances. Conclusion: The use of an X-Ray Fluorescence Analyser appeared to be useful in determining the source of lead.
BibTeX:
@article{KuruvillaA2004,
  author = {Kuruvilla A, Pillay VV, Venkatesh T, Adhikari P, Chakrapani M, Clark CS, D'Souza H, Menezes G, Nayak N, Clark R, Sinha S},
  title = {Portable lead analyzer to locate source of lead},
  journal = {Indian J Pediatr.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {71(6)},
  pages = {495-9}
}
Lal M, Joseph D, Choudhury RK, Bajpai HN, Gauba I, Lokeshwar MR, Wagle CS Studies of blood lead levels in children by proton-induced Xray emission (PIXE) 1991 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 103(2-3), pp. 209-14 
article  
Abstract: Blood lead levels of children admitted to Sion Hospital, Bombay (India), from the adjoining Dharavi slum areas have been determined by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Blood samples were collected from 36 children with suspected lead poisoning and from 20 control children. The analysis showed that the lead concentration of the patients varied from 0.1 to 6.0?g/ml. In addition to lead, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Rb were also detected simultaneously, of which the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb and Pb were determined. The high blood lead levels of the children from this area may be ascribed to environmental pollution due to heavy vehicular traffic and industrial sources.
BibTeX:
@article{LalM1991,
  author = {Lal M, Joseph D, Choudhury RK, Bajpai HN, Gauba I, Lokeshwar MR, Wagle CS},
  title = {Studies of blood lead levels in children by proton-induced Xray emission (PIXE)},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {103(2-3)},
  pages = {209-14}
}
Madan K, Sharma PK, Makharia G, Poojary G, Deepak KK Autonomic dysfunction due to lead poisoning 2007 Auton Neurosci.
Vol. 132(1-2), pp. 103-6 
article  
Abstract: We present a case history of a 24 years old male who developed autonomic dysfunction, intestinal pseudo-obstruction and anemia due to lead poisoning. Concomitant recording of blood levels of lead and autonomic function showed a gradual decline in blood lead level (98.8?g/dL at week 0, 56?g/dL at week 6, and 40?g/dL at week 52) and gradual improvement in autonomic functions. Decrease in blood lead levels with DMSA (Meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) therapy showed 14 improvement in autonomic functions. At week 0, the patient had severe loss of autonomic tone and autonomic reactivity, which improved at week 6. At the 52nd week, most of the autonomic parameters had normalized except for the persistence of
mild loss of parasympathetic reactivity.
BibTeX:
@article{MadanK2007,
  author = {Madan K, Sharma PK, Makharia G, Poojary G, Deepak KK},
  title = {Autonomic dysfunction due to lead poisoning},
  journal = {Auton Neurosci.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {132(1-2)},
  pages = {103-6}
}
Madhavi D, Devi KR, Sowjanya BL Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in industrial painters exposed to lead-based paints 2008 J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol
Vol. 27(1), pp. 53-9 
article  
Abstract: The investigation was carried out in the peripheral lymphocytes of industrial painters who were exposed to dust and fumes of lead-based paints. Samples of peripheral blood were collected from 102 workers out of which 40 were smokers and 62 were nonsmokers. The painters in both the categories were divided in to 3 groups based on duration of exposure. Control data of 30 nonsmokers and 20 smokers belonging to the same socioeconomic group but not exposed to either radiation or toxic chemicals were studied. There was a significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the workers when compared to the controls. Further, smoking had an added effect on the frequency of aberrant metaphases.
BibTeX:
@article{MadhaviD2008,
  author = {Madhavi D, Devi KR, Sowjanya BL},
  title = {Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in industrial painters exposed to lead-based paints},
  journal = {J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {27(1)},
  pages = {53-9}
}
Mamtani M, Patel A, Kulkarni H Association of the pattern of transition between arousal states in neonates with the cord blood lead level 2008 Early Hum Dev
Vol. 84(4), pp. 231-5 
article  
Abstract: In this study of 167 neonates who demonstrated a total of 1010 transitions between arousal states, we considered whether specific state transitions were associated with umbilical cord 5 blood lead levels. We found that the arousal patterns of neonates with varying levels (<1, 1- 10 and >10 ?g/dL) of lead exposure could not be distinguished based on the NBAS scoring system alone, but their transition state patterns revealed striking differences. Specifically,
the neonates with the highest lead levels were more fidgety, had more state transitions from state 5 or 6, and were least likely to fall from awake states back into lower states. Arousal state transition pattern is thus a novel correlate of umbilical cord blood lead that may be useful for risk stratification of the neonates.
BibTeX:
@article{MamtaniM2008,
  author = {Mamtani M, Patel A, Kulkarni H},
  title = {Association of the pattern of transition between arousal states in neonates with the cord blood lead level},
  journal = {Early Hum Dev},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {84(4)},
  pages = {231-5}
}
Mani J, Chaudhary N, Kanjalkar M, Shah PU Cerebellar ataxia due to lead encephalopathy in an adult 1998 Journal Of Neurology Neurosurgery And Psychiatry
Vol. 65(5)(797) 
article  
Abstract: Lead has been used by humans as long as recorded history for various purposes ranging from jewellery to weapons and construction materials, paints, and pigment manufacture. Lead colic was known to ancient physicians since the time of Hippocrates, but encephalopathy was first described as late as 1925; it is especially common in children. Here we report a rare case of lead encephalopathy associated with ataxia in a 30 year old battery plate manufacturer.
BibTeX:
@article{ManiJ1998,
  author = {Mani J, Chaudhary N, Kanjalkar M, Shah PU},
  title = {Cerebellar ataxia due to lead encephalopathy in an adult},
  journal = {Journal Of Neurology Neurosurgery And Psychiatry},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {65(5)},
  number = {797}
}
Mathew J, Mathew T, Kannan R, Satheesh S, Sundararaman T, Sethuraman KR Unexpected presentations--four cases of lead poisoning 2002 J Assoc Physicians India.
Vol. 50, pp. 1172-5 
article  
Abstract: Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and response to treatment of four patients who presented with abdominal pain and were diagnosed to have lead poisoning.
Methods: After ruling out the more obvious causes of abdominal pain by barium studies, gastrointestinal endoscopies, and biochemical studies, blood lead levels were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The patients were treated with oral d-penicillamine.
Results: The four patients had blood lead levels from 79?g/dL-365?g/dL. All four of them showed marked improvement in their clinical condition and lowering of blood lead levels on follow up.
Conclusions: Clinicians need to develop a high index of suspicion of lead poisoning as a possible cause of unexplained abdominal pain or altered sensorium, especially against a background of environmental lead contamination in India.
BibTeX:
@article{MathewJ2002,
  author = {Mathew J, Mathew T, Kannan R, Satheesh S, Sundararaman T, Sethuraman KR},
  title = {Unexpected presentations--four cases of lead poisoning},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {1172-5}
}
Menezes G, D'souza HS, Venkatesh T Chronic lead poisoning in an adult battery worker 2003 Occup Med (Lond
Vol. 53(7), pp. 476-8 
article  
Abstract: Background Lead poisoning is a common environmental health hazard in developing countries. Incidences of lead poisoning are seen in all age groups, especially in adults working in lead-based industries, where many still remain unaware
of the adverse effects of exposure to unusually high levels of lead. Methods: We report the case of an adult battery worker, who initially received symptomatic treatment because of clinical misdiagnosis. Later, he was treated with appropriate chelators, which helped to decrease blood lead levels drastically. However, being unable to change his occupation, he continues to be exposed to potentially lethal doses of lead.
Conclusions: A key role for health agencies, besides providing opportunities for diagnosis and therapy, should be to increase public awareness about this widespread environmental hazard through education, documentation and communication.
BibTeX:
@article{MenezesG2003,
  author = {Menezes G, D'souza HS, Venkatesh T},
  title = {Chronic lead poisoning in an adult battery worker},
  journal = {Occup Med (Lond},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {53(7)},
  pages = {476-8}
}
Mishra KP, Chauhan UK, Naik S Effect of lead exposure on serum immunoglobulins and reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediate 2006 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 25(11), pp. 661-5 
article  
Abstract: Metal toxicants may affect immune regulation with an increased incidence of infectious diseases, cancer or autoimmune diseases. Lead is the leading environmental toxin among heavy metals and has aroused concern, as continuous low-level exposure leads to a variety of health problems. We compared serum immunoglobulins (Ig) and reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates (super oxide and nitric oxide (NO)) in culture supernatant of lead-exposed (blood lead; Pb-B>10?g/dL) individuals with that of unexposed healthy controls (blood lead <10?g/dL). The serum IgA level was significantly increased in lead-exposed individuals in comparison to controls (182 ?53 versus 138?52mg/dL; P<0.05). Furthermore, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production by mouse macrophage cells, RAW 264.7, showed significant suppression (P<0.05) after treatment with lead acetate (100 ppm). This study suggested that lead could modulate the immune system by targeting the humoral as well as innate immune cells.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraKP2006,
  author = {Mishra KP, Chauhan UK, Naik S},
  title = {Effect of lead exposure on serum immunoglobulins and reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediate},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {25(11)},
  pages = {661-5}
}
Mishra KP, Singh VK, Rani R, Yadav VS, Chandran V, Srivastava SP, Seth PK Effect of lead exposure on the immune response of some occupationally exposed individuals 2003 Toxicology.
Vol. 188(2-3), pp. 251-9 
article  
Abstract: Lead is a ubiquitous pollutant in the industrial environment, which poses serious threats to human health. In the past 20 years increasing attention has been paid to the effects of lead exposure on health. This toxic metal alters the immune response of animals as well as humans. To study the immunological effects of occupational exposure to lead, we examined lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and interferon-gamma production with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals occupationally exposed to lead. We selected three different groups of individuals exposed to lead: three-wheeler drivers (30), battery workers (34) and silver jewelery makers (20); and unexposed healthy volunteers (30) as control for comparison. Our results indicate that though lymphocyte proliferation to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is inhibited in lead exposed individuals as compared with unexposed volunteers, there is no correlation between inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and blood lead level. NK cell cytotoxicity remains unaffected in individuals exposed to lead as compared with controls. On the other hand, we observed that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was significantly elevated in T cell mitogen, PHA, stimulated PBMCs culture supernatant of lead exposed individuals. We found significant positive correlation between blood lead levels and IFN-gamma produced in culture supernatant on stimulation with PHA. In brief, this study demonstrates that lead can affect the immune response of the occupationally exposed individuals such as three-wheeler drivers, battery reconditioning workers and silver jewelery makers.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraKP2003,
  author = {Mishra KP, Singh VK, Rani R, Yadav VS, Chandran V, Srivastava SP, Seth PK},
  title = {Effect of lead exposure on the immune response of some occupationally exposed individuals},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {188(2-3)},
  pages = {251-9}
}
Misra SG, Mani D Heavy metal contamination in the sewage-sludge of Mumfordganj, Allahabad 1992 Agric Sci Dig
Vol. 13(3), pp. 159-162 
article  
Abstract: Total and DTPA-extractable heavy metal contents of sewage sludge of the Mumfordganj area of Allahabad (India) have been determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The analysis of samples collected from different sites revealed the presence of significant amounts of Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn. Though the concentration of aforesaid heavy metals was not so high as those usually present in industrial sewage sludge yet this domestic
effluent has enough toxic concentration to affect the crops, especially vegetables.
BibTeX:
@article{MisraSG1992,
  author = {Misra SG, Mani D},
  title = {Heavy metal contamination in the sewage-sludge of Mumfordganj, Allahabad},
  journal = {Agric Sci Dig},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {13(3)},
  pages = {159-162}
}
Modak DP, Singh KP, Ahmed S, Ray PK Trace metal ions in Ganga water system (India) 1990 Chemosphere
Vol. 21(1-2), pp. 275-288 
article  
Abstract: Our observation gives the total influx of metal calculated on the basis of a formula derived as follows: C = 0.83 Cp + 0.17C. Influx of metal = C X volume of water discharge annually Where C is the average concentration of metal in river water, Cp is the concentration of metal at peak flow, C is the average concentration of metal between moderate and lean flows. The discharge constants 0.83 and 0.17 are for peak and rest of the year flows, respectively. Our data here show that the river Ganges at Uluberia (80 Km upstream from the mouth of Bay of Bengal) transports 0.00005 million tons (MT) of As and Cd, 0.015 MT of Cr, 0.007 MT of Cu, 4.1 MT of Fe, 0.014 MT Pb, 0.056 MT of Mn, 0.005 MT of Ni and 0.14 MT of Zn each year. The quantity of trace metals are dictated by the weathering of rocks and minerals, soil erosion, industrial activities and influxes from various tributaries. Most of the metals were found highest during peak flow followed by moderate flow and lean flow.
BibTeX:
@article{ModakDP1990,
  author = {Modak DP, Singh KP, Ahmed S, Ray PK},
  title = {Trace metal ions in Ganga water system (India)},
  journal = {Chemosphere},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {21(1-2)},
  pages = {275-288}
}
Mohan SV, Nithila P, Reddy SJ Estimation of heavy metals in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index 1996 J Enviro Sci Hlth, Part A; Environmental Science and Engineering & Toxic and Hazardous Substance Control
Vol. 31(2), pp. 283-289 
article  
Abstract: Four heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) are monitored in drinking water at 12 important residential areas using DPASV Technique. The results indicate the water to free of heavy metal pollution. The data monitored have been used to compute Heavy metal pollution index (HPI) using weighted arithmetic mean method and the proposed Pollution Index (HPI) seems to be applicable in the assessment of overall water quality with respect to heavy metal pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanSV1996,
  author = {Mohan SV, Nithila P, Reddy SJ},
  title = {Estimation of heavy metals in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index},
  journal = {J Enviro Sci Hlth, Part A; Environmental Science and Engineering & Toxic and Hazardous Substance Control},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {31(2)},
  pages = {283-289}
}
Mohanraj R, Azeez PA, Priscilla T Heavy metals in airborne particulate matter of urban Coimbatore 2004 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 47(2), pp. 162-7 
article  
Abstract: Exposures to airborne metals are known to cause physiological responses in organisms and wide-ranging health effects in humans. Hence determination of metals in particulate matter is important from a toxicological perspective. In the current study
heavy metals associated with respirable (RSPM) and nonrespirable (NRSPM) fractions of suspended particulate matter were estimated in air samples from six stations in Coimbatore, India, during March 1999 to February 2001. The mean quantity of heavy metals in RSPM was in the order Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd. Concentrations of these heavy metals were in the range of BDL (below detectable level) to 2,147 ng/m3 in RSPM. The highest level of lead (2,147 ng/m3) was recorded at an industrial station. The station also had the highest mean value (481?544.3 ng/m3), suggesting the importance of industrial operations in determining the ambient concentrations of lead. Significant positive correlation among metals excepting lead and copper suggests that they originate mostly from a common source. Air samples of urban and industrial areas showed higher concentrations than residential (Urban) and suburban areas.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanrajR2004,
  author = {Mohanraj R, Azeez PA, Priscilla T},
  title = {Heavy metals in airborne particulate matter of urban Coimbatore},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {47(2)},
  pages = {162-7}
}
Mohapatra UK, Singh BC Trace metals in drinking water from different sources in the old capital city of Cuttack 1999 Indian J Of Environ Hlth
Vol. 41(2), pp. 115-120 
article  
Abstract: This paper deals with a short review and determination of trace metals like Iron, Manganese, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, cadmium, Arcenic and mercury in drinking water from six different sources in the city of Cuttack. The study was extended over a period of one year during 1995-1996. Trace metal were determined in Mahanadi river water. Open well water, Tube well water and Municipal tap water during every month from July-1995 to June-1996. The object and scope of the work, materials and methods adopted for the determination of concentration of trace metals and the results obtained from the experimental work are discussed in the paper.
BibTeX:
@article{MohapatraUK1999,
  author = {Mohapatra UK, Singh BC},
  title = {Trace metals in drinking water from different sources in the old capital city of Cuttack},
  journal = {Indian J Of Environ Hlth},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {41(2)},
  pages = {115-120}
}
Murthy VK, Keshavamurthy SR, Ramachandran CR, Rajmohan HR An enquiry into lead absorption in a batterymanufacturing unit at Bangalore India 1988 Indian J Ind Med
Vol. 34(4), pp. 145-149 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{MurthyVK1988,
  author = {Murthy VK, Keshavamurthy SR, Ramachandran CR, Rajmohan HR},
  title = {An enquiry into lead absorption in a batterymanufacturing unit at Bangalore India},
  journal = {Indian J Ind Med},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {34(4)},
  pages = {145-149}
}
Murthy VK, Murthy DPH, Chandrashekhar BG, Rajan BK, Rajmohan HR Survey of lead exposure among printing press workers in Bangalore (India) 1990 Indian J Ind Med
Vol. 36(1), pp. 32-35 
article  
Abstract: A morbidity survey relating to lead toxicity among workers engaged in letter press printing work is reported. The survey comprised of clinical examination of workers and estimation of blood lead and urine lead in their blood and urine samples. The results indicate higher blood and urine lead levels recorded among study group as compared to the age and experience matched control group.
BibTeX:
@article{MurthyVK1990,
  author = {Murthy VK, Murthy DPH, Chandrashekhar BG, Rajan BK, Rajmohan HR},
  title = {Survey of lead exposure among printing press workers in Bangalore (India)},
  journal = {Indian J Ind Med},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {36(1)},
  pages = {32-35}
}
Muzi G, Dell'Omo M, Murgia N, Curina A, Ciabatta S, Abbritti G Lead poisoning caused by Indian ethnic remedies in Italy 2005 Med Lav.
Vol. 96(2), pp. 126-33 
article  
Abstract: Background: Complementary or alternative medicine has become widespread in Western Countries and since the remedies are “natural” they are believed to be free of toxic effects and health risks. Ethnic remedies may contain lead, other metals and toxic substances. Objectives: To show how lead poisoning as a result of using ethnic remedies may be severe enough to cause serious damage to health, and to increase awareness among family doctors and occupational physicians of the risks associated with ethnic remedies. Methods and results: Description of ethnic remedy-related lead poisoning in 2 native
Italian adults, with clinical, laboratory and toxicological data. Conclusions: When metal poisoning is diagnosed, ethnic remedies should be included among the putative sources so as to avoid erroneous attribution to workplace exposure and application of unneeded preventive measures.
BibTeX:
@article{MuziG2005,
  author = {Muzi G, Dell'Omo M, Murgia N, Curina A, Ciabatta S, Abbritti G},
  title = {Lead poisoning caused by Indian ethnic remedies in Italy},
  journal = {Med Lav.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {96(2)},
  pages = {126-33}
}
Bhattacharyya N Hygiene, Health and Operating Standards for Lead Acid Battery Industry 1983 Indian Lead Zinc Centre
Vol. 1, pp. 3.16-3.24 
article  
Abstract: The relationship between lead in the air and in blood is discussed. The lead acid battery industry in India is described. Lead is present in air as dust or fumes or in water in high concentrations. Absorption of lead into the body seems to be directly related to the amount of the pollutant present in the air. Lead is placed in the air at several steps in the battery manufacturing process including lead recovery, oxide mill, alloy blending, spine casting, paste mixing, tubular plate filling, and assembly. In many cases, the airborne lead exceeds the permissible lead limit for safe operation. Use of engineering controls such as proper ventilation, exhaust fan, and bag and charcoal filters are helpful. Test methods used to monitor or analyze absorbed lead or environmental lead
include the dithizone test and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Coproporphyrin and aminolevulinic-acid determinations in urine samples are also used as supporting data in the event of lead poisoning.
BibTeX:
@article{N1983,
  author = {Bhattacharyya N},
  title = {Hygiene, Health and Operating Standards for Lead Acid Battery Industry},
  journal = {Indian Lead Zinc Centre},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {3.16-3.24}
}
Jain N Lead Toxicity and Childhood Anemia in India 2004 Proceedings of Public Health and the Environment  article  
Abstract: Background: Lead pollution is an enormous problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centre for Disease Prevention and Control recommends blood lead levels (BLLs) <10?g/dL in children, based on its neurological toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold BLL of 20-40?g/dL for risk of childhood anemia, but there is little information relating BLLs below 40?g/dL to anemia. We therefore examined the relationship between BLLs as low as 10?g/dL and anemia in Indian children.
Methods: BLLs in children (n=1,078) aged <3 years from two metropolitan cities (Mumbai and Delhi) were determined from the Indian National Family Health Survey. Anemia was divided into: mild (hemoglobin: 10-10.9 g/dL), moderate (hemoglobin: 8-9.9 g/dL), and severe (hemoglobin: <8 g/dL) anemia
Results: BLLs <10?g/dL were detected in 568 children (53%), 413 (38%) had BLLs >10-19.9?g/dL, and 97 (9%) had levels >20?g/dL, with 3 of those having BLLs >40?g/dL. Adjusting for standard of living, parent’s education, father’s occupation, maternal anemia, and number of siblings, children with BLLs ?10?g/dL were 1.3 (95%CI=0.9, 1.8) times more likely to have moderate anemia compared to children with 39 BLLs <10?g/dL. Similarly, the odds ratio for severe anemia among these children was elevated (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.2, 3.3).
Conclusions: BLLs ?10?g/dL were significantly associated with increased risk of severe anemia, which leads to increased morbidity and mortality in children. Since lead poisoning is an entirely preventable condition the regulatory and health agencies in India should consider this a priority and make substantial efforts to curb lead pollution and its harmful effects.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the session, the participant (learner) in this session will be able to: Understand the magnitude of lead pollution in developing countries Understand that lead is detrimental to the health of children in terms of
hematological toxicity at levels lower than previously proposed by the CDC Realize the need for urgent measures by government agencies and global health agencies to curb lead pollution
BibTeX:
@article{N2004,
  author = {Jain N},
  title = {Lead Toxicity and Childhood Anemia in India},
  journal = {Proceedings of Public Health and the Environment},
  year = {2004}
}
Naha N, Bhar RB, Mukherjee A, Chowdhury AR Structural alteration of spermatozoa in the persons employed in lead acid battery factory 2005 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.
Vol. 49(2), pp. 153-62 
article  
Abstract: Lead is one of the industrially heavy metals that caused adverse effects on male reproductive system among battery factory workers, but information on the possible impact of lead on the structural integrity of sperm cell is limited. Thus present study was undertaken to assess the structural details of human spermatozoa of lead acid battery factory workers. Blood and semen samples were collected from total 80 workers (7-15 years exposure) and 40 non-occupationally exposed control subjects. The lead exposed battery factory workers showed lowering (P< 0.001) of sperm count, density, motility and semen volume along with an increase incidence of sperm abnormality and prolong liquefaction time. Structural alteration of sperm cell was prevalent among the exposed population as evidenced by significantly (P<0.001) low sperm viability, low hypoosmotic
swelling test (HOST) percentage, high lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane with concomitant alterations of seminal plasma total and dehydro ascorbate level. Sharp depressions, membrane folding and granularity at sperm head surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both blood lead and semen lead was significantly (P<0.001) higher among the factory workers. Thus it appears plausible that lead may reduce the antioxidant level in seminal plasma and enhance the lipid peroxidative changes in sperm membrane leading to concomitant structural damage of sperm cell surface in the workers employed in lead acid battery factories.
BibTeX:
@article{NahaN2005,
  author = {Naha N, Bhar RB, Mukherjee A, Chowdhury AR},
  title = {Structural alteration of spermatozoa in the persons employed in lead acid battery factory},
  journal = {Indian J Physiol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {49(2)},
  pages = {153-62}
}
Naha N, Chowdhury AR Toxic effect of lead on human spermatozoa: A study among pigment factory workers 2005 Ind ianJ Occup Environ Med
Vol. 9(3), pp. 118-123 
article  
Abstract: Occupational lead exposure caused male reproductive impairment, but information on spermatozoa activity, motility, and maturation is limited. In the above perspective, spermatozoa morphology, motility, activity, and nutritional status in lead exposed workers (7-15 years exposure) were assessed. Low sperm velocity, gross, and forward 44 progressive motility with high stationary motile spermatozoa revealed lowering of sperm cell activity after exposure (P<0.001), which was supported by higher seminal fructose and reduced sperm ATPase activity. Lowering of seminal plasma total protein with concomitant increase in free amino acid was prevalent as exposure increased (P<0.001), suggesting disturbance in cellular nutritional status. Prolonged liquefaction time, reduced semen volume, viscosity, seminal plasma protein, fructose, and cholesterol level among workers indicated accessory sex gland dysfunction after occupational lead exposure (P<0.001). Deterioration of sperm density and morphology was associated with high blood and semen lead of workers (P<0.001) leading to infertility without altering FSH, LH, and testosterone level.
BibTeX:
@article{NahaN2005a,
  author = {Naha N, Chowdhury AR},
  title = {Toxic effect of lead on human spermatozoa: A study among pigment factory workers},
  journal = {Ind ianJ Occup Environ Med},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {9(3)},
  pages = {118-123}
}
Naha N, Manna B Mechanism of lead induced effects on human spermatozoa after occupational exposure 2007 Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ)
Vol. 5(1), pp. 85-94 
article  
Abstract: Objectives: Occupational lead exposure caused several types of male reproductive impairments in different working populations. In the present study we examined the paint factory workers of active reproductive age and compared the data with the nonoccupationally exposed desk jobholders taken as control from Bangalore, India.
Materials and methods: In the above perspective, sperm cell morphology, morphometery and motile activity were assessed. Routine seminal biochemistry, cell cycle phase analysis of sperm head DNA, estimation of serum reproductive hormones and metal levels in blood and semen were also taken into account. Result: Low sperm velocity, ATPase activity, gross and forward progressive motility with high stationary motile spermatozoa revealed lowering of cellular activity after lead exposure (p<0.001), which was supported by high seminal plasma fructose level (p<0.001). Lowering of seminal plasma total protein with concomitant rise in free amino acid level was prevalent as the exposure increased (p<0.001), suggesting disturbance in cellular nutritional support essential for cellular motility. Prolonged liquefaction time, reduced semen volume and viscosity as well as altered seminal plasma protein, fructose and cholesterol level among the workers indicated dysfunction of accessory sex glands viz. prostate and seminal vesicle after occupational lead exposure (p<0.001). Deterioration of sperm count, structural abnormality of spermatozoa and sperm head DNA hyploidy was also associated with high blood and semen lead levels in the paint factory workers (p<0.001) without interfering serum FSH, LH and testosterone level (non-significant at p<0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, the present study suggested that at the present exposure level lead might cross blood-testis-barrier and increased its value in semen of the occupationally exposed paint factory workers in Bangalore, India, thereby producing detrimental effects on semen quality and sperm characteristics.
BibTeX:
@article{NahaN2007,
  author = {Naha N, Manna B},
  title = {Mechanism of lead induced effects on human spermatozoa after occupational exposure},
  journal = {Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ)},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {5(1)},
  pages = {85-94}
}
Namasivayam C, Ranganathan K Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and mixture of metal ions by adsorption onto ‘waste’ Fe(III)r(III) hydroxide and fixed bed studies 1995 Environ Tech
Vol. 16(9), pp. 851-860 
article  
Abstract: Adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) onto Fe(III)r(III) hydroxide, a waste material from a fertilizer industry, has been investigated by batch mode and fixed bed studies. Parameters studied for batch mode tests include particle size, adsorbent dosage and
ionic strength. The adsorption of metal ions increased with increase in adsorbent dosage and decrease in particle size. The adsorption obeys Freundlich isotherm model. There was no significant effect by changing the ionic strength using NaNO3. Combined metals removal by the adsorbent shows the order of adsorption as Pb(II)>Cd(II)>Ni(II).
BibTeX:
@article{NamasivayamC1995,
  author = {Namasivayam C, Ranganathan K},
  title = {Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and mixture of metal ions by adsorption onto ‘waste’ Fe(III)r(III) hydroxide and fixed bed studies},
  journal = {Environ Tech},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {16(9)},
  pages = {851-860}
}
Nayak MS, Sawant AD Heavy metal content in drinking water of Mumbai City 1996 Ind J Of Environ Hlth
Vol. 38(4), pp. 246-255 
article  
Abstract: A study has been made to measure Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations at 21 consumer endpoints throughout Mumbai city, during winter, summer and rainy seasons of 1991-1993. The study indicates that the concentrations of heavy metals in certain areas of the city are higher than the concentrations at supply sources, indicating that there is contamination online either by way of seepage of contaminated water or due to corrosion of pipes supplying water. Though the results are well within the maximum permissible limits, in view of bioaccumulation of heavy metals, continuous surveillance is necessary.
BibTeX:
@article{NayakMS1996,
  author = {Nayak MS, Sawant AD},
  title = {Heavy metal content in drinking water of Mumbai City},
  journal = {Ind J Of Environ Hlth},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {38(4)},
  pages = {246-255}
}
Nichani V, Li WI, Smith MA, Noonan G, Kulkarni M, Kodavor M, Naeher LP Blood lead levels in children after phase-out of leaded gasoline in Bombay, India 2006 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 363(1-3), pp. 95-106 
article  
Abstract: The objective of this study was to test for reduction in pediatric blood lead levels (BLLs) in Bombay, India, by comparing BLLs collected in 2002 (after use of leaded gasoline was phased out in Bombay) to those collected in a study conducted by the George Foundation in 1997 (when leaded gasoline was still used in Bombay). We analyzed BLL in a total of 754 children under 12 years of age in two separate sampling campaigns (276 from December 2002 to January 2003 [non-monsoon season]; 478 in June to August 2003 [monsoon season]). BLL was measured using an ESA Lead Care Portable Analyzer. We also measured lead in PM10 samples collected in the study region. These data were compared with a study done by the George Foundation in 1997 before the phase out of leaded gasoline. The George Foundation study reported that 61.8% of the 291 children tested in Bombay had elevated blood lead levels (BLL ? 10 ?g/dL). In the present study, 33.2% of the 754 tested children had elevated blood lead levels. The average BLL for the current study population (Geometric Mean= 8.36 ?g/dL,
SD=5.23?g/dL) was lower than the CDC level of concern (10 ?g/dL), with one child diagnosed with lead poisoning (BLL > 65?g/dL). A seasonal trend of BLLs was suggested, with BLL in monsoon season (Geometric Mean=9.1?g/dL, SD= 5.7 ?g/dL) 23 higher than that in the non-monsoon season (Geometric Mean=7.3 ?g/dL, SD=4.0 ?g/dL). A seasonal periodicity of lead in PM10 was found, with lead in monsoon season (Geometric Mean=0.04?g/m3, SEM=0.000667?g/m3) lower than that in the nonmonsoon season (Geometric Mean=0.38?g/m3, SEM=0.10?g/m3). The overall level of airborne dust (PM10) in monsoon season (56.2?g/m3) was lower than in the nonmonsoon season (273.0?g/m3), presumably due to precipitation. The comparatively higher BLLs in the monsoon season, in the presence of lower air lead levels, suggest ingestion of water or food, with greater lead contamination in the monsoon season, as a possible pathway contributing to elevated BLLs in these children in the monsoon season. These results demonstrate a significant success of the public health system in Bombay,
India-achieved by the removal of lead from gasoline. The emphasis should shift in the study region towards sources of lead exposure other than leaded gasoline (lead in paints, lead in Herbal medicines and lead in Kohl).
BibTeX:
@article{NichaniV2006,
  author = {Nichani V, Li WI, Smith MA, Noonan G, Kulkarni M, Kodavor M, Naeher LP},
  title = {Blood lead levels in children after phase-out of leaded gasoline in Bombay, India},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {363(1-3)},
  pages = {95-106}
}
Pandya CB, Parikh DJ, Ghodasara NB, Ramnathan NL Potential lead exposure hazard in small type foundaries 1978 Indian journal of occupational health
Vol. XXI (4), pp. 69-77 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{PandyaCB1978,
  author = {Pandya CB, Parikh DJ, Ghodasara NB, Ramnathan NL},
  title = {Potential lead exposure hazard in small type foundaries},
  journal = {Indian journal of occupational health},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {XXI (4)},
  pages = {69-77}
}
Pandya CB, Patel PS, Ghodasara NB, Parikh DJ, Chaterjee SK, Ramanathan NL Occupational Lead exposure in various industries in India 1982 National Conference on Lead, Zinc and Cadmium at Workplace: Environment and Health Care, pp. 3.49-3.61  article  
Abstract: Lead in the form of metal or its salts are widely used in many industries and health hazards associated with its usage have been recognized since long. Modification and introduction of some new industrial operations and devices and developed Occupational Health Service Programmes have cut off the lead exposure. As a result, in recent years the number of lead poisoning cases reported has decreased in some industrialized countries. Biological and environmental monitoring of occupational exposure to lead in various industries have been studied for more than 30 years in the country. In the present paper, the authors have discussed various factors connected with occupational health service in India and the results of studies carried out by them and other research workers. Results of studies are discussed in relation to classical and latest methods used for determination of lead in environmental and biological samples. The results are compared with Threshold Limit Values (TLV) for ambient air lead at workplace, and safe level values for blood and
urinary lead as recommended by OSHA and NIOSH for occupationally exposed population. It is remarkable from the studies that in spite of higher concentrations of ambient air lead in the work room, the incidence of few lead poisoning cases in notices. Blood and urinary lead levels suggest pathologically high absorption of lead by workers in different occupations. Authors discussed various factors influencing the lead absorption by a member.
BibTeX:
@article{PandyaCB1982,
  author = {Pandya CB, Patel PS, Ghodasara NB, Parikh DJ, Chaterjee SK, Ramanathan NL},
  title = {Occupational Lead exposure in various industries in India},
  journal = {National Conference on Lead, Zinc and Cadmium at Workplace: Environment and Health Care},
  year = {1982},
  pages = {3.49-3.61}
}
Pandya CB, Patel TS, Parikh DJ, Chatterjee SK, Ramanathan NL Environmental Lead Exposure as a Health Problem In India (An Overview) 1983 Journal of Environmental Biology
Vol. 4(3), pp. 127-148 
article  
Abstract: Environmental lead exposure as a health problem in India is reviewed. Sources of lead exposure are assessed. Air, water, and food are the primary media through which humans are exposed to lead. Determining the environmental concentration of lead may provide baseline data that may be useful in assessing human lead exposure. Lead exposure may be evaluated according to its behavior in the human body. Exposed populations absorb more lead, and this results in high blood lead concentrations. Unabsorbed lead is excreted in the urine. Blood and urine lead concentrations are good indices of lead exposure. Criteria for safe lead concentrations are discussed. Most data show that nonexposed adults have blood lead concentrations on the order of 10-20?g/100ml. Methods of limiting lead exposure in India are discussed. Quantitative determinations of lead exposures have been hampered by lack of regular and systematic lead exposure data, suitable sampling and analytical techniques, and appropriate indicator tests for monitoring exposure. The diet
is the principal source of environmental lead exposure of the general Indian population. Ambient air lead concentrations in urban areas are below those found in most United States cities and are considered safe. Individual blood lead concentrations vary widely depending on living style, socioeconomic status, and dietary habits. Lead concentrations in the hair are very high for Bengali females who traditionally use vermilion on their hair. The authors conclude that most individuals in India are not significantly exposed to environmental lead.
BibTeX:
@article{PandyaCB1983,
  author = {Pandya CB, Patel TS, Parikh DJ, Chatterjee SK, Ramanathan NL},
  title = {Environmental Lead Exposure as a Health Problem In India (An Overview)},
  journal = {Journal of Environmental Biology},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {4(3)},
  pages = {127-148}
}
Pandya CB, Patel TS, Shah GM, Sathawara NG, Patel BG, Parikh DJ, Chatterjee BB Quality Assurance of Analytical Data, with special reference to the determination of lead and cadmium in biological samples 1986 Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry
Vol. 1, pp. 387-390 
article  
Abstract: An atomic absorption spectrometric system encorporating a Delves cup was used for the determination of lead and cadmium in blood, and simple conventional flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) following the dry ashing of kidney cortex samples in a muffle furnace, using a temperature control programme, was used for the determination of cadmium. Quality control (QC) samples were run and analytical data were subjected to strict statistical assessment. The results were found to be satisfactory for lead in blood, Pb-B (Y=0.9809x+1.4201?g/l and r=0.9862), for cadmium in blood, Cd-B (Y=0.9180x+0.2871 ?g/l and r=0.9813) and for cadmium in kidney cortex (Y=0.9726x+1.7874 mg/kg and r=0.9872)
BibTeX:
@article{PandyaCB1986,
  author = {Pandya CB, Patel TS, Shah GM, Sathawara NG, Patel BG, Parikh DJ, Chatterjee BB},
  title = {Quality Assurance of Analytical Data, with special reference to the determination of lead and cadmium in biological samples},
  journal = {Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {387-390}
}
Pandya KP, Rao GS, Dhasmana A, Zaidi SH Occupational exposure of petrol pump workers 1975 Ann Occup Hyg
Vol. 18(4), pp. 363-364 
article  
Abstract: Workers handling petrol in hot summer weather in a tropical country like India are likely to inhale more of these vapors than their counterparts in temperate countries. The present trend of increasing the aromatic content of petrol in order to decrease the amount of Pb in the environment requires a study of the health hazards associated with this complex fuel mixture. Prolonged exposure to relatively low concentrations of benzene vapor (or to the vapor of solvents, like petrol, which contain benzene) may cause damage to the bone marrow, leading to aplastic anemia, CNS damage and liver damage. Estimation of phenol in urine was the technique used for determining the amount of benzene exposure. Some of the workers complained of headache, fatigue, disturbance of sleep, loss of memory, giddiness and general weakness. Benzene exposure is hazardous at least in hot weather when temperatures are high. Individual workers should be told of the toxic nature of petrol fumes and instructed to avoid inhaling the fumes where possible.
BibTeX:
@article{PandyaKP1975,
  author = {Pandya KP, Rao GS, Dhasmana A, Zaidi SH},
  title = {Occupational exposure of petrol pump workers},
  journal = {Ann Occup Hyg},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {18(4)},
  pages = {363-364}
}
Pant N, Banerjee AK, Pandey S, Mathur N, Saxena DK, Srivastava SP Correlation of lead and cadmium in human seminal plasma with seminal vesicle and prostatic markers 2003 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 22(3), pp. 125-8 
article  
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between lead and cadmium with seminal vesicle and prostatic markers. Semen samples categorized into fertile and infertile were evaluated for the presence of lead and cadmium and biochemical markers in the seminal plasma. Associations between lead and fructose, acid phosphatase and ?- glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT) were observed. However, no such relationships were noticed for cadmium. It is concluded that lead may be one of the pollutants indirectly affecting semen quality by altering the functions of accessory sex glands.
BibTeX:
@article{PantN2003,
  author = {Pant N, Banerjee AK, Pandey S, Mathur N, Saxena DK, Srivastava SP},
  title = {Correlation of lead and cadmium in human seminal plasma with seminal vesicle and prostatic markers},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {22(3)},
  pages = {125-8}
}
Pant N, Upadhyay G, Pandey S, Mathur N, Saxena DK, Srivastava SP Lead and cadmium concentration in the seminal plasma of men in the general population: correlation with sperm quality 2003 Reprod Toxicol.
Vol. 17(4), pp. 447-50 
article  
Abstract: The concentration of lead and cadmium in the seminal plasma of men in the general population, including fertile and infertile subjects, was measured. Semen samples were categorised as demonstrating oligospermia (sperm concentration <20x106/ml), asthenospermia (<50% motilesperm), oligoasthenospermia (a combination of the two criteria), and azoospermia (no sperm). An increase in lead and cadmium levels was observed in infertile men and there was a significant negative correlation of cadmium and lead semen concentration with sperm motility and sperm concentration in oligoasthenospermic men.
BibTeX:
@article{PantN2003a,
  author = {Pant N, Upadhyay G, Pandey S, Mathur N, Saxena DK, Srivastava SP},
  title = {Lead and cadmium concentration in the seminal plasma of men in the general population: correlation with sperm quality},
  journal = {Reprod Toxicol.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {17(4)},
  pages = {447-50}
}
Parikh DJ, Pandya CB, Ghodasara NB, Ramanathan NL Exposure of workers to inorganic lead in some small and medium industries 1979 Indian J Med Res
Vol. 70, pp. 116-124 
article  
Abstract: Environmental air samples were collected for determining the ambient concentrations of Pb in the work environment of 5 type foundries, 7 accumulator battery repair and reconditioning shops and 2 printing presses. The average observed ambient Pb values in these industries were seen to be less than the USA Threshold Limit Values but more than USSR Maximum Allowable Concentration. Type foundry workers (74), 17 battery workers, 87 printing press workers and 18 paint workers were investigated for signs of Pb absorption. Biochemical parameters indicative of Pb absorption, such as Pb values in
blood and urine erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase, coproporphyrin in the urine, delta-amino levulinic acid in the urine, Hb, hematocrit, red blood cells and white blood cells were determined in these workers. For comparison, 25 control subjects of the same socio-economic class who were not exposed to Pb occupationally were also studied with the same parameters. Significant difference in the levels of many parameters of Pb exposure between exposed workers and unexposed control subjects were detected. Work hygiene in these industries should be improved and periodical biochemical screening tests for Pb exposure should be adopted for protecting the workers from Pb hazards.
BibTeX:
@article{ParikhDJ1979,
  author = {Parikh DJ, Pandya CB, Ghodasara NB, Ramanathan NL},
  title = {Exposure of workers to inorganic lead in some small and medium industries},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {116-124}
}
Pasha SA, Sankar S, Reddy SC, Das PG, Jamil K Lead-induced genotoxicity in lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples of humans: in vitro studies 2006 Drug Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 29(1), pp. 111-24 
article  
Abstract: Lead is a known toxicant that has been implicated in encephalopathy in children and may affect the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic and other systems in adults. In fact, lead has been shown to compete with calcium for entry into the synaptosome and induce toxic effects. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of lead by using lymphocytes from human peripheral blood in vitro. The LC50 for lead nitrate as determined by Trypan blue dye exclusion technique was found to be 3.14 mM. Chromosomal aberration frequency at sublethal doses (1/10 of LC50) as determined by examining the metaphase chromosomes (karyotyping) did not show significant aberrations except for some aneuploidy and about 2-4% gaps, breaks (3-4%), and about 5% satellite associations. However, significant DNA damage was
determined by SCGE (Comet assay). The comet tail length proportionately increased with increasing lead nitrate concentration. Thus, Pb can induce single-strand DNA breaks, possibly by competing with metal binding sites.
BibTeX:
@article{PashaSA2006,
  author = {Pasha SA, Sankar S, Reddy SC, Das PG, Jamil K},
  title = {Lead-induced genotoxicity in lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples of humans: in vitro studies},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {29(1)},
  pages = {111-24}
}
Patel AB, Williams SV, Frumkin H, Kondawar VK, Glick H, Ganju AK Blood lead in children and its determinants in Nagpur, India 2001 Int J Occup Environ Health.
Vol. 7(2), pp. 119-26 
article  
Abstract: In a community-based cross-sectional study of 297 children aged 6 months to 6 years in an Indian city, the authors assessed the prevalence of elevated (?10?g/dL) blood lead (PbB) levels, their risk factors, and the lead contents in potential environmental sources. Mean PbB was 18.4?g/dL?16.5. The prevalence of elevated PbB was 67%. Anticipated
risk factors for elevated PbB were living in houses painted with lead-based paint, odds ratio (OR) 6.42 (1.75, 23.6; p = 0.005), recent exposures to lead-based paint, OR 2.61 (1.07, 6.66; p = 0.03), and the use of the eye cosmetic ma," OR 2.63 (1.24, 5.56; p=0.01). Unanticipated results were effect of upper caste as a risk factor, OR (adjusted) 1.85 (95% CI = 0.96, 3.57; p=0.06), and the lack of effect of traffic, parental occupational exposure, or nutritional status. Analysis of various environmental sources such as paint, pencils, crayons, and clay revealed high lead levels. These results demonstrate the existence of a major environmental health problem in Indian children, with risk factors that differ from those in other countries.
BibTeX:
@article{PatelAB2001,
  author = {Patel AB, Williams SV, Frumkin H, Kondawar VK, Glick H, Ganju AK},
  title = {Blood lead in children and its determinants in Nagpur, India},
  journal = {Int J Occup Environ Health.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {7(2)},
  pages = {119-26}
}
Patel KS, Shrivas K, Hoffmann P, Jakubowski N A survey of lead pollution in Chhattisgarh State, Central India 2006 Environ Geochem Health.
Vol. 28(1-2), pp. 11-17 
article  
Abstract: Lead (Pb) is of major environmental concern due to its toxicological importance. The anthropogenic emission of Pb is at least 100 times higher than natural emissions. Soil and dust are significant sources of Pb exposure. Lead is generally immobile in soil and accumulates in the upper layers. Lead particles may enter homes via shoes, clothes, pets, and windows. Central India is rich in deposits of natural resource materials such as coal, pyrite, dolomite, and alumina that contain Pb and other heavy metals at the trace levels, and the substantial exploitation of these materials has tended to increased contamination of water and geological formations. Here we present data on Pb concentrations in the water, soil and sediment samples (n=158) collected from 70 locations in Chhattisgarh state, Raipur region. Lead concentrations in the surface water (n=44), groundwater (n=44), soils (n=60) and sediments (n=10) ranged from 6 to 1410, 3 to 52, 12.8 to 545, and 31 to 423 ?g/g, with mean values of 305, 16, 102 and 190?g/g, respectively. Most of the Pb fractions of >80% can be leached out with the
chemical extractants EDTA, acetic acid, and hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Lead has accumulated in the soil clay fraction due to its relatively large surface area and decreases with increasing depth in the soil profile.
BibTeX:
@article{PatelKS2006,
  author = {Patel KS, Shrivas K, Hoffmann P, Jakubowski N},
  title = {A survey of lead pollution in Chhattisgarh State, Central India},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {28(1-2)},
  pages = {11-17}
}
Pathak SP, Kumar S, Ramteke PW, Murthy RC, Bhattacherjee JW, Gopal K Potability of water sources in relation to metal and bacterial contamination in some northern and north-eastern districts of India 1994 Environ Moni and Assessment
Vol. 33(2), pp. 151-160 
article  
Abstract: A total of 1094 water samples from 326 springs, 207 streams, 183 dug wells, 151 piped supplies, 90 tube wells, 75 hand pumps, 60 rivers and 2 lakes were collected from eight northern and six north-eastern districts of India. Samples were analysed to assess their potability by estimating the level of heavy metals and bacterial (coliform and faecal coliform) contaminations. Iron was found in a maximum number (53%) of water samples from hand pumps, followed by lead in 43% of the tube wells, chromium in 16% of dug wells, cadmium in 13% of streams and manganese in 7% of hand pumps above their
maximum admissible concentrations (MACs). Maximum metal pollution has been observed in a considerable number of water samples from Doda, followed by Almora, Mirzapur and Bankura. Hand pump water samples exhibited maximum metal pollution followed by dug well, spring, stream and river water samples. Contamination of coliform and/or faecal coliform bacteria ranged between 41% and 67% of water.
BibTeX:
@article{PathakSP1994,
  author = {Pathak SP, Kumar S, Ramteke PW, Murthy RC, Bhattacherjee JW, Gopal K},
  title = {Potability of water sources in relation to metal and bacterial contamination in some northern and north-eastern districts of India},
  journal = {Environ Moni and Assessment},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {33(2)},
  pages = {151-160}
}
Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Das KK Occupational lead exposure in battery manufacturing workers, silver jewelry workers, and spray painters in western Maharashtra (India): effect on liver and kidney function 2007 J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol  article  
Abstract: We studied liver and kidney function tests of occupational lead exposed Battery Manufacturing Workers (BMW) (n=30), Silver Jewelry Workers (SJW) (n=30), and Spray Painters (SP) (n=35) and normal healthy subjects (n=35), all 20 to 40 years of age, in Western Maharashtra (India). Venous blood and random urine samples were collected from all groups. The blood lead (Pb-B) and urinary lead (Pb-U) levels were significantly increased in all experimental groups, except urinary lead excretion in SJW as compared with the controls. Liver functions tests parameters (serum transaminase enzymes SGOT, AST, SGPT, ALT) activities were significantly increased only in SP; no alteration was noticed in BMW and SJW as compared with the control group. Serum total protein levels were significantly decreased in all three experimental groups as compared with control
subjects. Serum albumin concentrations were significantly decreased in SJW, SP, and increased in BMW. The serum globulin levels, however, were significantly decreased, and the albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio was increased in BMW and SJW as compared with the control. The bilirubin level was significantly increased only in BMW. Blood urea was significantly increased only in BMW, and blood urea and serum uric acid were decreased in SJW. The serum creatinine level was not significantly altered in any experimental groups. Increased Pb-B values in all experimental groups indicate the greater rate of lead
absorption and impairment of liver and kidney functions in all three types of occupational lead-exposed workers of Western Maharashtra (India).
BibTeX:
@article{PatilAJ2007,
  author = {Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Das KK},
  title = {Occupational lead exposure in battery manufacturing workers, silver jewelry workers, and spray painters in western Maharashtra (India): effect on liver and kidney function},
  journal = {J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol},
  year = {2007}
}
Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Das KK Biochemical aspects of lead exposure and toxicity in spray painters of Western Maharashtra (India) 2007 J. of Environ Hlth Res,
Vol. 6(2) 
article  
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to assess biochemical, ematological and antioxidant status of possible lead exposed spray painters of Western Maharashtra (India). Thirty spray painters (SP) and thirty-five normal healthy subjects were taken (age 20-40 years) from the Western Maharashtra for this study. Venous blood samples and random urine samples were collected from both the groups. The blood Pb level of SP group (N=30) was found to be in the range of 7.5-45.7?g/dL (Mean±SD, 22.32±8.87?g/dL) whereas that of the unexposed control group (n=35) was in the range of 2.8-22.0?g/dL
(Mean±SD, 12.52±4.08?g/dL). The blood lead level (Pb-B) and urinary lead level (Pb-U) were significantly increased in SP group as compared to control group. Though activated and non-activated erythrocyte-ALAD activities in SP group did not show any significant change as compared to the control group, the ratio of activated/non-activated erythrocyte ALAD activities in SP group showed a significant increase (p<0.001). Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level was not altered in SP group as compared to control group. A significant elevation of urinary d-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphobilinogen (PBGU)
were observed in the SP group. A positive correlation (r=0.45, p<0.001) between Pb- B and ALA-U was found in the SP group, but no significant correlation was observed in the control group. Hematological parameters were not altered significantly in the SP group as compared to control group except a significant increase (p<0.05) in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased (p<0.001) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.001) and erythrocyte catalase (p<0.05) were significantly reduced in the SP group as compared to control group. Therefore the study clearly indicates an adverse effect of lead on heme biosynthesis and imbalance of prooxidant/ antioxidant status in spray painters from Western Maharashtra (India) associated with increase lipid peroxidation in association with decreased erythrocyte SOD and catalase activities.
BibTeX:
@article{PatilAJ2007a,
  author = {Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Das KK},
  title = {Biochemical aspects of lead exposure and toxicity in spray painters of Western Maharashtra (India)},
  journal = {J. of Environ Hlth Res,},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {6(2)}
}
Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Das KK Biochemical aspects of lead exposure in silver jewelry workers in western Maharashtra (India) 2006 J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.
Vol. 17(4), pp. 213-29 
article  
Abstract: This study was conducted to examine the effect of blood lead (Lead) on heme biosynthesis, the hematopoietic system, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status of silver jewelry workers (SJW) in western Maharastra (India). The blood lead level of the SJW group (N=30) was in the range of 30.2-64.7?g/dL (mean?SD, 48.56?7.39?g/dL), whereas that of non-occupational Lead-exposed normal healthy control subjects (N =35) was 2.8-22.0?g/dL) (mean?SD, 12.52?4.08 ?g/dL). Although the blood lead level of the SJW group increased significantly (p< 0.001) when compared with the control group, the urinary excretion of lead in the SJW group was not altered. In the SJW group, non-activated delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity significantly decreased (p<0.05), and the ratio of activated/non-activated ALAD increased when compared with controls (p< 0.001), whereas activated ALAD activity was not altered significantly. Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) was not altered in SJW. The urinary excretion of delta-amino-levulinic acid (p<0.001) and porpobilinogen (p<0.05) of the SJW group increased significantly when compared with controls. Hematology parameters, such as the packed cell volume (p<0.001) and total erythrocyte count (p<0.05) significantly decreased, whereas the mean corpuscular hemoglobin 26 concentration (p<0.001) and total white blood cell count (p<0.001) increased in the SJW group in comparison with controls. The serum malondialdehyde content significantly increased (p<0.001), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes erythrocyte- SOD (p<0.001), erythrocyte catalase (p<0.05), and plasma ceruloplasmin (p<0.001) significantly decreased in the SJW group compared with the controls. The results of the study clearly show an alteration of heme biosynthesis and cellular impairment of the pro-oxidants/antioxidants balance, resulting in oxidative damage in the silver jewelry workers group in western Maharashtra (India).
BibTeX:
@article{PatilAJ2006,
  author = {Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Das KK},
  title = {Biochemical aspects of lead exposure in silver jewelry workers in western Maharashtra (India)},
  journal = {J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {17(4)},
  pages = {213-29}
}
Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Jailkhani R, Das KK Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis 2006 Int J Environ Res Public Health.
Vol. 3(4), pp. 329-37 
article  
Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma of battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) who were occupationally exposed to lead (Pb) over a long period of time (about 15 years). This study was also aimed to determine the Pb intoxication resulted in a disturbance of heme biosynthesis in BMW group. The blood Pb level of BMW group (n=28) was found to be in the range of 25.8-78.0 ?g/dL (mean+SD, 53.63+16.98) whereas in Pb unexposed control group (n=35) the range was 2.8-22.0?g/dL (mean+SD, 12.52+4.08). The blood level (Pb-B) and urinary lead level (Pb-U) were significantly
increased in BMW group as compared to unexposed control. Though activated daminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities in BMW group did not show any significant change when compared to control group but activated / non activated
erythrocyte - ALAD activities in BMW group showed a significant increase. Erythrocytezinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), urinary daminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphobilinogen 25 (PBG-U) of BMW groups elevated significantly as compared to control. A positive correlation (r=0.66, p<0.001) between Pb-B and ALA-U were found in BMW group but no such significant correlation (r=0.02, p>1.0) were observed in control group. Hematological study revealed a significant decrease of hemoglobin concentration; packed cell volume (%) and other blood indices and a significant increase of total leucocytes count in BMW group in comparison to control group. The serum MDA content was significantly increased (p<0.001) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte- SOD (p<0.001) and erythrocytecatalase (p<0.001) were significantly reduced in BMW group as compared to control group. A positive correlation (r=0.45, p<0.02) between Pb-B and serum MDA level was observed in BMW group (Pb-B range 25.8-78.0?g/dL) but such significant correlation did not notice in control group (Pb-B range 2.8-22.0?g/dL). The study clearly showed an adverse effect of heme biosynthesis and imbalance of pro-oxidant / antioxidant status in lead exposed battery manufacturing workers resulting in increase in lipid peroxidation associated with decrease in erythrocyte-SOD and erythrocyte-catalase activities.
BibTeX:
@article{PatilAJ2006a,
  author = {Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Jailkhani R, Das KK},
  title = {Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis},
  journal = {Int J Environ Res Public Health.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {3(4)},
  pages = {329-37}
}
Pervez S, Pandey GS Toxic metals status in kidneys and gallstones of workers in a steel plant environment 1994 Environ Monit and Assess
Vol. 32(2), pp. 93-99 
article  
Abstract: Samples of kidney stones and gallstones obtained from patients who were workers at a steel plant, or residents of the steel plant township area and those unrelated to the steel plant and steel plant township area were analysed for the presence of toxic metals (Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cd and Mn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Other constituents (moisture, organic matter, oxalate, phosphate, fluoride and calcium) were also determined in each sample. In most of the samples the highest occurrence of toxic metals was found in the samples obtained from workers of the steel plant who were also
residents of the steel plant township area. In samples obtained from patients who were non-workers of the plant but residents of the steel plant township area, the concentrations of the toxic metals were smaller, but higher than in those cases who were unrelated to the steel plant environment.
BibTeX:
@article{PervezS1994,
  author = {Pervez S, Pandey GS},
  title = {Toxic metals status in kidneys and gallstones of workers in a steel plant environment},
  journal = {Environ Monit and Assess},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {32(2)},
  pages = {93-99}
}
Potula V, HU H Relationship of hemoglobin to occupational exposure to motor vehicle exhaust 1996 Toxicol Ind Health
Vol. 12(5), pp. 629-37 
article  
Abstract: Objective: To study the relationship of hemoglobin to exposure to motor vehicle exhaust.
Design: Survey.
Participants: Traffic police, bus drivers, and auto-shop workers (all exposed to auto exhaust in Madras, India) and unexposed office workers.
Main Outcome Measures: We measured levels of blood lead (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry), and hemoglobin. Information also was collected on age, employment duration, smoking status, alcohol ingestion, and diet type
(vegetarian or nonvegetarian).
Results: Increasing exposure to motor vehicle exhaust, as reflected by job category, was significantly associated with lower levels of hemoglobin (p<0.01). A final multivariate regression model was constructed that began with indicator variables for
each job (with office workers as the reference category) and included age, duration of employment, blood lead level, alcohol ingestion, dietary type, and smoking status. After a backward-elimination procedure, employment duration as an auto-shop worker or bus driver remained as significant correlates of lower hemoglobin level and current smoking and long employment duration as significant correlates of higher hemoglobin level.
Conclusions: Occupational exposure to automobile exhaust may be a risk factor for decreased hemoglobin level in Madras. This effect appears to be independent of blood lead level and may represent hematopoietic suppression incurred by benzene or accumulated lead burden (which is not well reflected by blood lead levels). Smoking probably increased hemoglobin level through the chronic effects of exposure to carbon monoxide. In this study, a long employment duration may have served as a proxy for better socioeconomic, and therefore, better nutritional status.
BibTeX:
@article{PotulaV1996,
  author = {Potula V, HU H},
  title = {Relationship of hemoglobin to occupational exposure to motor vehicle exhaust},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {12(5)},
  pages = {629-37}
}
Potula VV, Hu H Occupational and Lifestyle Determinants of Blood Lead Levels among Men in Madras, India 1996 Int J Occup Environ Health
Vol. 2(1), pp. 1-4 
article  
Abstract: The objective of this epidemiologic study was to assess the relationship of blood lead levels to occupational exposure to the combustion products of leaded gasoline and to several lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet) among men from four occupational groups in Madras, India. Blood lead was measured using graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The mean (SD) blood lead levels in 129 blood samples collected from traffic police, bus drivers, and auto-shop workers were 11.2 (8.8), 12(11.1), and 17.5(8.4)?g/dL, respectively; the corresponding value for urban controls
(office workers) was 4.1(2.1) ?g/dL. In a final multivariate regression model, a nonvegetarian diet and job category remained the strongest predictors of blood lead level (p<0.05), while smoking, alcohol consumption, and duration of employment were not significantly correlated with blood lead levels. The authors conclude that continued use of leaded gasoline probably plays a dominant role in determining blood lead levels in Madras.
BibTeX:
@article{PotulaVV1996,
  author = {Potula VV, Hu H},
  title = {Occupational and Lifestyle Determinants of Blood Lead Levels among Men in Madras, India},
  journal = {Int J Occup Environ Health},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {2(1)},
  pages = {1-4}
}
Prasad B, Jaiprakas KC Evaluation of heavy metals in ground water near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index 1999 J Environ Sci Hlth Part A Toxic-Hazardous Substances & Environ Eng
Vol. 34(1), pp. 91-102 
article  
Abstract: The concentration of Seven heavy metals (copper, Cadmium, iron, chromium, manganese, lead and zinc) have been evaluated at twenty important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad town for three seasons of the year. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have were for the calculation of Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). The HPI of ground water was found to be far below the index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water was not polluted with respect of heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.
BibTeX:
@article{PrasadB1999,
  author = {Prasad B, Jaiprakas KC},
  title = {Evaluation of heavy metals in ground water near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Hlth Part A Toxic-Hazardous Substances & Environ Eng},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {34(1)},
  pages = {91-102}
}
Quraishi YF, Pandey GS Bronchial contamination with toxic metals in mineral-based industrial areas of India 1995 Environ Geochem And Hlth
Vol. 17(1), pp. 25-28 
article  
Abstract: Selected toxic metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni and Mn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 55 samples of bronchial washouts obtained from patients with respiratory ailments. These subjects either worked or lived in industrial locations which have mineral-based industries such as steel plants, thermal power plants, cement plants,
limestone mines and iron ore mines. Half of the samples analysed were from the plant workers and the other half from the non-workers living in the respective industrial areas. Samples from subjects living outside the industrial areas were also collected and analysed. The highest occurrence of toxic metals was found in the subjects living in the steel plant area. The occurrence was of the order: steel plant>thermal power plant cement plant >ironore mines>limestone mines>non-industrial areas.
BibTeX:
@article{QuraishiYF1995,
  author = {Quraishi YF, Pandey GS},
  title = {Bronchial contamination with toxic metals in mineral-based industrial areas of India},
  journal = {Environ Geochem And Hlth},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {17(1)},
  pages = {25-28}
}
Lobo-Mendonca R Prevention Of Industrial Disease (Continued) 1958 Indian Journal of Occupational Health
Vol. 1(5), pp. 109-112 
article  
Abstract: Data concerning the prevention of occupational diseases in India is reviewed. The hazards posing a threat to worker health in Indian factories are chemicals such as hydrogen-sulfide, carbon-monoxide, lead, mercury, and silica, biological factors such as anthrax, tetanus, and hookworm, and harmful environmental conditions such as heat, dampness, insufficient illumination, noise, and radiation energy. The factors determining the nature and severity of occupational diseases among Indian workers are the hazards to which a worker is exposed, exposure intensity and duration, and worker susceptibility.
The maximum allowable concentration (MAC) values currently suggested in India for continuous exposure to a toxic substance over the course of an 8 hour work day are 20 parts per million (ppm) for carbon-disulfide, 100ppm for carbon-monoxide, 100ppm for carbon-tetrachloride, 20ppm for hydrogen-cyanide, 20ppm for hydrogen-sulfide, and 25ppm for nitrogen-oxide. Suggested MACs for arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and zinc oxide are 1.5, 1, 1.5, 1, and 150 milligrams per 10 cubic meters, respectively. The MACs suggested for silica dusts containing 50 to 100, 25 to 50, 10 to 25, and 0 to 10 percent free silica are 5, 10, 20 and 50 particles, 10 microns or less in size per cubic foot of air, respectively. The instruments presently used in India to evaluate hazards in
work environment air include carbon-monoxide indicators, midget impingers, konimeters, dust counters, electrostatic precipitators, and thermal precipitators. An idiosyncratic aspect of occupational hazard evaluation is the hypersensitivity of certain individuals to a given factor. The author recommends that the establishment of permissible exposure durations for toxic substances possessing non-cumulative action be based on the shortest length of exposure causing harm at a given concentration, with both one time and repeated exposure measurement data being considered when evaluating the threat posed by substances that do possess a cumulative effect.
BibTeX:
@article{R1958,
  author = {Lobo-Mendonca R},
  title = {Prevention Of Industrial Disease (Continued)},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Occupational Health},
  year = {1958},
  volume = {1},
  number = {5},
  pages = {109-112}
}
Roy R Lead poisoning. 1974 Nurs J India.
Vol. 65(3) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{R1974,
  author = {Roy R},
  title = {Lead poisoning.},
  journal = {Nurs J India.},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {65(3)}
}
R Srikanth, A Madhumohan Rao, CH Shravan Kumar, Anees Khanum Lead, cadmium, nickel and zinc contamination of ground water around Hussain Sagar Lake, Hyderabad, India 1993 Bull environ contam toxicol
Vol. 50(1), pp. 138-143 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{R.Srikanth1993,
  author = {R. Srikanth, A. Madhumohan Rao, CH. Shravan Kumar, Anees Khanum},
  title = {Lead, cadmium, nickel and zinc contamination of ground water around Hussain Sagar Lake, Hyderabad, India},
  journal = {Bull environ contam toxicol},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {50(1)},
  pages = {138-143}
}
Raghunath R, Nambi KS Lead leaching from pressure cookers 1998 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 224(1-3), pp. 143-8 
article  
Abstract: Leachability of lead by tap water and tamarind solution from Indian pressure cookers while cooking with and without a safety valve is studied. Lead contamination of food by cookers is not very high when compared to the daily intake of lead from various food items consumed by the Indian community. However, looking at the very wide range of lead levels leached from various brands of pressure cookers, it certainly seems possible to keep the lead contamination to the minimum by proper choice of the materials used in the manufacture of these pressure cookers. The rubber gasket, which is a very important component of any pressure cooker, contains the maximum lead concentration; the safety valve is another important source leading to lead
contamination of cooked food.
BibTeX:
@article{RaghunathR1998,
  author = {Raghunath R, Nambi KS},
  title = {Lead leaching from pressure cookers},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {224(1-3)},
  pages = {143-8}
}
Raghunath R, Tripathi RM, Kumar AV, Sathe AP, Khandekar RN, Nambi KS Assessment of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn exposures of 6- to 10-yearold children in Mumbai 1999 Environ Res.
Vol. 80(3), pp. 215-21 
article  
Abstract: Population exposures to toxic trace metals are of great concern due to their nonbiodegradable nature and long biological half-lives for elimination from the body. Response to a toxic metal varies with age group; children are more sensitive and
hence more at risk than others. The present study was therefore undertaken on 6- to 10-year-old children residing in various localities of Greater Mumbai and Thane. Blood samples from 566 children residing in 13 locations in Mumbai along with 410 air particulate samples and 64 "duplicate diet" samples were collected for this study. Levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in these samples were estimated by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric technique. Intake of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn for 6- to 10-year-old children through ingestion and inhalation pathways have also been assessed. A correlation coefficient of 0.88 is observed between air lead and blood lead. It is also seen that every microgram increase in the Pb concentration in air (m3) results in 3.56?g increase in the blood Pb concentration (/dl) in children. Similar correlation, however, was not observed in cases of Cd, Cu, and Zn.
BibTeX:
@article{RaghunathR1999,
  author = {Raghunath R, Tripathi RM, Kumar AV, Sathe AP, Khandekar RN, Nambi KS},
  title = {Assessment of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn exposures of 6- to 10-yearold children in Mumbai},
  journal = {Environ Res.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {80(3)},
  pages = {215-21}
}
Raghunath R, Tripathi RM, Khandekar RN, Nambi KS Retention times of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in children's blood 1997 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 207(2-3), pp. 133-9 
article  
Abstract: Retention times of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in blood of 6-10-year-old children are estimated by measurements of levels of these metals in air particulate, duplicate diet and blood of 19 children residing in different locations in Mumbai (previously, Bombay) city. Retention times of 20.3, 9.1, 2.3 and 2.3 days for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn, respectively are observed.
BibTeX:
@article{RaghunathR1997,
  author = {Raghunath R, Tripathi RM, Khandekar RN, Nambi KS},
  title = {Retention times of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in children's blood},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {207(2-3)},
  pages = {133-9}
}
Raghunath R, Tripathi RM, Khandekar RN, Nambi KSV Retention times of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in children's blood 1997 Science of the Total Environment
Vol. 207(2-3), pp. 133-139 
article  
Abstract: Retention times of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in blood of 6- to 10-year-old children are estimated by measurements of levels of these metals in air particulate, duplicate diet and blood of 19 children residing in different locations in Mumbai (previously, Bombay) city. Retention times of 20.3, 9.1, 2.3 and 2.3 days for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn, respectively are observed.
BibTeX:
@article{RaghunathR1997a,
  author = {Raghunath R, Tripathi RM, Khandekar RN, Nambi KSV},
  title = {Retention times of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in children's blood},
  journal = {Science of the Total Environment},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {207(2-3)},
  pages = {133-139}
}
Rajah T, Ahuja YR In vivo genotoxic effects of smoking and occupational lead exposure in printing press workers 1995 Toxicology Letters
Vol. 76(1), pp. 71-75 
article  
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of a combination exposure to lead and smoking in workers from the printing industry and also to examine the possible interaction between the two agents. Individuals were classified into 4 different groups: control group, lead-exposed group, smokers and the double-exposure group. Chromosomal analysis was carried out according to conventional methods. Our preliminary study shows that leadexposed individuals had a significantly increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Further, double exposure to smoking and lead inhibits mitosis. The effect of methamphetamine cotreatment on carbon tetrachlorideinduced liver toxicity was examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
BibTeX:
@article{RajahT1995,
  author = {Rajah T, Ahuja YR},
  title = {In vivo genotoxic effects of smoking and occupational lead exposure in printing press workers},
  journal = {Toxicology Letters},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {76(1)},
  pages = {71-75}
}
Ramesh R, Kumar KS, Eswaramoorthi S, Purvaja GR Migration And Contamination Of Major And Trace Elements In Groundwater Of Madras City India 1995 Environmental Geology
Vol. 25(2), pp. 126-136 
article  
Abstract: Groundwater samples collected from both open and bore wells in an area of about 270 km2 from Madras City, India, have been analyzed for major ions (HCO3, Cl, Si, Na, Ca, and Mg) and trace elements (As, Se, B, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni, Mo, and Ba). The study reveals that the quality of potable water has deteriorated to a large extent. Seawater intrusion into the aquifer has been observed in nearly 50 percent of the study area. The toxic elements (As and Se) have already exceeded the maximum permissible limits of drinking water in almost the entire city. A positive correlation of As and Se with other toxic metals such as V, Cr, Fe, B, etc., indicates that all these elements are anthropogenic in origin. Applying multivariate analysis, the source for trace elements in groundwater has been grouped into two major factors: pollution and mobilization factors. The groundwater in the study area is largely contaminated by organic effluents and reflects the intensity of pollution caused by the overlying soil sediment and rapid infiltration of the pollutants
BibTeX:
@article{RameshR1995,
  author = {Ramesh R, Kumar KS, Eswaramoorthi S, Purvaja GR},
  title = {Migration And Contamination Of Major And Trace Elements In Groundwater Of Madras City India},
  journal = {Environmental Geology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {25(2)},
  pages = {126-136}
}
Ramesh R, Subramanian V, Van Grieken R Heavy metal distribution in sediments of Krishna River Basin, India 1990 Environ Geol Water Sci
Vol. 15(3), pp. 207-216 
article  
Abstract: Suspended and bed sediments collected rom the entire region of the Krishna River (India) and its major tributaries were analyzed for heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) by the thin-film energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. There is considerable variation in the concentration of elements towards downstream, which may be due to the variation in the subbasin geology and various degrees of human impact. Suspended particles are enriched in heavy metals throughout the basin relative to bed sediments. The heavy metals are enriched in coarse size fractions (10-90?m) throughout the Krishna River except its tributary Bhima, where finer fractions (2?m) dominate. Transition elements correlate very well with each other. There is a striking
similarity between the bed sediments of Krishna River and the Indian average. When the annual heavy metal flux carried by the Krishna River was estimated, and viewed in relation to the other major riverine transport
BibTeX:
@article{RameshR1990,
  author = {Ramesh R, Subramanian V, Van Grieken R},
  title = {Heavy metal distribution in sediments of Krishna River Basin, India},
  journal = {Environ Geol Water Sci},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {15(3)},
  pages = {207-216}
}
Rao GM, Shetty BV, Sudha K Evaluation of lead toxicity and antioxidants in battery workers 2007 Biomedical Research
Vol. 19(1), pp. 1-4 
article  
Abstract: Oxidative damage has been proposed as one of the possible mechanisms involved in Pb toxicity. To investigate this hypothesis we estimated various blood antioxidants in 25 battery workers. Lead was analysed by Anodic stripping voltametry (ASV), all other parameters by spectrophotometric methods. Lead level was significantly high in battery workers (p=0.000). Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased (p=0.00), whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) significantly increased (p<0.01) compared to controls. Other enzymes viz., ceruloplasmin (CPL), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and catalase (CT) were in normal range. RBC lipid 17 peroxidation and percentage hemolysis remained unaltered. There was a strong negative correlation between blood lead level and SOD activity in the study group. Therefore, the changes in the levels of some antioxidants may play an important role in abating hazards of lead poisoning.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoGM2007,
  author = {Rao GM, Shetty BV, Sudha K},
  title = {Evaluation of lead toxicity and antioxidants in battery workers},
  journal = {Biomedical Research},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {19(1)},
  pages = {1-4}
}
Rao KJ, Shantaram MV Concentrations and relative availabilities of heavy metals in urban solid wastes of Hyderabad, India 1995 Bioresource Technology
Vol. 53(1), pp. 53-55 
article  
Abstract: This paper describes the heavy metal contents of urban solid wastes generated in Hyderabad, India. The iron content (total and DTPA-extractable) was higher than that of other metals. Wastes contained higher concentrations of all heavy metals than are normally found in agricultural soils. The Cdn ratio ranged from 0.7 to 1.7. Among the heavy metals, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were relatively more available than Mn, Co, Cd, Cr and Fe, which were least available.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoKJ1995,
  author = {Rao KJ, Shantaram MV},
  title = {Concentrations and relative availabilities of heavy metals in urban solid wastes of Hyderabad, India},
  journal = {Bioresource Technology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {53(1)},
  pages = {53-55}
}
Rastogi SK, Gupta BN, Husain T, Chandra H, Mathur N, Pangtey BS, Chandra SV, Garg N A Cross-Sectional Study of Pulmonary Function among Workers Exposed to Multimetals in the Glass Bangle Industry 1991 American J of Indust Med
Vol. 20(3), pp. 391-399 
article  
Abstract: As part of an epidemiological health survey conducted in the glass bangle industry at Firozabad, northern India, spirometric lung functions were evaluated in 220 asymptomatic glass bangle workers (GBW) exposed to the salts of heavy metals used as coloring agents and in 88 referents in nondusty occupations and never exposed to the work environment of the GBW. The exposed workers, mean age of 30.6 years with a mean exposure duration of 12.2 years, included 97 nonsmokers and 123 smokers. The referents, mean age of 30.9 years, included 51 nonsmokers and 37 smokers. The spirometric lung
functions which were recorded included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1 in percent, indirect maximum breathing capacity (IBMC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory flow rate of 25 to 75% of spirogram (FEF75), forced expiratory flow rate over 75 and 85% of spirogram (FEF85), and mid expiratory time (MET). Airborne dust collected from different units of the glass bangle industry was analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc. In regard to both smoking and nonsmoking GBW, the mean values of FVC,
FEV1, IBMC, and PERF were above 80% of predicted values. MET showed a significantly higher value in GWB compared to referents. FEF75 and FEF85 were significantly lower in GWB compared to referents. The FEF75 and FEF85 in the smoking GBW were significantly lower compared to smoking referents. Both smoking and nonsmoking GBW revealed a significantly higher prevalence of restrictive pulmonary impairment in comparison with that of the respective referents. Except for FEF75 and FEF85, no significant differences were noted in the respiratory variables of GBW exposed less than 10 years and those exposed more than 10 years. The mean concentrations of 862.7, 768.2, and 256.7?g/m3 for lead, zinc, and nickel, respectively, in the airborne dust were considered particularly high in comparison to threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
BibTeX:
@article{RastogiSK1991,
  author = {Rastogi SK, Gupta BN, Husain T, Chandra H, Mathur N, Pangtey BS, Chandra SV, Garg N},
  title = {A Cross-Sectional Study of Pulmonary Function among Workers Exposed to Multimetals in the Glass Bangle Industry},
  journal = {American J of Indust Med},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {20(3)},
  pages = {391-399}
}
Ravichandran B, Krishnamurthy V, Ravibabu K, Raghavan S, Rajan BK, Rajmohan HR Assessing dust exposure in an integrated iron and steel manufacturing plant in South India 2008 Work
Vol. 30(2), pp. 195-200 
article  
Abstract: A study to monitor and estimate respirable particulate matter (RPM), toxic trace metal concentrations in the work environment was carried out in different sections of an integrated steel manufacturing industry. The average RPM concentration observed varied according to the section blast furnace was 2.41 mg/m3 energy optimization furnace, 1.87 mg/m3 sintering plant, 0.98 mg/m3 continuous casting machine, 1.93 mg/m3. The average trace metal concentration estimated from the RPM samples like iron, manganese, lead and chromium did not exceed ACGIH prescribed levels.
BibTeX:
@article{RavichandranB2008,
  author = {Ravichandran B, Krishnamurthy V, Ravibabu K, Raghavan S, Rajan BK, Rajmohan HR},
  title = {Assessing dust exposure in an integrated iron and steel manufacturing plant in South India},
  journal = {Work},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {30(2)},
  pages = {195-200}
}
Ravichandran B, Ravibabu K, Raghavan S, Krishnamurthy V, Rajan BK, Rajmohan HR Environmental and biological monitoring in a lead acid battery manufacturing unit in India 2005 J Occup Health.
Vol. 47(4), pp. 350-3 
article  
Abstract: An environmental and biological monitoring of a lead acid battery manufacturing unit was carried out to measure the respirable particulate matter, lead content in working atmosphere and blood lead levels of workers employed in different sections. The results showed high mean air lead concentration in buffing (1444.45?g/m3), plate cutting (430.14?g/m3) and pasting (277.48?g/m3) sections. The mean blood lead levels of employees in these sections were also higher than the values prescribed by ACGIH.
BibTeX:
@article{RavichandranB2005,
  author = {Ravichandran B, Ravibabu K, Raghavan S, Krishnamurthy V, Rajan BK, Rajmohan HR},
  title = {Environmental and biological monitoring in a lead acid battery manufacturing unit in India},
  journal = {J Occup Health.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {47(4)},
  pages = {350-3}
}
Raviraja A, Babu GN, Bijoor AR, Menezes G, Venkatesh T Lead toxicity in a family as a result of occupational exposure 2008 Arh Hig Rada Toksikol
Vol. 59(2), pp. 127-33 
article  
Abstract: This article describes an entire family manufacturing lead acid batteries who all suffered from lead poisoning. The family of five lived in a house, part of which had been used for various stages of battery production for 14 years. Open space was used for drying batteries. They all drank water from a well located on the premises. Evaluation of biomarkers of lead exposure and/or effect revealed alarming blood lead levels [(3.92?0.94) ?mol/L], 50 % reduction in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase [(24.67?5.12) U/L] and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin [(1228?480) ?g/L]. Liver function tests showed an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase [(170.41?41.82) U/L]. All other liver function test parameters were normal. Renal function tests showed an increase in serum uric acid [(515.81?86.29) ?mol/L] while 6 urea and creatinine were normal. Serum calcium was low [(1.90?0.42) mmol/L in
women and (2.09?0.12) mmol/L in men], while blood pressure was high in the head of the family and his wife and normal in children. Lead concentration in well water was estimated to 180 ?g/L. The family was referred to the National Referral Centre for Lead Poisoning in India, were they were received treatment and were informed about the hazards of lead poisoning. A follow up three months later showed a slight decrease in blood lead levels and a significant increase in haemoglobin. These findings can be attributed to behavioural changes adopted by the family, even though they continued producing lead batteries.
BibTeX:
@article{RavirajaA2008,
  author = {Raviraja A, Babu GN, Bijoor AR, Menezes G, Venkatesh T},
  title = {Lead toxicity in a family as a result of occupational exposure},
  journal = {Arh Hig Rada Toksikol},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {59(2)},
  pages = {127-33}
}
Reddy MK, Venkat Rao D, Rama Rao KG, Rama Mohan Rao I, Vittal Rao M Heavy metals in the SPM of air in the environment surrounding a ferro-alloy industrial plant in India 1993 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 25(2), pp. 109-118 
article  
Abstract: Prices for ferro-alloys have hardened due to the closure of plants in developed countries on account of increasingly stringent pollution control legislation, resulting in a higher cost of production. A ferro-alloy industry with a capacity of 80000 MT per annum was selected to study the nature of pollution. Because of the objectionable nature of polluting air in and around the plant it was located in a rural area where there was no other industry. The area was agriculturally active and there was effective control system for this plant. The quality of ambient air around the plant site is discussed in this paper along with the meteorological conditions. The maximum concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was 768 mumg3 downwind of the plant, minimum 184 ?g/NM3, and the average was more than 446 ?g/NM3. The presence of heavy metals, viz. Fe, MN, Cr and Pb, was also assessed. The concentration of Fe was 50?g/NM3 downwind and 10?g/NM3 upwind.
BibTeX:
@article{ReddyMK1993,
  author = {Reddy MK, Venkat Rao D, Rama Rao KG, Rama Mohan Rao I, Vittal Rao M},
  title = {Heavy metals in the SPM of air in the environment surrounding a ferro-alloy industrial plant in India},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {25(2)},
  pages = {109-118}
}
Roychowdhury A, Gautam AK Alteration of human sperm and other seminal constituents after lead exposure 1995 Ind J of Physiol and Allied Sci
Vol. 49(2), pp. 68-73 
article  
Abstract: Lead causes reproductive abnormality. Semen samples were collected from lead exposed and non-exposed workers of average 30 years and weight 55 kg in printing press working 8 hours daily over a period of ten years. Lead in exposed blood and seminal plasma were 42.5?g/100 ml and 14.80?g/100 ml respectively. Low sperm counts, tail abnormality, diminution of sperm head DNA were noted. High lead content in semen, sperm abnormalities and low level of seminal plasma fructose, succinic dehydrogenase, (SDH) and acid phosphatase (ACPase) revealed reduced androgen dependent activities in exposed group.
BibTeX:
@article{RoychowdhuryA1995,
  author = {Roychowdhury A, Gautam AK},
  title = {Alteration of human sperm and other seminal constituents after lead exposure},
  journal = {Ind J of Physiol and Allied Sci},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {49(2)},
  pages = {68-73}
}
Kumar S Heavy metal pollution in Gomti river sediments around Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh India 1989 Curr Sci (bangalore)
Vol. 58(10), pp. 557-559 
article  
Abstract: The clay fraction (<2?m) of Gomti river sediments shows relatively higher values for Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr and PO4 in comparison to background values. Fe, Co and Ni do not show any increase and Cd is not within detectable limits. PO4 shows very good positive correlation with Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn. It is concluded that municipal waste discharged into the river through drains is responsible for the higher values of heavy metals and PO4, but in general Gomti river sediments can be termed as unpolluted with heavy metals.
BibTeX:
@article{S1989,
  author = {Kumar S},
  title = {Heavy metal pollution in Gomti river sediments around Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh India},
  journal = {Curr Sci (bangalore)},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {58(10)},
  pages = {557-559}
}
Kapil U, Suri S Is iron deficiency anemia linked with higher lead levels in India? A public health concern 2004 Indian Pediatr.
Vol. 41(12)(1275) 
article  
Abstract: Iron deficiency and elevated lead levels are common amongst children and have the potential for long-term morbidity. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with lower cognitive function and behavioral problems. Elevated lead levels have been associated with anemia, decreased IQ, impaired attention and speech performance, increased school failure, hyper activity and disturbed social behavior. It is well documented that lead is more readily absorbed in the presence of both malnutrition and iron deficiency anemia. Early detection and treatment of both these conditions is important.
BibTeX:
@article{S2004,
  author = {Kapil U Suri S},
  title = {Is iron deficiency anemia linked with higher lead levels in India? A public health concern},
  journal = {Indian Pediatr.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {41(12)},
  number = {1275}
}
Sadasivan S, Negi BS, Mishra UC Atmospheric Lead Levels in Some Cities In India 1987 Indian J Environ Health
Vol. 29(4), pp. 280-286 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SadasivanS1987,
  author = {Sadasivan S, Negi BS, Mishra UC},
  title = {Atmospheric Lead Levels in Some Cities In India},
  journal = {Indian J Environ Health},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {29(4)},
  pages = {280-286}
}
Sadhu HG, Amin BK, Parikh DJ, Sathawara NG, Mishra U, Virani BK, Lakkad BC, Shivgotra VK, Patel Shruti Poisoning of workers working in small lead-based units 2008 Indian J Occup Environ med
Vol. 12(3), pp. 139-141 
article  
Abstract: Background: No data are available with the labor departments among the workers of small-scale lead-based units with regard to lead poisoning. One hundred and ninety-five workers were investigated for lead exposure and three were found exceeding the limit of 80 mg/dL, which required a treatment for lead poisoning.
Aim: To assess the exposure and health risk in workers working in small lead-based units. Setting and Design: Random sampling is selected from the cross-sectional medical study.
Methods and Materials: Medical examination-cum-biochemical/hematological investigations along with blood lead estimation were carried out in these workers.
Statistical Analysis: Epi-Info and SPSS 16.0 were used for statistical analysis.
Results and Conclusion: Workers' blood lead levels were brought down from 114.4,110.0 and 120.6 mg/dL with treatment of D-penicillamine to 40 mg/dL. It may beconcluded that lead poisoning is a preventable public health problem that particularly affects the industrial workers in small lead-based units.
BibTeX:
@article{SadhuHG2008,
  author = {Sadhu HG, Amin BK, Parikh DJ, Sathawara NG, Mishra U, Virani BK, Lakkad BC, Shivgotra VK, Patel Shruti},
  title = {Poisoning of workers working in small lead-based units},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ med},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {12(3)},
  pages = {139-141}
}
Samanta G, Chakraborti D Flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) and spectrophotometric methods for determination of lead in environmental samples 1996 Environmental Technology
Vol. 17(12), pp. 1327-1337 
article  
Abstract: Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) and spectrophotometric methods have been used for determination of lead in environmental samples. The method, FI-HG-AAS is fast and can analyse one sample from solution within 30 seconds. The method is highly sensitive. The detection limit is 0.002 mg/l for a 50?l injection loop. Along with FI-HG-AAS a spectrometric method has also been described. Utility of this method is, any laboratory that can afford a colorimeter can use this method for lead determination. The method is based on stepwise removal of interfering cations by dithizone, dibenzyldithiocarbamate followed by final spectrophotometric determination using 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol.
BibTeX:
@article{SamantaG1996,
  author = {Samanta G, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) and spectrophotometric methods for determination of lead in environmental samples},
  journal = {Environmental Technology},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {17(12)},
  pages = {1327-1337}
}
Samanta G, Chatterjee A, Das D, Chowdhury PP, Chandra CR, Chakraborti D Calcutta pollution: Part V: Lead and other heavy metal contamination in a residential area from a factory producing lead-ingots and lead-alloys 1995 Environmental Technology
Vol. 16(3), pp. 223-231 
article  
Abstract: Within Calcutta city of area 100 sq. km there are altogether 11516 small and big factories. And in and around Calcutta there are alone 40 factories producing only leadingots and lead-alloys; a few hundred thousand people live in the vicinity of these factories. Most of these factories are bereft of adequate emission treatment plant and the chimney heights also are in the range of 15-25 meters only. The analytical study of soil, water, road-dust, dust on leaves, pond-sediment of the surroundings of one such factory in Kalipark, Dum Dum is presented in this paper. The results show that the surrounding area is highly contaminated not only by lead but also from very toxic elements arsenic, cadmium and mercury.
BibTeX:
@article{SamantaG1995,
  author = {Samanta G, Chatterjee A, Das D, Chowdhury PP, Chandra CR, Chakraborti D},
  title = {Calcutta pollution: Part V: Lead and other heavy metal contamination in a residential area from a factory producing lead-ingots and lead-alloys},
  journal = {Environmental Technology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {16(3)},
  pages = {223-231}
}
Samanta G, Dhakraborti D Flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry for the standardization of arsenic, lead and mercury in environmental and biological standard reference materials 1997 Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Vol. 357(7), pp. 827-832 
article  
Abstract: Results of a thorough study and application of flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of As, Pb and Hg in parts per million to subparts per billion levels in environmental and biological samples have been described. Various standard reference materials from the National Bureau of Standards, USA, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA, the Community Bureau of Reference, Brussels, Belgium and the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan and Standard Chinese river sediment were used. By flow injection hydride generation AAS the standard reference materials were analyzed for As and Pb. Mercury was determined by cold vapour flow injection AAS from environmental and biological standard reference materials. The technique is fast, simple and highly sensitive. It takes only 30 s for each analysis from the digested solution. The detection limits of As, Pb and Hg are 1.8 ?g/L and 2.0?g/L and 1.5?g/L, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{SamantaG1997,
  author = {Samanta G, Dhakraborti D},
  title = {Flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry for the standardization of arsenic, lead and mercury in environmental and biological standard reference materials},
  journal = {Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {357(7)},
  pages = {827-832}
}
Sarkar A, Chattopadhyay S, Kaul R, Pal JK Lead exposure and heat shock inhibit cell proliferation in human HeLa and K562 cells by inducing expression and activity of the heme-regulated eIF-2alpha kinase 2002 J Biochem Mol Biol Biophys.
Vol. 6(6), pp. 391-6 
article  
Abstract: We have used human cell lines, namely, K562 and HeLa cells as model systems in understanding the mechanism of lead toxicity and heat shock, that may be mediated by the heme-regulated eIF-2alpha kinase which is also called the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI). RT-PCR analysis using HRI-specific primers indicated a two- to threefold increase in HRI expression in K562 and HeLa cells exposed to lead acetate and heat shock, respectively. Further, in vitro eIF-2alpha kinase assay indicated a two- to three-fold increase in HRI kinase activity during lead toxicity in K562 cells. This increase in HRI expression and its activity was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell proliferation and cell viability. This is therefore, the first report indicating that both heavy metal exposure and heat shock cause inhibition of protein synthesis not by activation of HRI alone but by its over-expression as well as activation. Our data indicate further that lead-induced inhibition of cell proliferation may be caused due to inhibition of protein synthesis resulted due to induced expression and activity of HRI.
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarA2002,
  author = {Sarkar A, Chattopadhyay S, Kaul R, Pal JK},
  title = {Lead exposure and heat shock inhibit cell proliferation in human HeLa and K562 cells by inducing expression and activity of the heme-regulated eIF-2alpha kinase},
  journal = {J Biochem Mol Biol Biophys.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {6(6)},
  pages = {391-6}
}
Sarkar A, Kulkarni A, Chattopadhyay S, Mogare D, Sharma KK, Singh K, Pal JK Lead-induced upregulation of the heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase is compromised by hemin in human K562 cells 2005 Biochim Biophys Acta.
Vol. 1732(1-3), pp. 15-22 
article  
Abstract: Expression and kinase activity of the heme-regulated-eIF-2alpha kinase or -inhibitor (HRI) are induced during cytoplasmic stresses leading to inhibition of protein synthesis. Using a reporter construct with HRI promoter, we have determined the promoter activity during heat-shock and lead toxicity in human K562 cells. These two conditions induced HRI promoter activity by 2- to 3-fold. Contrary to this, hemin, a suppressor of HRI kinase activity, downregulated HRI promoter activity and stimulated hemoglobin synthesis. Interestingly, when hemin-treated cells were transfected and exposed to lead, hemin compromised lead-effect substantially by downregulating HRI promoter activity, HRI transcription and HRI kinase activity. These results together suggest that heme signaling in relation to translation regulation is not only restricted to the cytoplasm (modulating HRI kinase activity) alone but it also spans to the nucleus modulating HRI expression. Hemin may thus be useful for alleviation of stress-induced inhibition of protein synthesis.
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarA2005,
  author = {Sarkar A, Kulkarni A, Chattopadhyay S, Mogare D, Sharma KK, Singh K, Pal JK},
  title = {Lead-induced upregulation of the heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase is compromised by hemin in human K562 cells},
  journal = {Biochim Biophys Acta.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {1732(1-3)},
  pages = {15-22}
}
Sarma VV, Vara Prasad SJD, Gupta GVM, Sudhakar U Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, east coast of India 1996 Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 25(2), pp. 148-150 
article  
Abstract: High concentrations of PHC were observed in the inner channels (viz., South lighter canal, Northern arm, North western arm and Western arm) of Visakhapatnam harbour. The estimation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr) in surficial sediments indicated higher contamination in Visakhapatnam harbour thin in Kakinada Bay. Positive correlations between Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd suggests common sources of these metals. Lack of correlation between Co, Ni with the other metals indicates point sources. High concentrations of chromium reflects intense discharges due to electroplating and battery operations.
BibTeX:
@article{SarmaVV1996,
  author = {Sarma VV, Vara Prasad SJD, Gupta GVM, Sudhakar U},
  title = {Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, east coast of India},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Marine Sciences},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {25(2)},
  pages = {148-150}
}
Sathaye AU, Javadekar BB A presumptive case of lead poisoning in a brass-worker's child 2000 J Indian Med Assoc.
Vol. 98(8), pp. 457-8 
article  
Abstract: A one-year-old male child was admitted with the complaints of vomiting and irritability for 4 days, haematemesis and melaena for one day and had generalised tonic convulsions on the day of admission. Examination revealed exaggerated reflexes with group II coma. Blood film showed basophilic shippling. Straight x-ray showed lead lines in the metaphyses of ribs, humerii, scapulae, iliac crests and upper ends of femurs. The boy's father was an employee of brass industry where brass alloys used cotained lead in substantial amount. A presumptive case of lead poisoning (as diagnosed) was treated symptomatically. Chelating agent was called for but the patient left. In the present case the hands of the child were contaminated with lead dust brought home by his father either in person or in clothings. The child used his hands constantly in his mouth to get poisoned by lead.
BibTeX:
@article{SathayeAU2000,
  author = {Sathaye AU, Javadekar BB},
  title = {A presumptive case of lead poisoning in a brass-worker's child},
  journal = {J Indian Med Assoc.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {98(8)},
  pages = {457-8}
}
Sathwara NG, Shah GM, Pandya CB, Patel TS, Parikh DJ, Chatterjee SK Lead levels in blood from the general population of Ahmedabad 1991 Biological monitoring of exposure to chemicals: metals., pp. 85-96  article  
BibTeX:
@article{SathwaraNG1991,
  author = {Sathwara NG, Shah GM, Pandya CB, Patel TS, Parikh DJ, Chatterjee SK},
  title = {Lead levels in blood from the general population of Ahmedabad},
  journal = {Biological monitoring of exposure to chemicals: metals.},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {85-96}
}
Satyanaryana D, Murty PVSP Distribution of dissolved trace metals in western Bay of Bengal (India) 1990 Ind J Mar Sci
Vol. 19(3), pp. 206-211 
article  
Abstract: Concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Fe have been determined in 93 water samples (17 inshore and 7 offshore stations), collected at different depths, from the western Bay of Bengal (between Visakhapatnam and Madras) during March 1988. Surface distributions reveal that relatively high concentrations of trace metals and nutrients are associated with low salinities in inshore and vice versa in the offshore waters. The depth profiles of Ni, Zn and Cd with surface depletion and bottom enrichment resemble those of nutrients indicating their involvement in the biogeochemical cycles. While the profiles of Cu are indicative of its involvement in the scavenging process at intermediate depth, those of Mn and Pb with surface enrichment and bottom depletion, appear to be controlled by river inputs and anthropogenic atmospheric flux. However, surface enrichment and bottom depletion observed in the
case of Fe profiles, contrary to its normal oceanic distribution, are attributed
BibTeX:
@article{SatyanaryanaD1990,
  author = {Satyanaryana D, Murty PVSP},
  title = {Distribution of dissolved trace metals in western Bay of Bengal (India)},
  journal = {Ind J Mar Sci},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {19(3)},
  pages = {206-211}
}
Saxena DK, Singh C, Murthy RC, Mathur N, Chandra SV Blood and placental lead levels in an Indian city: A preliminary report 1994 Arch of Environ Hlth
Vol. 49(2), pp. 106-110 
article  
Abstract: A preliminary investigation was carried out in a hospital in the city of Lucknow, India, to provide information on the possible range of lead (Pb) exposure in pregnant women and fetuses, to correlate high Pb levels with various socioenvironmental factors, and to examine any possible association between reproductive outcome and Pb levels in this population. The results indicate that maternal blood lead levels were higher in those who experienced abnormal deliveries and in those who ate nonvegetarian diets or drank groundwater compared with the respective control groups. Placenta, cord blood, and fetal membranes from both normal and abnormal delivery cases showed no significant differences in their Pb content. Other socioenvironmental factors did not influence these Pb levels. However, incidence of higher Pb levels in maternal blood (17% and 38% with Pb>25?g/dl in normal and abnormal deliveries, respectively) and cord blood (>10?g/dl) reflect a need for regular monitoring and lowering of environmental Pb exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{SaxenaDK1994,
  author = {Saxena DK, Singh C, Murthy RC, Mathur N, Chandra SV},
  title = {Blood and placental lead levels in an Indian city: A preliminary report},
  journal = {Arch of Environ Hlth},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {49(2)},
  pages = {106-110}
}
Senapati NK, Sahu KC Heavy metal distribution in Subarnarekha river, east coast of India 1996 Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 25(2), pp. 109-114 
article  
Abstract: Water and sediment samples collected during three different periods were analysed for the estimation of the natural and anthropogenic heavy metal fluxes from Subarnarekha river. Enrichment ratios, used as the tool for quantification of contamination, were calculated for both water and sediment samples with respect to global and local background concentration values separately. It was observed for water that the contamination was more when compared with global background and less when compared with local background values. However, the bed sediments were enriched more with reference to the local background than the global background values. The above information helps in estimating the contribution of heavy metals to the metal flux to the Bay of Bengal.
BibTeX:
@article{SenapatiNK1996,
  author = {Senapati NK, Sahu KC},
  title = {Heavy metal distribution in Subarnarekha river, east coast of India},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Marine Sciences},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {25(2)},
  pages = {109-114}
}
Sengupta M, Bishayi B Effect of lead and arsenic on murine macrophage response 2002 Drug Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 25(4), pp. 459-72 
article  
Abstract: Splenic macrophages are highly efficient in trapping and concentrating foreign substances carried in the blood and also the major sites where antibodies are synthesised and from where they are released into the circulation. Lead and Arsenic as
environmental agents are considered to be high priority toxic substances largely due to their carcinogenic potentials in humans. However, these heavy metals as carcinogens remain an enigma because while they are definitely active in humans, carcinogenesis in the rodent model has never been convincingly demonstrated. Although macrophages are predominantly recruited to the site of inflammation during inflammatory distress as well as in immune response, nothing is known about the interaction of lead and arsenic with macrophages and their possible role in immunotoxicologic effect. In the present study it
is reported that in vivo lead acetate treatment (10 mg/kg body wt) inhibits the cell adhesion property and alters the cell morphology in the splenic macrophages. Results show that there is a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase release in lead treated macrophages (6.7?0.88IU/100 mL) with respect to control(14.17?0.18). In vivo exposure of sodium arsenite (0.5 mg/kg body wt) also decreases phagocytic activity for ingestion and digestion of exogenous antigens, such as whole microorganism, as evident from the phagocytic index, 11555.55?62.86(in control) to 5555.5?1571.33 in arsenic treated cells.
Arsenic exposed cells release 8.15?0.05 microM nitric oxide, whereas control cells release 10.95?0.15 microM of nitric oxide, which is also identical following LPS stimulation. Results show that the functional integrity of the target cell is also decreased
after arsenic exposure as obtained from the percentage of DNA fragmentation. A greater percentage of DNA fragmentation upon arsenic treatment (43.1?0.05%) with respect to control(14.9?0.34%) indicates that arsenic induces apoptosis. In immune cells which are rapidly proliferating and differentiating, inhibition of these heavy metal induced functions may result in similar degree of toxicity and lead to diseased state.
BibTeX:
@article{SenguptaM2002,
  author = {Sengupta M, Bishayi B},
  title = {Effect of lead and arsenic on murine macrophage response},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {25(4)},
  pages = {459-72}
}
Setia, K., B. L. Kawatra, C. K. Hira, S. K. Mann, M. Bennink, G. S. Dhaliwal, R. Arora, N. S. Randhawa, A. K. Dhawan Consumption of heavy metals by adult women in sewage and tubewell irrigated areas 1998 Ecological agriculture and sustainable development
Vol. 2, pp. 677-683 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Setia1998,
  author = {Setia, K., B. L. Kawatra, C. K. Hira, S. K. Mann, M. Bennink, G. S. Dhaliwal, R. Arora, N. S. Randhawa, A. K. Dhawan},
  title = {Consumption of heavy metals by adult women in sewage and tubewell irrigated areas},
  journal = {Ecological agriculture and sustainable development},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {677-683}
}
Shah GM, Pandya CB, Sathawara NG, Parikh DJ, Kashyap SK Lead poisoning and community 1995 Proceeding of workshop on lead pollution control and monitoring  article  
BibTeX:
@article{ShahGM1995,
  author = {Shah GM, Pandya CB, Sathawara NG, Parikh DJ, Kashyap SK},
  title = {Lead poisoning and community},
  journal = {Proceeding of workshop on lead pollution control and monitoring},
  year = {1995}
}
Shah GM, Pandya CB, Sathawara NG, Parikh DJ, Kashyap SK Lead poisoning-A community threat 1991 A national seminar on lead and environment, pp. 67-68  article  
BibTeX:
@article{ShahGM1991,
  author = {Shah GM, Pandya CB, Sathawara NG, Parikh DJ, Kashyap SK},
  title = {Lead poisoning-A community threat},
  journal = {A national seminar on lead and environment},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {67-68}
}
Shah GM, Sathawara NG, Shah NS, Pandya CB, Parikh DJ, Kashyap SK Heavy metal content of food samples from different areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan States 1996 Proceedings of National Symposium on Surveillance, Prevention and control of food contaminants, pp. 85-92  article  
BibTeX:
@article{ShahGM1996,
  author = {Shah GM, Sathawara NG, Shah NS, Pandya CB, Parikh DJ, Kashyap SK},
  title = {Heavy metal content of food samples from different areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan States},
  journal = {Proceedings of National Symposium on Surveillance, Prevention and control of food contaminants},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {85-92}
}
Sharma M, Maheshwari M, Morisawa S Dietary and inhalation intake of lead and estimation of blood lead levels in adults and children in Kanpur, India 2005 Risk Anal.
Vol. 25(6), pp. 1573-88 
article  
Abstract: This research was initiated to study lead levels in various food items in the city of Kanpur, India, to assess the dietary intake of lead and to estimate blood lead (PbB) levels, a biomarker of lead toxicity. For this purpose, sampling of food products,
laboratory analysis, and computational exercises were undertaken. Specifically, six food groups (leafy vegetables, nonleafy vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, and milk), drinking water, and lead air concentration were considered for estimating lead intake. Results indicated highest lead content in leafy vegetables followed by pulses. Fruits showed low lead content and drinking water lead levels were always within tolerable limits. It was estimated that average daily lead intake through diet was about 114?g/day for adults and 50?g/day in children; tolerable limit is 250?g/day for adults and 90?g/day for children. The estimated lead intakes were translated into the resultant PbB concentrations for children and adults using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Monte Carlo simulation of PbB level variations for adults showed that probability of exceeding the tolerable limit of PbB (i.e., 10?g/dL) was 0.062 for the pre-unleaded and 0.000328 for the post-unleaded gasoline period. The probability of exceeding tolerable limits in PbB level was reduced by a factor of 189 in the post-unleaded scenario. The study also suggested that in spite of the 35 introduction of unleaded gasoline, children continue to be at a high risk (probability of exceeding 10?g/dL=0.39) because of a high intake of lead per unit body weight.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaM2005,
  author = {Sharma M, Maheshwari M, Morisawa S},
  title = {Dietary and inhalation intake of lead and estimation of blood lead levels in adults and children in Kanpur, India},
  journal = {Risk Anal.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {25(6)},
  pages = {1573-88}
}
Sharma R, Pervez S Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India 2005 Environ Geochem Health
Vol. 27(1), pp. 39-45 
article  
Abstract: Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, human milk is the most important food source for infants. Breast milk can, however, also be a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic elements. Selected toxic elements (As, Pb, Mn, Hg and Cd) were determined in human breast milk and blood samples obtained from 120 subjects related to an integrated steel plant environment located in central India. Samples of breast milk and blood from subjects living outside the steel plant environment were also analyzed for comparative study. Higher levels of these toxic elements were found in blood samples as compared to breast milk samples. Plant workers showed the higher presence of these metals in their breast milk and blood samples compared to the residents of the area and the subjects living outside the industrial environment, respectively. Mn, Pb and Hg have shown a higher tendency to associate with blood and breast milk than As and Cd. The order of occurrence of these metals in blood and milk samples thus found is Mn>Pb>Hg>As>Cd.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaR2005,
  author = {Sharma R, Pervez S},
  title = {Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {27(1)},
  pages = {39-45}
}
Sharma R, Pervez S Enrichment and exposure of particulate lead in a traffic environment in India 2003 Environ Geochem Health
Vol. 25(3), pp. 297-306 
article  
Abstract: Enrichment of lead in respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and exposure of human blood to particulate lead in traffic environment were investigated. Samples of RSPM, non-respirable suspended particulate matter (NRSPM) and total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were collected in 10 sampling sites located on National Highway No. 6, Drug-Bhilai section of Chhattisgarh State of India. Forty blood samples, out of which 20 of highway traffic personnel with chronic exposure and other 20 of general population who were residing more than 10 km away from the National Highway, were collected. Samples of particulate matter were weighed and analysed for particulate lead. Results have shown a higher concentration of average RSPM and TSPM in all the sampling sites compared to the Indian permissible limits. Geometric mean of lead levels was found in the range of 0.880-1.414 ?g/m3 (TSPM) in the study sites. Concentrations of lead in RSPM have shown a higher enrichment (range 2.645-3.171) relative to NRSPM. Blood lead levels in traffic personnel and general population were found in the range of 56.70-101.17 ?g/dL and 7.92-31.22 ?g/dL, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaR2003,
  author = {Sharma R, Pervez S},
  title = {Enrichment and exposure of particulate lead in a traffic environment in India},
  journal = {Environ Geochem Health},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {25(3)},
  pages = {297-306}
}
Sheerin NS, Monk PN, Aslam M, Thurston H Simultaneous exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury from Indian ethnic remedies 1994 Br J Clin Pract
Vol. 48(6), pp. 332-3 
article  
Abstract: We report the case of an Asian woman who was exposed to toxic levels of lead, arsenic and mercury through the use of Indian ethnic remedies, and who suffered symptomatic lead poisoning. We know of no other case of exposure to such a combination of heavy metals from this source. We believe that control of the dispensing of these compounds is essential.
BibTeX:
@article{SheerinNS1994,
  author = {Sheerin NS, Monk PN, Aslam M, Thurston H},
  title = {Simultaneous exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury from Indian ethnic remedies},
  journal = {Br J Clin Pract},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {48(6)},
  pages = {332-3}
}
Shenoi RP, Khandekar RN, Jaykar AV, Raghunath R Sources of lead exposure in urban slum school children 1991 Indian Pediatr
Vol. 28(9), pp. 1021-7 
article  
Abstract: A school-based study was undertaken to trace various sources of lead exposure in urban slum children. Two cases with elevated venous blood lead (PbB) levels were detected and confirmed in 100 consecutive Bombay school children, referred to a hospital school clinic for clinical pallor. A common source of lead exposure in one suburb, was implied by the significantly higher PbB levels here. Systematic family and environmental studies identified the source was a nearby factory manufacturing lead storage batteries. Similar studies for the other index case traced the source to the dust produced by small-scale foundries and secondary lead smelters. This study indicates that large-scale screening studies are necessary to establish the magnitude and epidemiology of this problem in Bombay.
BibTeX:
@article{ShenoiRP1991,
  author = {Shenoi RP, Khandekar RN, Jaykar AV, Raghunath R},
  title = {Sources of lead exposure in urban slum school children},
  journal = {Indian Pediatr},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {28(9)},
  pages = {1021-7}
}
Shukla N, Moitra JK, Trivedi RC Determination of lead, zinc, potassium, calcium, copper and sodium in human cataract lenses 1996 Sci Total Environment
Vol. 181(2), pp. 161-165 
article  
Abstract: Concentrations of Pb, Zn, K, Ca, Cu and Na were determined in several human cataract and clear lenses, obtained from patients from two contrasting environmental regions in India, and the values were compared. When compared with the results obtained for samples of clear lenses, the mean concentration values of cataract lenses showed significant changes on the basis of the Mann-Whitney test. In cataract lenses, Pb and Zn showed an inverse correlation of r = -0.83; y = -1.64x + 457. Ca and K also showed an inverse correlation of r = -0.71; y = -0.34x + 3.6. No significant correlations were found between any other elements. The distribution of Pb, Zn, Ca and K were studied and their importance in ocular tissues is discussed. The molecules present in the eye lens lattice have undergone some conformational alterations due to intrusion of Pb and Ca ions and extrusion of Zn and K ions through the process of ion-exchange, thereby influencing the transparency of the lens.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaN1996,
  author = {Shukla N, Moitra JK, Trivedi RC},
  title = {Determination of lead, zinc, potassium, calcium, copper and sodium in human cataract lenses},
  journal = {Sci Total Environment},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {181(2)},
  pages = {161-165}
}
Shukla N, Moitra JK, Trivedi RC Lead levels in exfoliated caries and fluorosis affected teeth of different regions 1995 Ind J of Environ Hlth
Vol. 37(4), pp. 285-289 
article  
Abstract: Samples of exfoliated human teeth from Delhi, Shillong and Bhilai, were analyzed for fluoride and lead content, following the standard procedures. The fluoride and lead concentration of the overall environment of the study regions were also determined. It was found that Bhilai region is mild-fluorosis prone due to high exposure to fluoride and Delhi and Shillong regions are caries prone due to low exposure to fluoride. The lead content in the overall environment of Delhi was found to be higher, followed by Bhilai and Shillong. The lead concentration in the teeth samples were found to be lower in Bhilai region and comparatively high in Delhi and Shillong, indicating that the environmental lead and fluoride are interrelated in some complex manner among the two forms of dental disorders.
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaN1995,
  author = {Shukla N, Moitra JK, Trivedi RC},
  title = {Lead levels in exfoliated caries and fluorosis affected teeth of different regions},
  journal = {Ind J of Environ Hlth},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {37(4)},
  pages = {285-289}
}
Siddiqui MK, Srivastava S, Mehrotra PK Environmental exposure to lead as a risk for prostate cancer 2002 Biomed Environ Sci
Vol. 15(4), pp. 298-305 
article  
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the possible role of environmental exposure to lead as a risk factor for prostate pathology in patients suffering from prostate cancer (PCA) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).
Methods: Blood lead (BPb) level was determined in PCA and BPH cases using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and compared with those in a control group living in the similar socioeconomic environment.
Results: BPb was significantly higher in PCA and BPH cases than in normals (P<0.05). Blood levels of zinc and copper were significantly lower in PCA and BPH cases when compared with controls (P<0.05). In all the three groups, a statistically significant positive correlation between lead and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) measured
as malondialdehyde, and negative correlation between blood lead and antioxidant GSH level, indicative of possible generation of reactive oxygen species, were also observed after adjusting for age as a possible confounders. However, positive association between blood lead and TBARS was relatively higher in PCA patients (r=0.77, P<0.05) than in BPH (r=0.32, P<0.05) and normal (r=0.30, P<0.05).
Conclusion: These results with limited power seem to suggest for the first time that environmental exposure of aging males to lead may be a risk factor for prostate cancer and/or benign prostate hyperplasia possibly through generation of reactive oxygen
species and/or reducing the level of zinc which acts as a cellular growth protector.
BibTeX:
@article{SiddiquiMK2002,
  author = {Siddiqui MK, Srivastava S, Mehrotra PK},
  title = {Environmental exposure to lead as a risk for prostate cancer},
  journal = {Biomed Environ Sci},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {15(4)},
  pages = {298-305}
}
Sikka R, Kansal BD Characterization of thermal power-plant fly ash for agronomic purposes and to identify pollution hazards 1994 Bioresource technology
Vol. 50(3), pp. 269-273 
article  
Abstract: Ash samples were collected from a dumping site (fly ash) and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP ash) of a 440 MW thermal power plant for characterization. Analysis of ash samples showed that the major matrix elements in fly ash were Si and Al, together with significant percentages of K, Fe, Ca and Mg. Some of the biologically-toxic elements, Ni, Cr, Pb, B and Mo, were also present in substantial amounts. Ash collected directly from electrostatic precipitator (ESP ash) was finer in texture, lower in pH and generally richer in nutrients than the ash collected from dumping sites (fly ash). The saturation moisture percentages of both the ashes were higher, but the bulk density was lower, than the normal cultivated soils. Calcium was the dominant cation of the exchange complex, followed by Mg2+, Na+ and K+. Contents of available sulphur were quite high.
BibTeX:
@article{SikkaR1994,
  author = {Sikka R, Kansal BD},
  title = {Characterization of thermal power-plant fly ash for agronomic purposes and to identify pollution hazards},
  journal = {Bioresource technology},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {50(3)},
  pages = {269-273}
}
Singh AK, Singh M Lead decline in the Indian environment resulting from the petrol-lead phase-out programme 2006 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 368(2-3), pp. 686-94 
article  
Abstract: Recently, the lead content of various environmental components has decreased in response to replacement of leaded petrol by unleaded petrol. In India, 15 research studies are here assessed with respect to lead concentrations in various environmental components during the leaded petrol phase (before 1996), the transitional phase (1996-2000) and the unleaded petrol phase (2000 onwards). The Ganga River Water exhibited a decrease in lead concentration from 18.0 ?g/l in 1988 to 3.1?g/l in 2001. In Lucknow urban centre, mean lead concentrations in the urban air decreased from 1.6?g/m3 in 1994 to 0.2?g/m3 in 2002. Lead concentrations in Dalbergia sissoo tree leaves also decreased from 18.7?g/g dry wt. in 1994 to 8.3 ?g/g dry wt. in 2004. Mean blood-lead levels of children from Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Amritsar and Lucknow
urban centres have fallen from 18.1?g/dl in the leaded petrol phase to 12.1?g/dl in the unleaded petrol phase. The petrol-lead phase-out effort in India has reduced lead concentrations in the various environmental components after 2000. It will help to
reduce the exposure of millions of people to environmental lead.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghAK2006,
  author = {Singh AK, Singh M},
  title = {Lead decline in the Indian environment resulting from the petrol-lead phase-out programme},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {368(2-3)},
  pages = {686-94}
}
Singh B, Chandran V, Bandhu HK, Mittal BR, Bhattacharya A, Jindal SK, Varma S Impact of lead exposure on pituitary-thyroid axis in humans 2000 Biometals.
Vol. 13(2), pp. 197-92 
article  
Abstract: Thyroid function tests (serum levels of thyroxine-T4, triiodothyronine-T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone-TSH) were performed in fifty-eight men (mean age: 31.7?10.6 years; mean duration of lead exposure: 156.9?122.7 months). These subjects were exposed to lead either as petrol pump workers or automobile mechanics. The mean whole blood lead (Pb-B) levels were 2.49?0.45 ?mole/l (51.90? 9.40 ?g/dl) in the lead exposed workers and were approximately 5 times higher than in the control (n=35) subjects. No significant alteration was seen in their mean T3 and T4 levels as compared with the controls.Interestingly, T3 was significantly lower with the longer (210 months) exposure time in comparison with the group having shorter (29 months) exposure duration. The mean TSH levels were significantly (p< 0.01) higher in workers exposed in comparison with the control group. This rise in TSH was independent of exposure time, but it was definitely associated with the Pb-B levels. The increase being more pronounced with mean Pb-B levels of 2.66?0.2 ?mole/l (55.4?4.25?g/dl) when compared with the group having mean levels of 1.51?0.30 ?mole/l (31.5?6.20?g/dl). The rise is TSH associated with Pb-B levels was only
statistical valid, however, the levels fall within the normal laboratory range. We thus conclude that the Pb-B levels of ?2 4?mole/l (50?g/dl) could enhance the pituitary release of TSH without having any significant alterations in the circulating levels of T3 and T4.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghB2000,
  author = {Singh B, Chandran V, Bandhu HK, Mittal BR, Bhattacharya A, Jindal SK, Varma S},
  title = {Impact of lead exposure on pituitary-thyroid axis in humans},
  journal = {Biometals.},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {13(2)},
  pages = {197-92}
}
Singh N, Pandey V, Misra J, Yunus M, Ahmad KJ Atmospheric lead pollution from vehicular emissions, measurements in plants, soil and milk samples 1997 Environmental Monitoring & Assessment
Vol. 45(1), pp. 9-19 
article  
Abstract: The changing levels of lead (Pb) in the soil and vegetation along two National Highways near Lucknow, India, were investigated. The pattern of Pb deposition, as reflected by soil Pb burdens, showed decrease in concentration with increasing distances from the road margins. At both the sites Pb concentration was above background concentration even at the soil core depth of 15 cm. Oryza sativa, Colocasia esculentum, Luffa cylindrica and Cynodon dactylon plants contained a high mean concentration of Pb over their respective controls, with more accumulation in the underground portions of the plants. Milk samples, collected from cattle that normally graze on the roadside pasturelands dominated by Cynodon dactylon, contained Pb at an elevated concentration.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghN1997,
  author = {Singh N, Pandey V, Misra J, Yunus M, Ahmad KJ},
  title = {Atmospheric lead pollution from vehicular emissions, measurements in plants, soil and milk samples},
  journal = {Environmental Monitoring & Assessment},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {45(1)},
  pages = {9-19}
}
Singh S, Singhi S Severe lead intoxication in a family caused by use of residential premises for battery manufacturing 1989 Indian Pediatr
Vol. 26(7), pp. 718-720 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SinghS1989,
  author = {Singh S, Singhi S},
  title = {Severe lead intoxication in a family caused by use of residential premises for battery manufacturing},
  journal = {Indian Pediatr},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {26(7)},
  pages = {718-720}
}
Singh VK, Mishra KP, Rani R, Yadav VS, Awasthi SK, Garg SK Immunomodulation by lead 2003 Immunol Res.
Vol. 28(2), pp. 151-66 
article  
Abstract: Lead, a potential human carcinogen, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant in the industrial environment that poses a serious threat to human health. This toxic lead can modulate the immune response of animals as well as humans. In some instances, the immune system appears to be exquisitely sensitive to lead as compared with other toxicological parameters. Both stimulation and suppression of immune response have been demonstrated in lead exposed animals and humans depending on the T helper (Th)1 vs Th2 response. Although the majority of data accumulated to date pertains to the effects of lead in small laboratory rodents, there is little reason to believe that similar quantifiable effects do not occur in domestic and food-producing animals owing to basic functional similarities of the immune system of mammals. In this review, we have discussed the immunomodulatory role of the toxic heavy metal, lead, on cellular 46 and humoral components of the immune system with particular reference to effector cells such as B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and soluble mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide (NO).
BibTeX:
@article{SinghVK2003,
  author = {Singh VK, Mishra KP, Rani R, Yadav VS, Awasthi SK, Garg SK},
  title = {Immunomodulation by lead},
  journal = {Immunol Res.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {28(2)},
  pages = {151-66}
}
Singhal M, Tiwari OP Lead poisoning 2005 Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging
Vol. 15(2), pp. 247-249 
article  
Abstract: Lead poisoning or plumbism in children can be traced to pica (eg, dirt eating), acute ingestion of lead-based paints or consumption of home remedies. Lead poisoning in children presents with non-specific and vague symptomatology, however in serious conditions it may present with encephalopathic features. Radiologically it is characterized by presence of dense transverse bands in the growing metaphyseal regions. Here we report a case of chronic lead poisoning in a child of 18 months, which presented with encephalopathy.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghalM2005,
  author = {Singhal M, Tiwari OP},
  title = {Lead poisoning},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {15(2)},
  pages = {247-249}
}
Flora SJ Lead exposure: health effects, prevention and treatment 2002 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 23(1), pp. 25-41 
article  
Abstract: This article focuses on the risk to human health associated with exposure to lead. Various human health effects associated with lead are discussed--based human and experimental data. Another important information provided in the article is regarding recent developments in the area of treatment i.e. chelation therapy against lead poisoning. Emphasis has been given to data, which have become available in the last decade.
BibTeX:
@article{SJ2002,
  author = {Flora SJ},
  title = {Lead exposure: health effects, prevention and treatment},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {23(1)},
  pages = {25-41}
}
Mittal SK Environmental lead hazard to children 1992 ICCW News Bull
Vol. 40(3-4), pp. 37-8 
article  
Abstract: Clinically evident lead poisoning is rare in Indian children but is more common than in adults. In children, lead poisoning may appear as fever, seizures, anemia, or abdominal pain, while in adults it is more likely to manifest as chronic minor peripheral neuropathy or gum pigmentation. Children with acute lead poisoning can be treated with chelators such as EDTA and BAL, but many are left with permanent brain damage. The most common sources of acute lead poisoning in Indian children are inhalation of fumes from burned car batteries, ingestion of flaking paint, consuming food cooked in cheap aluminum or brass utensils, and eating contaminated soil. The sources of chronic lead poisoning are water from lead pipes and fumes from industrial or automotive exhaust. Another common source in India is application of “kajjal” to children’s eyes. Sources of lead in Western countries, such as drinking water, canned food, residential paint, automotive fuel, and ambient air quality, are regulated by law. None of these are regulated in India.
BibTeX:
@article{SK1992,
  author = {Mittal SK},
  title = {Environmental lead hazard to children},
  journal = {ICCW News Bull},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {40(3-4)},
  pages = {37-8}
}
Smart A, Madan N Public health. Surma: a cause for concern 1990 Health Visit
Vol. 63(11), pp. 379-80 
article  
Abstract: Andrew Smart and Nishi Madan describe a campaign in Derby to reduce the use within Asian communities of ‘surma’, a lead-based eye cosmetic, and to raise awareness among health professionals of the potential hazard this practice presents. A health visitor may bring special insight to questions about traditions and customs pertaining to her client community and about which little may be known by those who do not have a close working relationship with those communities.
BibTeX:
@article{SmartA1990,
  author = {Smart A, Madan N},
  title = {Public health. Surma: a cause for concern},
  journal = {Health Visit},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {63(11)},
  pages = {379-80}
}
Srinivasa, Gowd S, Govil PK Distribution of heavy metals in surface water of Ranipet industrial area in Tamil Nadu, India 2008 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 136(1-3), pp. 197-207 
article  
Abstract: Ranipet industrial area is about 120 km from Chennai on Chennai-Bangalore highway and is a chronic polluted area identified by Central Pollution Control Board of India. It is one of the biggest exporting centers of tanned leather in India. The total numbers of industries located in and around Ranipet town are 240 tanneries along with ceramic, refractory, boiler auxiliaries plant, and chromium chemicals. Studies were carried out to find out the contamination of surface water bodies due to industrial effluents. The results reveal that the surface water in the area is highly contaminated showing very high concentrations of some of the heavy/toxic metals like Cadmium ranging from 0.2 to 401.4?g/l (average of 51.1?g/l), Chromium 2.4-1,308.6 (average of 247.2?g/l), Copper 2.1-535.5 ?g/l (average of 95.5?g/l), Nickel 1.6-147.0?g/l (average of 36.7?g/l), Lead 6.4-2,034.4 ?g/l (average of 467.8?g/l) and Zinc 20.8-12,718.0?g/l (average of 3,760.4?g/l). The concentration levels of these metals are much above the permissible limits in surface water and are health hazards especially for the people working in the tannery industries. It was observed that the people in the area are seriously affected and suffering from occupational diseases such as asthma, chromium ulcers and skin diseases. Distribution of metals, their contents at different locations, and their effects on human health are discussed in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Srinivasa2008,
  author = {Srinivasa, Gowd S, Govil PK},
  title = {Distribution of heavy metals in surface water of Ranipet industrial area in Tamil Nadu, India},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {136(1-3)},
  pages = {197-207}
}
Srivastava MM, Srivastava S, Vaid A Tooth lead concentration as an indicator for environmental lead pollution in Agra city India 1992 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
Vol. 48(3), pp. 334-336 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaMM1992,
  author = {Srivastava MM, Srivastava S, Vaid A},
  title = {Tooth lead concentration as an indicator for environmental lead pollution in Agra city India},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {48(3)},
  pages = {334-336}
}
Srivastava S, Mehrotra PK, Srivastava SP, Tandon I, Siddiqui MK Blood lead and zinc in pregnant women and their offspring in intrauterine growth retardation cases 2001 J Anal Toxicol
Vol. 25(6), pp. 461-5 
article  
Abstract: As part of our program to investigate the possible role of environmental pollutants in the incidence of intrauterine-growth retardation (IUGR) in India, we determined the lead and zinc levels in mothers and neonatal blood, collected at parturition, in cases with normal and IUGR babies. Both maternal and cord blood lead levels were significantly higher in IUGR cases than in normal cases (p < 0.05). The mean level of zinc was also higher in maternal blood of IUGR cases. Significantly, the mean cord
blood lead level was > 10 microg/dL, which is greater than Centers for Disease Control's intervention level, in 54% of newborns. A good correlation (r = 0.53, p < 0.01) between maternal and cord blood lead levels confirmed the transfer of lead from mother to the fetus. There was a weak but significant relationhsip between cord blood lead levels and birth weight of newborns (r = -0.22, p < 0.05). The study may serve as a pointer to the perils of in utero exposure to chemical contaminants and a call for measures by the public health authorities for a continuous bio-monitoring program to evaluate impact of environmental pollutants on women and children's health.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaS2001,
  author = {Srivastava S, Mehrotra PK, Srivastava SP, Tandon I, Siddiqui MK},
  title = {Blood lead and zinc in pregnant women and their offspring in intrauterine growth retardation cases},
  journal = {J Anal Toxicol},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {25(6)},
  pages = {461-5}
}
Subramanian V, Mohanachandran G Heavy metals distribution and enrichment in the sediments of southern east coast of India 1990 Mar Pollut Bull
Vol. 21(7), pp. 324-330 
article  
Abstract: Studies of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cd were carried out on bed sediments collected from different parts of the Southeast coast of India including coastal, river and river mouth regions. Data indicate that the concentration of all the metals considered decreases towards the coast. For example, Pb concentration at 65 km away from the coast has an average value of 50 ppm, at 25 km away from the coast is 20 ppm and along the coast is 5-10 ppm. Grain size is a major controlling factor in the distribution of heavy metals in the coastal sediments. Geoaccumulation indices calculated for these
metals show that Cd is the most inriched metal followed by Pb. Other metals are at background concentrations.
BibTeX:
@article{SubramanianV1990,
  author = {Subramanian V, Mohanachandran G},
  title = {Heavy metals distribution and enrichment in the sediments of southern east coast of India},
  journal = {Mar Pollut Bull},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {21(7)},
  pages = {324-330}
}
Suk WA, Ruchirawat KM, Balakrishnan K, Berger M, Carpenter D, Damstra T, De Garbino JP, Koh D, Landrigan PJ, Makalinao I, Sly PD, Xu Y, Zheng BS Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific 2003 Environ Health Perspect.
Vol. 111(10), pp. 1340-7 
article  
Abstract: The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl
isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's
blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to environmental hazards and models for future policy and public health discussions on ways to improve children's health. The Bangkok Statement, a pledge resulting from the conference proceedings, is an important first step in creating a global alliance committed to developing active and innovative national and international networks to promote and protect children's environmental health.
BibTeX:
@article{SukWA2003,
  author = {Suk WA, Ruchirawat KM, Balakrishnan K, Berger M, Carpenter D, Damstra T, De Garbino JP, Koh D, Landrigan PJ, Makalinao I, Sly PD, Xu Y, Zheng BS},
  title = {Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific},
  journal = {Environ Health Perspect.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {111(10)},
  pages = {1340-7}
}
Sukumar A, Subramanian R Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi 2007 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 372(2-3), pp. 474-9 
article  
Abstract: Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are
meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed.
BibTeX:
@article{SukumarA2007,
  author = {Sukumar A, Subramanian R},
  title = {Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {372(2-3)},
  pages = {474-9}
}
Sukumar A, Subramanian R Elements in hair and nails of residents from a village adjacent to New Delhi: Influence of place of occupation and smoking habits 1992 Biol Trace Elem Res
Vol. 34(1), pp. 99-105 
article  
Abstract: Samples of hair and nails collected from the residents of Wazirpur, a village adjacent to New Delhi, were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and correlated with the residents’ rural and urban places of occupations. It was observed that Pb and Cd hair levels of males working in rural areas were lower than in male businessmen and officers working in an urban area of New Delhi, thereby showing the different levels of element exposure of the rural subjects. Such differences in the hair levels of elements were not observed among female subjects. The tobacco smoking habits of male and female rural
subjects using hookah were associated with increased Cd levels in hair and nails.
BibTeX:
@article{SukumarA1992,
  author = {Sukumar A, Subramanian R},
  title = {Elements in hair and nails of residents from a village adjacent to New Delhi: Influence of place of occupation and smoking habits},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {34(1)},
  pages = {99-105}
}
Sukumar A, Subramanian R Trace elements in scalp hair of manufacturers of fireworks from Sivakasi,Tamil Nadu 1992 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 114, pp. 161-168 
article  
Abstract: The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb were analysed by AAS in the hair of male and female, controls and workers from firework cottage industries from Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu (India). When compared with controls, significantly higher levels of Mn and Cr were found in male healthy workers and unhealthy workers with chronic headaches and dizziness. In the case of female workers, higher Mn and lower Pb levels were found, but the level of any element was not significantly different in the workers with ulcers and asthma. There is a possibility of occupational exposure of both male and female workers to the risk of Cr and Mn pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{SukumarA1992a,
  author = {Sukumar A, Subramanian R},
  title = {Trace elements in scalp hair of manufacturers of fireworks from Sivakasi,Tamil Nadu},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {114},
  pages = {161-168}
}
Sundaresan BB, Bulusu KR, Kulkarni DN, Pathak BN Removal of iron, manganese, copper, arsenic, lead and cadmium by serpentine mineral 1978 Indian J Environ Health
Vol. 20(4), pp. 413-419 
article  
Abstract: Serpentine, either chrysolite, antigorite or in a natural combination, retains heavy metal metals from water to varying degrees. Preliminary investigations on Fe, Mn, Cu, As, Pb and Cd from test water of concentrations comparable to those encountered in wastewaters indicated that the removal of these metals by serpentine columns was more significant than anticipated.
BibTeX:
@article{SundaresanBB1978,
  author = {Sundaresan BB, Bulusu KR, Kulkarni DN, Pathak BN},
  title = {Removal of iron, manganese, copper, arsenic, lead and cadmium by serpentine mineral},
  journal = {Indian J Environ Health},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {20(4)},
  pages = {413-419}
}
Tandon SK, Chatterjee M, Bhargava A, Shukla V, Bihari V Lead poisoning in Indian silver refiners 2001 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 281(1-3), pp. 177-82 
article  
Abstract: The refining of silver from old silver ornaments, articles and jeweller's waste by smelting these with lead scraps for the fabrication of new jewellery is an important small scale industry in India. The present survey and clinical investigations have
shown that 31 out of 50 silver refiners with a mean blood lead level of 32.84?1.78 ?g/dl (range 20.3-64.9), decrease in blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and thiamine (as pyruvate) level and an enhanced urinary excretion of
ALA as compared to control, were suffering from lead poisoning. Most of these workers have shown anaemia, abdominal colic, blue lining of gum and muscular wasting indicative of lead toxicity. Twenty-four workers with relatively high blood lead
levels were equally divided into two groups and given either vitamin B1 (75 mg, once a day) or vitamin C (250 mg. twice a day) for 1 month. The treatment with both the vitamins significantly lowered the blood lead levels and reduced blood thiamine and
copper deficiency. In addition, vitamin C was also effective in reversing the inhibition of blood ALAD activity while the effect of vitamin B1 on its activity was marginal. The daily intake of vitamin B1 and vitamin C may prevent the accumulation of lead and reduce its toxic effects particularly in those regularly exposed to lead.
BibTeX:
@article{TandonSK2001,
  author = {Tandon SK, Chatterjee M, Bhargava A, Shukla V, Bihari V},
  title = {Lead poisoning in Indian silver refiners},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {281(1-3)},
  pages = {177-82}
}
Tetsuro A, Takashi K, Karri R, Chhoun C, Kim TPT, Binh MT, Annamalai S, Hisato I, Hung VP, Seang TT, Shinsuke T Lead Contamination and Its Human Health Effects in India, Vietnam and Cambodia   article  
Abstract: In the present study, lead concentrations were determined in human blood collected from cities, dumping sites and reference sites in South India, North Vietnam and Cambodia. To evaluate human health effect of lead exposure, the ?.-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities were also measured. Concentrations of lead in human blood ranged from 2.33?g/dl to 27.4?g/dl. Especially, concentrations in blood of residents from Perungudi (waste dumping site) and Palaverkadu (farming village) in South India were higher than those from other regions or those reported previously. Concentrations of lead in blood of some residents exceeded the threshold levels, which can induce hypertension in adult and inhibit development of intelligence in fetus.
Furthermore, significant negative correlations between blood lead levels and ALAD activities were observed in the residents from all the three countries, indicating possible suppression of that heme biosynthesis by lead in these residents
BibTeX:
@article{TetsuroA,
  author = {Tetsuro A, Takashi K, Karri R, Chhoun C, Kim TPT, Binh MT, Annamalai S, Hisato I, Hung VP, Seang TT, Shinsuke T},
  title = {Lead Contamination and Its Human Health Effects in India, Vietnam and Cambodia}
}
Tripathi RM, Ashawa SC, Khandekar RN Atmospheric deposition of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in Bombay, India 1993 Atmos Environ Part B Urban Atmos
Vol. 27(2), pp. 269-273 
article  
Abstract: Atmospheric deposition of trace metals like Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn has been studied at Deonar, Bombay during 1988 and 1989. The atmospheric concentrations of these metals at Deonar as well as the levels of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) at different locations in Bombay were also measured. The bulk deposition flux for these metals was found to vary from 0.3-102.1 kg/km2/yr while the dry deposition flux varied from 0.2 to 104.6 kg/km2/yr. Deposition velocities for these metals have also been estimated which varied from 0.05 to 2.5 cm/s. The TSPM levels ranged from 17 to 588?g/m3. The levels of TSPM were found to be at a minimum at Deonar and, as such, this study is believed to indicate representative minimum deposition values for Bombay.
BibTeX:
@article{TripathiRM1993,
  author = {Tripathi RM, Ashawa SC, Khandekar RN},
  title = {Atmospheric deposition of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in Bombay, India},
  journal = {Atmos Environ Part B Urban Atmos},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {27(2)},
  pages = {269-273}
}
Tripathi RM, Khandekar RN, Mishra UC Toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Moradabad (India) 1990 Ind J Environ Hlth
Vol. 32(2), pp. 140-147 
article  
Abstract: Atmospheric concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn have been measured at different locations in Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh. Brass and steel industries are the prominent sources for these metals at Moradabad. The analysis of samples was carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Higher concentration of metals were observed in industrial areas of the city. Size distribution study of metal aerosols were carried out at Kotwali and Khushal
Nagar; MMAD for fine and coarse particles were estimated. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in surface soil was also estimated. The size distribution study gave a bimodal distribution for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn aerosols; its significance is briefly discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{TripathiRM1990,
  author = {Tripathi RM, Khandekar RN, Mishra UC},
  title = {Toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Moradabad (India)},
  journal = {Ind J Environ Hlth},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {32(2)},
  pages = {140-147}
}
Tripathi RM, Khandekar RN, Raghunath R, Mishra UC Assessment of atmospheric pollution from toxic heavy metals in two cities in India 1989 Atmos Environ
Vol. 23(4), pp. 879-884 
article  
Abstract: Atmospheric concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn have been measured at different locations in Bombay. The concentration levels of these metals in blood and teeth of Bombay residents were also measured to assess the current and integrated exposure. Higher atmospheric concentrations were observed in higher vehicular traffic zones in Bombay. Environmental monitoring of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn was also carried out at Moradabad, the largest production and exporting centre of brasswares in India. Surface soil concentrations of these metals were also measured in Moradabad and Bombay. The analysis of samples was carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The study indicates that automobile exhaust is the dominant source for heavy metals in the environment of Bombay whereas the brass industry is responsible for enhanced concentrations of these metals in Moradabad.
BibTeX:
@article{TripathiRM1989,
  author = {Tripathi RM, Khandekar RN, Raghunath R, Mishra UC},
  title = {Assessment of atmospheric pollution from toxic heavy metals in two cities in India},
  journal = {Atmos Environ},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {23(4)},
  pages = {879-884}
}
Tripathi RM, Raghunath R, Kumar AV, Sastry VN, Sadasivan S Atmospheric and children's blood lead as indicators of vehicular traffic and other emission sources in Mumbai, India 2001 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 267(1-3), pp. 101-8 
article  
Abstract: Mumbai was studied for almost a decade and its spatial and temporal profiles are discussed in relation to emission sources. In general the concentration of Pb in all the residential suburban atmosphere is well below the Central Pollution Control Board
(CPCB, 1994) prescribed limit of 1.5 ?g/m3 barring a few exceptions for some residential/industrial sites, such as those of Thane and Kurla scrap yards. The correlation between blood lead of children and air lead reveals that the blood Pb level
in children could increase by 3.6?g/dl for an incremental rise of 1.0 ?gPb/m3 of air. The temporal profile of air Pb values indicates a decreasing trend in residential suburbs (Khar: 1984, 0.39?g/m3; 1996, 0.17?g/m3) as well as in suburban residential areas with low traffic (Goregaon: 1984, 0.53?g/m3; 1996, 0.30 ?g/m3).
BibTeX:
@article{TripathiRM2001,
  author = {Tripathi RM, Raghunath R, Kumar AV, Sastry VN, Sadasivan S},
  title = {Atmospheric and children's blood lead as indicators of vehicular traffic and other emission sources in Mumbai, India},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {267(1-3)},
  pages = {101-8}
}
Tripathi RM, Raghunath R, Krishnamoorthy TM Dietary intake of heavy metals in Bombay city, India 1997 Science of the Total Environment
Vol. 208(3), pp. 149-159 
article  
Abstract: Concentrations of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn have been estimated in air particulates, water and food samples collected from different suburbs in Bombay during 1991-1994. The concentrations of these metals are translated into intake rates through inhalation and ingestion pathways. Results indicate the highest concentration of Pb and Cu are in pulses (green gram), Cd in leafy vegetables (amaranth) and Zn in meat. Root vegetables and fruits contained a lower concentration of these metals. Total intakes of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd through air, water and food were 10500?g/day, 1500?g/day, 30?g/day and 4.3?g/day, respectively. Although the major contribution for the daily intake is the ingestion route, eventual uptake in the body stream is contributed through inhalation for Pb (41%) and Cd (16%) and ingestion for Cu (98.8%) and Zn (99.6%).
BibTeX:
@article{TripathiRM1997,
  author = {Tripathi RM, Raghunath R, Krishnamoorthy TM},
  title = {Dietary intake of heavy metals in Bombay city, India},
  journal = {Science of the Total Environment},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {208(3)},
  pages = {149-159}
}
Turgut S, Polat A, Inan M, Turgut G, Emmungil G, Bican M, Karakus TY, Genc O Interaction between anemia and blood levels of iron, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in children 2007 Indian J Pediatr.
Vol. 74(9), pp. 827-30 
article  
Abstract: Objective: Anemia is a widespread problem among infants and children in many parts of the world, and it is often associated with some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and heavy metals (cadmium and lead). Aim of this study was to investigate the
relationship between anemia and these elements.
Methods: This research was performed on 256 children (mean age 6.8?0.2) living in Denizli city center. We observed iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in 23 children, iron deficiency without anemia (ID) in 36 children and only anemia (ferritin level normal) (OA) in 18 children, and 179 children were found healthy and they were regarded as controls. Blood samples were taken from subjects and the concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, cadmium and lead in serum were measured with atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: The levels of copper, cadmium and lead in serum were significantly higher in children with IDA than those of controls (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). The other elements in the serum of ID were not different from controls.
Conclusion: High copper, cadmium and lead decreased iron absorption and negatively affected hematological parameters.
BibTeX:
@article{TurgutS2007,
  author = {Turgut S, Polat A, Inan M, Turgut G, Emmungil G, Bican M, Karakus TY, Genc O},
  title = {Interaction between anemia and blood levels of iron, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in children},
  journal = {Indian J Pediatr.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {74(9)},
  pages = {827-30}
}
Vishwanath P, Prashant A, Devanand D, Nayak N, D'souza V, Venkatesh T Screening of school children for blood lead levels and attempts to reduce them by nonpharmacological means in a coastal city of India 2008 Indian J Med Sci
Vol. 62(5), pp. 185-92 
article  
Abstract: Lead is a major health hazard, especially in children. Impact of lead poisoning on our society is not known. Effectiveness of environmental interventions in reducing blood lead levels is not exactly known, though the Center for Disease Control and Prevention strongly advocates use of such means.
Aims: We aimed at screening school children for blood lead levels (BLLs) and reducing the BLLs of children with preliminary BLL> 20?g/dL by environmental intervention and intensive education.
Materials and Methods: To assess the extent of lead poisoning, a screening of 106 children was done, which showed that children belonging to a particular government primary school had higher BLLs. A second screening program of 87 children conducted in that school showed that only 19% had BLL<10?g/dL; whereas 44% had BLL between 10 and 20?g/dL, and 37% had BLL>20?g/dL. Thirty-eight children having BLL>20?g/dL were selected from the two 8 screening programs. After removing all potential sources of lead from their environment and educating them about the ways to prevent exposure to lead, followup of their BLLs was carried out at an interval of 6 months for a period of 1 year.
Statistical Analysis: Values of the different follow-up studies were compared using repeated-measure ANOVA.
Results: Our results showed that there was a significant (P<0.0001) reduction in the BLLs in the first and second follow-up studies.
Conclusions: The study is a proof of the concept that a decline in the BLLs can be achieved by intense education and avoiding the potential environmental sources of lead.
BibTeX:
@article{VishwanathP2008,
  author = {Vishwanath P, Prashant A, Devanand D, Nayak N, D'souza V, Venkatesh T},
  title = {Screening of school children for blood lead levels and attempts to reduce them by nonpharmacological means in a coastal city of India},
  journal = {Indian J Med Sci},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {62(5)},
  pages = {185-92}
}
Wagela DK, Pawar K, Dube B, Joshi OP Lead monitoring in air, soil and foliar deposits at Indore city with special reference to automobile pollution 2002 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 23(4), pp. 417-21 
article  
Abstract: Ambient lead levels in air, soil and dust deposits on selected plant species at ten distinctly located sampling stations of Indore city are presented. The maximum lead level in air was recorded at Palasia, where the traffic density was found to be the
highest. Out of the plant species studied, the maximum lead was recorded on Dalbergia sissoo leaves. A possible relationship between leaf morphology and dust accumulation tendency is also discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{WagelaDK2002,
  author = {Wagela DK, Pawar K, Dube B, Joshi OP},
  title = {Lead monitoring in air, soil and foliar deposits at Indore city with special reference to automobile pollution},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {23(4)},
  pages = {417-21}
}
Wahid A, Koul PA, Shah SU, Khan AR, Bhat MS, Malik MA Lead exposure in papier mâché workers 1997 Human and experimental toxicology
Vol. 16(5), pp. 281-3 
article  
Abstract: Lead exposure was assessed in a random cohort of 70 male papier mâché workers and compared with 35 age and sex matched controls. Blood-lead levels in workers were significantly higher than in controls (Mean 68.07± 44.64 ?g/dl vs 25.52±16.56?g/dl respectively; P<0.001). Urinary lead was also higher in workers (128.53±52.61?g/l) compared to controls (91.18± 27.06, P<0.001), but excretion of urinary coproporphyrin in the two groups was not significantly different (102.78±153.42 vs 70.03± 27.06?g/l,P>0.05). Blood levels bore a significant correlation with age but did not bear any correlation with the duration of exposure. Various modes of exposure to lead included hand mixing of paints, skin application of the paint to match shades and making point of the brush using lips and the tongue.
BibTeX:
@article{WahidA1997,
  author = {Wahid A, Koul PA, Shah SU, Khan AR, Bhat MS, Malik MA},
  title = {Lead exposure in papier mâché workers},
  journal = {Human and experimental toxicology},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {16(5)},
  pages = {281-3}
}
Weide R, Engelhart S, Farber H, Kaufmann F, Heymanns J, Koppler H Severe lead poisoning due to Ayurvedic Indian plant medicine 2003 Dtsch Med Wochenschr
Vol. 128(46), pp. 2418-20 
article  
Abstract: History and clinical findings: A 39-year-old woman with a history of slowly progressive muscular dystrophia was transferred to us for further evaluations of a hypochromic, microcytic anaemia. The patient complained about progressive muscle weakness, loss of appetite and constipation, sleep disorders as well as muscle and back pain. Clinical examination revealed a tetraparesis without any detectable muscle reflexes and atrophic muscles of the extremities. A bilateral radial paresis was found with a loss of power. Investigations: She presented with a hypochromic, microcytic anaemia with haemoglobin of 7.9g/dl. Re-evaluation of her peripheral blood smear showed basophilic stippling of the erythrocytes. Bone marrow biopsy revealed a marked dyserythropoiesis with 50% ring sideroblasts. After the examination of the bone marrow, the blood lead level was found to be grossly elevated up to 880?g/l. Diagnosis: Re-evaluation of the patient's history revealed that she had been to India for an Ayurvedic treatment approach to improve her muscle dystrophia. She had taken regularly 4 different natural plant pills, which she had bought in an Ayurvedic health centre. Toxicologic analysis of these pills revealed one to have a lead concentration of 50.4 mg/g. Treatment and course: The patient was treated with 16 infusions of sodium-EDTA followed by a 4-week treatment with dimercaptopropionic acid orally. Her neurological condition improved and the radial paresis resolved gradually so that she could return to work. Her haematological parameters normalized. Conclusion: This case report underscores the importance, while asking patients for their drug history, to ask additionally if natural plant medicine is taken or applied regularly. The report reveals that Ayurvedic pills from India may have a high concentration of lead and may cause severe poisoning.
BibTeX:
@article{WeideR2003,
  author = {Weide R, Engelhart S, Farber H, Kaufmann F, Heymanns J, Koppler H},
  title = {Severe lead poisoning due to Ayurvedic Indian plant medicine},
  journal = {Dtsch Med Wochenschr},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {128(46)},
  pages = {2418-20}
}
Wibberley DG, Khera AK, Edwards JH, Rushton DI Lead levels in human placentae from normal and malformed births 1977 J Med Genet
Vol. 14(5), pp. 339-45 
article  
Abstract: Placental lead levels were studied in a series of Birmingham births classified by stillbirth, neonatal death, or survival beyond one week. There was an appreciable range of lead levels even in normal births (0.15-3.56?g/g) but nevertheless average results showed a pronounced excess of lead in those who failed to survive both birth and the neonatal period. There was no association of placental lead with impaired birthweight among survivors but, in common with other authors, we noted a seasonal variation. The placentae from Indian women had similar lead levels to those from European women and lower values were found in the normal sibs of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The possibility is discussed that under conditions of impaired fetal health in late pregnancy the placenta may concentrate lead.
BibTeX:
@article{WibberleyDG1977,
  author = {Wibberley DG, Khera AK, Edwards JH, Rushton DI},
  title = {Lead levels in human placentae from normal and malformed births},
  journal = {J Med Genet},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {14(5)},
  pages = {339-45}
}
Zimmermann MB, Muthayya S, Moretti D, Kurpad A, Hurrell RF Iron Fortification Reduces Blood Lead Levels in Children in Bangalore, India 2006 Pediatrics;
Vol. 117(6), pp. 2014-2021 
article  
Abstract: Objective. Chronic lead poisoning and iron deficiency are concentrated in urban children from lower socioeconomic strata, and both impair neurocognitive 27 development. Our study objective was to determine if iron fortification reduces blood
lead levels in urban, lead-exposed, iron-deficient children in Bangalore, India. Design, Setting, and Participants. A randomized, double blind, controlled schoolbased feeding trial was done in 5- to 13-year-old iron-deficient children (n=186). At baseline, a high prevalence of lead poisoning was found in the younger children. Subsequently, all 5- to 9-year-old children participating in the trial (n=134) were followed to determine if iron fortification would affect their blood lead levels. Intervention. Children were dewormed and fed 6 days/week for 16 weeks either an ironfortified rice meal (15 mg of iron per day as ferric pyrophosphate) or an identical control meal without added iron. Feeding was directly supervised and compliance monitored.Outcome Measures. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, transferrin receptor, zinc protoporphyrin, and blood lead concentrations were measured. Results. The prevalence of iron deficiency was significantly reduced in the iron group (from 70% to 28%) compared with the control group (76% to 55%). There was a significant decrease in median blood lead concentration in the iron group compared with the control group. The prevalence of blood lead levels 10 ?g/dL was significantly reduced in the iron group (from 65% to 29%) compared with the control group (68% to 55%). Conclusions. Our findings suggest providing iron in a fortified food to lead-exposed children may reduce chronic lead intoxication. Iron fortification may be an effective and sustainable strategy to accompany environmental lead abatement.
BibTeX:
@article{ZimmermannMB2006,
  author = {Zimmermann MB, Muthayya S, Moretti D, Kurpad A, Hurrell RF},
  title = {Iron Fortification Reduces Blood Lead Levels in Children in Bangalore, India},
  journal = {Pediatrics;},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {117(6)},
  pages = {2014-2021}
}
(Last Updated Upto:2016)