Bibliography : Mercury

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Biswas R, Mukherjee PK, Kar A, Bahadur S, Harwansh RK, Biswas S, Al-Dhabi NA, Duraipandiyan V Evaluation of Ubtan- A Traditional Indian Skin Care Formulation. 2016 J Ethnopharmacol.  article DOI  
Abstract: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
'Ubtan' is a traditional herbal formulation in the Indian system of medicine being used in India and its subcontinent for a long time. Several commercial skin care formulations are marketed throughout this region as the name of Ubtan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to evaluate Ubtan in respect of its efficacy as skin care formulation.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
The present study was designed for the preparation of Ubtan and standardization through the chromatographic techniques by using suitable phyto-markers. Further, its antioxidant, sun protection factor (SPF) and anti-tyrosinase potential have been explored.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Four in-house formulations (UF-1, UF-2, UF-3 and UF-4) were prepared by mixing a varied quantity of each powdered plants, i.e. turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and sandalwood (Santalum album L.). Optimization of the formulations was made by evaluating its biological activity through in vitro assay. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of the optimized formulation (UF-1) has been carried out by analysis of pH, flow properties and stability. Moreover, RP-HPLC (reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography) and HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography) standardization of UF-1 was performed for its quantitative and qualitative analysis.
RESULTS:
Ubtan formulations (UF-1to UF-4) showed free radical scavenging and ferric reducing potential. It may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. Statistically, significant Pearson's correlation (r) was confirmed the positive correlation between phenolic content and SPF of the formulations. The tyrosinase inhibition study indicated that the formulations showed both diphenolase and monophenolase inhibitory activity. Among four formulations, UF-1 showed notable biological activity (p< 0.05). The content of curcumin and ascorbic acid was found to be 1.6% and 2.1% w/w respectively in UF-1 through RP-HPLC estimation. Physiochemical properties of the UF-1 exhibited good flow rate and aqueous solubility. From the stability studies, it can be anticipated that the UF-1 was stable at 40°C for longer periods. Microbial load count and heavy metal content (lead-Pb, arsenic-As, mercury-Hg and cadmium-Cd) of the formulation was also within the permissible limit of a pharmacopeial standard.
CONCLUSION:
This scientific exploration helps to set the quality and safety standard of traditional cosmetic formulation, Ubtan and its further use as an herbal skin care product.
BibTeX:
@article{BiswasR12016,
  author = {Biswas R1, Mukherjee PK2, Kar A3, Bahadur S4, Harwansh RK5, Biswas S6, Al-Dhabi NA7, Duraipandiyan V8.},
  title = {Evaluation of Ubtan- A Traditional Indian Skin Care Formulation.},
  journal = {J Ethnopharmacol.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.034}
}
Chatterjee M, Srivastava B, Barman MK, Mandal B Combined cation-exchange and solid phase extraction for the selective separation and preconcentration of zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury and cobalt among others using azo-dye functionalized resin. 2016 J Chromatogr A., pp. 14  article  
Abstract: A facile synthesis of an ion exchange material (FSG-PAN) has been achieved by functionalizing silica gel with an azo-dye. Its composition and structure are well assessed by systematic analysis. Extractor possesses high BET surface area (617.794m(2)g(-1)), exchange capacity and break-through capacity (BTC) (Q0 Zn(II): 225; Cd(II): 918; Hg(II): 384, Cu(II): 269 and Co(II): 388?Mg(-1)). The sorption process was endothermic (+?H), entropy-gaining (+?S) and spontaneous (-?G) in nature. Preconcentration factor has been optimized at 172(Zn(II)); 157.2(Cd(II)); 193.6(Hg(II)); 176(Cu(II)); 172.4(Co(II)). Density functional theory calculation has been performed to analyze the sorption pathway. BTC (?Mg(-1)) of FSG-PAN was found to be the product of its frontier orbitals and state of sorbed metal ion species, x (at x=1, mononuclear and x>1, a polynuclear species; i.e., BTC=[amount of HOMO]×x). FSG-PAN is used for the selective separation and preconcentration of Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Cu(II),Co(II) from large volume sample (800mL) of low concentration (0.017-0.40mML(-1)) in presence of foreign ions (50-300mML(-1)) at optimum conditions (pH: 7.0±1.5, flow rate: 2.5mLmin(-1), temperature: 27°C, equilibration-time: 5min). The method was found to be effective for real samples also.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeM12016,
  author = {Chatterjee M1, Srivastava B1, Barman MK1, Mandal B2.},
  title = {Combined cation-exchange and solid phase extraction for the selective separation and preconcentration of zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury and cobalt among others using azo-dye functionalized resin.},
  journal = {J Chromatogr A.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {14}
}
Das S, Dash HR, Chakraborty J Genetic basis and importance of metal resistant genes in bacteria for bioremediation of contaminated environments with toxic metal pollutants. 2016 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.  article DOI  
Abstract: Metal pollution is one of the most persistent and complex environmental issues, causing threat to the ecosystem and human health. On exposure to several toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and mercury, several bacteria has evolved with many metal-resistant genes as a means of their adaptation. These genes can be further exploited for bioremediation of the metal-contaminated environments. Many operon-clustered metal-resistant genes such as cadB, chrA, copAB, pbrA, merA, and NiCoT have been reported in bacterial systems for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, and nickel resistance and detoxification, respectively. The field of environmental bioremediation has been ameliorated by exploiting diverse bacterial detoxification genes. Genetic engineering integrated with bioremediation assists in manipulation of bacterial genome which can enhance toxic metal detoxification that is not usually performed by normal bacteria. These techniques include genetic engineering with single genes or operons, pathway construction, and alternations of the sequences of existing genes. However, numerous facets of bacterial novel metal-resistant genes are yet to be explored for application in microbial bioremediation practices. This review describes the role of bacteria and their adaptive mechanisms for toxic metal detoxification and restoration of contaminated sites.
BibTeX:
@article{DasS12016,
  author = {Das S1, Dash HR2, Chakraborty J2.},
  title = {Genetic basis and importance of metal resistant genes in bacteria for bioremediation of contaminated environments with toxic metal pollutants.},
  journal = {Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7364-4}
}
Kumar A, Kaur M, Sharma S, Mehra R, Sharma DK, Mishra R RADIATION DOSE DUE TO RADON AND HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES OF JAMMU DISTRICT, JAMMU & KASHMIR, INDIA. 2016 Radiat Prot Dosimetry  article  
Abstract: In the present investigation, radon concentration and heavy metal analysis were carried out in drinking water samples in Jammu district, Jammu & Kashmir, India. The radon concentration was measured by using RAD-7, portable alpha particle detector. The values of radon concentration in drinking water samples were also compared within the safe limit recommended by different health agencies. The total annual effective dose ranged from 53.04 to 197.29 µSv y-1 The annual effective dose from few locations from the studied area was found to be greater than the safe limit (100 µSv y-1) suggested by World Health Organisation (WHO) and EU Council. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of eight elements were analysed, viz. arsenic, mercury, zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Heavy metals are considered to be the major pollutants of water sources. The results were compared with the limits of WHO, EU and Indian organisations. The trace metal analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit in all the samples.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA12016,
  author = {Kumar A1, Kaur M2, Sharma S2, Mehra R2, Sharma DK3, Mishra R4.},
  title = {RADIATION DOSE DUE TO RADON AND HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES OF JAMMU DISTRICT, JAMMU & KASHMIR, INDIA.},
  journal = {Radiat Prot Dosimetry},
  year = {2016}
}
Mohankumar K, Hariharan V, Rao NP Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater around Industrial Estate vs Residential Areas in Coimbatore, India. 2016 J Clin Diagn Res., pp. 10  article  
BibTeX:
@article{MohankumarK12016,
  author = {Mohankumar K1, Hariharan V2, Rao NP3.},
  title = {Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater around Industrial Estate vs Residential Areas in Coimbatore, India.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {10}
}
Pal A, Majumder K, Bandyopadhyay A Surfactant mediated synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) grafted xanthan gum and its efficient role in adsorption of soluble inorganic mercury from water. 2016 Carbohydr Polym  article DOI  
Abstract: Noble copolymers from xanthan gum (XG) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were synthesised through surfactant mediated graft copolymerization. The copolymers were applied as a biosorbent for inorganic Hg(II) at higher concentration level (300ppm). The copolymers were characterized using different analytical techniques which showed, the grafting principally occurred across the amorphous region of XG. Measurement of zeta potential and hydrodynamic size indicated, the copolymers were strong polyanion and possessed greater hydrodynamic size (almost in all cases) than XG, despite a strong molecular degradation that took place simultaneously during grafting. In the dispersed form, all grades of the copolymer displayed higher adsorption capability than XG, however, the grade with maximum grafting produced the highest efficiency (68.03%). Manipulation produced further improvement in efficiency to 72.17% with the same copolymer after 75min at a pH of 5.0. The allowable biosorbent dose, however, was 1000ppm as determined from the experimental evidences.
BibTeX:
@article{PalA12016,
  author = {Pal A1, Majumder K2, Bandyopadhyay A3.},
  title = {Surfactant mediated synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) grafted xanthan gum and its efficient role in adsorption of soluble inorganic mercury from water.},
  journal = {Carbohydr Polym},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.06.064}
}
Raghavan S, Senapati P Oxazolidines as Intermediates in the Asymmetric Synthesis of 3-Substituted and 1,3-Disubstituted Tetrahydroisoquinolines. 2016 J Org Chem.  article DOI  
Abstract: A diastereoselective mercury(II)-promoted intramolecular cyclization of unsaturated aldehyde via an oxazolidine to prepare C-3-substituted tetrahydroisoquinoline is disclosed. The C-3 stereogenic center is subsequently exploited to create the C-1 stereocenter by coordination of the nucleophilic reagent to the oxygen atom of oxazolidine. Both cis- and trans-1,3-disubstituted tetrahydroisoquinolines can be readily prepared. In addition, when a cationic rhodium complex was used, intramolecular hydroamination was effected, thus avoiding mercury(II) salts and demercuration. The reaction is general and works well using aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes.
BibTeX:
@article{RaghavanS12016,
  author = {Raghavan S1, Senapati P1.},
  title = {Oxazolidines as Intermediates in the Asymmetric Synthesis of 3-Substituted and 1,3-Disubstituted Tetrahydroisoquinolines.},
  journal = {J Org Chem.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.6b00525}
}
Rahman A, Kumarathasan P, Gomes J Infant and mother related outcomes from exposure to metals with endocrine disrupting properties during pregnancy. 2016 Sci Total Environ.  article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Endocrine-related adverse health effects from exposure to heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury are yet to be adequately described. The purpose of this review was to gain insight into maternal exposure to heavy metals, and to identify potential endocrine-related adverse health effects in the mother and the infant.
METHODS:
Relevant databases were searched for original research reports and a total of 46 articles were retained for scrutiny. Required data was extracted from these studies and their methodology was assessed.
RESULTS:
Impaired fetal growth was observed from exposure to all endocrine disrupting metals, while exposure to lead and arsenic were associated with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and neonatal deaths. Maternal exposure to arsenic was associated with impaired glucose tolerance in these mothers.
CONCLUSION:
Impaired fetal growth, fetal loss, and neonatal deaths were significantly associated with heavy metals exposure during pregnancy; however, hypertension and gestational diabetes require further investigation.
BibTeX:
@article{RahmanA12016,
  author = {Rahman A1, Kumarathasan P2, Gomes J3.},
  title = {Infant and mother related outcomes from exposure to metals with endocrine disrupting properties during pregnancy.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2016}
}
Rajeshwari A, Karthiga D, Chandrasekaran N, Mukherjee A Anti-aggregation-based spectrometric detection of Hg(II) at physiological pH using gold nanorods. 2016 Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl.  article DOI  
Abstract: An efficient detection method for Hg (II) ions at physiological pH (pH7.4) was developed using tween 20-modified gold nanorods (NRs) in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). Thiol groups (-SH) at the end of DTT have a higher affinity towards gold atoms, and they can covalently interact with gold NRs and leads to their aggregation. The addition of Hg(II) ions prevents the aggregation of gold NRs due to the covalent bond formation between the -SH group of DTT and Hg(II) ions in the buffer system. The changes in the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of gold NRs were characterized using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. The absorption intensity peak of gold NRs at 679nm was observed to reduce after interaction with DTT, and the absorption intensity was noted to increase by increasing the concentration of Hg(II) ions. The TEM analysis confirms the morphological changes of gold NRs before and after addition of Hg(II) ions in the presence of DTT. Further, the aggregation and disaggregation of gold NRs were confirmed by particle size and zeta potential analysis. The developed method shows an excellent linearity (y=0.001x+0.794) for the graph plotted between the absorption ratio and Hg(II) concentration (1 to 100pM) under the optimized conditions. The limit of detection was noted to be 0.42pM in the buffer system. The developed method was tested in simulated body fluid, and it was found to have a good recovery rate.
BibTeX:
@article{RajeshwariA12016,
  author = {Rajeshwari A1, Karthiga D1, Chandrasekaran N1, Mukherjee A2.},
  title = {Anti-aggregation-based spectrometric detection of Hg(II) at physiological pH using gold nanorods.},
  journal = {Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.05.066}
}
Singh C, Das AK, Das PK Single-mode instability of a ferrofluid-mercury interface under a nonuniform magnetic field. 2016 Phys Rev E.  article DOI  
Abstract: This work reports an experimental and a numerical study of the interfacial instability in a mercury-ferrofluid system caused by a spatially nonuniform magnetic field against the action of gravity and interfacial tension. The interface evolution is observed to be continuous till its movement is hindered by a physical boundary. In contrast to the behavior of the ferrofluid interface under uniform field, we noted the instability growth to be monotonic under a field gradient. A steepness in the growth curve is noticed during the later stages of the instability, indicating a high magnitude of the growth velocities. Some unique phenomena, such as similarity of the growth at the initial stage, a slope transition in the growth curve at a later stage, and wrapping and pinning of the interface are observed, both in experiments and simulations.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghC12016,
  author = {Singh C1, Das AK2, Das PK1},
  title = {Single-mode instability of a ferrofluid-mercury interface under a nonuniform magnetic field.},
  journal = {Phys Rev E.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.94.012803}
}
Tiwari S, Kenchappa M, Bhayya D, Gupta S, Saxena S, Satyarth S, Singh A, Gupta M Antibacterial Activity and Fluoride Release of Glass-Ionomer Cement, Compomer and Zirconia Reinforced Glass-Ionomer Cement. 2016 J Clin Diagn Res., pp. 90-3  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{TiwariS12016,
  author = {Tiwari S1, Kenchappa M2, Bhayya D3, Gupta S4, Saxena S5, Satyarth S1, Singh A6, Gupta M7.},
  title = {Antibacterial Activity and Fluoride Release of Glass-Ionomer Cement, Compomer and Zirconia Reinforced Glass-Ionomer Cement.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {90-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/16282.7676}
}
Agrawal S, Bhatnagar P, Flora SJ Changes in tissue oxidative stress, brain biogenic amines and acetylcholinesterase following co-exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury in rats. 2015 Food Chem Toxicol., pp. 208-16  article DOI  
Abstract: The present study investigated the toxic effects of individual, combined (binary and ternary) exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury on, (i) oxidative stress (ii) alterations in brain biogenic amines and (iii) tissue metals concentration. Rats were exposed to lead, arsenic and mercury either individually (30 ppm in drinking water), various binary (15 ppm each) or ternary combination (10 ppm each) for a period of 6 months. Lead + arsenic and lead + arsenic + mercury co-exposure led to a significant increase in the blood oxidative stress. Mercury + arsenic and lead + arsenic + mercury co-exposure produced a more pronounced hepatotoxicity while, lead + arsenic and lead + arsenic + mercury produced a significant increase in hepatic oxidative stress. Kidney oxidative stress and changes in brain biogenic amines were more prominent in animals exposed to three metals. Accumulation of three metals did not exhibit the pattern as in the case of oxidative stress. Exposure to two toxic metals also showed less accumulation of toxic metals suggesting possible antagonism. The present study thus provides some interesting observations on the interaction between lead, arsenic and mercury. Co-exposure to lead + arsenic + mercury led to a more pronounced increase in oxidative stress in liver and kidneys compared to other exposed groups.
BibTeX:
@article{AgrawalS12015,
  author = {Agrawal S1, Bhatnagar P2, Flora SJ3.},
  title = {Changes in tissue oxidative stress, brain biogenic amines and acetylcholinesterase following co-exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury in rats.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {208-16},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2015.10.013}
}
Bhagawati G, Nandwani S, Singhal S Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. 2015 Indian J Med Microbiol.  article  
Abstract: Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW), which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM) and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%), intermediate (50-80%) and unsatisfactory (less than 50%). Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%), mercury waste disposal (37.56%) and definition of BMW (47%).
BibTeX:
@article{BhagawatiG12015,
  author = {Bhagawati G1, Nandwani S, Singhal S.},
  title = {Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.},
  journal = {Indian J Med Microbiol.},
  year = {2015}
}
Chakraborty P, Babu PV Environmental controls on the speciation and distribution of mercury in surface sediments of a tropical estuary, India. 2015 Mar Pollut Bull., pp. 350  article DOI  
Abstract: Distribution and speciation of mercury (Hg) in the sediments from a tropical estuary (Godavari estuary) was influenced by the changing physico-chemical parameters of the overlying water column. The sediments from the upstream and downstream of the estuary were uncontaminated but the sediments from the middle of the estuary were contaminated by Hg. The concentrations of Hg became considerably less during the monsoon and post monsoon period. Total Hg concentrations and its speciation (at the middle of the estuary) were dependent on the salinity of the overlying water column. However, salinity had little or no effect on Hg association with organic phases in the sediments at downstream. Increasing pH of the overlying water column corresponded with an increase in the total Hg content in the sediments. Total organic carbon in the sediments played an important role in controlling Hg partitioning in the system. Uncomplexed Hg binding ligands were available in the sediments.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyP12015,
  author = {Chakraborty P1, Babu PV2},
  title = {Environmental controls on the speciation and distribution of mercury in surface sediments of a tropical estuary, India.},
  journal = {Mar Pollut Bull.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {350},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.02.035}
}
Kumar G, Srivastava A, Sharma SK, Rao TD, Gupta YK Efficacy & safety evaluation of Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder & Sidh Makardhwaj) in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot prospective study. 2015 Indian J Med Res., pp. 141  article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES:
In the traditional system of medicine in India Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj have been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, safety and efficacy of this treatment have not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
METHODS:
One hundred and twenty five patients with joint pain were screened at an Ayurvedic hospital in New Delhi, India. Eighty six patients satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Detailed medical history and physical examination were recorded. Patients took 5g of Ashwagandha powder twice a day for three weeks with lukewarm water or milk. Sidh Makardhwaj (100 mg) with honey was administered daily for the next four weeks. The follow up of patients was carried out every two weeks. The primary efficacy end point was based on American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response. Secondary end points were ACR50, ACR70 responses, change from baseline in disease activity score (DAS) 28 score and ACR parameters. Safety assessments were hepatic function [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and ß2 microglobulin], renal function (urea and creatinine and NGAL) tests and urine mercury level.
RESULTS:
The study was completed by 90.7 per cent (78/86) patients. Patients with moderate and high disease activity were 57.7 per cent (45/78) and 42.3 per cent (33/78), respectively. All patients were tested positive for rheumatoid factor and increased ESR level. Ashwagandha and Sidh Makardhwaj treatment decreased RA factor. A significant change in post-treatment scores of tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, physician global assessment score, patient global assessment score, pain assessment score, patient self assessed disability index score and ESR level were observed as compared to baseline scores. ACR20 response was observed in 56.4 per cent (44/78) patients (American College of Rheumatology criteria) and moderate response in 39.74 per cent (31/78) patients [European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria]. Ayurvedic treatment for seven weeks in rheumatoid arthritis patients showed normal kidney and liver function tests. However, increased urinary mercury levels were was observed after treatment.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS:
The findings of the present study suggest that this Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj) has a potential to be used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, due to small sample size, short duration, non randomization and lack of a control group as study limitations, further studies need to be done to confirm these findings.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarG2015,
  author = {Kumar G, Srivastava A, Sharma SK, Rao TD, Gupta YK1},
  title = {Efficacy & safety evaluation of Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder & Sidh Makardhwaj) in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot prospective study.},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {141}
}
Patel TA, Rao MV Ameliorative effect of certain antioxidants against mercury induced genotoxicity in peripheral blood lymphocytes. 2015 Drug Chem Toxicol, pp. 408  article DOI  
Abstract: Various antioxidants play an important role in reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by scavenging them directly or indirectly. Mercury (Hg) is one of the known hazardous genotoxicant, induces the genotoxicity by enhancing the ROS. In the present study, three structurally different bioactive compounds such as melatonin (0.2?mM), curcumin (3.87?µM) and andrographolide (0.4?µM) were evaluated against the genotoxic effect of mercury. All the experiments were conducted using the peripheral blood lymphocytes In Vitro. The cultures were exposed to different doses (2.63?µM; 6.57?µM; 10.52?µM) of mercury salt (HgCl2) for studying various genotoxic indices. All three antioxidant compounds, alone and in combination with high dose of mercury, were added to the cultures with controls. For ascertaining genotoxicity, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), cell cycle proliferative index/replicative index (CCPI/RI), average generation time (AGT), population doubling time (PDT), %M1, %M2 and %M3 were assessed and analyzed using suitable statistical analysis. The results revealed a dose dependent increase in SCEs, AGT and PDT, with a concomitant reduction in CCPI values after treatment of mercury. Supplementation of these three antioxidant compounds effectively negated these genotoxic endpoints in treated cultures with improvement in the cell cycle kinetics i.e. CCPI. The antimutagenic activity of these compounds on mercury induced genotoxicity was in the following order: melatonin?>?curcumin?>?andrographolide. In conclusion, these compounds have ameliorated mercury induced increase in genotoxic indices due to their excellent antioxidant properties and the combination seems to be effective.
BibTeX:
@article{PatelTA12015,
  author = {Patel TA1, Rao MV1.},
  title = {Ameliorative effect of certain antioxidants against mercury induced genotoxicity in peripheral blood lymphocytes.},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {408},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2014.975354}
}
Sarker S, Desai SR, Verlecar XN, Sarker MS, Sarkar A Mercury-induced genotoxicity in marine diatom (Chaetoceros tenuissimus). 2015 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int., pp. 270  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{SarkerS12015,
  author = {Sarker S1, Desai SR2, Verlecar XN2, Sarker MS3, Sarkar A4,5.},
  title = {Mercury-induced genotoxicity in marine diatom (Chaetoceros tenuissimus).},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {270},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5505-4}
}
Agarwal C, Chaudhury S, Mhatre A, Goswami A Anion dependence of transport of mercury ion through Nafion-117 membrane. 2010 J Phys Chem B.
Vol. 114(13), pp. 4471-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: Studies on isotopic and ion-exchange kinetics of mercury ions in Nafion-117 membrane have been carried out with (203)Hg radiotracer in the presence of Cl(-) and NO(3)(-) in solution. The results of isotopic-exchange kinetics indicate that mercury ions diffuse into the membrane as monovalent cation from HgCl(2) solution while as divalent ion from Hg(NO(3))(2) solution. The studies on the kinetics of ion exchange of Hg(2+) with Na(+) follow the prediction of the Nernst-Planck equation when NaNO(3) is used as an external salt solution. The Nernst-Planck equation fails to predict the kinetics when NaCl is used as an external salt solution, indicating that the complexation of Cl(-) with Hg(2+) in the membrane influences the kinetics. Permeation studies using (203)Hg and (36)Cl radiotracer between two HgCl(2) solutions show that the permeability coefficients of mercury and chloride ions are the same, indicating the cotransport of mercury and chloride ions through the membrane. Ion-exchange equilibrium studies using a mixture of HgCl(2) and HNO(3) solution were carried out to ascertain the species transporting through the membrane. The equilibrium sorption of mercury in the membrane shows the uptake of an ionic species, presumably HgCl(+), not a neutral salt. The speciation diagrams, calculated as a function of pH, show wide divergence of species present in HgCl(2) and Hg(NO(3))(2) solution and explain the difference in membrane transport behavior for HgCl(2) and Hg(NO(3))(2) solution. The results show that any ion-exchange-membrane-based separation of Hg(2+) needs careful consideration regarding the anions present in the solution, as it influences the speciation of mercury and hence its transport behavior through the membrane.
BibTeX:
@article{AgarwalC2010,
  author = {Agarwal C, Chaudhury S, Mhatre A, Goswami A},
  title = {Anion dependence of transport of mercury ion through Nafion-117 membrane.},
  journal = {J Phys Chem B.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {114(13)},
  pages = {4471-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp910580f}
}
Agarwal R, Goel SK, Behari JR Detoxification and antioxidant effects of curcumin in rats experimentally exposed to mercury. 2010 J Appl Toxicol.
Vol. 30(5), pp. 457-68 
article DOI  
Abstract: Curcumin, a safe nutritional component and a highly promising natural antioxidant with a wide spectrum of biological functions, has been examined in several metal toxicity studies, but its role in protection against mercury toxicity has not been investigated. Therefore, the detoxification and antioxidant effects of curcumin were examined to determine its prophylactic/therapeutic role in rats experimentally exposed to mercury (in the from of mercuric chloride-HgCl(2), 12 micromol kg(-1) b.w. single intraperitoneal injection). Curcumin treatment (80 mg kg(-1) b.w. daily for 3 days, orally) was found to have a protective effect on mercury-induced oxidative stress parameters, namely, lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the liver, kidney and brain. Curcumin treatment was also effective for reversing mercury-induced serum biochemical changes, which are the markers of liver and kidney injury. Mercury concentration in the tissues was also decreased by the pre/post-treatment with curcumin. However, histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney were not reversed by curcumin treatment. Mercury exposure resulted in the induction of metallothionein (MT) mRNA expressions in the liver and kidney. Metallothionein mRNA expression levels were found to decrease after the pre-treatment with curcumin, whereas post-treatment with curcumin further increased MT mRNA expression levels. Our findings suggest that curcumin pretreatment has a protective effect and that curcumin can be used as a therapeutic agent in mercury intoxication. The study indicates that curcumin, an effective antioxidant, may have a protective effect through its routine dietary intake against mercury exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{AgarwalR2010,
  author = {Agarwal R, Goel SK, Behari JR},
  title = {Detoxification and antioxidant effects of curcumin in rats experimentally exposed to mercury.},
  journal = {J Appl Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {30(5)},
  pages = {457-68},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.1517}
}
Agarwal R, Goel SK, Chandra R, Behari JR Role of vitamin E in preventing acute mercury toxicity in rat. 2010 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.
Vol. 29(1), pp. 70-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: We have examined the effect of both pre- and post-treatment of vitamin E on mercury induced acute toxicity in rats. Mercury (12?mol/kg b.w., single intraperitoneal injection) resulted in oxidative injury and metallothionein mRNA expression together with alterations in tissue histology and accumulation of mercury in the body organs. The ameliorating potential of vitamin E (24?mol/kg b.w., single intraperitoneal injection) was observed in mercury administered rats. Our findings indicate that vitamin E provides complete protection from mercury toxicity in the liver with both pre- and post-treatments. As mercury is nephrotoxic and neurotoxic, it is interesting to note that post-treatment of vitamin E showed more protection in the kidney compared to pre-treatment. In brain tissue, partial protection was observed on oxidative stress parameters. Our results thus suggest that post-treatment with vitamin E could be more beneficial than pre- treatment in mercury intoxication.
BibTeX:
@article{AgarwalR2010a,
  author = {Agarwal R, Goel SK, Chandra R, Behari JR},
  title = {Role of vitamin E in preventing acute mercury toxicity in rat.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29(1)},
  pages = {70-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2009.10.003}
}
Agarwala S, B NR, Mudholkar K, Bhuwania R, Satish Rao BS Mangiferin, a dietary xanthone protects against mercury-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. 2012 Environ Toxicol.
Vol. 27(2), pp. 117-27 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mercury is one of the noxious heavy metal environmental toxicants and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Mangiferin (MGN), a glucosylxanthone found in Mangifera indica, reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective potential of MGN, against mercury chloride (HgCl(2) ) induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line. The cytoprotective effect of MGN on HgCl(2) induced toxicity was assessed by colony formation assay, while antiapoptotic effect by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometric DNA analysis, and DNA fragmentation pattern assays. Further, the cytoprotective effect of MGN against HgCl(2) toxicity was assessed by using biochemical parameters like reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) by spectrophotometrically, mitochondrial membrane potential by flowcytometry and the changes in reactive oxygen species levels by DCFH-DA spectrofluoremetric analysis. A significant increase in the surviving fraction was observed with 50 ?M of MGN administered two hours prior to various concentrations of HgCl(2) . Further, pretreatment of MGN significantly decreased the percentage of HgCl(2) induced apoptotic cells. Similarly, the levels of ROS generated by the HgCl(2) treatment were inhibited significantly (P < 0.01) by MGN. MGN also significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited the HgCl(2) induced decrease in GSH, GST, SOD, and CAT levels at all the post incubation intervals. Our study demonstrated the cytoprotective potential of MGN, which may be attributed to quenching of the ROS generated in the cells due to oxidative stress induced by HgCl(2) , restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential and normalization of cellular antioxidant levels.
BibTeX:
@article{AgarwalaS2012,
  author = {Agarwala S, B NR, Mudholkar K, Bhuwania R, Satish Rao BS},
  title = {Mangiferin, a dietary xanthone protects against mercury-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {27(2)},
  pages = {117-27},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.20620}
}
Agrawal S, Flora G, Bhatnagar P, Flora SJ Comparative oxidative stress, metallothionein induction and organ toxicity following chronic exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury in rats. 2014 Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand).
Vol. 60(2), pp. 13-21 
article  
Abstract: Globally, arsenic, mercury and lead constitutes as the three most hazardous environmental toxicants perturbing imbalance in pro—oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis. Individual toxicity of these environmental toxicants is well known but there is lack of comparative data on variables indicative of oxidative stress. We thus investigated the effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate on blood and tissue oxidative stress, metal concentration and metallothionein (MT) contents. Male rats were exposed to sodium arsenite, mercuric chloride and lead acetate (0.05 mg/kg each, orally, once daily) for 6 months. Arsenic, mercury and lead exposure led to a significant inhibition of blood ?—aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione level supported by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The level of inhibition was more pronounced in case of lead followed by mercury and arsenic. These metals/ metalloid significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity accompanied by a decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels in blood and tissues. Mercury alone produced a significant induction of hepatic and renal MT concentrations. Serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased significantly on exposure to arsenic and mercury exposure suggesting liver injury which was less pronounced in case of lead exposure. These biochemical alterations were supported by increased arsenic, mercury and lead concentrations in blood and soft tissues. The present study suggests that exposure to sodium arsenite and mercuric chloride lead to more pronounced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity while lead acetate caused significant alterations in haem synthesis pathway compared to two other thiol binding metal/metalloid.
BibTeX:
@article{AgrawalS2014,
  author = {Agrawal S, Flora G, Bhatnagar P, Flora SJ},
  title = {Comparative oxidative stress, metallothionein induction and organ toxicity following chronic exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury in rats.},
  journal = {Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand).},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {60(2)},
  pages = {13-21}
}
Anandhakumar S, Rajaram R, Mathiyarasu J Unusual seedless approach to gold nanoparticle synthesis: application to selective rapid naked eye detection of mercury(II). 2014 Analyst.
Vol. 139(13), pp. 3356-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report a novel seedless Hg(2+)-induced synthetic approach for the preparation of gold nanostructures. This protocol is demonstrated for the highly selective and sensitive naked eye detection of Hg(2+) based on the high affinity metallophilic Hg(2+)-Au(+) interaction. The response time upon exposure to Hg(2+) is almost instantaneous.
BibTeX:
@article{AnandhakumarS2014,
  author = {Anandhakumar S, Rajaram R, Mathiyarasu J},
  title = {Unusual seedless approach to gold nanoparticle synthesis: application to selective rapid naked eye detection of mercury(II).},
  journal = {Analyst.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {139(13)},
  pages = {3356-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4an00480a}
}
Bafana A, Krishnamurthi K, Patil M, Chakrabarti T Heavy metal resistance in Arthrobacter ramosus strain G2 isolated from mercuric salt-contaminated soil. 2010 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 177(1-3), pp. 481-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: Present study describes isolation of a multiple metal-resistant Arthrobacter ramosus strain from mercuric salt-contaminated soil. The isolate was found to resist and bioaccumulate several metals, such as cadmium, cobalt, zinc, chromium and mercury. Maximum tolerated concentrations for above metals were found to be 37, 525, 348, 1530 and 369 microM, respectively. The isolate could also reduce and detoxify redox-active metals like chromium and mercury, indicating that it has great potential in bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites. Chromate reductase and mercuric reductase (MerA) activities in protein extract of the culture were found to be 2.3 and 0.17 units mg(-1) protein, respectively. MerA enzyme was isolated from the culture by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation followed by dye affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by nano-LC-MS/MS. Its monomeric molecular weight, and optimum pH and temperature were 57kDa, 7.4 and 55 degrees C, respectively. Thus, the enzyme was mildly thermophilic as compared to other MerA enzymes. K(m) and V(max) of the enzyme were 16.9 microM HgCl(2) and 6.2 micromol min(-1)mg(-1) enzyme, respectively. The enzyme was found to be NADPH-specific. To our knowledge this is the first report on characterization of MerA enzyme from an Arthrobacter sp.
BibTeX:
@article{BafanaA2010,
  author = {Bafana A, Krishnamurthi K, Patil M, Chakrabarti T},
  title = {Heavy metal resistance in Arthrobacter ramosus strain G2 isolated from mercuric salt-contaminated soil.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {177(1-3)},
  pages = {481-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.12.058}
}
Bhalla V, Kaur S, Vij V, Kumar M Mercury-modulated supramolecular assembly of a hexaphenylbenzene derivative for selective detection of picric acid. 2013 Inorg Chem.
Vol. 52(9), pp. 4860-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Spherical aggregates of hexaphenylbenzene derivative 5 undergo metal-induced modulation to form nanorods in the presence of Hg(2+) ions, which exhibit selective and sensitive response toward picric acid (PA) with a detection limit of 6.87 ppb.
BibTeX:
@article{BhallaV2013,
  author = {Bhalla V, Kaur S, Vij V, Kumar M},
  title = {Mercury-modulated supramolecular assembly of a hexaphenylbenzene derivative for selective detection of picric acid.},
  journal = {Inorg Chem.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {52(9)},
  pages = {4860-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic3023997}
}
Bhalla V, Tejpal R, Kumar M, Sethi A Terphenyl derivatives as "turn on" fluorescent sensors for mercury. 2009 Inorg Chem.
Vol. 48(24), pp. 11677-84 
article DOI  
Abstract: New terphenyl-based reversible receptors 1-4 with pyrene and quinoline as the fluorophores have been designed, synthesized, and examined for their cation recognition abilities toward various cations (Sm(3+), Nd(3+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+), Ba(2+), Cd(2+), Ag(+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and Li(+)) by UV-vis, fluorescence, and NMR spectroscopy. The prepared receptors showed the highly selective and sensitive "Off-On" fluorescence signaling behavior for Hg(2+) ions in THF and mixed aqueous media (THF:H(2)O, 9.5:0.5).
BibTeX:
@article{BhallaV2009,
  author = {Bhalla V, Tejpal R, Kumar M, Sethi A},
  title = {Terphenyl derivatives as "turn on" fluorescent sensors for mercury.},
  journal = {Inorg Chem.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {48(24)},
  pages = {11677-84},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic9016933}
}
Bhardwaj VK, Sharma H, Singh N Ratiometric fluorescent probe for biothiol in aqueous medium with fluorescent organic nanoparticles. 2014 Talanta.
Vol. 129, pp. 198-202 
article DOI  
Abstract: A dipodal rhodamine-based mercury complex have been designed and synthesized, for the selective detection of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). To avoid the poor solubility of rhodamine-based ligand in pure water, the Hg(2+) complex of fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) of ligand have been developed using reprecipitation method and the formation of 1:1 complex has been confirmed with various spectroscopic techniques. The resultant chemosensor can detect MPA in a concentration range of 60nM-1?M (in buffered aqueous medium) with detection limit of 60nM.
BibTeX:
@article{BhardwajVK2014,
  author = {Bhardwaj VK, Sharma H, Singh N},
  title = {Ratiometric fluorescent probe for biothiol in aqueous medium with fluorescent organic nanoparticles.},
  journal = {Talanta.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {129},
  pages = {198-202},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2014.05.036}
}
Bhattacharyya A, Dutta S, De P, Ray P, Basu S Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solution using papain immobilized on alginate bead: optimization of immobilization condition and modeling of removal study. 2010 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 101(24), pp. 9421-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Papain having the characteristics of metal binding ability is immobilized on alginate bead. Design Expert Software (Version 7.1.6) uses Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for statistical designing of operating condition for immobilization of papain on alginate bead considering concentration of papain, concentration of sodium alginate, concentration of calcium chloride and pH as numeric factors and Specific Enzymatic Activity (SEA) of immobilized papain sample as response. Immobilization using 25.96 g/L papain, 20 g/L sodium alginate and 20 g/L calcium chloride at pH 7 gives the desired product as indicated by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). Three parameters viz., initial concentration of mercury (II), amount of AIP and pH are varied in a systematic manner. Maximum 98.88% removal of mercury (II) has been achieved within 8 min when simulated aqueous solution of mercury (II) with initial concentration of 10mg/L has been contacted with 5 g of AIP at pH 9 and at 35 degrees C in a batch contactor. A mathematical model has been developed and the value of equilibrium constant for binding of mercury (II) with AIP has been found to be 126797.3.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyyaA2010,
  author = {Bhattacharyya A, Dutta S, De P, Ray P, Basu S},
  title = {Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solution using papain immobilized on alginate bead: optimization of immobilization condition and modeling of removal study.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {101(24)},
  pages = {9421-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.126}
}
Bhattacharyya S, Chaudhuri P, Dutta S, Santra SC Assessment of total mercury level in fish collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture in West Bengal, India. 2010 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 84(5), pp. 618-22 
article DOI  
Abstract: Total mercury levels were quantified in Tilapia mossambicus, Cirrhinus mrigela and Labio rohita, captured from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture ponds. The bioconcentration factor of collected fish was assessed. Total mercury level ranged from 0.073 to 0.94 microg/g in both pre and post monsoon season. T. mossambicus in both season and C. mrigela at pre monsoon, cross the Indian recommended maximum limit (0.50 microg/g wet weight) for food consumption and according to World Health Organization guidelines all fish were not recommended for pregnant women and individuals under 15 years ages. A significant correlation was observed between mercury content of aquaculture pond water and fish muscle tissue. Total mercury concentration in experimental sites were higher than the control area (Wilcoxon Ranked-Sum test p > 0.05), which suggested the connection between mercury bioaccumulation and sewage fed aquaculture.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyyaS2010,
  author = {Bhattacharyya S, Chaudhuri P, Dutta S, Santra SC},
  title = {Assessment of total mercury level in fish collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture in West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {84(5)},
  pages = {618-22},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9972-5}
}
Das SK, Das AR, Guha AK Adsorption behavior of mercury on functionalized aspergillus versicolor mycelia: atomic force microscopic study. 2009 Langmuir.
Vol. 25(1), pp. 360-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: The adsorption characteristics of mercury on Aspergillus versicolor mycelia have been studied under varied environments. The mycelia are functionalized by carbon disulfide (CS(2)) treatment under alkaline conditions to examine the enhance uptake capacity and explore its potentiality in pollution control management. The functionalized A. versicolor mycelia have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA), attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) probing. SEM and AFM images exhibit the formation of nanoparticles on the mycelial surface. ATR-IR profile confirms the functionalization of the mycelia following chemical treatment. ATR-IR and EDXA results demonstrate the binding of the sulfur groups of the functionalized mycelia to the mercury and consequent formation metal sulfide. AFM study reveals that the mycelial surface is covered by a layer of densely packed domain like structures. Sectional analysis yields significant increase in average roughness (R(rms)) value (20.5 +/- 1.82 nm) compared to that of the pristine mycelia (4.56 +/- 0.82 nm). Surface rigidity (0.88 +/- 0.06 N/m) and elasticity (92.6 +/- 10.2 MPa) obtained from a force distance curve using finite element modeling are found to increase significantly with respect to the corresponding values of (0.65 +/- 0.05 N/m and 32.8 +/- 4.5 MPa) of the nonfunctionalized mycelia. The maximum mercury adsorption capacity of the functionalized mycelia is observed to be 256.5 mg/g in comparison to 80.71 mg/g for the pristine mycelia.
BibTeX:
@article{DasSK2009,
  author = {Das SK, Das AR, Guha AK},
  title = {Adsorption behavior of mercury on functionalized aspergillus versicolor mycelia: atomic force microscopic study.},
  journal = {Langmuir.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {25(1)},
  pages = {360-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la802749t}
}
Dipu S, Kumar AA Distribution of mercury and other trace metals in the sediments of Cochin estuary (a Ramsar site), Kerala, India. 2013 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 185(8), pp. 6333-41 
article DOI  
Abstract: Sediment quality data provide essential information for evaluating ambient environmental quality conditions. Sediments are important carriers of trace metals in the environment and reflect the current quality of the system. In the present study, distribution of mercury, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium and manganese in Cochin estuary were studied. The distribution of oxides of metals and textural quality were also studied in detail. It was found that the concentration of metals in the sediments near the industrial belt was extremely high. Correlation of different metals and metal oxides were analysed. It was found that all the alloys were correlated significantly (??
BibTeX:
@article{DipuS2013,
  author = {Dipu S, Kumar AA},
  title = {Distribution of mercury and other trace metals in the sediments of Cochin estuary (a Ramsar site), Kerala, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {185(8)},
  pages = {6333-41},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-3028-8}
}
Dipu S, Kumar AA Distribution of mercury and other trace metals in the sediments of Cochin estuary (a Ramsar site), Kerala, India. 2013 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 185(8), pp. 6333-41 
article DOI  
Abstract: Sediment quality data provide essential information for evaluating ambient environmental quality conditions. Sediments are important carriers of trace metals in the environment and reflect the current quality of the system. In the present study, distribution of mercury, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium and manganese in Cochin estuary were studied. The distribution of oxides of metals and textural quality were also studied in detail. It was found that the concentration of metals in the sediments near the industrial belt was extremely high. Correlation of different metals and metal oxides were analysed. It was found that all the alloys were correlated significantly (??
BibTeX:
@article{DipuS2013a,
  author = {Dipu S, Kumar AA},
  title = {Distribution of mercury and other trace metals in the sediments of Cochin estuary (a Ramsar site), Kerala, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {185(8)},
  pages = {6333-41},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-3028-8}
}
Dutta J, Chetia M, Misra AK Drinking water quality in six small tea gardens of Sonitpur District of Assam, India, with special reference to heavy metals. 2011 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 53(4), pp. 443-50 
article  
Abstract: Contamination of drinking water by arsenic and other heavy metals and their related toxicology is a serious concern now-a-days. Millions of individual world-wide are suffering from the arsenic and other heavy metal related diseases due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. 60 water samples from different sources of 6 small tea gardens of Sonitpur district were collected to study the potability of water for drinking purposes. The water samples collected from sources like tube wells, ring wells and ponds were analyzed for arsenic, heavy metals like iron, manganese and mercury with sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, pH, total hardness, chloride, fluoride and sulphate. Some drain water samples of the tea garden areas were also collected to analyze the above mentioned water parameters to see the contamination level. Experiments revealed that 78% samples of total collection had arsenic content above the permissible limit (0.01 ppm) of WHO guideline value for drinking water. The highest arsenic was observed 0.09 ppm at one sample of Gobindra Dahal tea garden of Gohpur sub division of Sonitpur district. 94% samples had contamination due to manganese 39% samples had iron and 44% samples had Hg. The water quality data was subjected to some statistical treatments like NDA, cluster analysis and pearson correlation to observe the distribution pattern of the different water quality parameters. A strong pearson correlation coefficient was observed between parameters-arsenic and manganese (0.865) and arsenic and mercury (0.837) at 0.01 level, indicated the same sources of drinking water contamination.
BibTeX:
@article{DuttaJ2011,
  author = {Dutta J, Chetia M, Misra AK},
  title = {Drinking water quality in six small tea gardens of Sonitpur District of Assam, India, with special reference to heavy metals.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {53(4)},
  pages = {443-50}
}
Flora SJ, Mittal M, Mehta A Heavy metal induced oxidative stress & its possible reversal by chelation therapy. 2008 Indian J Med Res.
Vol. 128(4), pp. 501-23 
article  
Abstract: Exposure to heavy metals is a common phenomenon due to their environmental pervasiveness. Metal intoxication particularly neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity is widely known. This review summarizes our current understanding about the mechanism by which metalloids or heavy metals (particularly arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury) induce their toxic effects. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for all these metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The toxic manifestations of these metals are caused primarily due to imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis which is termed as oxidative stress. Besides these metals have high affinity for thiol groups containing enzymes and proteins, which are responsible for normal cellular defense mechanism. Long term exposure to these metals could lead to apoptosis. Signaling components affected by metals include growth factor receptors, G-proteins, MAP kinases and transcription factors. Chelation therapy with chelating agents like calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (CaNa(2)EDTA), British Anti Lewisite (BAL), sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) etc., is considered to be the best known treatment against metal poisoning. Despite many years of research we are still far away from effective treatment against toxicity caused due to exposure to heavy metals/metalloids. The treatment with these chelating agents is compromised with number of serious side-effects. Studies show that supplementation of antioxidants along-with a chelating agent prove to be a better treatment regimen than monotherapy with chelating agents. This review attempts a comprehensive account of recent developments in the research on heavy metal poisoning particularly the role of oxidative stress/free radicals in the toxic manifestation, an update about the recent strategies for the treatment with chelating agents and a possible beneficial role of antioxidants supplementation to achieve the optimum effects. We have selected only arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium for this article keeping in view current concerns and literature available.
BibTeX:
@article{FloraSJ2008,
  author = {Flora SJ, Mittal M, Mehta A},
  title = {Heavy metal induced oxidative stress & its possible reversal by chelation therapy.},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {128(4)},
  pages = {501-23}
}
Ghoshal S, Bhattacharya P, Chowdhury R De-mercurization of wastewater by Bacillus cereus (JUBT1): growth kinetics, biofilm reactor study and field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis. 2011 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 194, pp. 355-61 
article DOI  
Abstract: Removal of mercuric ions by a mercury resistant bacteria, called Bacillus cereus (JUBT1), isolated from the sludge of a local chlor-alkali industry, has been investigated. Growth kinetics of the bacteria have been determined. A multiplicative, non-competitive relationship between sucrose and mercury ions has been observed with respect to bacterial growth. A combination of biofilm reactor, using attached growth of Bacillus cereus (JUBT1) on rice husk packing, and an activated carbon filter has been able to ensure the removal of mercury up to near-zero level. Energy dispersive spectrometry analysis of biofilm and the activated carbon has proved the transformation of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) and its confinement in the system.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshalS2011,
  author = {Ghoshal S, Bhattacharya P, Chowdhury R},
  title = {De-mercurization of wastewater by Bacillus cereus (JUBT1): growth kinetics, biofilm reactor study and field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {194},
  pages = {355-61},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.07.109}
}
Giri AK, Patel RK Toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of Cr (VI) and Hg (II) on differential concentration by Eichhornia crassipes in hydroponic culture. 2011 Water Sci Technol.
Vol. 63(5), pp. 899-907 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this work, the phytoremediation of Cr (VI) and Hg (II) ion from water by an aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes has been studied. Plants were cultured in a double distillated water with modified Hoagland's nutrient solution at pH 6.8 supplemented with 0, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50, and 4 mg Cr/L as potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg Hg/L as mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)). They were separately harvested after 3, 6 and 9 days. Plants treated with 4 mg/L of Cr (VI) accumulated the highest concentration of metal in roots (1.22 mg/g, dry weight) and shoots (0.24 mg/g, dry weight) after 9 days; while those treated with 20 mg/L of Hg (II) accumulated the highest concentration of metal in roots (4.22 mg/g, dry weight) and shoots (2.43 mg/g, dry weight) after 9 days. Eichhornia crassipes biomass was characterised using AAS, SEM and FTIR. The accumulation and relative growth of metal ions at different concentrations of chromium and mercury solution significantly increased (P<0.05) with the passage of time. The maximum values of bio-concentration factor (BCF) for Cr (VI) and Hg (II) were found to be 413.33 and 502.40 L/kg respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{GiriAK2011,
  author = {Giri AK, Patel RK},
  title = {Toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of Cr (VI) and Hg (II) on differential concentration by Eichhornia crassipes in hydroponic culture.},
  journal = {Water Sci Technol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {63(5)},
  pages = {899-907},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2011.268}
}
Goyal M, Bhagat M, Dhawan R Removal of mercury from water by fixed bed activated carbon columns. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 171(1-3), pp. 1009-15 
article DOI  
Abstract: The breakthrough curves for Hg(II) ions on a sample of granulated activated carbon (GAC) and a sample of activated carbon cloth (ACC) are generally S-shaped. The breakthrough time increases with increase in the bed depth but decreases on increasing the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) and the feed concentration. The adsorption of Hg(II) ions increases with HLR and attains a maximum value at HLR around 7m(3)/h/m(2). At low HLR, laminar flow conditions prevail so that the mass transfer takes place across a nearly stationary film of the liquid covering the carbon particles. This high resistance leads to low mass transfer and results in smaller adsorption. On increasing HLR, the interface resistance decreases resulting in an increase in adsorption. Beyond a certain HLR, the rate of adsorption decreases due to decrease in the residence time of the solution within the carbon bed and a lower time available for mass transfer. The adsorption zone parameters of the carbon column have been determined using the carbon bed column data and invoking the mathematical treatment suggested by Michaels. Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) theoretical model has been used to calculate the critical bed depth and the depth of the mass transfer zone. These have been found to be in agreement with the experimental values.
BibTeX:
@article{GoyalM2009,
  author = {Goyal M, Bhagat M, Dhawan R},
  title = {Removal of mercury from water by fixed bed activated carbon columns.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {171(1-3)},
  pages = {1009-15},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.107}
}
Gupta A, Vidyarthi SR, Sankararamakrishnan N Enhanced sorption of mercury from compact fluorescent bulbs and contaminated water streams using functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. 2014 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 274, pp. 132-44 
article DOI  
Abstract: Three different functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared, namely, oxidized CNTs (CNT-OX), iodide incorporated MWCNT (CNT-I) and sulfur incorporated MWCNT (CNT-S). The as prepared adsorbents were structurally characterized by various spectral techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Loading of iodide and sulfur was evident from the EDAX graphs. The adsorption properties of Hg(2+) as a function of pH, contact time and initial metal concentration were characterized by Cold vapor AAS. The adsorption kinetics fitted the Pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium was reached within 90 min. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Redushkevich and Temkin isotherms and various isotherm parameters were evaluated. It was found that the mercury adsorption capacity for the prepared adsorbents were in the order of CNT-S>CNT-I>CNT-OX>CNT. Studies have been conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the sorbent toward the removal of Hg(0) from broken compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs and Hg(II) from contaminated water streams.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaA2014,
  author = {Gupta A, Vidyarthi SR, Sankararamakrishnan N},
  title = {Enhanced sorption of mercury from compact fluorescent bulbs and contaminated water streams using functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {274},
  pages = {132-44},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.03.020}
}
Gupta KL, Pallavi G Acute renal failure secondary to ingestion of unknown mercury containing medicine-not due to Ayurvedic medicine. 2014 Indian J Nephrol.
Vol. 24(3), pp. 198-9 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaKL2014,
  author = {Gupta KL, Pallavi G},
  title = {Acute renal failure secondary to ingestion of unknown mercury containing medicine-not due to Ayurvedic medicine.},
  journal = {Indian J Nephrol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {24(3)},
  pages = {198-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-4065.132027}
}
Gupta SK, Saxena P, Pant VA, Pant AB Release and toxicity of dental resin composite. 2012 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 19(3), pp. 225-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaSK2012,
  author = {Gupta SK, Saxena P, Pant VA, Pant AB},
  title = {Release and toxicity of dental resin composite.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {19(3)},
  pages = {225-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.103652}
}
Gupta VK, Jain R, Jadon N, Radhapyari K Adsorption of pyrantel pamoate on mercury from aqueous solutions: studies by stripping voltammetry. 2010 J Colloid Interface Sci.
Vol. 350(1), pp. 330-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Adsorption and electrochemical reduction of pyrantel pamoate are studied in Britton Robinson buffer medium at hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric technique. The peak current shows a linear dependence with the drug concentration over the range 250 ng mL(-1) to 64 microg mL(-1). Applicability to assay the drug in urine samples is illustrated in the concentration range 5-20 microg mL(-1).
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaVK2010,
  author = {Gupta VK, Jain R, Jadon N, Radhapyari K},
  title = {Adsorption of pyrantel pamoate on mercury from aqueous solutions: studies by stripping voltammetry.},
  journal = {J Colloid Interface Sci.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {350(1)},
  pages = {330-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2010.06.056}
}
Jain A, Pillai AK, Sharma N, Verma KK Headspace single-drop microextraction and cuvetteless microspectrophotometry for the selective determination of free and total cyanide involving reaction with ninhydrin. 2010 Talanta.
Vol. 82(2), pp. 758-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: Headspace single-drop microextraction has been used for the determination of cyanide with ninhydrin in combination with fibre-optic-based cuvetteless microspectrophotometry which accommodates sample volume of 1 microL placed between the two ends of optical fibres, and has been found to avoid salient drawbacks of batch methods. This method involved hydrocyanic acid formation in a closed vial, and simultaneous extraction and reaction with 2 microL drop of ninhydrin in carbonate medium suspended at the tip of a microsyringe needle held in the headspace of the acidified sample solution. The method was linear in range 0.025-0.5 mg L(-1) of cyanide. The headspace reaction was free from the interference of substances, e.g., thiocyanate, hydrazine sulphate, hydroxylammonium chloride and ascorbic acid. Sulphide was masked by cadmium sulphate, nitrite by sulphamic acid, sulphite by N-ethylmaleimide, and halogens by ascorbic acid. The limit of detection was found to be 4.3 microg L(-1) of cyanide which was comparable to existing most sensitive methods for cyanide. However, the present method is far more simple. The method was applied to acid-labile and metal cyanides complexes by treatment with sulphide when metal sulphides were precipitated setting cyanide ion free, and to iron(II) and (III) cyanide complexes by their decomposition with mercury(II), the mercury(II) cyanide formed was then determined. These pre-treatment methods avoided cumbersome pre-separation of cyanide by methods such as distillation or gas diffusion. The overall recovery of cyanide in diverse samples was 97% with RSD of 3.9%
BibTeX:
@article{JainA2010,
  author = {Jain A, Pillai AK, Sharma N, Verma KK},
  title = {Headspace single-drop microextraction and cuvetteless microspectrophotometry for the selective determination of free and total cyanide involving reaction with ninhydrin.},
  journal = {Talanta.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {82(2)},
  pages = {758-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2010.05.048}
}
Jain R, Gupta VK, Jadon N, Radhapyari K Voltammetric determination of cefixime in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids. 2010 Anal Biochem.
Vol. 407(1), pp. 79-88 
article DOI  
Abstract: Electroreduction and adsorption of cefixime was studied in phosphate buffer by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPCAdSV), and square-wave cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWCAdSV) at hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). These fully validated sensitive and reproducible cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedures were applied for the trace determination of the bulk drug in pharmaceutical formulations and in human urine. The optimal experimental parameters were as follows: accumulation potential=-0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3M KCl), accumulation time=50s, frequency=140 Hz, pulse amplitude=0.07 V, and scan increment=10 mV in phosphate buffer (pH 2.6). The first peak current showed a linear dependence with the drug concentration over the range of 50 ng ml(-1) to 25.6 ?g ml(-1). The achieved limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 3.99 and 13.3 ng ml(-1) by SWCAdSV and 7.98 and 26.6 ng ml(-1) by DPCAdSV, respectively. The procedure was applied to assay the drug in tablets. Applicability was also tested in urine samples. Peak current was linear with the drug concentration in the range of 1 to 60 ?g ml(-1) of the urine, and minimum detectability was found to be 12.6 ng ml(-1) by SWCAdSV and 58.4 ng ml(-1) by DPCAdSV.
BibTeX:
@article{JainR2010,
  author = {Jain R, Gupta VK, Jadon N, Radhapyari K},
  title = {Voltammetric determination of cefixime in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids.},
  journal = {Anal Biochem.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {407(1)},
  pages = {79-88},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2010.07.027}
}
Jana A, Kim JS, Jung HS, Bharadwaj PK A cryptand based chemodosimetric probe for naked-eye detection of mercury(II) ion in aqueous medium and its application in live cell imaging. 2009 Chem Commun (Camb).
Vol. 29, pp. 4417-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: A cryptand-rhodamine conjugated chemodosimeter can detect Hg(II) ion in aqueous medium selectively at ppb level in the presence of other biologically relevant metal ions and also shows a good viability to the HEK 293 cell line.
BibTeX:
@article{JanaA2009,
  author = {Jana A, Kim JS, Jung HS, Bharadwaj PK},
  title = {A cryptand based chemodosimetric probe for naked-eye detection of mercury(II) ion in aqueous medium and its application in live cell imaging.},
  journal = {Chem Commun (Camb).},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {4417-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b907646h}
}
Joshi D, Kumar MD, Kumar SA, Sangeeta S Reversal of methylmercury-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage by the treatment of N-acetyl cysteine: a protective approach. 2014 J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol.
Vol. 33(2), pp. 167-82 
article  
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cysteine in reducing methylmercury (MeHg)-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage in liver, kidney, and brain, and their ability to restore altered hepatic, renal, and other biochemical variables. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150±10 g) were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 served as the control. Groups 2 and 3 were administered methylmercury (1 mg kg?¹ orally, 5 days/week) for 12 weeks, and group 2 served as the experimental control. Group 3 received N-acetyl cysteine (0.6 mg kg?¹ intraperitoneally, two days/week) for 12 weeks after methylmercury exposure. Methylmercury exposure caused a significant rise in bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen, with a concomitant decrease in albumin content, reduced glutathione level and acetyl cholinesterase activity, antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and adenosine triphosphatase. However, lipid peroxidation level, metallothionein expression, and DNA damage with increment of tail length were observed after methylmercury intoxication. N-acetyl cysteine, a widely available, nontoxic amino acid derivative, is a promising antioxidant with a wide spectrum of biological functions. The ability of N-acetyl cysteine to enhance mercury excretion and its wide availability in clinical use indicate that it may be an ideal therapeutic agent against methylmercury poisoning.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiD2014,
  author = {Joshi D, Kumar MD, Kumar SA, Sangeeta S},
  title = {Reversal of methylmercury-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage by the treatment of N-acetyl cysteine: a protective approach.},
  journal = {J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {33(2)},
  pages = {167-82}
}
Joshi D, Mittal DK, Shukla S, Srivastav AK Therapeutic potential of N-acetyl cysteine with antioxidants (Zn and Se) supplementation against dimethylmercury toxicity in male albino rats. 2012 Exp Toxicol Pathol.
Vol. 64(1-2), pp. 103-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mercury (Hg) is currently one of the most prevalent pollutants in the environment. Many studies have examined its effects on the health of both humans and animals. Experimental studies have shown that sulfur-containing nutrients play an important role as detoxification and protecting cell against the detrimental properties of mercury. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the toxicity induced by dimethylmercury in male rats through the activities of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase in serum and oxidative damage as acetyl cholinesterase activity in different regions of brain and lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content, mean DNA damage in liver, kidney and brain of rats given dimethylmercury (10 mg/kg, p.o., once only) along with combination therapy of N-acetyl cysteine (2 mM/kg, i.p.), zinc (2 mM/kg, p.o.) and selenium (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) for 3 days. In the dimethylmercury group, activities of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase in serum, level of lipid peroxidation, mean DNA damage and mercury ion concentration were significantly higher whereas reduced glutathione content and the activity of acetyl cholinesterase were significantly lower compared to controls (P?0.05). Combined treatment of zinc and selenium with N-acetyl cysteine to dimethylmercury-exposed rats showed a substantial reduction in the levels of DMM-induced oxidative damage and comet tail length. In conclusion, the results of this study support that the supplementation of zinc and selenium with N-acetyl cysteine can improve the DMM induced blood and tissue biochemical oxidative stress and molecular alterations by recoupment in mean DNA damage.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiD2012,
  author = {Joshi D, Mittal DK, Shukla S, Srivastav AK},
  title = {Therapeutic potential of N-acetyl cysteine with antioxidants (Zn and Se) supplementation against dimethylmercury toxicity in male albino rats.},
  journal = {Exp Toxicol Pathol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {64(1-2)},
  pages = {103-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2010.07.001}
}
Joshi D, Mittal DK, Shrivastava S, Shukla S Protective role of thiol chelators against dimethylmercury induced toxicity in male rats. 2010 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.  article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to establish mode of action, comparative therapeutic efficacy and safety evaluation of N-acetyl cysteine and dithiothreitol against acute dimethylmercury poisoning in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley albino rats (150 +/- 10 g) were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1 served as control. Group 2-4 were administered dimethylmercury (10 mg/kg, p.o.) once only and group 2 served as experimental control. Animals of group 3 and 4 were received N-acetyl cysteine and dithiothreitol. Compared to the control, significant increase (p < or = 0.05) was observed in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation level and mercury ion concentration, however reduced glutathione, catalase, adenosine triphosphatase, acetyl cholinesterase (in brain only) were also decreased. It was concluded that N-acetyl cysteine provided maximum protection when compared with dithiothreitol group.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiD2010,
  author = {Joshi D, Mittal DK, Shrivastava S, Shukla S},
  title = {Protective role of thiol chelators against dimethylmercury induced toxicity in male rats.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9982-3}
}
Jayaprakash K Mercury vapor inhalation and its effect on glutathione peroxidase in goldsmiths exposed occupationally. 2009 Toxicol Ind Health.
Vol. 25(7), pp. 463-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the gold ornaments manufacturing cottage industries, the gold metal grain dust waste particles are recovered from mercury (Hg) amalgam. The results on air samples from these industries during the recovery process have shown a high prevalence of Hg vapor (42.7 mg/m(3)). The blood concentration of Hg is elevated (79.1 microg/L) among workers when their blood samples are tested. The Hg toxicity is reflected in the reduction of glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity in RBC (49.317 mg/L of RBC) when compared with the data from control subjects (68.536 mg/L of RBC). These values are statistically significant. This would suggest that the Hg poisoning in goldsmiths is due to exposure. The results are discussed with relation to preventive measures.
BibTeX:
@article{K2009,
  author = {Jayaprakash K},
  title = {Mercury vapor inhalation and its effect on glutathione peroxidase in goldsmiths exposed occupationally.},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {25(7)},
  pages = {463-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233709106769}
}
Kalainathan S, Kumari PN Comparative study of pure and alkaline earth metallic doped cadmium mercury thiocyanate single crystals--gel technique. 2009 Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.
Vol. 73(1), pp. 127-32 
article DOI  
Abstract: Growth aspects of Ba and Ca doped cadmium mercury thiocyanate (CMTC) single crystals from silica gel by the process of diffusion are discussed. The incorporation of dopants in the crystal has been confirmed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal the structures of the doped crystals to be tetragonal implying that the incorporation of the dopants has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The diffraction planes were identified and indexed by powder diffraction analysis. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out to investigate the crystalline perfection of the grown crystals. The grown crystals were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and transmission spectral analyses. Vickers microhardness studies on the grown crystals reveal that they belong to soft material category. Employing powder Kurtz method, their second harmonic generation efficiencies were measured in comparison with urea.
BibTeX:
@article{KalainathanS2009,
  author = {Kalainathan S, Kumari PN},
  title = {Comparative study of pure and alkaline earth metallic doped cadmium mercury thiocyanate single crystals--gel technique.},
  journal = {Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {73(1)},
  pages = {127-32},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2009.02.005}
}
Kanayama N, Takarada T, Maeda M Rapid naked-eye detection of mercury ions based on non-crosslinking aggregation of double-stranded DNA-carrying gold nanoparticles. 2011 Chem Commun (Camb).
Vol. 47(7), pp. 2077-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Colorimetric detection of mercury ions (Hg(2+)) with the naked eye was accomplished within 1 min by a combination of non-crosslinking aggregation of double-stranded DNA-carrying gold nanoparticles and complex formation of thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine.
BibTeX:
@article{KanayamaN2011,
  author = {Kanayama N, Takarada T, Maeda M},
  title = {Rapid naked-eye detection of mercury ions based on non-crosslinking aggregation of double-stranded DNA-carrying gold nanoparticles.},
  journal = {Chem Commun (Camb).},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {47(7)},
  pages = {2077-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0cc05171c}
}
Kaur A, Pandey S, Kumar S, Mehdi AA, Mishra A Oxidative stress profile in graves' ophthalmopathy in Indian patients. 2010 Orbit.
Vol. 29(2), pp. 97-101 
article DOI  
Abstract: PURPOSE:
To report the oxidative stress profile in patient of Graves' ophthalmopathy and to study the effect of hormone level normalization on oxidative stress profile.
METHODS:
All first time reporting patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy to Department of ophthalmology CSM Medical University (erstwhile King George's Medical University) Lucknow during the period January 2006 to December 2008 formed the cohort. Before initiating treatment a proforma directed detailed history, complete ophthalmological examination and investigations were done. Blood sample for pro/antioxidant enzyme were withdrawn for study after taking an informed consent. Patients were treated with antithyroid drugs alone to achieve a stable euthyroid status for at least 6 months following which a blood sample was again withdrawn to study the pro/anti oxidant enzyme status following treatment.
RESULTS:
On normalization of thyroid status the values of reactive oxygen species decreased significantly (p<0.05) and levels of antioxidants also got corrected significantly (p<0.05). However both these values remained significantly (p<0.05) altered as compared to normal persons.
CONCLUSION:
We demonstrated that even after normalization of thyroid hormone level, the oxidative stress levels remain elevated. Moreover, activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GSHR), Glutathione peroxidise (GPx) showed decrease which could be attributed to altered metabolism and already prevalent deficiency of essential micronutrients like zinc, copper, mercury, and selenium in the Indian population. Hence, this gives way to the thought that the supplementation of these nutrients may have a role as an adjuvant to hormonal therapy in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.
BibTeX:
@article{KaurA2010,
  author = {Kaur A, Pandey S, Kumar S, Mehdi AA, Mishra A},
  title = {Oxidative stress profile in graves' ophthalmopathy in Indian patients.},
  journal = {Orbit.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29(2)},
  pages = {97-101},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01676830903403174}
}
Kaur A, Singh A, Singal R, Singh M, Gupta S An unusual foreign body in the cricopharynx; first case report managed endoscopically. 2013 J Med Life.
Vol. 6(1), pp. 65-7 
article  
Abstract: A foreign body at the cricopharynx level is a common problem to any otolaryngologist worldwide. Coins, pencil tips, screws are usually found in children but are rarely seen in adults in the cricopharynx. We present an unusual case in a 30-year-old female who swallowed an Ayurvedic tablet. She complained of dysphagia and was unable to swallow even liquids. To our surprise, on the X-ray of the neck, a radiopaque shadow was noted in the cricopharynx. We removed it by hypopharyngoscopy and in the follow up period, the patient had no squeals. Any foreign bodies in the cricopharynx should be removed quickly to avoid complications like erosion. To our knowledge, the radiopaque shadow of a tablet observed on the X-ray of the neck is the first case being reported in the world literature.
BibTeX:
@article{KaurA2013,
  author = {Kaur A, Singh A, Singal R, Singh M, Gupta S},
  title = {An unusual foreign body in the cricopharynx; first case report managed endoscopically.},
  journal = {J Med Life.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {6(1)},
  pages = {65-7}
}
Kaur P, Kaur S, Singh K, Sharma PR, Kaur T Indole-based chemosensor for Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions: applications in molecular switches and live cell imaging. 2011 Dalton Trans.
Vol. 40(41), pp. 10818-21 
article DOI  
Abstract: An indole based "ratiometric" and "turn-off" tris(N-methylindolyl)methane based chemosensor depicting a contrasting fluorescent behavior towards Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) ions, exhibited NOR and YES logic functions, and also imaged intracellular Hg(2+) in cervix cancer (HeLa) cells.
BibTeX:
@article{KaurP2011,
  author = {Kaur P, Kaur S, Singh K, Sharma PR, Kaur T},
  title = {Indole-based chemosensor for Hg2+ and Cu2+ ions: applications in molecular switches and live cell imaging.},
  journal = {Dalton Trans.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {40(41)},
  pages = {10818-21},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/1039/c1dt11076d.}
}
Khandelwal AK, Nigam VK, Vidyarthi AS, Ghosh P Evaluation of various ions and compounds on nitrilase produced from Streptomyces sp. 2010 Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol.
Vol. 38(1), pp. 13-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: The nitrilase produced from a new isolate is evaluated for its activity in presence of a number of different ions and compounds at optimal conditions. It was found that the activity of nitrilase increased up to 10-20% in presence of most of the divalent ions at a concentration of 5 mM relative to the control. Silver, mercury, tin, DTT, ascorbic acid and thiourea, respectively, were observed as potential inhibitors of the enzyme catalysis. The investigation on storage stability of whole cells in presence of a number of stabilizers showed that the enzyme is stable (relative activity 50%) for more than 120 days at various temperatures.
BibTeX:
@article{KhandelwalAK2010,
  author = {Khandelwal AK, Nigam VK, Vidyarthi AS, Ghosh P},
  title = {Evaluation of various ions and compounds on nitrilase produced from Streptomyces sp.},
  journal = {Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {38(1)},
  pages = {13-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10731190903495710}
}
Krishna MV, Chandrasekaran K, Karunasagar D On-line speciation of inorganic and methyl mercury in waters and fish tissues using polyaniline micro-column and flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS). 2010 Talanta.
Vol. 81(1-2), pp. 462-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: A simple and efficient method for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of inorganic mercury (iHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in waters and fish tissues was developed using a micro-column filled with polyaniline (PANI) coupled online to flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS) system. Preliminary studies indicated that inorganic and methyl mercury species could be separated on PANI column in two different speciation approaches. At pH <3, only iHg could be sorbed and almost no adsorption of MeHg was found (speciation procedure 1). If the sample solution pH is approximately 7, both MeHg and iHg species could be sorbed on the PANI column. Subsequently both the Hg species were selectively eluted with 2% HCl and a mixture of 2% HCl and 0.02% thiourea respectively (speciation procedure 2). The adsorption percentage of iHg on the PANI column was unchanged even with acidity of the sample solution increased to 6 mol L(-1). Therefore, an acidic solution (5 mol L(-1) HCl), used for ultra-sound assisted extraction of the mercury species from biological samples, was used directly to separate MeHg from iHg in the fish tissues (tuna fish ERM-CE 463, ERM-CE 464 and IAEA-350) by PANI column using speciation procedure 1. The determined values were in good agreement with certified values. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were 2.52 pg and 3.24 pg for iHg and MeHg (as Hg) respectively. The developed method was applied successfully to the direct determination of iHg and MeHg in various waters (tap water, lake water, ground water and sea-water) and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 96-102% for both the Hg species.
BibTeX:
@article{KrishnaMV2010,
  author = {Krishna MV, Chandrasekaran K, Karunasagar D},
  title = {On-line speciation of inorganic and methyl mercury in waters and fish tissues using polyaniline micro-column and flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS).},
  journal = {Talanta.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {81(1-2)},
  pages = {462-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2009.12.024}
}
Kumar A, Chauhan R, Molloy KC, Kociok-Köhn G, Bahadur L, Singh N Synthesis, structure and light-harvesting properties of some new transition-metal dithiocarbamates involving ferrocene. 2010 Chemistry.
Vol. 16(14), pp. 4307-14 
article DOI  
Abstract: Nine new transition-metal dithiocarbamates involving ferrocene (Fc), namely, [M(FcCH(2)Bzdtc)(2)] (M=Ni(II) (1), Cu(II) (2), Cd(II) (3), Hg(II) (4), Pd(II) (5), Pt(II) (6) and Pb(II) (7); Bzdtc=N-benzyl dithiocarbamate) and [M(FcCH(2)Bzdtc)(3)] (M=Co(II) (8) and UO(2) (VI) (9)), have been synthesised and characterised by micro analyses, IR spectroscopy, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and in three cases by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The peak broadening in the (1)H spectrum of the copper complex indicates the paramagnetic behaviour of this compound. A square-planar geometry around the nickel and copper complexes and distorted linear geometry around the mercury complex have been found. The latter geometry is attributed to the bulkiness of the methylferrocenyl and benzyl groups. The observed single quasi-reversible cyclic voltammograms for complexes 2, 8 and 9 indicate the stabilisation of a metal centre other than Fe in their characteristic oxidation state. These complexes have been used as a photosensitiser in dye-sensitised solar cells.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2010,
  author = {Kumar A, Chauhan R, Molloy KC, Kociok-Köhn G, Bahadur L, Singh N},
  title = {Synthesis, structure and light-harvesting properties of some new transition-metal dithiocarbamates involving ferrocene.},
  journal = {Chemistry.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {16(14)},
  pages = {4307-14},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200903367}
}
Kumar A, Dubey M, Pandey R, Gupta RK, Kumar A, Kalita ACh, Pandey DS A Schiff base and its copper(II) complex as a highly selective chemodosimeter for mercury(II) involving preferential hydrolysis of aldimine over an ester group. 2014 Inorg Chem.
Vol. 53(10), pp. 4944-55 
article DOI  
Abstract: The syntheses of a new Schiff base, diethyl-5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)aminoisophthalate (HL), and a copper complex, [Cu(L2)] (1), imparting L(-), have been described. Both the ligand HL and complex 1 have been thoroughly characterized by elemental analyses, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, FT-IR, NMR ((1)H and (13)C), electronic absorption, and emission spectral studies and their structures determined by X-ray single-crystal analyses. Distinctive chemodosimetric behavior of HL and 1 toward Hg(2+) has been established by UV/vis, emission, and mass spectral studies. Comparative studies further revealed that the chemodosimetric response solely originates from selective hydrolysis of the aldimine moiety over the ester group and 1 exhibited greater selectivity toward Hg(2+) relative to HL while the sensitivity order is reversed. Further, these followed different hydrolytic pathways but ended up with the same product analyzed for diethyl-5-aminoisophthalate (DEA). Hg(2+)-induced displacement of Cu(2+) and subsequent hydrolysis of the -HC?N- moiety in 1 affirmed the identity of the actual species undergoing hydrolysis as HL. The occurrence of Cu(2+) displacement and Hg(2+) detection via hydrolytic transformation has been supported by various physicochemical studies.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2014,
  author = {Kumar A, Dubey M, Pandey R, Gupta RK, Kumar A, Kalita ACh, Pandey DS},
  title = {A Schiff base and its copper(II) complex as a highly selective chemodosimeter for mercury(II) involving preferential hydrolysis of aldimine over an ester group.},
  journal = {Inorg Chem.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {53(10)},
  pages = {4944-55},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic403149b}
}
Kumar G, Srivastava A, Sharma SK, Gupta YK Safety evaluation of mercury based Ayurvedic formulation (Sidh Makardhwaj) on brain cerebrum, liver & kidney in rats. 2014 Indian J Med Res.
Vol. 139(4), pp. 610-8 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES:
Sidh Makardhwaj (SM) is a mercury based Ayurvedic formulation used in rheumatoid arthritis and neurological disorders. However, toxicity concerns due to mercury content are often raised. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of SM on brain cerebrum, liver and kidney in rats.
METHODS:
Graded doses of SM (10, 50, 100 mg/kg), mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg) and normal saline were administered orally to male Wistar rats for 28 days. Behavioural parameters were assessed on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 using Morris water maze, passive avoidance, elevated plus maze and rota rod. Liver and kidney function tests were done on day 28. Animals were sacrificed and brain cerebrum acetylcholinesterase activity, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain cerebrum, liver, kidney were estimated. The levels of mercury in brain cerebrum, liver and kidney were estimated and histopathology of these tissues was also performed.
RESULTS:
SM in the doses used did not cause significant change in neurobehavioural parameters, brain cerebrum AChE activity, liver (ALT, AST, ALP bilirubin) and kidney (serum urea and creatinine) function tests as compared to control. The levels of mercury in brain cerebrum, liver, and kidney were found to be raised in dose dependent manner. However, the levels of MDA and GSH in these tissues did not show significant changes at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg. Also, there was no histopathological change in cytoarchitecture of brain cerebrum, liver, and kidney tissues at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS:
The findings of the present study suggest that Sidh Makardhwaj upto five times the equivalent human dose administered for 28 days did not show any toxicological effects on rat brain cerebrum, liver and kidney.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarG2014,
  author = {Kumar G, Srivastava A, Sharma SK, Gupta YK},
  title = {Safety evaluation of mercury based Ayurvedic formulation (Sidh Makardhwaj) on brain cerebrum, liver & kidney in rats.},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {139(4)},
  pages = {610-8}
}
Kumar G, Srivastava A, Sharma SK, Gupta YK Safety and efficacy evaluation of Ayurvedic treatment (Arjuna powder and Arogyavardhini Vati) in dyslipidemia patients: A pilot prospective cohort clinical study. 2012 Ayu.
Vol. 33(2), pp. 197-201 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease has multifaceted in which dyslipidemia, inflammation, and immunity play an important role. Arjuna powder and Arogyavardhini Vati used for centuries has potential for combating these factors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic treatment (Arjuna powder and Arogyavardhini Vati) for dyslipidemia patients. Total of 108 patients were screened at CGHS Ayurvedic Hospital, New Delhi. Ninety-six patients satisfied inclusion criteria, and signed informed consent and detailed medical history was recorded. Arjuna powder (5 g, BD) for 3 weeks and then Arogyavardhini Vati (500 mg, BD) for 4 weeks were prescribed to the patients. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in serum total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and increased HDL levels. Secondary endpoints included reduction in serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and blood glucose levels. Safety assessments included hepatic function (aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, and ?(2) microglobulin), renal function (urea and creatinine and NGAL) tests, and urine mercury level. The study was completed by 87 patients. The male and female patients were 65.5% (57/87) and 34.5% (30/87), respectively. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, CRP, and blood glucose. However, raised HDL level was also observed. Safety assessment results showed no significant change in serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin, urea, creatinine ?(2) microglobulin, and NGAL levels at the end of study as compared to the baseline levels. In conclusion, the results of the present prospective cohort study showed that Ayurvedic treatment (Arjuna powder and Arogyavardhini Vati) is safe and effective for dyslipidemia.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarG2012,
  author = {Kumar G, Srivastava A, Sharma SK, Gupta YK},
  title = {Safety and efficacy evaluation of Ayurvedic treatment (Arjuna powder and Arogyavardhini Vati) in dyslipidemia patients: A pilot prospective cohort clinical study.},
  journal = {Ayu.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {33(2)},
  pages = {197-201},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-8520.105238}
}
Kumar M, Dhir A, Bhalla V, Sharma R, Puri RK, Mahajan RK Highly effective chemosensor for mercury ions based on bispyrenyl derivative. 2010 Analyst.
Vol. 135(7), pp. 1600-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: A new bispyrenyl azadiene derivative has been synthesized and examined for its cation recognition abilities toward different cations. The ligand shows strong affinity for Hg(2+) ions over other cations such as Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cd(2+), Ag(+), K(+), Na(+) and Li(+). An "Off-On" type of fluorescent behaviour was observed with simultaneous presence of Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) ions. An ion selective electrode (ISE) is also formed which showed excellent selectivity to Hg(2+) over all the other cations tested. The lower limit of detection is 7.08 x 10(-6) M.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarM2010,
  author = {Kumar M, Dhir A, Bhalla V, Sharma R, Puri RK, Mahajan RK},
  title = {Highly effective chemosensor for mercury ions based on bispyrenyl derivative.},
  journal = {Analyst.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {135(7)},
  pages = {1600-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b922072k}
}
Kumar M, Kumar N, Bhalla V, Singh H, Sharma PR, Kaur T Naphthalimide appended rhodamine derivative: through bond energy transfer for sensing of Hg2+ ions. 2011 Org Lett.
Vol. 13(6), pp. 1422-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: A naphthalimide appended rhodamine based fluorescent chemosensor '1' is synthesized which undergoes through bond energy transfer in the presence of Hg(2+) ions in mixed aqueous media.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarM2011,
  author = {Kumar M, Kumar N, Bhalla V, Singh H, Sharma PR, Kaur T},
  title = {Naphthalimide appended rhodamine derivative: through bond energy transfer for sensing of Hg2+ ions.},
  journal = {Org Lett.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {13(6)},
  pages = {1422-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ol2001073}
}
Kumar R, Pandey AK, Das S, Dhara S, Misra NL, Shukla R, Tyagi AK, Ramagiri SV, Bellare JR, Goswami A Galvanic reactions involving silver nanoparticles embedded in cation-exchange membrane. 2010 Chem Commun (Camb).
Vol. 46(34), pp. 6371-3 
article DOI  
Abstract: Galvanic reactions of Hg(2+), Rh(3+), and AuCl(4)(-) ions with Ag nanoparticles positioned near the surface and throughout the matrix of host poly(perfluorosulfonic) acid membrane have been studied.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarR2010,
  author = {Kumar R, Pandey AK, Das S, Dhara S, Misra NL, Shukla R, Tyagi AK, Ramagiri SV, Bellare JR, Goswami A},
  title = {Galvanic reactions involving silver nanoparticles embedded in cation-exchange membrane.},
  journal = {Chem Commun (Camb).},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {46(34)},
  pages = {6371-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0cc00825g}
}
Kumar S, Kayastha AM Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids. 2010 J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem.
Vol. 25(5), pp. 646-52 
article DOI  
Abstract: Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS2010,
  author = {Kumar S, Kayastha AM},
  title = {Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.},
  journal = {J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {25(5)},
  pages = {646-52},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14756360903468155}
}
Kumari S, Chauhan GS New cellulose-lysine Schiff-base-based sensor-adsorbent for mercury ions. 2014 ACS Appl Mater Interfaces.
Vol. 6(8), pp. 5908-17 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mercury is a highly toxic environmental pollutant; thus, there is an urgent need to develop new materials for its simultaneous detection and removal from water. In the present study, new oxidized cellulose-based materials, including their Schiff bases, were synthesized and investigated as a sensor-adsorbent for simple, rapid, highly selective, and simultaneous detection and removal of mercury [Hg(II)] ions. Cellulose was extracted from the pine needles, etherified, oxidized, and modified to Schiff base by reaction with l-lysine. The well-characterized cellulose Schiff base materials were used as a sensor-adsorbent for Hg(II) from aqueous solution. Hg(II) sensing was analysed with naked-eye detection and fluorescence spectroscopy. Schiff base having a decyl chain, C10-O-cell-HC?N-Lys, was observed to be an efficient adsorbent with a very high maximum adsorption capacity of 258.75 mg g(-1). The data were analyzed on the basis of various kinetic and isotherm models, and pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm were followed for Hg(II) adsorption.
BibTeX:
@article{KumariS2014,
  author = {Kumari S, Chauhan GS},
  title = {New cellulose-lysine Schiff-base-based sensor-adsorbent for mercury ions.},
  journal = {ACS Appl Mater Interfaces.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {6(8)},
  pages = {5908-17},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am500820n}
}
Lakshmi Priya MD, Geetha A Level of trace elements (copper, zinc, magnesium and selenium) and toxic elements (lead and mercury) in the hair and nail of children with autism. 2011 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 142(2), pp. 148-58 
article DOI  
Abstract: Autism is a multi-factorial pathology observed in children with altered levels of essential and elevated levels of toxic elements. There are also studies reporting a decrease in nutritional trace elements in the hair and nail of autistic children with healthy controls; moreover, bioelements have been shown to play an important role in the central nervous system. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the levels of trace elements like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), and selenium (Se) and toxic elements like mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in the hair and nail samples of autistic children and to evaluate whether the level of these elements could be correlated with the severity of autism. The subjects of the study were 45 autistic children with different grades of severity (low (LFA), medium (MFA), and high (HFA) functioning autism) according to Childhood Autism Rating Scale, n = 15 children in each group and 50 healthy children (age and sex matched). The boys and girls ratio involved in this study was 4:1, and they were 4-12 years of age. The study observed a valid indication of Cu body burden in the autistic children. The children with different grades of autism showed high significance (p < 0.001) in the level of copper in their hair and nail samples when compared to healthy controls. The level of Cu in the autistic children could be correlated with their degree of severity (more the Cu burden severe is autism). The study showed a significant elevation (p < 0.001) in the levels of toxic metals Pb and Hg in both hair and nail samples of autistic children when compared to healthy control group. The elevation was much pronounced in LFA group subjects when compared among autistic groups MFA and HFA. The levels of trace elements Mg and Se were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in autistic children when compared to control. The trace element Zn showed significant variation in both hair and nails of LFA group children when compared to control group and other study groups. The significant elevation in the concentration of Cu, Pb, and Hg and significant decrease in the concentration of Mg and Se observed in the hair and nail samples of autistic subjects could be well correlated with their degrees of severity.
BibTeX:
@article{LakshmiPriyaMD2011,
  author = {Lakshmi Priya MD, Geetha A},
  title = {Level of trace elements (copper, zinc, magnesium and selenium) and toxic elements (lead and mercury) in the hair and nail of children with autism.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {142(2)},
  pages = {148-58},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8766-2}
}
Mahajan RK, Puri RK, Marwaha A, Kaur I, Mahajan MP Highly selective potentiometric determination of mercury(II) ions using 1-furan-2-yl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-phenyl-5H-imidazole-3-oxide based membrane electrodes. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 167(1-3), pp. 237-43 
article DOI  
Abstract: The electrode characteristics and selectivities of PVC-based mercury(II) selective coated graphite electrode (CGE) and polymeric membrane electrode (PME) incorporating the recently synthesized 1-furan-2-yl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-phenyl-5H-imidazole-3-oxide are reported here. The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for mercury(II) ions over wide concentration ranges, i.e. 1.0 x 10(-1)M to 1.0 x 10(-6)M (with CGE) and 1.0 x 10(-1)M to 1.0 x 10(-5)M (with PME). The lower detection limits shown by CGE and PME are 8.91 x 10(-7)M and 6.30 x 10(-6)M, respectively, in the pH range of 1.0-4.0. From the comparative study of these electrodes, CGE has been found to be better than PME in terms of lower detection limit and better selectivity for mercury(II) ions with comparatively less interference from silver(I) ions. The proposed electrodes can be successfully used as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of mercury with potassium dichromate. The electrodes have been successfully applied for estimation of mercury content in synthetic water samples, insecticide (parad tablet) and dental amalgam.
BibTeX:
@article{MahajanRK2009,
  author = {Mahajan RK, Puri RK, Marwaha A, Kaur I, Mahajan MP},
  title = {Highly selective potentiometric determination of mercury(II) ions using 1-furan-2-yl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-phenyl-5H-imidazole-3-oxide based membrane electrodes.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {167(1-3)},
  pages = {237-43},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.107}
}
Mehta SK, Kumar S, Chaudhary S, Bhasin KK Nucleation and growth of surfactant-passivated CdS and HgS nanoparticles: Time-dependent absorption and luminescence profiles. 2010 Nanoscale.
Vol. 2(1), pp. 145-52 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this study, we have monitored the formation of CdS and HgS nanoparticles (NPs) using a precipitation method in the presence of surface-active agents. Three surfactants were tested to analyze the dependence of various parameters such as size, growth rate, photoluminescence (PL) emission and polydispersity of NPs on surfactant structure. Optical absorption spectroscopy was mainly used to estimate the optical bandgap and the size of NPs. The surfactant-induced quenching of PL intensity was found to be consistent with the different tendencies of the surfactants to act as Lewis acids towards these surfaces. The time-evolution of the absorbance suggested that the nucleation and growth rates markedly vary in a first-order fashion w.r.t. Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) salt concentration in excess of sulfide ions. The differences in the stabilization ability of the surfactants are discussed in reference to their structure-dependent adsorption behavior onto the particles. The comparative aspects of the different properties of CdS and HgS NPs prepared with identical methodology are presented in terms of metal cation-surfactant interactions. Changes in UV-vis and PL spectra during nucleation and growth of NPs were used to establish the possible mechanisms for the adsorption of surfactant molecules on the particle surface to restrict the unlimited growth.
BibTeX:
@article{MehtaSK2010,
  author = {Mehta SK, Kumar S, Chaudhary S, Bhasin KK},
  title = {Nucleation and growth of surfactant-passivated CdS and HgS nanoparticles: Time-dependent absorption and luminescence profiles.},
  journal = {Nanoscale.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {2(1)},
  pages = {145-52},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b9nr00070d}
}
Mishra N, Tewari RR Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of mercury in house fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). 2011 Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand).
Vol. 57(1), pp. 122-8 
article  
Abstract: Mercury, one of the most widely diffused and hazardous environmental contaminants, induces oxidative stress in organisms, which ultimately leads to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. House fly Musca domestica L. was used as a model for assaying the genotoxic potential of mercury with the help of micronucleus assay, chromosomal aberration assay as end points and cytotoxicity by assaying the mitotic index and the extent of tissue damage by trypan blue dye exclusion. Late third instar larvae were exposed to different dietary concentrations of mercury (0.0001 mg/ml- 10 mg/ml) for various time intervals. A dose dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus frequency and mitotic index was observed. Micronucleus frequency increases with time while mitotic index decreases showing decreasing rate of cell proliferation due to an increase in cell death. Trypan blue staining gives the visual manifestation of cytotoxicity at higher concentrations of mercury (1 mg/ml- 10mg/ml). The present study suggests that the house fly model may be used to assay the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of mercury as well as other environmental pollutants.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraN2011,
  author = {Mishra N, Tewari RR},
  title = {Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of mercury in house fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).},
  journal = {Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand).},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {57(1)},
  pages = {122-8}
}
Mishra VK, Tripathi BD, Kim KH Removal and accumulation of mercury by aquatic macrophytes from an open cast coal mine effluent. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 172(2-3), pp. 749-54 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this study, the mercury (Hg) removal capacities of two aquatic macrophytes, Pistia stratiotes and Azolla pinnata, were investigated against the coal mining effluent. These plants reduced mercury from the effluent via rhizofiltration and subsequent accumulation in plant. The removal rate of P. stratiotes and A. pinnata was 80% and 68%, respectively, after 21 days of exposure to the effluent containing 10 microg L(-1) of Hg. As mercury from the effluent was accumulated in the root and shoot tissues of both aquatic macrophytes, they were proven to be a root accumulator with a translocation factor of less than one during the entire study. The decreasing Hg content in effluent (from 10 to 2.0 microg L(-1)) was reflected by its accumulation in roots (0.57+/-0.02 mg g(-1) in P. stratiotes) and leaves of the experimental plants (0.42+/-0.01 mg g(-1), P. stratiotes). As a result, Hg concentrations in the coal mining effluent were tightly associated with those observed from macrophytes. Considering the high removal efficiencies of Hg by these aquatic macrophytes, these plants can be recommended for the actual treatment of Hg-containing waste waters.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraVK2009,
  author = {Mishra VK, Tripathi BD, Kim KH},
  title = {Removal and accumulation of mercury by aquatic macrophytes from an open cast coal mine effluent.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {172(2-3)},
  pages = {749-54},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.059}
}
Mohan S, Prakash R Novel conducting polymer functionalized with metal-cyclam complex and its sensor application: development of azidothymidine drug sensor. 2010 Talanta.
Vol. 81(1-2), pp. 449-54 
article DOI  
Abstract: Functionalization of polyanthranilic acid (PAA) a self-doped conducting polymer with Co(II) metal complex has been reported and is used in the development of azidothymidine drug sensor. For the first time synthesis of a new type of polymer complex of Co(II)-cyclam macrocyclic ligand (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) with carboxylated polymer (as a second ligand) has been successfully accomplished and discussed in the present paper. The interaction of Co(II)-cyclam complex with polyanthranilic acid has been studied in solution phase using UV-vis spectra. Further, the formation and growth study of mixed ligand complex is carried out using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance. The characterization of solid mixed ligand complex Co(II)-cyclam-polyanthranilic acid (Co(II)-Cy-PAA) has been carried out for its structural, thermal and electrochemical properties using various techniques viz. FT-IR, SEM, ESR, DSC, impedance and electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical study shows the potential of mixed ligand complex towards catalytic and sensor applications. The mixed ligand complex for the first time is used in the development of "azidothymidine" anti-HIV drug sensor. The analysis of azidothymidine is known over hanging drop mercury electrode using electroreduction technique, however, for the first time its analysis is reported over graphite paste electrode modified with newly synthesized mixed ligand complex. Azidothymidine is quantified in wide range of concentration with 1 microM detection limit over modified graphite paste electrode, which shows potential to develop users friendly (non-toxic and simple) gadgets and low cost screen printed electrodes.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanS2010,
  author = {Mohan S, Prakash R},
  title = {Novel conducting polymer functionalized with metal-cyclam complex and its sensor application: development of azidothymidine drug sensor.},
  journal = {Talanta.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {81(1-2)},
  pages = {449-54},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2009.12.023}
}
Mukhopadhyay A, Mukherjee M, Ghosh AK, Chakraborty T UV photolysis of ?-cyclohexanedione in the gas phase. 2011 J Phys Chem A.
Vol. 115(26), pp. 7494-502 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of ?-cyclohexanedione (?-CHD) vapor in the wavelength range of 220-320 nm has been recorded in a 1 m long path gas cell at room temperature. With the aid of theoretical calculation, the band has been assigned to the S(2) ? S(0) transition of largely ??* type. The absorption cross section at the band maximum (?258 nm) is nearly 3 orders of magnitude larger compared to that for the S(2) ? S(0) transition of a linear ?-diketo prototype, 2,3-pentanedione. The photolysis was performed by exciting the sample vapor near this band maximum, using the 253.7 nm line of a mercury vapor lamp, and the products were analyzed by mass spectrometry as well as by infrared spectroscopy. The identified products are cyclopentanone, carbon monoxide, ketene, ethylene, and 4-pentenal. Geometry optimization at the CIS/6-311++G** level predicts that the carbonyl group is pyramidally distorted in the excited S(1) and S(2) states, but the ?-CHD ring does not show dissociative character. Potential energy curves with respect to a ring rupture coordinate (C-C bond between two carbonyl groups) for S(0), S(1), S(2), T(1), T(2), and T(3) states have been generated by partially optimizing the ground state geometry at DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G** level and calculating the vertical transition energies to the excited states by TDDFT method. Our analysis reveals that the reactions can take place at higher vibrational levels of S(0) as well as T(1) states.
BibTeX:
@article{MukhopadhyayA2011,
  author = {Mukhopadhyay A, Mukherjee M, Ghosh AK, Chakraborty T},
  title = {UV photolysis of ?-cyclohexanedione in the gas phase.},
  journal = {J Phys Chem A.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {115(26)},
  pages = {7494-502},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp201110p}
}
Naik RM, Agarwal A, Prasad S Determination of trace amounts of mercury(II) in water samples using a novel kinetic catalytic ligand substitution reaction of hexacyanoruthenate(II). 2009 Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.
Vol. 74(4), pp. 887-91 
article DOI  
Abstract: A simple, sensitive, selective and rapid kinetic catalytic method has been developed for the determination of Hg(II) ions at micro-level. This method is based on the catalytic effect of Hg(II) ion on the rate of substitution of cyanide in hexacyanoruthenate(II) with nitroso-R-salt (NRS) in aqueous medium and provides good accuracy and precision. The concentration of Hg(II) catalyst varied from 4.0 to 10.0x10(-6)M and the progress of reaction was followed spectrophotometrically at 525nm (lambda(max) of purple-red complex [Ru(CN)(5)NRS](3-), epsilon=3.1x10(3)M(-1)s(-1)) under the optimized reaction conditions; 8.75x10(-5)M [Ru(CN)(6)(4-)], 3.50x10(-4)M [nitroso-R-salt], pH 7.00+/-0.02, ionic strength, I=0.1M (KCl), temp 45.0+/-0.1 degrees C. The linear calibration curves, i.e. calibration equations between the absorbance at fixed times (t=15, 20 and 25min) versus concentration of Hg(II) ions were established under the optimized experimental conditions. The detection limit was found to be 1.0x10(-7)M of Hg(II). The effect of various foreign ions on the proposed method has also been studied and discussed. The method has been applied to the determination of mercury(II) in aqueous solutions.
BibTeX:
@article{NaikRM2009,
  author = {Naik RM, Agarwal A, Prasad S},
  title = {Determination of trace amounts of mercury(II) in water samples using a novel kinetic catalytic ligand substitution reaction of hexacyanoruthenate(II).},
  journal = {Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {74(4)},
  pages = {887-91},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2009.08.029}
}
Nema NK, Maity N, Sarkar BK, Mukherjee PK Determination of trace and heavy metals in some commonly used medicinal herbs in Ayurveda. 2012 Toxicol Ind Health.  article  
Abstract: Traditionally, the herbal drugs are well established for their therapeutic benefits. Depending upon their geographical sources sometimes the trace and heavy metals' content may differ, which may lead to severe toxicity. So, the toxicological and safety assessment of these herbal drugs are one of the major issues in recent days. Eight different plant species including Aloe vera, Centella asiatica, Calendula officinalis, Cucumis sativus, Camellia sinensis, Clitoria ternatea, Piper betel and Tagetes erecta were selected to determine their heavy and trace metals content and thereby to assure their safer therapeutic application. The trace and heavy metals were detected through atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The selected medicinal plant materials were collected from the local cultivated regions of West Bengal, India, and were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid as specified. Absorbance was measured through atomic absorption spectrometer (AA 303) and the concentration of different trace and heavy metals in the plant samples were calculated. The quantitative determinations were carried out using standard calibration curve obtained by the standard solutions of different metals. The contents of heavy metals were found to be within the prescribed limit. Other trace metals were found to be present in significant amount. Thus, on the basis of experimental outcome, it can be concluded that the plant materials collected from the specific region are safe and may not produce any harmful effect of metal toxicity during their therapeutic application. The investigated medicinal plants contain trace metals such as copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) as well as heavy metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), which were present within the permissible limit.
BibTeX:
@article{NemaNK2012,
  author = {Nema NK, Maity N, Sarkar BK, Mukherjee PK},
  title = {Determination of trace and heavy metals in some commonly used medicinal herbs in Ayurveda.},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health.},
  year = {2012}
}
Pal M, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay M, Ghosh M Methyl mercury in fish--a case study on various samples collected from Ganges river at West Bengal. 2012 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 184(6), pp. 3407-14 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study investigated the presence of total mercury (Hg) and organic mercury levels in the muscle of 19 common fresh water fish species captured from river Ganges, West Bengal, India. The total mercury level found in our study may not cause any toxic effect, but the methyl mercury (MeHg) level in some freshwater fish species was surprisingly very high and toxically unacceptable. The results of mercury analysis in various specimens indicated that some fish muscles tended to accumulate high levels of Hg, and approximately 50-84% of Hg was organic mercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle with food habit and fish length (age) was found. Wallago attu possessed the highest amount of organic mercury in their muscle tissues, and it was 0.93?±?0.61 ?g Hg/g of wet weight. Whereas in small-sized fishes Eutropiichthys murius, Puntius sarana, Cirrhinus mrigala, Mystus vittatus or Mystus gulio, and Tilapia mossambicus, it was below the detection limit. Contamination in Catla catla (0.32?±?0.11), Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (0.26?±?0.07 ?g Hg/g), Chitala chitala (0.25?±?0.18), Rita rita (0.34?±?0.14), and Ompok pabda (0.26?±?0.04) was also above the 0.25 ?g Hg/g of wet weight, the limit set by the PFA for the maximum level for consumption of fish exposed to MeHg. Though in Labeo rohita (0.12?±?0.03), Mastacembelus armatus (0.17?±?0.02), Pangasius pangasius (0.12?±?0.16), Bagarius bagarius (0.12?±?0.01), and Clupisoma garua (0.1?±?0.01), concentration was below the recommended level, in Lates calcarifer (0.23?±?0.0) and Mystus aor (0.23?±?0.1), it was threatening. Interestingly, a low concentration of Hg was found in post-monsoon samples.
BibTeX:
@article{PalM2012,
  author = {Pal M, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay M, Ghosh M},
  title = {Methyl mercury in fish--a case study on various samples collected from Ganges river at West Bengal.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {184(6)},
  pages = {3407-14},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2193-5}
}
Panda S, Panda S Effect of mercury ion on the stability of the lipid-protein complex of isolated chloroplasts. 2009 Indian J Biochem Biophys.
Vol. 46(5), pp. 405-8 
article  
Abstract: Mercury is known to interact with different parts of living systems causing serious biochemical and physiological disorder. In order to know the effect of mercury (Hg2+) ion on chloroplasts, the cell free organelle are incubated in an isotonic buffer medium in presence of mercury ion. The metal ion is found to induce membrane lipid peroxidation, loss of photosynthetic pigments and degradation of proteins. Such degradation brings about a drastic modification of lipid-protein organization of chloroplasts as reflected from a blue shift of absorption peaks and lowering of chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. The detrimental effect of Hg2+ ion has been explained in terms of direct binding with lipid-protein complex of photosynthetic membrane. Such a binding of metal ion exposes the lipid-protein complex for an easier entry and attack of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during incubation of chloroplasts in light and dark, thereby resulting in higher disorganization, which is evident from cation- induced changes in absorption and emission characteristics of the organelle.
BibTeX:
@article{PandaS2009,
  author = {Panda S, Panda S},
  title = {Effect of mercury ion on the stability of the lipid-protein complex of isolated chloroplasts.},
  journal = {Indian J Biochem Biophys.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {46(5)},
  pages = {405-8}
}
Pandey S, Azam A, Pandey S, Chawla HM Novel dansyl-appended calix[4]arene frameworks: fluorescence properties and mercury sensing. 2009 Org Biomol Chem.
Vol. 7(2), pp. 269-79 
article DOI  
Abstract: Covalently-attached fluorophores may impart enhanced chemosensing capabilities to calixarene frameworks. Synthesis and characterization of six novel dansyl-appended calix[4]arenes, namely, H/Dan4, NO2/Dan4, H/(OH)2Dan2, H/(Ester)2(Dan)2, t-Bu/(OH)2Dan2, and t-Bu/(Ester)2Dan2, containing two or four dansyl moieties are reported. Among these, fluorescence intensity of NO2/Dan4 is observed to decrease significantly in the presence Hg2+ in the solution. Based on the decrease in fluorescence, a limit of detection for Hg2+ of 20 ppb is obtained. NO2/Dan4 as a chemosensing agent for Hg2+ shows excellent selectivity and adequate reversibility. Complexation of NO2/Dan4 with Hg2+ is investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and is observed to be 2:1. The formation constant of (NO2/Dan4)2Hg2+ is estimated to be 5.2(+/- 0.8) x 10(10) M(-2) at ambient conditions. These observations are traced to the fact that while all other dansyl-appended calix[4]arenes show cone conformation in the solution, NO2/Dan4 is in the 1,3-alternate conformation. Stokes shift versus solvent orientational polarizability for NO2/Dan4 also indicates the difference in the ground- to excited-state dipole moment of this compound to be the maximum among all six, rendering it most sensitive to its environment. Fluorescence emission of NO2/Dan4 in nonpolar chloroform, polar-aprotic acetonitrile, and polar-protic ethanol is observed to be different than that of the rest of the dansyl-appended compounds as well.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyS2009,
  author = {Pandey S, Azam A, Pandey S, Chawla HM},
  title = {Novel dansyl-appended calix[4]arene frameworks: fluorescence properties and mercury sensing.},
  journal = {Org Biomol Chem.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {7(2)},
  pages = {269-79},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b815379e}
}
Paul A, Samaddar N, Dutta D, Bagchi A, Chakravorty S, Chakraborty W, Gachhui R Mercuric ion stabilizes levansucrase secreted by Acetobacter nitrogenifigens strain RG1(T). 2011 Protein J.
Vol. 30(4), pp. 262-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: The purification and characterization of an extracellular levansucrase enzyme produced by novel nitrogen-fixer Acetobacter nitrogenifigens strain RG1(T) is described. Culture conditions were optimized for maximum levansucrase production. Levansucrase purified to homogeneity by tenfold purification has a molecular weight of 65 kDa, contained four cysteine residues, polymerized raffinose and was stable for 21 days at pH 6.0 when stored at 4 °C or -20 °C but was vulnerable to DTT and ?-mercaptoethanol. Interestingly, this enzyme showed enhanced hydrolytic and polymerization activity in the presence of mercuric ion which, to our knowledge, is the first report for any levansucrase enzyme characterized so far. Evidences obtained from Native PAGE, tryptophan fluorescence study and activity measurements at different temperatures and in the presence of thiol modifying agents, show that mercuric ion stabilizes the enzyme. Levan, synthesized by the enzyme, has a molecular weight of 7,080 kDa and was shown to be a homopolymer of fructose.
BibTeX:
@article{PaulA2011,
  author = {Paul A, Samaddar N, Dutta D, Bagchi A, Chakravorty S, Chakraborty W, Gachhui R},
  title = {Mercuric ion stabilizes levansucrase secreted by Acetobacter nitrogenifigens strain RG1(T).},
  journal = {Protein J.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {30(4)},
  pages = {262-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-011-9328-y}
}
Rai PK Phytoremediation of Hg and Cd from industrial effluents using an aquatic free floating macrophyte Azolla pinnata. 2008 Int J Phytoremediation.
Vol. 10(5), pp. 430-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: The level of heavy metal pollution in Singrauli, an industrial region in India, was assessed and the phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae), was observed to purify waters polluted by two heavy metals, i.e., mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) under a microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata is endemic to India and is an abundant and easy-growing free-floating water fern usually found in the rice fields, polluted ponds, and reservoirs of India. The fern was grown in 24 40-L aquariums containing Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions each in concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mgL(-1) during the course of this study. The study revealed an inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth by 27.0-33.9% with the highest in the presence of Hg (II) ions at 0.5 mgL(-1) in comparison to the control After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution were decreased up to 70-94%. In the tissues of Azolla pinnata, the concentration of selected heavy metals during investigation was recorded between 310 and 740 mgKg(-1) dry mass, with the highest levelfoundfor Cd (II) treatment at 3.0 mgL(-1) containing a metal solution.
BibTeX:
@article{PK2008,
  author = {Rai PK},
  title = {Phytoremediation of Hg and Cd from industrial effluents using an aquatic free floating macrophyte Azolla pinnata.},
  journal = {Int J Phytoremediation.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {10(5)},
  pages = {430-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226510802100606}
}
Priya N, Nagaprabhu VN, Kurian G, Seethalakshmi N, Rao GG, Unni VN Aplastic anemia and membranous nephropathy induced by intravenous mercury. 2012 Indian J Nephrol.
Vol. 22(6), pp. 451-4 
article DOI  
Abstract: Self-injection of mercury can be life-threatening. We report a case of attempted suicide by self-intravenous injection of elemental mercury. The patient suffered from two side effects : membranous nephropathy and aplastic anemia. She was treated and the systemic effects of mercury were reversed after 4 years. The toxicology of mercury, mechanisms of renal and systemic toxicities, and the various therapeutic measures for mercury poisoning are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{PriyaN2012,
  author = {Priya N, Nagaprabhu VN, Kurian G, Seethalakshmi N, Rao GG, Unni VN},
  title = {Aplastic anemia and membranous nephropathy induced by intravenous mercury.},
  journal = {Indian J Nephrol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {22(6)},
  pages = {451-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-4065.106040}
}
Purohit AR, Rao MV Mitigative role of melatonin and ?-tocopherol against mercury-induced genotoxicity. 2014 Drug Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 37(2), pp. 221-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of melatonin (MLT) and ?-tocopherol on mercury-induced genotoxicity in human blood cultures. The in vitro effects of inorganic mercury added to human lymphocytes on the cell-cycle proliferative index (CCPI)/proliferation replicative index (PRI) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) using fluorescence plus Giemsa staining were examined. A significant increase occurred in SCE per metaphase (SCE/chromosome and SCE/cell) and inhibition of proliferative kinetics, which resulted in a decline of the replicative index, in comparison to the controls. Treated lymphocyte cultures also exhibited a reduction in %M1 and %M2 metaphase plates, but an increase in %M3 metaphase plates was noticed. Adding ?-tocopherol and MLT individually and in combination indicated a mitigative effect by reducing the genotoxic potential of treated cultures. The percent amelioration for all the three parameters, namely, frequency of SCE, SCE/plate and SCE/chromosome as well as CCPI, was comparatively high with MLT and ?-tocopherol in combination than MLT followed by ?-tocopherol. The percent mitigation was better in combined antioxidant additions to toxicant-exposed cultures, compared to MLT, whereas the percent mitigation by ?-tocopherol alone was less for average generation time and population doubling time, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{PurohitAR2014,
  author = {Purohit AR, Rao MV},
  title = {Mitigative role of melatonin and ?-tocopherol against mercury-induced genotoxicity.},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {37(2)},
  pages = {221-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2013.838774}
}
Radhakumary C, Sreenivasan K Gold nanoparticles generated through "green route" bind Hg2+ with a concomitant blue shift in plasmon absorption peak. 2011 Analyst.
Vol. 136(14), pp. 2959-62 
article DOI  
Abstract: We discuss here a quick, simple, economic and ecofriendly method through a completely green route for the selective detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous samples. Here we exploited the ability of chitosan to generate gold nanoparticles and subsequently to act as a stabilizer for the formed nanoparticles. When chitosan stabilized gold nanoparticles (CH-Au NPs) are interacted with Hg(2+) a blue shift for its localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance (LSPR) band is observed. The blue shift is reasoned to be due to the formation of a thin layer of mercury over gold. A concentration as low as 0.01 ppm to a maximum of 100 ppm Hg(2+) can be detected based on this blue shift of the CH-Au NPs. While all other reported methods demand complex reaction steps and costly chemicals, the method we reported here is a simple, rapid and selective approach for the detection of Hg(2+). Our results also show that the CH-Au NPs have excellent selectivity to Hg(2+) over common cations namely, Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Ag(1+), Ce(4+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+).
BibTeX:
@article{RadhakumaryC2011,
  author = {Radhakumary C, Sreenivasan K},
  title = {Gold nanoparticles generated through "green route" bind Hg2+ with a concomitant blue shift in plasmon absorption peak.},
  journal = {Analyst.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {136(14)},
  pages = {2959-62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c1an15247e}
}
Raghavan S, Sudheer Babu V, Sridhar B Mercury(II)-mediated cleavage of cyclopropylcarbinols by an intramolecular sulfinyl group as a stereo- and regioselective route to stereotriads and stereotetrads. 2011 J Org Chem.
Vol. 76(2), pp. 557-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mercury(II) salt mediated opening of cyclopropylcarbinols by an intramolecular sulfinyl group is disclosed. All four diastereomeric stereotriads have been prepared from cis- and trans-disubstituted cyclopropanes. The trisubstituted cyclopropanes also react regio- and stereoselectively to afford products possessing quaternary stereogenic centers. The reaction is clean and general.
BibTeX:
@article{RaghavanS2011,
  author = {Raghavan S, Sudheer Babu V, Sridhar B},
  title = {Mercury(II)-mediated cleavage of cyclopropylcarbinols by an intramolecular sulfinyl group as a stereo- and regioselective route to stereotriads and stereotetrads.},
  journal = {J Org Chem.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {76(2)},
  pages = {557-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo1019909}
}
Raj M, Sundaram R, Paul M, Kumar K Blood pressure distribution in Indian children. 2010 Indian Pediatr.
Vol. 47(6), pp. 477-85 
article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To determine blood pressure distribution in schoolchildren and to derive population specific reference values appropriate for age, gender and height status.
DESIGN:
Cross sectional observational study.
SETTING:
Schools in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India, during 2005-06.
METHODS:
Stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select the children. Blood pressure and anthropometric data were collected from 20,263 students of 5-16 years age. Three readings of blood pressures of each child were taken by mercury sphygmomanometer and mean was taken for analysis. Blood pressure percentiles in relation to gender, age and height were estimated from a non-overweight population of 18,931 children using polynomial regression models.
RESULTS:
Children from study population have higher diastolic pressures for both sexes than international standard across all age groups. For systolic blood pressure, girls showed higher values than the international standard while for boys, the difference appears to be minimal.
CONCLUSIONS:
Blood pressure distribution in children from our study population demonstrates a different pattern in comparison to existing international reference. Higher blood pressure values in the study population are of considerable public health significance.
BibTeX:
@article{RajM2010,
  author = {Raj M, Sundaram R, Paul M, Kumar K},
  title = {Blood pressure distribution in Indian children.},
  journal = {Indian Pediatr.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {47(6)},
  pages = {477-85}
}
Rajkumari R, Laishram D, Thiyam J, Javan N Hypertensive leucocytosis. 2013 J Indian Med Assoc.
Vol. 111(4), pp. 226-9 
article  
Abstract: There are studies showing association of high WBC count with the higher incidence of hypertension though a few are done in the Indian population. The present study was conducted with the view to find any significant increase in total leucocyte count and differential leucocyte count in hypertensive patient Twenty-seven hypertensives with 12 males and 15 females and 27 age and sex matched control subjects (normotensive) were studied. Hypertension was defined when the systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg or history of taking antihypertensive medicine. Three blood pressure recordings at an interval of 2 minutes were taken after the patient was made to sit for 30 minutes with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer in the left arm. The disappearance of sound was used for diastolic blood pressure. Blood was drawn into EDTA containing vials. Two separate counts were performed: First for total leucocyte count (TLC) and second for determination of percentage of polymorphonuclear cells. For the TLC, 0.5 part of blood mixed with 10 part of Turk's fluid followed by counting of leucocyte in a counting chamber under light microscope. The percentage of polymorphonuclear leucocyte was performed on a slide after making the slide and staining it with Leishman's stain. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was performed using Wintrobe's methods. The first 1 hour reading on the Wintrobe's tube was taken for analysis. The total leucocyte count (TLC) for the study group as compared to the controls were 7413.70 +/- 735.45 cells/cmm and 5236.30 +/- 528.77 cells/ cmm which was statistically significant. The mean percentage neutrophils were 62.04 +/- 4.99 for study group and 53.00 +/- 3.44 for the controls; the mean percentage lymphocytes for the study group and the controls were 34.37 +/- 4.55 and 39.11 +/- 4.40 respectively. Both the mean percentage neutrophils and lymphocytes showed significant differences. The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) also showed statistically significant when the study group (29.63 +/- 3.76 mm in first hour) was compared to the controls (21.15 +/- 6.88 mm in first hour). In addition, when male and female hypertensive subjects were analysed separately, the TLC, neutrophil, lymphocyte and ESR levels showed significant differences as compared to their respective controls. The result has showed that there is a significant increase in inflammatory markers like TLC and neutrophils counts in hypertensive patients suggestive of hypertension as an inflammatory disease.
BibTeX:
@article{RajkumariR2013,
  author = {Rajkumari R, Laishram D, Thiyam J, Javan N},
  title = {Hypertensive leucocytosis.},
  journal = {J Indian Med Assoc.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {111(4)},
  pages = {226-9}
}
Rajput SJ, Raj HA Estimation of tegaserod maleate by differential pulse polarography. 2009 Indian J Pharm Sci.
Vol. 71(1), pp. 50-2 
article DOI  
Abstract: A highly sensitive differential pulse polarographic method has been developed for the estimation of tegaserod maleate after treating it with hydrogen peroxide solution. The oxidation of tegaserod maleate is a reversible process as the oxidized product could be reduced at hanging mercury drop electrode in a quantitative manner using differential pulse polarography mode. The limit of quantification was 0.1ng/ml. The voltametric peak was obtained at -1.05 volts in presence of 0.1M potassium chloride as supporting electrolyte. The technique could be used successfully to analyze tegaserod maleate in its tablet formulation.
BibTeX:
@article{RajputSJ2009,
  author = {Rajput SJ, Raj HA},
  title = {Estimation of tegaserod maleate by differential pulse polarography.},
  journal = {Indian J Pharm Sci.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {71(1)},
  pages = {50-2},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.51956}
}
Raman R, Gupta A, Kulothungan V, Sharma T Association of mean ocular perfusion pressure and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Sankara Nethralaya diabetic retinopathy epidemiology and molecular genetic study (SN-DREAMS, Report 28). 2011 Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.
Vol. 52(7), pp. 4592-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: PURPOSE:
To elucidate the distribution of mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) and to study the relationship between MOPP and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a south Indian subpopulation with diabetes.
METHODS:
This study was a population-based, cross-sectional evaluation of 1368 subjects, aged ?40 years, with type 2 diabetes. DR was diagnosed on the basis of the modified Klein classification. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were recorded with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was assessed by applanation tonometry. MOPP was derived by the formula: MOPP = 2/3;[DBP + 1/3;(SBP - DBP)] - IOP.
RESULTS:
The mean ± SD for MOPP was 52.6 ± 9.0 mm Hg, higher in the women than in the men (P = 0.046). In comparison to subjects without DR, MOPP was higher in the men with sight-threatening DR (STDR) (P = 0.030) and higher in women with any DR (P = 0.008) and non-STDR (P = 0.006). However, on multivariate analysis after adjustment for all factors, MOPP was found not to be associated with DR (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.99-1.03; P = 0.149), non-STDR (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.99-1.03; P = 0.312), or STDR (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.98-1.05; P = 0.358).
CONCLUSIONS:
Univariate analysis revealed very small differences in the association of MOPP and DR in both sexes which are probably of no clinical significance. Multivariate analysis showed no association between MOPP and DR. There seems to be very little evidence of a link between MOPP and DR. It may be more informative to evaluate the association in longitudinal studies.
BibTeX:
@article{RamanR2011,
  author = {Raman R, Gupta A, Kulothungan V, Sharma T},
  title = {Association of mean ocular perfusion pressure and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Sankara Nethralaya diabetic retinopathy epidemiology and molecular genetic study (SN-DREAMS, Report 28).},
  journal = {Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {52(7)},
  pages = {4592-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6903}
}
Rao MV, Purohit A, Patel T Melatonin protection on mercury-exerted brain toxicity in the rat. 2010 Drug Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 33(2), pp. 209-16 
article DOI  
Abstract: The effect of melatonin on the neurotoxicity induced by mercuric chloride was studied. Adult rats were fed orally with two different doses of mercuric chloride (2 mg; 4 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate brain toxicity with respect to cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata regions for 60 days with or without supplementation with melatonin (5 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. The results suggest that the graded doses of mercury elicit the depletion of enzymatic activities, such as adenosine triphosphatase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphorylase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, altered glycogen, total protein, and lipid peroxidation levels in the cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata of the brain, thereby affecting their respective functions. Blood glucose and mercury levels increased, followed by a reduction in body and organ weights. All these effects seemed to be severe in the cerebral hemisphere of the brain. Further affected indices were, to some extent, maintained in the brain of animals cotreated with melatonin, showing its protective role against mercury-exerted neurotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoMV2010,
  author = {Rao MV, Purohit A, Patel T},
  title = {Melatonin protection on mercury-exerted brain toxicity in the rat.},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {33(2)},
  pages = {209-16},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480540903349258}
}
Tiwari RR Hypertension and epidemiological factors among tribal labour population in Gujarat. 2008 Indian J Public Health.
Vol. 52(3), pp. 144-6 
article  
Abstract: A cross sectional study was carried out in 2005 to find out the magnitude of hypertension among 154 tribal labourers of Gujarat belonging to Naika, Rathwa and Damor tribes. WHO classification of hypertension was taken as operational criteria and data was collected in pre-designed, pretested schedule. Blood pressure measurement was done twice on each subject using mercury sphygmomanometer. Overall magnitude of hypertension was found to be 16.9%, and only smoking was found to have significantly associated with it.
BibTeX:
@article{RR2008,
  author = {Tiwari RR},
  title = {Hypertension and epidemiological factors among tribal labour population in Gujarat.},
  journal = {Indian J Public Health.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {52(3)},
  pages = {144-6}
}
Kumar S Occupational, environmental and lifestyle factors associated with spontaneous abortion. 2011 Reprod Sci.
Vol. 18(10), pp. 915-30 
article DOI  
Abstract: Scientific evidence indicates extreme exposure sensitivity of embryos, fetuses, and infants to the persistent environmental/occupational chemicals directly and or indirectly as compared to the same magnitude of exposure in adults. Paternal/maternal exposure to some of these chemicals might have a effect on the gamete structure and function, which might have significant implication for the adverse effect on pregnancy and their outcome. The available data point that some of the organochlorine chemicals such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT); metals such as lead, mercury; industrial pollutants such as dioxin, organic solvents, radiations; and some of the lifestyle-associated factors such as tobacco smoking (active and passive) and excessive maternal intake of alcohol had adverse effect on pregnancy outcome. The existing data support the hypothesis that, in general, working women have a higher risk of undesirable reproductive outcomes, even though the data are scanty. Studies are needed to find out the effects of those reproductive toxicants on priority basis which have been proved to be toxic in animal studies as well as data on human related to these chemicals are scanty. There is a need to educate the childbearing women to avoid exposure to the known or suspected risk factors and their employers to take measures to reduce the toxicant levels in workplace.
BibTeX:
@article{S2011,
  author = {Kumar S},
  title = {Occupational, environmental and lifestyle factors associated with spontaneous abortion.},
  journal = {Reprod Sci.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18(10)},
  pages = {915-30},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1933719111413298}
}
Sarkar PK, Das S, Prajapati PK Ancient concept of metal pharmacology based on Ayurvedic literature. 2010 Anc Sci Life.
Vol. 29(4), pp. 1-6 
article  
Abstract: Metals have had a long history in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Mercury (Parada), gold (Swarna), silver (Rajata), copper (Tamra), iron (Lauha), tin (Vanga), lead (Naga), and zinc (Yasada) are used in therapeutics in an incinerated (Bhasma) form. The pharmacological actions, therapeutic indications, adverse effects and management of adverse effects of these metals are described and emphasis has been given to the proper preparation, rational dose and duration during clinical practice in the classics of Ayurveda. Most important observation is, there are no contraindications of these Bhasmas, indicating universal applicability to all age levels with suitable adjuvant, proper dose and duration.
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarPK2010,
  author = {Sarkar PK, Das S, Prajapati PK},
  title = {Ancient concept of metal pharmacology based on Ayurvedic literature.},
  journal = {Anc Sci Life.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29(4)},
  pages = {1-6}
}
Senthil K, Gautam P Expression and single-step purification of mercury transporter (merT) from Cupriavidus metallidurans in E. coli. 2010 Biotechnol Lett.
Vol. 32(11), pp. 1663-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: The mercury transporter, merT, from Cupriavidus metallidurans was cloned into pRSET-C and expressed in various E. coli hosts. Expression of merT gene failed in common expression hosts like E. coli BL21(DE3), E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS and E. coli GJ1158 due to expression induced toxicity. The protein was successfully expressed in E. coli C43(DE3) as inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were solubilized with Triton X-100 detergent. The detergent solubilized protein with N-terminal His-tag was purified in a single-step by immobilized metal affinity chromatography with a yield of 8 mg l(-1).
BibTeX:
@article{SenthilK2010,
  author = {Senthil K, Gautam P},
  title = {Expression and single-step purification of mercury transporter (merT) from Cupriavidus metallidurans in E. coli.},
  journal = {Biotechnol Lett.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {32(11)},
  pages = {1663-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-010-0337-2}
}
Sharma N, Hundal GS, Sharma I, Bhardwaj R 28-homobrassinolide alters protein content and activities of glutathione-s-transferase and polyphenol oxidase in raphanus sativus L. Plants under heavy metal stress. 2014 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 21(1), pp. 44-50 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
The application of brassinosteroids (BRs), the plant steroidal hormones, results in an increased tolerance toward stress and thus helps improving the yield of crop plants. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) on the protein content as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in radish plants grown under Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) metal stress.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Shoots of 60 and 90 days old radish plants, grown under Cd and Hg metal stress (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) and given the presowing treatment of 28-HBL (0, 10(-7), 10(-9), 10(-11) M) to seeds for 8 h, were analyzed for protein content and GST and PPO enzyme activities.
RESULTS:
Protein content showed decrease in plants given Cd and Hg metal treatment alone, while treatment with 28-HBL enhanced the protein content, suggesting its stress protective role. An increase in the activity of antioxidative enzymes was also observed in plants stressed with heavy metals as well as in those supplemented with 28-HBL.
CONCLUSIONS:
In the present investigation, the activity of antioxidative enzymes was found to increase due to metal stress and a further increase was noticed in plants given both metal and 28-HBL treatment, suggesting the stress protective role of 28-HBL via modulating the antioxidative enzymes.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaN2014,
  author = {Sharma N, Hundal GS, Sharma I, Bhardwaj R},
  title = {28-homobrassinolide alters protein content and activities of glutathione-s-transferase and polyphenol oxidase in raphanus sativus L. Plants under heavy metal stress.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(1)},
  pages = {44-50},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.128792}
}
Sharma S, Baligar RS, Singh HB, Butcher RJ Reaction of a metallamacrocycle leading to a mercury(II)...palladium(II)...mercury(II) interaction. 2009 Angew Chem Int Ed Engl.
Vol. 48(11), pp. 1987-90 
article DOI  
Abstract: All wrapped up: The reaction of a 22-membered macrocycle derived from bis(o-formylphenyl)mercury and 1,2-phenylenediamine with palladium(II) results in cleavage of the macrocycle and concomitant formation of a trimetallic complex (see picture; phenyl rings truncated for clarity). The nature of the Hg(II)...Pd(II)...Hg(II) interaction was investigated by theoretical studies.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaS2009,
  author = {Sharma S, Baligar RS, Singh HB, Butcher RJ},
  title = {Reaction of a metallamacrocycle leading to a mercury(II)...palladium(II)...mercury(II) interaction.},
  journal = {Angew Chem Int Ed Engl.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {48(11)},
  pages = {1987-90},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.200805121}
}
Singh A, Kaur S, Singh N, Kaur N Fluorometric sensing of Hg2+ ions in aqueous medium by nano-aggregates of a tripodal receptor. 2014 Org Biomol Chem.
Vol. 12(14), pp. 2302-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Two new tripodal receptors (1–2) have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The nano-aggregates of 1 and 2 (N1 and N2) have been prepared by a re-precipitation method in aqueous medium and have shown different photo-physical properties. Nano-aggregates of 1 (N1) can selectively recognize Hg(2+) in aqueous medium in the presence of other metal ions with enhancement in fluorescent intensity. The response was linearly proportional to the concentration of Hg(2+) in the range 0–10 ?M with a detection limit of 2.4 nM. The mechanism of selective binding of Hg(2+) by N1 has also been supported by theoretical studies. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first report on substituted thiourea based nano-aggregates for nano-molar detection of mercury in aqueous medium.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghA2014,
  author = {Singh A, Kaur S, Singh N, Kaur N},
  title = {Fluorometric sensing of Hg2+ ions in aqueous medium by nano-aggregates of a tripodal receptor.},
  journal = {Org Biomol Chem.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {12(14)},
  pages = {2302-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3ob42200c}
}
Singh M, Patel M, Pepper T Fine needle aspiration of a neck lump: a mercurial mystery. 2010 Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg.
Vol. 48(2), pp. 147-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: We describe an interesting case of mercury within a lymph node, which we found during routine fine needle aspiration cytology of a neck lump. We know of no similar reports and look for any suggestions from our readers as to the cause of such a finding.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghM2010,
  author = {Singh M, Patel M, Pepper T},
  title = {Fine needle aspiration of a neck lump: a mercurial mystery.},
  journal = {Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {48(2)},
  pages = {147-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjoms.2009.05.014}
}
Singh V, Singh SK Synthesis and characterization of gum acacia inspired silica hybrid xerogels for mercury(II) adsorption. 2011 Int J Biol Macromol.
Vol. 48(3), pp. 445-51 
article DOI  
Abstract: In a sol-gel process, gum acacia inspired silica xerogels have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate. Besides showing photoluminescence under ultraviolet excitation, the hybrid xerogels were very efficient in capturing mercury(II) from synthetic solution. To synthesize the optimum sample (in terms of Hg(II) uptake), different ratios of H(2)O:TEOS:EtOH were taken at fixed GA and catalyst concentrations where 4:1:1 ratio was found to be most favorable. Calcination in air further enhanced the mercury binding capacity of this sample. Optimum sample (H4) was obtained on calcination of the gel at 600°C. The hybrids have been structurally characterized using Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. In a preliminary batch adsorption experiment, H4 was evaluated to be highly efficient in the removal Hg(II) from synthetic aqueous solution.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghV2011,
  author = {Singh V, Singh SK},
  title = {Synthesis and characterization of gum acacia inspired silica hybrid xerogels for mercury(II) adsorption.},
  journal = {Int J Biol Macromol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {48(3)},
  pages = {445-51},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2011.01.001}
}
Singh VV, Kumar U, Tripathi SN, Singh AK Shape dependent catalytic activity of nanoflowers and nanospheres of Pd4S generated via one pot synthesis and grafted on graphene oxide for Suzuki coupling. 2014 Dalton Trans.
Vol. 43(33), pp. 12555-63 
article DOI  
Abstract: Nanoflowers and nanospheres of Pd4S have been prepared for the first time from a single source precursor complex, [PdCl2(PhS-CH2CH2CH2-NH2)] (), by its one pot thermolysis at 195 °C. In oleylamine, flower shaped nanoparticles of Pd4S were formed but in an oleic acid (OA) and octadecene (ODE) mixture (1?:?1) the product was nanospheres of Pd4S (size in the range ?23-38 nm and 15-28 nm, respectively). These nanoparticles (NPs) were grafted on graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature to prepare nanocomposites, GO-Pd4S. HRTEM, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and TEM-EDX have been used to authenticate the nanoparticles and their composites. XPS of Pd4S NPs indicates the oxidation states of Pd and S are both zero with a Pd?:?S ratio ?4.1?:?0.9. For the catalysis of Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions the nanoparticles individually and in the form of composites with GO were explored. The flower shaped NPs are superior than the spherical ones for this catalysis in aqueous ethanol and the catalytic efficiency increases on grafting the nanoflowers/spheres onto GO. The conversion was ?99% (in 5 h; at 80 °C) for the composite of graphene oxide (GO) with the Pd4S nanoflowers (Pd: 0.2 mol%). The catalytic efficiency follows the order GO-Pd4S-nanoflowers > GO-Pd4S-nanospheres > Pd4S nanoflowers > Pd4S nanospheres. The recyclability of the GO-Pd4S nanoflower catalyst was examined for the coupling reaction and conversion was found to be ?46% in the fourth run even after increasing the reaction time to 12 h. To understand whether the catalytic process with the GO-Pd4S nanoflowers was homogeneous or heterogeneous mercury poisoning, triphenylphosphine and three phase tests were carried out. They suggest that active Pd leached from GO-Pd4S nanoflowers does the catalysis significantly in a homogeneous fashion. Overall the catalysis appears to be a cocktail of homogeneous and some heterogeneous nature.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghVV2014,
  author = {Singh VV, Kumar U, Tripathi SN, Singh AK},
  title = {Shape dependent catalytic activity of nanoflowers and nanospheres of Pd4S generated via one pot synthesis and grafted on graphene oxide for Suzuki coupling.},
  journal = {Dalton Trans.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {43(33)},
  pages = {12555-63},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4dt01396d}
}
Sinha A, Khare SK Mercury bioremediation by mercury accumulating Enterobacter sp. cells and its alginate immobilized application. 2012 Biodegradation.
Vol. 23(1), pp. 25-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: The effective microbial remediation of the mercury necessitates the mercury to be trapped within the cells without being recycled back to the environment. The study describes a mercury bioaccumulating strain of Enterobacter sp., which remediated mercury from the medium simultaneous to its growth. The transmission electron micrographs and electron dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the accumulation of remediated mercury as nano-size particles in the cytoplasm as well as on the cell wall. The Enterobacter sp. in the present work was able to accumulate mercury, without being engineered in its native form. The possibility of recovering the accumulated mercury from the cells is also indicated. The applicability of the alginate immobilized cells in removing mercury from synthetic and complex industrial effluent in a batch mode was amply demonstrated. The initial load of 7.3 mg l(-1) mercury in the industrial effluent was completely removed in 72 h. The cells immobilized in calcium alginate were similarly effective in the complete removal of 5 mg l(-1) HgCl(2) of mercury from the synthetic effluent in less than 72 h. The immobilized cells could be reused for multiple cycles.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaA2012,
  author = {Sinha A, Khare SK},
  title = {Mercury bioremediation by mercury accumulating Enterobacter sp. cells and its alginate immobilized application.},
  journal = {Biodegradation.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {23(1)},
  pages = {25-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-011-9483-z}
}
Sinha A, Kumar S, Khare SK Biochemical basis of mercury remediation and bioaccumulation by Enterobacter sp. EMB21. 2013 Appl Biochem Biotechnol.
Vol. 169(1), pp. 256-67 
article DOI  
Abstract: The aims of this study were to isolate metal bioaccumulating bacterial strains and to study their applications in removal of environmental problematic heavy metals like mercury. Five bacterial strains belonging to genera Enterobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas were isolated from oil-spilled soil. Among these, one of the strains Enterobacter sp. EMB21 showed mercury bioaccumulation inside the cells simultaneous to its bioremediation. The bioaccumulation of remediated mercury was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The mercury-resistant loci in the Enterobacter sp. EMB21 cells were plasmid-mediated as confirmed by transformation of mercury-sensitive Escherichia coli DH5? by Enterobacter sp. EMB21 plasmid. Effect of different culture parameters viz-a-viz inoculum size, pH, carbon, and nitrogen source revealed that alkaline pH and presence of dextrose and yeast extract favored better remediation. The results indicated the usefulness of Enterobacter sp. EMB21 for the effective remediation of mercury in bioaccumulated form. The Enterobacter sp. EMB21 seems promising for heavy metal remediation wherein the remediated metal can be trapped inside the cells. The process can further be developed for the synthesis of valuable high-end functional alloy, nanoparticles, or metal conjugates from the metal being remediated.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaA2013,
  author = {Sinha A, Kumar S, Khare SK},
  title = {Biochemical basis of mercury remediation and bioaccumulation by Enterobacter sp. EMB21.},
  journal = {Appl Biochem Biotechnol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {169(1)},
  pages = {256-67},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-012-9970-7}
}
Sinha A, Kumar S, Khare SK Biochemical basis of mercury remediation and bioaccumulation by Enterobacter sp. EMB21. 2013 Appl Biochem Biotechnol.
Vol. 169(1), pp. 256-67 
article DOI  
Abstract: The aims of this study were to isolate metal bioaccumulating bacterial strains and to study their applications in removal of environmental problematic heavy metals like mercury. Five bacterial strains belonging to genera Enterobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas were isolated from oil-spilled soil. Among these, one of the strains Enterobacter sp. EMB21 showed mercury bioaccumulation inside the cells simultaneous to its bioremediation. The bioaccumulation of remediated mercury was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The mercury-resistant loci in the Enterobacter sp. EMB21 cells were plasmid-mediated as confirmed by transformation of mercury-sensitive Escherichia coli DH5? by Enterobacter sp. EMB21 plasmid. Effect of different culture parameters viz-a-viz inoculum size, pH, carbon, and nitrogen source revealed that alkaline pH and presence of dextrose and yeast extract favored better remediation. The results indicated the usefulness of Enterobacter sp. EMB21 for the effective remediation of mercury in bioaccumulated form. The Enterobacter sp. EMB21 seems promising for heavy metal remediation wherein the remediated metal can be trapped inside the cells. The process can further be developed for the synthesis of valuable high-end functional alloy, nanoparticles, or metal conjugates from the metal being remediated.
BibTeX:
@article{SinhaA2013a,
  author = {Sinha A, Kumar S, Khare SK},
  title = {Biochemical basis of mercury remediation and bioaccumulation by Enterobacter sp. EMB21.},
  journal = {Appl Biochem Biotechnol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {169(1)},
  pages = {256-67},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-012-9970-7}
}
Srivastava A, Kumar A Thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) cryogels: synthesis and its biophysical evaluation for tissue engineering applications. 2010 J Mater Sci Mater Med.
Vol. 21(11), pp. 2937-45 
article DOI  
Abstract: The thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PVCl) based cryogel network were synthesized and characterized with respect to physical and biological properties. The PVCl cryogel crosslinked with polyethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEGda) was synthesized in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide containing aqueous medium at -12°C for 12-14 h. The cryogel synthesized in this manner were highly spongy in nature and can absorb water in its porous network. These polymeric cryogel networks have good physical morphology as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The estimated porosity of these cryogels was 90% as demonstrated by various methods based on absorption of water and cyclohexane. The median pore diameter and surface area was 30 ?m and 2.0253 m(2)/g, respectively as confirmed by analysis on mercury porosimeter. These materials can interact with biological system without any cytotoxic effects. Change in temperature influenced the adsorption of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on PVCl scaffold which showed maximum protein adsorption at 37°C, as compared to that at 25°C. Furthermore, the fibroblast cell adhesion studies showed the potential of these PVCl based cryogels as tissue engineering scaffolds.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaA2010,
  author = {Srivastava A, Kumar A},
  title = {Thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) cryogels: synthesis and its biophysical evaluation for tissue engineering applications.},
  journal = {J Mater Sci Mater Med.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {21(11)},
  pages = {2937-45},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-010-4124-3}
}
Srivastava P, Gupta R, Varshney M, Sharan P A rare case of imitation injury. 2014 Indian J Psychol Med.
Vol. 36(2), pp. 215-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: The impact of media on cognitions and behaviors of adolescents is well-known. High frequency of exposure to media may distort the reality testing among predisposed youth, hence the rise in risk taking behaviors among this population. We present a rare manifestation of risk taking behavior in an adolescent who injected mercury in his body after exposure to a Hollywood film. The results of investigations and possible explanation to understand risk taking behavior in the present case are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaP2014,
  author = {Srivastava P, Gupta R, Varshney M, Sharan P},
  title = {A rare case of imitation injury.},
  journal = {Indian J Psychol Med.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {36(2)},
  pages = {215-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.131005}
}
Srivastava P, Shahid M, Misra A Protein assisted fluorescence enhancement of a dansyl containing fluorescent reagent: detection of Hg+ ion in aqueous medium. 2011 Org Biomol Chem.
Vol. 9(14), pp. 5051-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) based fluorescent reagents containing a dansyl fluorophore have been synthesized and characterized. The reagent 1 and its complex, 1+Hg(2+) in sodium acetate buffer (pH 6.7) revealed considerable fluorescence enhancement (switched-on) in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with 10 ppb detection sensitivity. (1)H NMR spectral analysis suggests complexation between 1 and Hg(2+) ion involving the N,N-dimethylamino and carboxylic functions.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaP2011,
  author = {Srivastava P, Shahid M, Misra A},
  title = {Protein assisted fluorescence enhancement of a dansyl containing fluorescent reagent: detection of Hg+ ion in aqueous medium.},
  journal = {Org Biomol Chem.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {9(14)},
  pages = {5051-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c1ob05540b}
}
Suresh M, Mishra S, Mishra SK, Suresh E, Mandal AK, Shrivastav A, Das A Resonance energy transfer approach and a new ratiometric probe for Hg2+ in aqueous media and living organism. 2009 Org Lett.
Vol. 11(13), pp. 2740-3 
article DOI  
Abstract: Resonance energy transfer from dansyl to the rhodamine moiety in a newly synthesized chemosensor L(2) has been utilized successfully for detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solution and living cells such as Pseudomonas putida.
BibTeX:
@article{SureshM2009,
  author = {Suresh M, Mishra S, Mishra SK, Suresh E, Mandal AK, Shrivastav A, Das A},
  title = {Resonance energy transfer approach and a new ratiometric probe for Hg2+ in aqueous media and living organism.},
  journal = {Org Lett.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {11(13)},
  pages = {2740-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ol900810q}
}
Suresh M, Mishra SK, Mishra S, Das A The detection of Hg2+ by cyanobacteria in aqueous media. 2009 Chem Commun (Camb).
Vol. 18, pp. 2496-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: A tetrapyrrole-based chromophore was obtained through the methanolysis of C-phycocyanin extracted from Spirulina platensis, and was found to act as a selective receptor for Hg(2+) at physiological pH conditions.
BibTeX:
@article{SureshM2009a,
  author = {Suresh M, Mishra SK, Mishra S, Das A},
  title = {The detection of Hg2+ by cyanobacteria in aqueous media.},
  journal = {Chem Commun (Camb).},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {2496-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b821687h}
}
Rana SV Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review. 2014 Biol Trace Elem Res.
Vol. 160(1), pp. 1-14 
article DOI  
Abstract: An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.
BibTeX:
@article{SV2014,
  author = {Rana SV},
  title = {Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {160(1)},
  pages = {1-14},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-0023-7}
}
Tamás MJ, Sharma SK, Ibstedt S, Jacobson T, Christen P Heavy metals and metalloids as a cause for protein misfolding and aggregation. 2014 Biomolecules.
Vol. 4(1), pp. 252-67 
article DOI  
Abstract: While the toxicity of metals and metalloids, like arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and chromium, is undisputed, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely clear. General consensus holds that proteins are the prime targets; heavy metals interfere with the physiological activity of specific, particularly susceptible proteins, either by forming a complex with functional side chain groups or by displacing essential metal ions in metalloproteins. Recent studies have revealed an additional mode of metal action targeted at proteins in a non-native state; certain heavy metals and metalloids have been found to inhibit the in vitro refolding of chemically denatured proteins, to interfere with protein folding in vivo and to cause aggregation of nascent proteins in living cells. Apparently, unfolded proteins with motile backbone and side chains are considerably more prone to engage in stable, pluridentate metal complexes than native proteins with their well-defined 3D structure. By interfering with the folding process, heavy metal ions and metalloids profoundly affect protein homeostasis and cell viability. This review describes how heavy metals impede protein folding and promote protein aggregation, how cells regulate quality control systems to protect themselves from metal toxicity and how metals might contribute to protein misfolding disorders.
BibTeX:
@article{TamasMJ2014,
  author = {Tamás MJ, Sharma SK, Ibstedt S, Jacobson T, Christen P},
  title = {Heavy metals and metalloids as a cause for protein misfolding and aggregation.},
  journal = {Biomolecules.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {4(1)},
  pages = {252-67},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom4010252}
}
Thakur A, Sardar S, Ghosh S A highly selective redox, chromogenic, and fluorescent chemosensor for Hg2+ in aqueous solution based on ferrocene-glycine bioconjugates. 2011 Inorg Chem.
Vol. 50(15), pp. 7066-73 
article DOI  
Abstract: The synthesis, electrochemical, optical, and metal-cation-sensing properties of ferrocene-glycine conjugates C(30)H(38)O(8)N(8)Fe (2) and C(20)H(24)O(4)N(4)Fe (3) have been documented. Both compounds 2 and 3 behave as very selective redox (?E(1/2) = 217 mV for 2 and ?E(1/2) = 160 mV for 3), chromogenic, and fluorescent chemosensors for Hg(2+) cations in an aqueous environment. The considerable changes in their absorption spectra are accompanied by the appearance of a new low-energy peak at 630 nm (2, ? = 1600 M(-1) cm(-1); 3, ? = 822 M(-1) cm(-1)). This is also accompanied by a strong color change from yellow to purple, which allows a prospective for the "naked eye" detection of Hg(2+) cations. These chemosensors present immense brightness and fluorescence enhancement (chelation-enhanced fluorescence = 91 for 2 and 42 for 3) following Hg(2+) coordination within the limit of detection for Hg(2+) at 7.5 parts per billion.
BibTeX:
@article{ThakurA2011,
  author = {Thakur A, Sardar S, Ghosh S},
  title = {A highly selective redox, chromogenic, and fluorescent chemosensor for Hg2+ in aqueous solution based on ferrocene-glycine bioconjugates.},
  journal = {Inorg Chem.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {50(15)},
  pages = {7066-73},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic200573m}
}
Thakur JS, Prinja S, Singh D, Rajwanshi A, Prasad R, Parwana HK, Kumar R Adverse reproductive and child health outcomes among people living near highly toxic waste water drains in Punjab, India. 2010 J Epidemiol Community Health.
Vol. 64(2), pp. 148-54 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Environmental influence plays a major role in determining health status of individuals. Punjab has been reported as having a high degree of water pollution due to heavy metals from untreated industrial effluent discharge and high pesticide consumption in agriculture. The present study ascertained the association of heavy metal and pesticide exposure on reproductive and child health outcomes in Punjab, India.
METHODS:
A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted in which 1904 women in reproductive age group and 1762 children below 12 years of age from 35 villages in three districts of Punjab were interviewed on a semistructured schedule for systemic and general health morbidities. Medical doctors conducted a clinical examination and review of records where relevant. Out of 35 study villages, 25 served as target (exposed) and 10 as non-target (less exposed or reference). Effluent, ground and surface water, fodder, vegetables and milk (bovine and human) samples were tested for chemical composition, heavy metals and pesticides.
RESULTS:
Spontaneous abortion (20.6 per 1000 live births) and premature births (6.7 per 1000 live births) were significantly higher in area affected by heavy metal and pesticide pollution (p<0.05). Stillbirths were about five times higher as compared with a meta-analysis for South Asian countries. A larger proportion of children in target area were reported to have delayed milestones, language delay, blue line in the gums, mottling of teeth and gastrointestinal morbidities (p<0.05). Mercury was found in more than permissible limits (MPL) in 84.4% samples from the target area. Heptachlor, chlorpyriphos, beta-endosulfan, dimethoate and aldrin were found to be more than MPL in 23.9%, 21.7%, 19.6%, 6.5% and 6.5% ground water samples respectively.
CONCLUSION:
Although no direct association could be established in this study, heavy metal and pesticide exposure may be potential risk factors for adverse reproductive and child health outcomes.
BibTeX:
@article{ThakurJS2010,
  author = {Thakur JS, Prinja S, Singh D, Rajwanshi A, Prasad R, Parwana HK, Kumar R},
  title = {Adverse reproductive and child health outcomes among people living near highly toxic waste water drains in Punjab, India.},
  journal = {J Epidemiol Community Health.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {64(2)},
  pages = {148-54},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2008.078568}
}
Venkatachalam P, Srivastava AK, Raghothama KG, Sahi SV Genes induced in response to mercury-ion-exposure in heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sesbania drummondii. 2009 Environ Sci Technol.
Vol. 43(3), pp. 843-50 
article  
Abstract: Sesbania drummondii plants have been recognized as a potential mercury (Hg) hyperaccumulator. To identify genes modulated by Hg, two suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries (forward and reverse) were constructed. A total of 348 differentially expressed clones were isolated and 95 of them were identified as Hg responsive. Reverse Northern results showed that 31 clones from forward library were down-regulated and 64 clones from reverse library were up-regulated in Hg-treated plants. Sixty-seven of them showed high homology to genes with known or putative function, and 28 were uncharacterized genes. Two full-length cDNAs coding for a putative metallothionein type 2 protein (SdMT2) and an auxin responsive protein (SdARP) were isolated and characterized. The expression levels of SdMT2 and SdARP increased 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Results suggest that up-regulated expression of SdARP may contribute to the survival of Sesbania plants under mercury stress, whereas SdMT2 is likely to be involved in alleviation of Hg toxicity. The possible correlation between gene expression and heavy metal tolerance of Sesbania plants is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{VenkatachalamP2009,
  author = {Venkatachalam P, Srivastava AK, Raghothama KG, Sahi SV},
  title = {Genes induced in response to mercury-ion-exposure in heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sesbania drummondii.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Technol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {43(3)},
  pages = {843-50}
}
Verma DK, Singh H, Contractor AQ, Parmananda P Synchronization in autonomous mercury beating heart systems. 2014 J Phys Chem A.
Vol. 118(26), pp. 4647-51 
article DOI  
Abstract: The ability of the mercury beating heart (MBH) system to exhibit sustained mechanical and electrochemical activities simultaneously without any external agent (fluctuating or constant), has attracted researchers for decades. The interplay of these activities could mimic the biological phenomena such as a pulsating heart that occurs due to the coupled tissues exhibiting mechanical as well as electrical dynamics. In the present work, we have studied experimentally the dynamics of electrically coupled two and three autonomous MBH systems. A dynamical triangular (heart) shape, in the traditional watch glass geometry, has been chosen for the experiments. It is found that the redox potentials (electrical behavior) of the quasi-identical (due to the inherent heterogeneities in the setup) MBH systems get synchronized at the intermediate coupling strengths whereas coherence in their mechanical activities occur only at large coupling strengths. To the best of our knowledge, this synchronization phenomenon involving two distinct activities (electrical and mechanical) and different coupling thresholds has not been reported, so far. The coherent mechanical activities means the simultaneous occurrence of compressions and expansions in the coupled Hg drops, which are shown using snapshots. In addition to this, the redox time series have also been provided to demonstrate the synchronization in the electrical behavior of MBH systems. Moreover, a mathematical framework considering only electrical and mechanical components of the MBH systems is presented to validate the experimental findings that the strong synchrony in the redox potentials of the MBH systems is a prerequisite for the synchrony in their mechanical activities.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaDK2014,
  author = {Verma DK, Singh H, Contractor AQ, Parmananda P},
  title = {Synchronization in autonomous mercury beating heart systems.},
  journal = {J Phys Chem A.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {118(26)},
  pages = {4647-51},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp503627q}
}
Singh VK Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): a major subset of autism. 2009 Ann Clin Psychiatry.
Vol. 21(3), pp. 148-61 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Autism causes incapacitating neurologic problems in children that last a lifetime. The author of this article previously hypothesized that autism may be caused by autoimmunity to the brain, possibly triggered by a viral infection. This article is a summary of laboratory findings to date plus new data in support of an autoimmune pathogenesis for autism.
METHODS:
Autoimmune markers were analyzed in the sera of autistic and normal children, but the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of some autistic children was also analyzed. Laboratory procedures included enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and protein immunoblotting assay.
RESULTS:
Autoimmunity was demonstrated by the presence of brain autoantibodies, abnormal viral serology, brain and viral antibodies in CSF, a positive correlation between brain autoantibodies and viral serology, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase reactants, and a positive response to immunotherapy. Many autistic children harbored brain myelin basic protein autoantibodies and elevated levels of antibodies to measles virus and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Measles might be etiologically linked to autism because measles and MMR antibodies (a viral marker) correlated positively to brain autoantibodies (an autoimmune marker)--salient features that characterize autoimmune pathology in autism. Autistic children also showed elevated levels of acute-phase reactants--a marker of systemic inflammation.
CONCLUSIONS:
The scientific evidence is quite credible for our autoimmune hypothesis, leading to the identification of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD) as a major subset of autism. AAD can be identified by immune tests to determine immune problems before administering immunotherapy. The author has advanced a speculative neuroautoimmune (NAI) model for autism, in which virus-induced autoimmunity is a key player. The latter should be targeted by immunotherapy to help children with autism.
BibTeX:
@article{VK2009,
  author = {Singh VK},
  title = {Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): a major subset of autism.},
  journal = {Ann Clin Psychiatry.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {21(3)},
  pages = {148-61}
}
Yamuna A, Bhavan PS, Geraldine P Ultrastructural observations in gills and hepatopancreas of prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii exposed to mercury. 2009 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 30(5), pp. 693-9 
article  
Abstract: The juveniles of M. malcolmsonii were exposed to 24.1 microg l(-1) of Hg fora period of 21 days. The gills and hepatopancreas of test prawns were sampled and processed for electron microscopic observations. Mitochondria are the organelle most affected in the gills of test prawns. The number of mitochondria and the electron-density of the matrix were found to be less in test prawns. The in-folding of cell membrane associated with mitochondria was absent in test prawns. This suggests that operation of the mitochondrial pumps was affected in the gills of test prawns. Vacuoles with crystalline granular inclusions were noted in the gills of test prawns. These are suggestive of metal-rich inorganic deposits or granules representing detoxified dumps of Hg. In the hepatopancreas of test prawns, the tubules exhibit vacuoles with granular inclusion and the cell cytoplasm contains electron-dense granules, which indicate a storage detoxification of Hg. The mitochondria were shrunken in the hepatopancreas of test prawns. This suggests attenuation of its function. The rough endoplasmic reticulum appeared vesiculated and dilated. These reactions denote the hyperactivity of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Membranous whorl-like structures with myelin fibers and residual bodies were seen in the hepatopancreas of test prawns. Such structures indicate the involvement of lysosomal breakdown in detoxification process. The ultrastructural alterations are suggestive of the operation of compensatory mechanisms within the test prawns to enable it to tolerate Hg toxicity. However these alterations would have an impact on the cellular integrity of the gills and hepatopancreas and such alterations can be taken as 'biomarkers' for assessing Hg pollution in the aquatic environment.
BibTeX:
@article{YamunaA2009,
  author = {Yamuna A, Bhavan PS, Geraldine P},
  title = {Ultrastructural observations in gills and hepatopancreas of prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii exposed to mercury.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(5)},
  pages = {693-9}
}
Vachhrajani KD, Roy Chowdhary A, Datta KK Testicular toxicity of methylmercury: Analysis of cellular distribution pattern at different stages of the seminiferous epithelium 1992 Reproductive toxiclogy
Vol. 6, pp. 355-361 
article  
Abstract: Stage-specific distribution of methylmercury (MM) and spermatogenic changes were analysed in rats adiminstered 5 or 10 ?g MM/kg, ip. Daily for 15, 30,60 and 90 days. MM deposition, as 23 grain number/cm2 was noted in basal portions at later stages on day 15, which increased gradually by day 90. MM deposition was in the order of stages IV, VII, XIV, IX being higher in adluminal portions on days 30 and 60. MM-enriched cytoplasmic masses leaked out through disintegrated tubular membrane on days 60 and 90. Epithelial damage, at stages late XIV through IV, V through VI, VII through VIII, XIII through mid-XIV and IX through XII, accorded with the gradual deposition of MM. As profound cell death occurred between zygotenes to pachytenes
and dividing spermatocytes to step 1 speratids, the spermatids were conspicuously decreased at later times. It is possible that MM distorts the barrier system at stages IX through XII, gets distributed within the tubule, and hence may pose a direct or Sertoli cell mediated effect at stages XII through early XIV in a doseduration-MM burden related manner.
BibTeX:
@article{A.1992,
  author = {Vachhrajani KD; Roy Chowdhary A. and Datta KK},
  title = {Testicular toxicity of methylmercury: Analysis of cellular distribution pattern at different stages of the seminiferous epithelium},
  journal = {Reproductive toxiclogy},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {355-361}
}
Roy chowdhury A, Vachhrajani KD, Chatterjee BB Inhibition of 3 ?-hydroxy-?5- steroid dehydrogenase in rat testicular tissue by mercuric chloride 1985 Toxicology letters
Vol. 27, pp. 45-49 
article  
Abstract: Histochemical investigation of 3 ?-hydroxy ?5- steroid dehydrogenase (?5-3? OHD) activity in the testicular tissue of rats administered mercuric chloride (Hgcl2) at dosages of 0.05 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg(i.p) daily for 90 days reveal a graded inhibition of ?5-3?OHD activity which was positively related to dosage and to the duration of treatment with this compound. This phenomenon may be mainly responsible for the inhibition of spermatogenesis, observed as a toxic manifestation of mercury compounds.
BibTeX:
@article{A.;Vachhrajani1985,
  author = {Roy chowdhury A.; Vachhrajani and Chatterjee B.B.},
  title = {Inhibition of 3 ?-hydroxy-?5- steroid dehydrogenase in rat testicular tissue by mercuric chloride},
  journal = {Toxicology letters},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {45-49}
}
Roy chowdhury A, Vachhrajani KD, Kashyap SK Inhibition of 3?-hydroxy ?5 steroid dehydrogenate in rat testis by methyl mercury chloride 1987 Adv Contra Delv Syst.
Vol. 3, pp. 41-45 
article  
Abstract: Administration of methyl mercury chloride to rats at dosages of 5 ?g and 10 ?g/kg for 90 days caused progressive degeneration of testicular tissues along with reduction in testis and body weight. Defective steroid genesis and inhibition of spermatogenesis in the testicular tissues of experimental animals were confirmed by inhibition of 3?-hydroxy-?5 steroid dehydrogenase.
BibTeX:
@article{A.;Vachhrajani.K.D.1987,
  author = {Roy chowdhury A.; Vachhrajani.K.D. and S.K.Kashyap},
  title = {Inhibition of 3?-hydroxy ?5 steroid dehydrogenate in rat testis by methyl mercury chloride},
  journal = {Adv Contra Delv Syst.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {41-45}
}
Agarwal R, Kumar R, Behari JR Mercury and lead content in fish species from the river Gomti,Lucknow, India, as biomarkers of contamination. 2007 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol(78(2)), pp. 118-22  article  
Abstract: Abstract Not Found
BibTeX:
@article{AgarwalR2007,
  author = {Agarwal R, Kumar R, Behari JR},
  title = {Mercury and lead content in fish species from the river Gomti,Lucknow, India, as biomarkers of contamination.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol},
  year = {2007},
  number = {78(2)},
  pages = {118-22}
}
Bhan A, Sarkar NN Mercury in the environment: effect on health and reproduction 2005 Rev Environ Health(20(1)), pp. 39-56  article  
Abstract: Mercury is a heavy metal that is found naturally in the environment in various forms. Human activity can release mercury into the air, water, and soil. Mercury is also released into the environment after its conversion to methylmercury by bacteria. Mercury was once used in medicine, but the medicinal aspect changed because of its devastating poisoning effect on humans and animals. Today, mercury is one of the most potent neurotoxins known, having a number of adverse health effects in animals and humans. As the sources of mercury are many, the general population is exposed to mercury in day-to-day life, in occupational settings, and in cases of accidental exposure. In addition, ignorance about the use of mercury in cosmetics and religious materials has opened an additional source of exposure. Therefore, making people aware of mercury's effects on health, its sources of entry into
the environment, and its chelating remedies becomes a necessity so that strategies can be adopted to minimize use and exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{BhanA2005,
  author = {Bhan A, Sarkar NN},
  title = {Mercury in the environment: effect on health and reproduction},
  journal = {Rev Environ Health},
  year = {2005},
  number = {20(1)},
  pages = {39-56}
}
Bhattacharyay G, Sadhu AK, Mazumdar A, Chaudhuri PK Antennal deformities of chironomid larvae and their use in biomonitoring of heavy metal pollutants in the river Damodar of West Bengal, India. 2005 Environ Monit Assess,(108(1-3)), pp. 67-84  article  
Abstract: Analyses of sediment and water indicate the presence of heavy metal pollutants like lead, zinc, copper, mercury and cadmium of 5 the river Damodar of India. These metals are responsible for causing morphological deformities of antennae and other parts of chironomid larvae. Percentage of deformity correlated positively with the concentrations of Pb in water and sediment (r > 0.6) at the confluence point. A new severity index, SISS (antenna) has been proposed here to assess deformity at the family or subfamily level.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyayG2005,
  author = {Bhattacharyay G, Sadhu AK, Mazumdar A, Chaudhuri PK},
  title = {Antennal deformities of chironomid larvae and their use in biomonitoring of heavy metal pollutants in the river Damodar of West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess,},
  year = {2005},
  number = {108(1-3)},
  pages = {67-84}
}
Roy Chowdhury, Arora U Toxic effect of mercury on testes in different animals species 1982 Ind J.Physiol Pharmec
Vol. 26(3), pp. 246-249 
article  
Abstract: Testicular changes following the administration of mercuric chloride,(Hgcl2, in various dosages) over one month were studied in rats,mice,guinea pigs and hamsters,HgCl2(5 mg/kg) caused a testicular degeneration and cellular deformation was observed in both the somniferous tubules and the
leydig cells in all species: a significant decrease of testicular weight also resulted. There was no cellular deformation at the dose of 2 mg/kg: only spermatogenesis inhibition and leydig cell atrophy were observed in the animals. At the dose of 1 mg/kg. Testicular degeneration was observed only in the hamster, only partial degeneration was recorded in the rat and the mouse and no change was noted in the guinea pig.
BibTeX:
@article{Chowdhury1982,
  author = {Roy Chowdhury and Arora U},
  title = {Toxic effect of mercury on testes in different animals species},
  journal = {Ind J.Physiol Pharmec},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {26(3)},
  pages = {246-249}
}
Dangwal SK Evaluation and control of mercury vapor exposure in the cell house of chlor alkali plants 1993 Environ.-Res(60), pp. 254-258  article  
Abstract: A pilot study was carried out in the cell houses of three chlor alkali plants to assess level of exposure to mercury vapors among workers by air and biological monitoring. Overall airborne mercury concentrations (mg/m3) were found to range from 0.05 to 0.42 (mean, 0.21, n = 68), 0.03 to 0.16 (mean, .08, n = 49), and 0.02 to 0.17 (mean, 0.04, n = 26), whereas urinary mercury levels (mg/liter) of the exposed workers of the respective plants ranged from 0.076 to 0.592 (mean, 0.207, SD, 0.107, n = 19), 0.015 to 0.220 (mean, 0.070, SD, 0.054, n = 16), and 0.013 to 0.275 (mean, 0.06, SD, 0.054, n = 23). Unattended mercury spillage on the floor and improper sealing of the lids of the end boxes of electrolysis cells were found to be main factors attributing to prevalence of mercury vapors in excess of the permissible exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3. Based on the deficiencies observed, appropriate control measures have been suggested to reduce airborne mercury vapor concentrations in the work environment.
BibTeX:
@article{Dangwal-SK1993,
  author = {Dangwal-SK},
  title = {Evaluation and control of mercury vapor exposure in the cell house of chlor alkali plants},
  journal = {Environ.-Res},
  year = {1993},
  number = {60},
  pages = {254-258}
}
Das S, Sahu BK Interaction of pH with mercuric chloride toxicity to penaeid prawns from a tropical estuary, East Coast of India: enhanced toxicity at low pH. 2005 Chemosphere(58(9)), pp. 1241-8  article  
Abstract: Toxicity tests were conducted to study the interaction of pH and the response of two size groups of penaeid prawns i.e. Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus to different sets of five concentrations of HgCl2 (0.01-0.09 mg l(-1)) under a broad range of pH conditions (5-9). Behavioural responses varied according to test solution concentration and nominated values of pH. Abnormality was detected in the higher concentrations with lower pH in smaller size group of P. monodon. High mortality was observed at higher concentration of test solution with low pH. Irrespective of species and size group LC50 demonstrated similar trend of variation with respect to time period. At pH 9 the threshold limit for 65-75 mm size
group of P. monodon and P. indicus was 0.043 and 0.049 mg l(-1) respectively while it was 0.041 and 0.035 mg l(-1) respectively at pH 8; and 0.038 and 0.044 mg l(-1) respectively at pH 7. Relative toxicities were significantly varied except for bigger size groups in the studied pH ranges. The result was pronounced at pH 5 with maximum 1.61 times for inter-hour relative toxicity in contrast to all. At pH below 7 of mercury resulted more toxic compared to high pH range (>7) might be due to acid toxicity itself. At each pH smaller size
groups were sensitive while bigger shown tolerant. P. monodon were more sensitive than P. indicus. The toxic order of pH effect was 9<8<7<6<5. Toxicity increased significantly (p>0.01) in acidic medium compared to alkaline.
BibTeX:
@article{DasS2005,
  author = {Das S, Sahu BK.},
  title = {Interaction of pH with mercuric chloride toxicity to penaeid prawns from a tropical estuary, East Coast of India: enhanced toxicity at low pH.},
  journal = {Chemosphere},
  year = {2005},
  number = {58(9)},
  pages = {1241-8}
}
Das S, Patro SK, Sahu BK Variation of residual mercury in penaeid prawns from Rushikulya Estuary, east coast of India 2001 Indian-J.-Mar.-Sci.(30), pp. 33-37  article  
Abstract: Two commercially important penaeid prawn species were collected from Rushikulya Estuary, Orissa, India for assessment of Hg content during March 1994 -
February 1995. The levels of mercury were determined by employing modified Bethege appratus and subsequently using a mercury analyser. The study
revealed that Hg concentration in the edible parts of Penaeus monodon and P. indicus at both the stations was higher than that in the non-edible parts during monsoon. Reverse trend prevailed in the premonsoon season. The station 2, located near a chlor-alkali factory, exhibited higher values as compared to station 1 located near the mouth. Further higher Hg concentrations in P. monodon and lower in P. indicus was noticed at both the stations. Residual concentrations of mercury in the organisms were found to be fairly below the legally permissible limit of Hg in fish and fishery products in India.
BibTeX:
@article{DasS2001,
  author = {Das S, S. B.S; Patro-SK; Sahu-BK},
  title = {Variation of residual mercury in penaeid prawns from Rushikulya Estuary, east coast of India},
  journal = {Indian-J.-Mar.-Sci.},
  year = {2001},
  number = {30},
  pages = {33-37}
}
Das S, Patro SK, Sahu BK Biochemical changes induced by mercury in the liverof penaeid prawns Penaeus indicusand P.monodon (Crustacea : Penaeidae) from Rushikulya estuary,east coast of India 2001 Indian Journal of Marine Sciences(30(4)), pp. 246-252  article  
Abstract: The biochemical components viz. protein, lipid and carbohydrate of the liver of two important penaeid prawns were significantly reduced, following six days of exposure to 0.005 ppm and 0.01 ppm of mercuric chloride during various reproductive stages i.e. preparatory, prespawning, spawning, and postspawning. Liver protein recorded highest in contrast to lipid and carbohydrate irrespective of the species, sex and medium of exposure. Depletion percentage with respect to control for protein was less compared to lipid and carbohydrate and the maximum depletion was at 0.01 ppm Hg medium. The effect of mercury was more in Penaeus indicus than that of Penaeus monodon (in the female and prespawning stage). Liver-lipid deleteri- ously affected the female P. indicus during spawning while carbohydrate affected it prominently during preparatory stage. Hg concentration of 0.01 ppm had much damaging effect on liver. The change caused due to test solutions in the biochemical constituents of the liver of the prawns indicated that female was more affected than male.
BibTeX:
@article{Das2001,
  author = {Das, S., S.K. Patro and B.K. Sahu},
  title = {Biochemical changes induced by mercury in the liverof penaeid prawns Penaeus indicusand P.monodon (Crustacea : Penaeidae) from Rushikulya estuary,east coast of India},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Marine Sciences},
  year = {2001},
  number = {30(4)},
  pages = {246-252}
}
Sharma DC Concern over mercury pollution in India. 2003 Lancet
Vol. 362(9389), pp. 1050 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{DC2003,
  author = {Sharma DC},
  title = {Concern over mercury pollution in India.},
  journal = {Lancet},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {362},
  number = {9389},
  pages = {1050}
}
Sarkar SK, Bhattacharya B, Bandopadhaya G, Giri S, Debnath S Tropical coastal organisms as qualitative indicators of mercury and organomercury for sustainable use of living resources 1999 Environ.-Dev.-Sustainability(1), pp. 135-147  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Debnath-S1999,
  author = {Sarkar-SK; Bhattacharya-B; Bandopadhaya-G; Giri-S; Debnath-S},
  title = {Tropical coastal organisms as qualitative indicators of mercury and organomercury for sustainable use of living resources},
  journal = {Environ.-Dev.-Sustainability},
  year = {1999},
  number = {1},
  pages = {135-147}
}
Dey S, Patke DS Mercury biotransformation and its potential for remediation of mercury contamination in water. 2000 Journal-of Environmental-Biology.(21(1)), pp. 47-54  article  
Abstract: Bacterially mediated ionic mercury reduction to volatile Hg plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in contaminated freshwater hot spring. This process could be stimulated to reduce the concentration of inorganic mercury in the water. A study of the utility of this approach using a thermophilic Streptomyces, alongwith the mechanism is described
BibTeX:
@article{DeyS2000,
  author = {Dey S, Patke DS},
  title = {Mercury biotransformation and its potential for remediation of mercury contamination in water.},
  journal = {Journal-of Environmental-Biology.},
  year = {2000},
  number = {21(1)},
  pages = {47-54}
}
Gupta N, Ali A Mercury volatilization by R factor systems in Escherichia coli isolated from aquatic environments of India 2004 Curr Microbiol(48(2)), pp. 88-96  article  
Abstract: Ten Escherichia coli strains isolated from five different aquatic environments representing three distinct geographical regions of India showed significantly high levels of tolerance to the inorganic form of mercury, i.e., mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)). MRD14 isolated from the Dal Lake (Kashmir) could tolerate the highest concentration of HgCl(2), i.e., 55 microg/mL, and MRF1 from the flood water of the Yamuna River (Delhi) tolerated the lowest concentration, i.e., 25 microg/mL. All ten strains revealed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 24 kb, and transformation of the isolated plasmids into the mercury-sensitive competent cells of E. coli DH5alpha rendered the transformants resistant to the same concentration of mercury as the wild-type strains. Mating experiments were performed to assess the selftransmissible nature of these promiscuous plasmids. The transfer of mercury resistance from these wild-type strains to the
mercury-sensitive, naladixic acidresistant E. coli K12 (F(-) lac(+)) strain used as a recipient was 8 observed in six of the nine strains tested. Transconjugants revealed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 24 kb. An evaluation of the mechanism of mercury resistance in the three most efficient strains (MRG12, MRD11, and MRD14) encountered in our study was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS), and it was noted that resistance to HgCl(2) was conferred by conversion of the toxic ionic form of mercury (Hg(++)) to the nontoxic elemental form (Hg(0)) in all three strains. MRD14 volatilized mercury most efficiently.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaN2004,
  author = {Gupta N, Ali A},
  title = {Mercury volatilization by R factor systems in Escherichia coli isolated from aquatic environments of India},
  journal = {Curr Microbiol},
  year = {2004},
  number = {48(2)},
  pages = {88-96}
}
Komerwar AM, Asokan K, Krishnamurthy S, Subbiah P, Yadav BR, Udupa HVK Mercury Pollution from Chlor-Alkali in India and Role of TSIA for its Abatement. 1978 Ind. J. of Env. Hlth
Vol. 20, pp. 284-289 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{H.V.K.1978,
  author = {Komerwar A. M; Asokan K; Krishnamurthy. S; Subbiah P; Yadav B. R; Udupa H.V.K.},
  title = {Mercury Pollution from Chlor-Alkali in India and Role of TSIA for its Abatement.},
  journal = {Ind. J. of Env. Hlth},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {284-289}
}
Jha SK, Chavan SB, Pandit GG, Sadasivan S Geochronology of Pb and Hg pollution in a coastal marine environment using global fallout 137Cs 2003 J Environ Radioact(69(1-2)), pp. 145-57  article  
Abstract: Global fallout 137Cs was used for dating sediment cores and estimation of recent sedimentation rates (up to 1 cm/y) in the Thane Creek, which lies in the southern part of the Deccan belt of India. The residence time of 210 Pb in the Thane Creek water was calculated to be 0.7 years. Further, the concentrations of Pb (up to 70 microg/g) and Hg (up to 10 microg/g) in sediment profiles were measured to assess the anthropogenic input of contaminants due to large-scale
industrialization, which has taken 9 place in this area over the last two decades. The depth-wise concentration profile of Hg shows positive evidence of continued fresh input into the Creek.
BibTeX:
@article{JhaSK2003,
  author = {Jha SK, Chavan SB, Pandit GG, Sadasivan S},
  title = {Geochronology of Pb and Hg pollution in a coastal marine environment using global fallout 137Cs},
  journal = {J Environ Radioact},
  year = {2003},
  number = {69(1-2)},
  pages = {145-57}
}
Jha SK, Krishnamoorthy TM, Pandit GG, Nambi KS History of accumulation of mercury and nickel in Thane Creek, Mumbai, using 210Pb dating technique 1999 Sci Total Environ(236(1-3)), pp. 91-9  article  
Abstract: The study area Thane Creek, lies on the southern part of the Deccan belt of India between latitude 18 degrees 53'-19 degrees 04' N and longitude 72 degrees 48'-72 degrees 53' E and includes the Ulhas river estuaries. Lead-210 (half-life of 22.3 years) is used for an estimation of recent sedimentation rate in Thane Creek using radiochemical separation and alpha counting of its grand15 daughter 210Po. The concentration of Hg and Ni in vertical depth profiles of sediment is estimated to assess the anthropogenic input of these nuclides due to large-scale industrialization which has taken place at this site during last two decades. Depth-wise concentration profiles of Hg and Ni indicate positive evidence of continued fresh inputs into the Airoli section of Thane Creek.
BibTeX:
@article{JhaSK1999,
  author = {Jha SK, Krishnamoorthy TM, Pandit GG, Nambi KS},
  title = {History of accumulation of mercury and nickel in Thane Creek, Mumbai, using 210Pb dating technique},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1999},
  number = {236(1-3)},
  pages = {91-9}
}
Pavithran K Mercury and aplastic anaemia. 1994 Natl Med J India(7(5)), pp. 252  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{K.1994,
  author = {Pavithran K.},
  title = {Mercury and aplastic anaemia.},
  journal = {Natl Med J India},
  year = {1994},
  number = {7(5)},
  pages = {252}
}
Sait MSPM, Srinivasan GN, Kader JAMA Adsorption study of mercury on charcoal 2000 Bull.- Electrochem(16), pp. 140-143  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Kader-JAMA2000,
  author = {Sait-MSPM; Srinivasan-GN; Kader-JAMA},
  title = {Adsorption study of mercury on charcoal},
  journal = {Bull.- Electrochem},
  year = {2000},
  number = {16},
  pages = {140-143}
}
Kannan SK, Krishnamoorthy R Isolation of mercury resistant bacteria and influence of abiotic factors on bioavailability of mercury - A case study in Pulicat Lake North of Chennai, South East India 2006 Sci Total Environ  article  
Abstract: Pulicat Lake sediments are often severely polluted with mercury compounds and other toxic heavy metals. Several mercury-resistant bacteria were isolated and identified from the sediments and all the isolates exhibited broad spectrum resistance (both organic and inorganic mercuric compounds). Mercury volatilization showed that four of the isolated
Bacillus cereus strains were able to reduce water soluble ionic form of mercury into volatile form via the well known enzymatic reduction. The effect of increasing concentration of mercuric chloride and phenyl mercuric acetate in the growth of this mercury reducing strain was also determined. To study the native physico-chemical parameters, which influence the bioavailability of mercury to bacteria in Pulicat Lake ecosystem, a total of 60 water and 30 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, phosphate, organic matter and organic carbon. Increased levels of phosphate, nitrite, nitrate, silicate, organic matter and organic carbon during the post monsoon reduce the bioavailability of mercury by forming complexes which may increase the concentration of mercury in the sediments during post monsoon.
BibTeX:
@article{KannanSK2006a,
  author = {Kannan SK, Krishnamoorthy R},
  title = {Isolation of mercury resistant bacteria and influence of abiotic factors on bioavailability of mercury - A case study in Pulicat Lake North of Chennai, South East India},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2006}
}
Kannan SK, Mahadevan S, Krishnamoorthy R Characterization of a mercury-reducing Bacillus cereus strain isolated from the Pulicat Lake sediments, south east coast of India. 2006 Arch Microbiol(185(3)), pp. 202-11  article  
Abstract: Pulicat Lake sediments are often severely polluted with the toxic heavy metal mercury. Several mercury-resistant strains of Bacillus species were isolated from the sediments and all the isolates exhibited broad spectrum resistance (resistance to both organic and inorganic mercuric compounds). Plasmid curing assay showed that all the isolated Bacillus
strains carry chromosomally borne mercury resistance. Polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization analyses using merA and merB3 gene primers/probes showed that five of the isolated Bacillus strains carry sequences 2 similar to known merA and merB3 genes. Results of multiple sequence alignment revealed 99% similarity with merA and merB3 of TnMERI1 (class II transposons). Other mercury resistant Bacillus species lacking homology to these genes were not able to volatilize mercuric chloride, indicating the
presence of other modes of resistance to mercuric compounds.
BibTeX:
@article{KannanSK2006,
  author = {Kannan SK, Mahadevan S, Krishnamoorthy R},
  title = {Characterization of a mercury-reducing Bacillus cereus strain isolated from the Pulicat Lake sediments, south east coast of India.},
  journal = {Arch Microbiol},
  year = {2006},
  number = {185(3)},
  pages = {202-11}
}
Karunasagar D, Balarama Krishna MV, Anjaneyulu Y, Arunachalam J Studies of mercury pollution in a lake due to a thermometer factory situated in a tourist resort: Kodaikkanal, India 2006 Environ Pollut  article  
Abstract: Kodaikkanal, India, suffered mercury contamination due to emissions and waste from a thermometer factory. Kodai Lake is situated to the north of the factory. The present study determined mercury in waters, sediment and fish samples and compared the values with those from two other lakes, Berijam and Kukkal. Total mercury (Hg(T)) of 356-465ng l(-1),
and 50ng l(-1) of mercury in methyl mercury form were seen in Kodai waters while Berijam and Kukkal waters showed significantly lower values. Kodai sediment showed 276-350mg/kg Hg(T) with about 6% methyl mercury. Berijam and Kukkal sediments showed Hg(T) of 189-226mg/kg and 85-91mg/kg and lower methylation at 3-4% and 2%, respectively. Hg(T) in fish from Kodai lake ranged from 120 to 290mg/kg. The results show that pollution of the lake has taken place due to mercury emissions by the factory.
BibTeX:
@article{KarunasagarD2006,
  author = {Karunasagar D, Balarama Krishna MV, Anjaneyulu Y, Arunachalam J},
  title = {Studies of mercury pollution in a lake due to a thermometer factory situated in a tourist resort: Kodaikkanal, India},
  journal = {Environ Pollut},
  year = {2006}
}
Vachhrajani KD, Roy Chowdhary A Effect of methylmercury on spermatogenesis and acid phosphatase activity in the rat 1991 Ind. J. Environ. Toxicol.
Vol. 1(2), pp. 111-115 
article  
Abstract: Immature male rats administered methylmercury chloride at 0.5 and 10?g/kg doses for 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. Histology of testis was done to analyse the charges in particular cell type at different stages of spermatogenesis. Acid Phosphatase (ACP) activity was localized histochemically to study the pattern of distribution at various stages. ACP activity distribution profile in control testis showed its association with meitic and postmeitic spermatogenic cells. In the treated groups, diminution in enzyme activity was noted at stages IX-IXV on days 30 and 60. This study suggest that ACP
activity exhibit variations with respect to stage of spermatogenesis and the diminution in the activity by day 90 may be due to loss of particular cell
type after methylmercury exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{KD1991,
  author = {Vachhrajani KD and Roy Chowdhary A},
  title = {Effect of methylmercury on spermatogenesis and acid phosphatase activity in the rat},
  journal = {Ind. J. Environ. Toxicol.},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {1(2)},
  pages = {111-115}
}
Roy Chowdhary A, Makhija S, Vachhrajani KD, Gautam AK Methyl mercury and mercuric chloride induced alterations in rat epididymal sperm 1989 Tox Letters
Vol. 47, pp. 125-134 
article  
Abstract: Four week old male albino rats weighing 70�5g were treated intraperitoneally daily with 0.5 and 10 ?g Methyl Mercuric Chloride (MMC)/kg or 0.50 and 100 ?g Mercuric Chloride (MC)/kg body weight respectively, over a period of 90 days. Studies were carried out at intermittent intervals i.e. on days 0,15,30,60 and 90 of the experiment. Gradual decrements in body and epididymal weights were observed from day 30 onwards in both the MMC and MC treated groups. Morphological deformations of epididymal epithelium were noted from day 30 onwards in the mercurial-treated groups. MMC treatment caused severe degeneration of the epididymal epithelium on day 60 and 90 in comparison to MC treatment. Total sperm count was
significantly less in the MC treated groups, while motile sperm count was affected most in the MMC administered groups. The frequency of spermab normality increased consistently at both doses of mercurial treatment over a period of 90 days. Maximum sperm abnormality among the treated groups was noted in the groups given 10?g MMC/kg. The observation reveled that MMC and MC have variable potency to alter epididymal structure and the sperm.
BibTeX:
@article{KD;1989,
  author = {Roy Chowdhary A. Makhija S.; Vachhrajani KD; and Gautam AK},
  title = {Methyl mercury and mercuric chloride induced alterations in rat epididymal sperm},
  journal = {Tox Letters},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {125-134}
}
Roy Chowdhary A, Vachhrajani KD, Shah VC Effect of methylmercury chloride on the hydrolytic enzymes of rat testicular tissues 1987 Yokohama Med. Bull.
Vol. 37(5-6), pp. 123-128 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{KD;1987,
  author = {Roy Chowdhary A. Vachhrajani KD; and Shah VC},
  title = {Effect of methylmercury chloride on the hydrolytic enzymes of rat testicular tissues},
  journal = {Yokohama Med. Bull.},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {37},
  number = {5-6},
  pages = {123-128}
}
Vachharajani KD, Roy Chowdhary A Distribution of mercury and evaluation of testicular steroidogenesis in mercuric chloride and methyl mercury administered rats 1990 Ind. J. Exp. Biol
Vol. 28, pp. 746-751 
article  
Abstract: Intraperitoneal administration of Methyl Mercury Chloride (MMC) and Mercuric Chloride (MC) to male rats in doses of 5, 10?g MMC/kg or 50, 100?g MC/kg for 90 days induced cellular disintegration of leydig cells which was conspicuous on day 30 and onwards in the exposed groups. Progressive degeneration of leydig cells and decreases their nuclear diameter and populations were associated with gradual increase in deposition of mercury. Gradual diminution of 3?-hydroxy-?5-steroid dehydrogenase activity in leydig cells after MMC or MC treatment was correlated with different structural deformations of the cells over 90 days. Moreover, a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels by day 90 confirmed steroidogenic impairment after
BibTeX:
@article{KD;1990,
  author = {Vachharajani KD; and Roy Chowdhary A},
  title = {Distribution of mercury and evaluation of testicular steroidogenesis in mercuric chloride and methyl mercury administered rats},
  journal = {Ind. J. Exp. Biol},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {746-751}
}
Khandekar RN, Mishra UC, Vohra KG Environmental lead exposure of an urban Indian population 1984 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 40, pp. 269-78 
article  
Abstract: Environmental lead exposure of the Greater Bombay population has been estimated by measuring lead concentrations in air particulates, water, food and cigarette smoke. Atmospheric lead concentrations in 29 different zones of the city varied between 82 and 605 ng m3. The dietary intake of lead is estimated to be 245 micrograms day-1 and is calculated from the lead content in different food groups and the amount of that group consumed by an average resident of the city. The uptake by a non-smoker living in the city area is estimated to be 33 micrograms of lead per day, 75% of which comes from food, 15% from air and 10% from water. For a suburban resident 85% of the lead intake comes from food. The blood lead measurements and the contribution of atmospheric lead to the blood lead level are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{KhandekarRN1984,
  author = {Khandekar RN, Mishra UC, Vohra KG},
  title = {Environmental lead exposure of an urban Indian population},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {269-78}
}
Kaladharan P, Pillai VK, Nandakumar A, Krishnakumar PK Mercury in seawater along the west coast of India 1999 Indian-J.-Mar(28), pp. 338-340  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Krishnakumar-PK1999,
  author = {Kaladharan-P; Pillai-VK; Nandakumar-A; Krishnakumar-PK},
  title = {Mercury in seawater along the west coast of India},
  journal = {Indian-J.-Mar},
  year = {1999},
  number = {28},
  pages = {338-340}
}
Kumar A, Gupta AK Acute toxicity of mercury to the fingerlings of Indian major carps (catla, rohu and mrigal) in relation to water hardness and temperature 2006 J Environ Biol(27(1)), pp. 89-92  article  
Abstract: In the present study short-term (96hr) toxicity of mercury in relation to water hardness (270 and 560 mg/l) and temperature (16 degrees C and 35 degrees C) to the fingerlings of Indian major carps, i.e. catla, rohu and mrigal has been evaluated using static bioassay. The LC5o indicates that both water hardness and temperature played significant role in mercury toxicity. The test fishes were found most resistant with water hardness of 560 mg/l at 16 degrees C as compared to that of water hardness of 560 mg/l at 35 degrees C and
water hardness of 270 mg/l at both the temperatures, i.e. 35 and 16 degrees C. Whereas the order of relative sensitivities of these fishes for mercury ions were recorded as catla>rohu>mrigal. The safe concentrations of mercury were ranged in between 12.133 to 19.689 microg/l for catla; 64.039 to 82.555 microg/l for rohu and 73.510 to 89.585 microg/l for mrigal for both the water hardness and temperature.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2006,
  author = {Kumar A, Gupta AK},
  title = {Acute toxicity of mercury to the fingerlings of Indian major carps (catla, rohu and mrigal) in relation to water hardness and temperature},
  journal = {J Environ Biol},
  year = {2006},
  number = {27(1)},
  pages = {89-92}
}
Sanzgiry S, Mesquita A, Kureishy TW Total mercury in water, sediments, and animals along the Indian coast. 1988 Mar.-Pollut.-Bull.
Vol. 19, pp. 339-343 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Kureishy-TW1988,
  author = {Sanzgiry-S; Mesquita-A; Kureishy-TW},
  title = {Total mercury in water, sediments, and animals along the Indian coast.},
  journal = {Mar.-Pollut.-Bull.},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {339-343}
}
enka M, Panda KK, Panda BB Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India 1992 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol(22(2)), pp. 195-202  article  
Abstract: In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant.
BibTeX:
@article{LenkaM1992,
  author = {Lenka M, Panda KK, Panda BB},
  title = {Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol},
  year = {1992},
  number = {22(2)},
  pages = {195-202}
}
Loka Bharathi PA, Sathe V, Chandramohan D Effect of lead, mercury and cadmium on a sulphate-reducing bacterium 1990 Environ Pollut
Vol. 67(4), pp. 361-74 
article  
Abstract: A sulphate-reducing bacterial strain isolated from the south-west coast of India resembling Desulfosarcina in its physiology was tested for its
behaviour towards HgCl(2), CdSO(4) and Pb(NO(3))(2). The order of toxicity to growth of these metal salts in a lactate-based medium at 50 microg ml(-1) concentrations was Cd>Pb>Hg and to respiration Pb>Cd>Hg. Inhibitory concentrations (viz. 100 microg ml(-1) of HgCl(2) and 200 microg
ml(-1) of Pb(NO(3)(2)) had a stimulatory effect when the substrate was changed to acetate. 24 With sodium acetate at 0.1% concentration, Hg and Pb had maximum stimulatory effect for growth and sulphide production. Experiments conducted directly with sediment slurries amended with lactate showed that all three metals (at levels below their inhibitory concentrations, i.e. 50 microg ml(-1) of metal salt for Cd and Hg and 100 microg ml(-1) for Pb) inhibited sulphate-reducing activity (SRA) with Pb decreasing the peak production by 68%. The order of toxicity in both lactate and acetate-amended slurry was Pb>Cd>Hg and Pb>Hg>Cd, respectively. With acetate, SRA in the presence of Cd and Hg was stimulated 110% and 27%, respectively. Pb inhibited SRA by 11%. There is a general reduction in the inhibition of sulphide production in slurries as compared with pure culture of the isolate.
BibTeX:
@article{LokaBharathiPA1990,
  author = {Loka Bharathi PA, Sathe V, Chandramohan D},
  title = {Effect of lead, mercury and cadmium on a sulphate-reducing bacterium},
  journal = {Environ Pollut},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {67(4)},
  pages = {361-74}
}
Ali M A brief history of Indian alchemy covering pre-Vedic to Vedic and Ayurvedic period (circa 400 B.C.-800 A.D.) 1993 Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad(23(2)), pp. 151  article  
Abstract: History of Indian alchemy can be traced to pre-Vedic period. The archaeological excavations at Mohenjodaro and Harappa in the Indus valley have brought to light that, the people in ancient India were possessing chemical knowledge as early as in the prehistoric period. In Vedic period single herbs were prescribed. Minerals and animal substances were also prescribed but no compound preparations were in use. Alchemy in India, was started for the preparation of an elixir of life for imparting immortality and later for the transmutation process for converting base metals into gold.
Indian alchemy derived its colour and flavour to a large extent from the Tantric cult. Then, during the iatro-chemical period all the previous accumulated alchemical ideas were put into something more practical and tangible. a number of preparations of mercury and other metals were evolved as helpful accessories in medicine. Here a bried history of this Indian alchemy is presented which will give an idea about the development of chemical knowledge in India in its multiple aspects.
BibTeX:
@article{M1993,
  author = {Ali M},
  title = {A brief history of Indian alchemy covering pre-Vedic to Vedic and Ayurvedic period (circa 400 B.C.-800 A.D.)},
  journal = {Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad},
  year = {1993},
  number = {23(2)},
  pages = {151}
}
Nair KGR, Madhavan P Chitosan for removal of mercury from water 1984 Fish.-Technol.-Soc.- Cochin.
Vol. 21, pp. 109-112 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Madhavan-P.1984,
  author = {Nair KGR; Madhavan-P.},
  title = {Chitosan for removal of mercury from water},
  journal = {Fish.-Technol.-Soc.- Cochin.},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {109-112}
}
Mukherjee AB, Zevenhoven R Mercury in coal ash and its fate in the Indian subcontinent: A synoptic review. 2006 Sci Total Environ(368(1)), pp. 384-92  article  
Abstract: In the Indian subcontinent power generation is mainly dependent upon the thermal power units and coal is burnt as a fuel for the production of heat and electricity. In India, bituminous and subbituminous coals are used which contain over 40% of ash. At present, 80-90 million tons of fly ashes are generated from 85 existing coal based thermal power
plants. Coal contains trace metals of which mercury is most toxic for humans and aquatic fauna. The problem of mercury in the society is not new, but in recent years the Indian subcontinent has gained the reputation of being "a dumping ground for mercury". This study focuses on mercury in fly ash and its releases to the atmosphere and soils cross the country. The utilisation of coal ash in India is also addressed although it is still in its nascent stage. About 10% of produced fly ashes are used in India whereas in Western countries its use is typically over 70%. Regulations from India's Ministry of Environment and Forestry should increase coal fly ash utilisation, although this would require that
cost-effective new technology is put to use. As to the release of Hg from ashes disposed of in the environment, the scarce literature suggests that this is negligible or zero, and less problematic than wet or dry deposition of Hg from flue gases.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeAB2006,
  author = {Mukherjee AB, Zevenhoven R},
  title = {Mercury in coal ash and its fate in the Indian subcontinent: A synoptic review.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2006},
  number = {368(1)},
  pages = {384-92}
}
Mukherjee AB, Zevenhoven R Mercury in coal ash and its fate in the Indian subcontinent: A synoptic review 2005 Sci Total Environ.  article  
Abstract: In the Indian subcontinent power generation is mainly dependent upon the thermal power units and coal is burnt as a fuel for the production of heat and electricity. In India, bituminous and subbituminous coals are used which contain over 40% of ash. At present, 80-90 million tons of fly ashes are generated from 856 existing coal based thermal power
plants. Coal contains trace metals of which mercury is most toxic for humans and aquatic fauna. The problem of mercury in the society is not new, but in recent years the Indian subcontinent has gained the reputation of being "a dumping ground for mercury". This study focuses on mercury in fly ash and its releases to the atmosphere and soils cross the country. The utilisation of coal ash in India is also addressed although it is still in its nascent stage. About 10% of produced fly ashes are used in India whereas in Western countries its use is typically over 70%. Regulations from India's Ministry of Environment and Forestry should increase coal fly ash utilisation, although this would require that
cost-effective new technology is put to use. As to the release of Hg from ashes disposed of in the environment, the scarce literature suggests that this is negligible or zero, and less problematic than wet or dry deposition of Hg from flue gases.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeAB2005,
  author = {Mukherjee AB, Zevenhoven R},
  title = {Mercury in coal ash and its fate in the Indian subcontinent: A synoptic review},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2005}
}
Mukherjee S, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharyya P, Duttagupta AK Heavy metal levels and esterase variations between metal-exposed and unexposed duckweed Lemna minor: field and laboratory studies 2004 Environ Int(30(6)), pp. 811-4  article  
Abstract: Environmental homogeneity is being continuously disturbed and affected by artificially introduced loads of chemical toxicants that also include heavy metals. The Tiljala wetlands of the eastern fringe of Calcutta, West Bengal (India) are a virtual sink for the deposition of urban and industrial wastes that get admixed with the aquatic environment. We have selected Lemna minor (duckweed), as a representative of the biota surviving therein for the present study. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, copper and mercury in the fronds of Lemna were measured to peep into the range of input of heavy metals in the duckweed subjects. Natural unexposed population of duckweed from a domestic pond in Batanagar area, 24 Parganas, West Bengal (India) was also found to accumulate similar concentrations of these metals when cultured in artificially contaminated water in the laboratory. The exposed individuals also exhibited polymorphism with respect to the loci of esterase, as compared to an unexposed control plants. Therefore, the present study suggests EST variations of L. minor to be a potential biomarker of heavy metal pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeS2004,
  author = {Mukherjee S, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharyya P, Duttagupta AK},
  title = {Heavy metal levels and esterase variations between metal-exposed and unexposed duckweed Lemna minor: field and laboratory studies},
  journal = {Environ Int},
  year = {2004},
  number = {30(6)},
  pages = {811-4}
}
Murtaza I, Dutt A, Ali A Relationship between the persistence of mer operon sequences in Escherichia coli and their resistance to mercury 2002 Curr Microbiol(44(3)), pp. 178-83  article  
Abstract: Studies related to geographic distribution of E. coli carrying mer operon sequences were carried out on the Indian subcontinent. Out of the 80 E. coli isolates, collected from five geographically distinct 12 regions of India, 68 were found to be resistant to one or the other heavy metal used in the study.
Among these isolates, 36 were found to be resistant to the inorganic form (HgCl2) and only 5 to resist both the inorganic and organic forms of mercury. Colony
hybridization studies revealed 35 isolates out of 68 to hybridize with the probe. Interestingly, some of the mercury-sensitive isolates (Hgs), especially from the Dal Lake, were found positive in hybridization studies. These findings, supported by mercury volatilization studies, indicate the presence of nonfunctional/vestigial mer sequences in the isolates collected from different environments. On the other hand, few of the mercury-resistant isolates (Hgr) from the Yamuna River did not show any sign of hybridization. Further, volatilization studies also indicated an alternate mode of resistance mechanism operating in them. The studies demonstrate that the mer operon sequences share very high homology among the E. coli isolates collected from different geographical locations, and this metal resistance may be a genetic character that arose from a common ancestral background.
BibTeX:
@article{MurtazaI2002,
  author = {Murtaza I, Dutt A, Ali A.},
  title = {Relationship between the persistence of mer operon sequences in Escherichia coli and their resistance to mercury},
  journal = {Curr Microbiol},
  year = {2002},
  number = {44(3)},
  pages = {178-83}
}
Murtaza I, Dutt A, Mushtaq D, Ali A Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of functional merB gene from indian isolates of Escherichia coli 2005 Curr Microbiol(51(5)), pp. 297-302  article  
Abstract: Studies were carried out to characterize organomercurial lyase genes from wild type mercuryresistant Escherichia coli isolates, previously collected from five geographically distinct regions of the Indian subcontinent. PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing of amplified fragments showed three merB identical to the previously characterized mer B from E. coli pR831b that were thus considered as the same gene. The remaining two genes derived from E. coli isolates of an almost mercury-free site (Dal lake, Kashmir) and designated as pIAAD3 merB and pIAAD14 merB showed slight variation (2%) at base. However, this variation in pIAAD3 due to the absence of base "T" at 479 position results in
complete frame shift and the predicted MerB-like polypeptide derived from it showed 21.53% divergent at its C terminal end from the previously characterized pR831b MerB. The expression profile of pIAAD3 merB in pQE30 and pUC18 vectors each demonstrated 22.2 kDa proteins. The induced DH5alpha E. coli cells possessing pIAAD3 merB cloned in
pUC18 vector split phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA) into benzene and inorganic mercury efficiently, thus giving a clue that the expressed gene product is biologically active. The current study suggests that such genetic changes may take place in the continued absence of mercury pressure, and with such modifications, they finally break down to act as vestigial remnants. Further work is going on in our lab to exploit pIAAD3 merB for the bioremediation of mercury-polluted sites.
BibTeX:
@article{MurtazaI2005,
  author = {Murtaza I, Dutt A, Mushtaq D, Ali A.},
  title = {Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of functional merB gene from indian isolates of Escherichia coli},
  journal = {Curr Microbiol},
  year = {2005},
  number = {51(5)},
  pages = {297-302}
}
Bhatnagar SN, Oza PP Mercury leaching from solid wastes of chlor-alkali plants 1982 Asian- Environ.
Vol. 3, pp. 23-27 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Oza-PP1982,
  author = {Bhatnagar-SN; Oza-PP},
  title = {Mercury leaching from solid wastes of chlor-alkali plants},
  journal = {Asian- Environ.},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {23-27}
}
Rajgopal T, Ravimohan HV, Mascarenhas P Epidemiological surveillance of employees in a mercury thermometer plant: An occupational health study 2006 Indian J. Occ and Env Med
Vol. 10(1), pp. 11-18 
article  
Abstract: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 255 individuals (130 current permanent employees, 64 contract workers, 55 ex-employeesand 6 scrap dealers) coupled with a
retrospective cohort study of the occupational health of 290 employees (all permanent employees who ever worked in the factory over a span of 15 years) was conducted in a mercury thermometer plant at Kodaikanal in India. The cross-sectional study done in March 2001 was based on a clinical protocol developed by the US Dept. of Labor, Mines Safety and Health Administration and was supplemented by the analysis of mercury in urine (HgU) through Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry (ICP) and relevant biochemical investigations. Group averages of HgU in this study was 23.8 ?g/L and were well 4 within WHO-recommended limits of group means (50 ?g/L). Group
analysis was supplemented by appropriate individual analysis. The retrospective cohort study (for the years 1988-2001) included clinical evaluation coupled with analysis of biological monitoring done through Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). Group averages of mercury in urine measured between 12.9 to 31.9 ?g/L over the working life of the factory, and they too were supplemented by appropriate individual analysis. The protocol for epidemiological surveillance and indeed for the occupational health surveillance conducted over the life of the factory (biological monitoring, workplace environmental monitoring, shop floor health and safety practices and clinical evaluations) have been independently validated by the Netherlands-based TNO, the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, and the Indian Association of Occupational Health. None of the employees in this factory were found to be suffering from any ill health that could be attributed to Hg exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{P2006,
  author = {Rajgopal T Ravimohan1 H V.Mascarenhas2 P},
  title = {Epidemiological surveillance of employees in a mercury thermometer plant: An occupational health study},
  journal = {Indian J. Occ and Env Med},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {11-18}
}
Pahan K, Chaudhuri J, Ghosh DK, Gachhui R, Ray S, Mandal A Volatilization of mercury from natural water by a broad-spectrum Hgresistant Bacillus pasteurii strain DR2 1996 Environmentalist(16), pp. 179-185  article  
Abstract: A broad-spectrum mercuryresistant bacterial strain was isolated from contaminated water and was identified as Bacillus pasteurii strain DR2. It could volatilize Hg-compounds including organomercurials from its growth media. It utilized several aromatic compounds as a sole source of carbon. The bacterial strain eliminated HgCl2 from sterile river water and the presence of benzene, toluene, naphthalene and nitrobenzene at 1 mM concentration in the system increased the rate of mercury volatilization, the volatilization rate being highest with benzene. When 1.7�107 cells of this bacterial strain
were added per ml of non-sterile water the bacterial strain volatilized more than 90 percent of mercury from mercuric chloride and organomercurials like PMA, thiomersol and methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride (MEMC). In the absence of this bacterial strain the volatilization of PMA and MEMC due to the
presence of other Hg-resistant organisms in nonsterile polluted water ranged between 20�25 percent and of HgCl2 was about 40 percent. However, in the presence of B. pasteurii DR2 volatilization of these Hg-compounds from nonsterile water increased by 20�40 percent. In the presence of 1 mM
benzene the rate of mercury volatilization was even higher. In all the cases the rate of volatilization was higher in the first seven days than in the next seven days.
BibTeX:
@article{Pahan-K1996,
  author = {Pahan-K, Chaudhuri-J, Ghosh-DK, Gachhui-R, Ray-S, Mandal-A},
  title = {Volatilization of mercury from natural water by a broad-spectrum Hgresistant Bacillus pasteurii strain DR2},
  journal = {Environmentalist},
  year = {1996},
  number = {16},
  pages = {179-185}
}
Panda KK, Lenka M, Panda BB Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. III. Concentration and genotoxicity of mercury in the industrial effluent and contaminated water of Rushikulya estuary, India 1992 Mutat Res(280(3)), pp. 149-60  article  
Abstract: Aquatic mercury pollution of the Rushikulya estuary in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India was monitored over a period from October 1987 to May 1989. The concentrations of aquatic mercury in the water samples taken from the effluent channel and from different sites along the course of the estuary covering a distance of 2 km were periodically recorded and ranged from 0 to 0.5 mg/l. The bioconcentration and genotoxicity
of aquatic mercury in the samples were assessed by the Allium micronucleus (MNC) assay. The frequency of cells with MNC was highly correlated not only with bioconcentrated mercury (root mercury) but also with the levels of aquatic mercury. The threshold assessment values such as effective concentration fifty (EC50) for root growth, lowest effective concentration tested (LECT), and highest ineffective concentration tested (HICT) for induction of MNC in Allium MNC assay for the present aquatic industrial mercury were determined to be 0.14, 0.06 and 0.02 mg/l, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{PandaKK1992,
  author = {Panda KK, Lenka M, Panda BB},
  title = {Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. III. Concentration and genotoxicity of mercury in the industrial effluent and contaminated water of Rushikulya estuary, India},
  journal = {Mutat Res},
  year = {1992},
  number = {280(3)},
  pages = {149-60}
}
Panday VK, Parameswaran M, Soman SD The distribution of mercury in the Indian population 1986 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 48(3), pp. 223-30 
article  
Abstract: Data have been obtained for the distribution of mercury in a nonoccupationally exposed Indian adult group and compared with data available from other regions. The biological elimination half time for mercury of 33 days obtained here is in good agreement with the corresponding value for inorganic mercury compounds. The present work indicates that the relationship between dietary intake and blood concentration is only meaningful when long-term blood concentrations are measured.
BibTeX:
@article{PandayVK1986,
  author = {Panday VK, Parameswaran M, Soman SD},
  title = {The distribution of mercury in the Indian population},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {48(3)},
  pages = {223-30}
}
Pervez S, Pandey GS Mercury spillage through smoke-stakes of an integrated steel plant: Effects on soil and ground water. 1997 Indian-J.-Chem.-Technol.(4), pp. 49-52  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Pandey-GS.1997,
  author = {Pervez-S; Pandey-GS.},
  title = {Mercury spillage through smoke-stakes of an integrated steel plant: Effects on soil and ground water.},
  journal = {Indian-J.-Chem.-Technol.},
  year = {1997},
  number = {4},
  pages = {49-52}
}
Pandit GG, Jha SK, Tripathi RM, Krishnamoorthy TM Intake of methyl mercury by the population of Mumbai, India 1997 Sci Total Environ(205(2-3)), pp. 267-70  article  
Abstract: Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultra violet detection (UV) was optimised for separation and quantification of methyl mercury in coastal sediment and fish samples. The extraction efficiency of methyl mercury from sediment and biological samples was found to be 56% with a detection limit of 0.5 ng for a 200 microliters sample volume. The concentrations of methyl mercury and the relative fractions with respect to total mercury were distinctly lower, 5.9- 65.5 ng/g (3-8%) in sediment compared to biological samples, 20.4-344.5 ng/g dry wt. (33-97%).
The daily intake of methyl mercury by the Mumbai population through marine food is about 0.5 microgram forming 62% of the total mercury intake from this route.
BibTeX:
@article{PanditGG1997,
  author = {Pandit GG, Jha SK, Tripathi RM, Krishnamoorthy TM},
  title = {Intake of methyl mercury by the population of Mumbai, India},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {1997},
  number = {205(2-3)},
  pages = {267-70}
}
Pandya CB, Sadhu HG, Sathwara NG, Ghodasara NB, Shah GM, Parikh DJ, Kashyap SK Assessment of occupational exposure to mercury and its health risks 1996 Indian J Ind Med(42(1)), pp. 11-14  article  
Abstract: This study has tried to assess the morbidity resulting from occupational exposure to mercury. Biological monitoring of blood and urine of those exposed was carried out and areas where mercury levels in the ambient air have exceeded TLVs have been identified.
BibTeX:
@article{PandyaCB1996,
  author = {Pandya CB, Sadhu HG, Sathwara NG, Ghodasara NB, Shah GM, Parikh DJ, and Kashyap SK},
  title = {Assessment of occupational exposure to mercury and its health risks},
  journal = {Indian J Ind Med},
  year = {1996},
  number = {42(1)},
  pages = {11-14}
}
Pant A Toxicity and uptake of mercurials in a cyanobacterium 2000 Environmentalist(20(4)), pp. 295-300  article  
Abstract: Nostoc calcicola cells exposed to mercuric chloride (0.05�0.25 ?M), methyl mercuric chloride (0.05�0.15 ?M) and the fungicide ceresan (phenyl mercuric acetate; 0.05�0.20 ?M) showed sensitivity in the sequence: methyl mercury3) over phenyl mercuric acetate (0.51�103); inorganic mercury occupied the intermediate position with a bioconcentration factor of 1.32�103. The data infer that larger molecules of organomercurials may not be taken up by cells at the rate and extent comparable to the smaller species. cyanobacteriaorganomercurial-bioconcentration factor-volatilization
BibTeX:
@article{Pant-A2000,
  author = {Pant-A},
  title = {Toxicity and uptake of mercurials in a cyanobacterium},
  journal = {Environmentalist},
  year = {2000},
  number = {20(4)},
  pages = {295-300}
}
Krishnakumar PK, Bhat GS, Vaidya NG, Pillai VK Heavy metal distribution in the biotic and abiotic matrices along Karnataka coast, west coast of India. 1998 Indian-J.-Mar.-Sci.(92), pp. 370-371/203-208  article  
Abstract: During an attempt to decrease the toxicity of industrial waste (soil) from a chloralkali factory by bluegreen algae, the effect of the waste soil mixed in varying proportions with garden soil, on biochemical variables was studied. The nucleic acid, protein and free amino acid content of the algae decreased significantly with increasing time and waste soil concentration. The algae accumulated a substantial amount of mercury from the medium depending on the duration of algal growth and waste soil concentration. An increase in RNA/DNA and a decrease in the ratio of protein/RNA and protein/free amino acids was observed.
BibTeX:
@article{Pillai-VK1998,
  author = {Krishnakumar-PK; Bhat-GS; Vaidya-NG; Pillai-VK},
  title = {Heavy metal distribution in the biotic and abiotic matrices along Karnataka coast, west coast of India.},
  journal = {Indian-J.-Mar.-Sci.},
  year = {1998},
  number = {92},
  pages = {370-371/203-208}
}
Prabu SK, Mahadevan A Hybridization of transposon Tn501 for detection of mercury resistance sequences in a marine environment 1992 Res Microbiol(143(3)), pp. 341-5  article  
Abstract: Total genomic DNA isolated by concentrating seawater and mercury-resistant bacteria were hybridized with a mer probe to detect the presence of homologous DNA sequences in marine coastal waters of the Bay of Bengal, India. Coastal water extracts induced with mercury hybridized with the mer operon of transposon Tn501. Most of the mercury-resistant bacteria that volatilized mercury also contained homologous DNA sequences to the mer probe.
BibTeX:
@article{PrabuSK1992,
  author = {Prabu SK, Mahadevan A},
  title = {Hybridization of transposon Tn501 for detection of mercury resistance sequences in a marine environment},
  journal = {Res Microbiol},
  year = {1992},
  number = {143(3)},
  pages = {341-5}
}
R Saraswat, Sujata R. Kurtarkar, A Mazumder, R Nigam Foraminifers as indicators of marine pollution: a culture experiment with Rosalina leei 2003   article  
Abstract: In order to develop a viable foraminiferal proxy for heavy metal pollutants, juvenile specimens of Rosalina leei were subjected to different mercury concentrations (0�180 ng/l). Initially considerable growth was observed in specimens kept in saline water having a mercury concentration up to 100
ng/l. But with the gradual increase in concentration of mercury the growth rate started decreasing. Total growth achieved was significantly lower in case of
specimens kept at relatively higher mercury concentrations then those maintained in normal saline water. The most significant result of this experiment was the addition of abnormal chambers in the specimens kept at higher mercury concentration. Later the specimens kept at highest concentration (180 ng/l) were subjected to progressively increasing concentration of mercury to see the further effects and it was found that the specimens were still living at as high a mercury concentration as 260 ng/l although there was no growth.
BibTeX:
@article{R.Saraswat2003,
  author = {R. Saraswat, Sujata R. Kurtarkar, A. Mazumder and R. Nigam},
  title = {Foraminifers as indicators of marine pollution: a culture experiment with Rosalina leei},
  year = {2003}
}
Rai LC, Singh AK, Mallick N Employment of CEPEX enclosures for monitoring toxicity of Hg and Zn on in situ structural and functional characteristics of algal communities of River Ganga in Varanasi, India 1990 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf
Vol. 20(2), pp. 211-21 
article  
Abstract: Effects of Hg and Zn on in situ nitrogen fixation, autotrophic index, pigment diversity, 14CO2 uptake, and change in algal community structure of Ganges water have been studied for the first time using CEPEX chambers in aquatic ecosystem of India. A concentrationdependent decrease in in situ nitrogenase activity of Ganges water with Hg and Zn has been noticed. No ethylene production was observed at 0.8 microgram/ml of Hg. However, an increase in the autotrophic index was observed in CEPEX enclosures treated with Hg and Zn. The AI value was maximum at 0.8 microgram/ml Hg after an incubation of 15 days. An increase in pigment diversity also followed the pattern of AI with the test metals used. Inhibition of 14CO2 uptake of phytoplankton of Ganges water was maximum at 0.8 microgram/ml Hg (79%) followed by Zn (69%). Carbon fixation showed an increase for 1 hr, after which no appreciable change was noticed. Maximum inhibition of algal number was observed at 0.8 microgram/ml Hg followed by 8.0 micrograms/ml of Zn in the CEPEX chamber. Members of Chlorophyceae showed more tolerance than Cyanophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. The filamentous forms were more tolerant to Hg and Zn. In contrast, unicellular forms were more sensitive to Hg. The test of significance (ANOVA) showed that metal-induced variations in pigment diversity, the autotrophic index, and the 14CO2 uptake were
BibTeX:
@article{RaiLC1990,
  author = {Rai LC, Singh AK, Mallick N},
  title = {Employment of CEPEX enclosures for monitoring toxicity of Hg and Zn on in situ structural and functional characteristics of algal communities of River Ganga in Varanasi, India},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {20(2)},
  pages = {211-21}
}
Rajathy S Mercury in water, sediment and in some estuarine organisms of the Ennore Estuary, Madras, Tamil Nadu. 1997 J.-Mar.-Biol.-Assoc.-India(39), pp. 174-177  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Rajathy-S1997,
  author = {Rajathy-S},
  title = {Mercury in water, sediment and in some estuarine organisms of the Ennore Estuary, Madras, Tamil Nadu.},
  journal = {J.-Mar.-Biol.-Assoc.-India},
  year = {1997},
  number = {39},
  pages = {174-177}
}
Rajnikant Sharma, Shamsh Pervez Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India 2005 Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Vol. 27(1), pp. 39-45 
article  
Abstract: Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, human milk is the most important food source for infants. Breast milk can, however, also be a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic elements. Selected toxic elements (As, Pb, Mn,a Hg and Cd) were determined in human breast milk and blood samples obtained from 120 subjects related to an integrated steel plant environment located in central India. Samples of breast milk and blood from subjects living outside the steel plant environment were also analyzed for comparative study. Higher levels of these toxic elements were found in blood samples as compared to breast milk samples. Plant workers showed the higher presence of these metals in their breast milk and blood samples compared to the residents of the area and the subjects living outside the industrial environment, respectively. Mn, Pb and Hg have shown a higher tendency to associate with blood and breast milk than As and Cd. The order of occurrence of these metals in blood and milk samples thus found is Mn>Pb>Hg>As>Cd.
BibTeX:
@article{RajnikantSharma2005,
  author = {Rajnikant Sharma, Shamsh Pervez},
  title = {Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India},
  journal = {Environmental Geochemistry and Health},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {27},
  number = {1},
  pages = {39-45}
}
Ram A, Rokade MA, Borole DV, Zingde MD Mercury in sediments of Ulhas estuary 2003 Mar Pollut Bull(46(7)), pp. 846-57  article  
Abstract: Hg levels in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Ulhas estuary are under considerable environmental stress due to the indiscriminate release of effluents from a variety of industries including chlor-alkali plants. Concentration ranges of dissolved (0.04-0.61 micro gl(-1)) and particulate (1.13-6.43 micro gg(-1)) Hg reveal a definite enhancement of levels in the estuary. The Hg burden in sediment upstream of the weir that limits the tidal influence is low (0.08-0.19 micro gg(-1)) with low C(org) content (1.8-2.9%). The high Hg content of the sediment just below the weir varies seasonally (highest concentration recorded being 38.45 micro gg(-1)) due to incremental accretion of sediment as the fresh water flow over the weir progressively
decreases. The 30 km segment of the estuary sustains markedly high levels of Hg in the sediment with an 10 exponential decrease in the seaward direction from the weir. Higher concentrations than the expected background prevail in all the estuarine cores up to the bottom, though the overall concentration decreases from about 20 micro gg(-1) in core 7 (inner estuary) to 1 micro gg(-1) in core 31 (outer estuary). The Hg in sediment is associated with C(org), while its correlation with Al, Fe and Mn is poor. The Hg profiles in cores from the Arabian Sea (stations 34, 35 and 37) have a distinct horizon of enhanced concentration in the 5- 60 cm segment. Based on 210Pb dating of core 37, the sediment at the bottom of this core is inferred to have been deposited in the year
1949, roughly two year prior to the establishment of the first chloralkali plant and represents the background (0.06-0.10 micro gg(- 1)). The Hg profiles in the offshore cores indicate a marked increase in transfer of Hg to sediment subsequent to 1980, with a peak around 1990-1992. Based on the index of geoaccumulation it is considered that the estuarine segment between stations 4 and 23 is extremely polluted, while the sediment from the open coast is moderately polluted in the top 25-30 cm with respect to Hg. The enrichment factor of Hg in the sediment is 350-700 for core 4 and decreases to 0-7 for the openshore cores.
BibTeX:
@article{RamA2003,
  author = {Ram A, Rokade MA, Borole DV, Zingde MD},
  title = {Mercury in sediments of Ulhas estuary},
  journal = {Mar Pollut Bull},
  year = {2003},
  number = {46(7)},
  pages = {846-57}
}
Ramaiah N, De J Unusual rise in mercury-resistant bacteria in coastal environs 2003 Microb Ecol(45(4)), pp. 444-54  article  
Abstract: A sharp rise in mercury-resistant bacteria (MRB) capable of tolerating very high concentration of Hg was observed over the last 3-4 years in the coastal environs of India. While none or negligible colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria were counted on seawater nutrient agar with 0.5 ppm ( 2.5 microM) Hg (II) as HgCl2 until 1997, from 13 to over 75% of the CFU grew on 20 times higher, 50 microM, Hg concentrations from almost every recently examined marine sample. Although exceptionally high counts of MRB (96% of CFU) were recorded from samples collected from the polluted zones off Mumbai, the MRB capable of growth on seawater nutrient agar with 50 microM Hg were quite abundant in most samples collected from many locations with few or no pollution effects. We noticed for the first time the occurrence of aerobic heterotrophic bacterial isolates capable of growth with 250 microM Hg. Such MRB grew with higher concentrations of many other toxic xenobiotics than the Hg sensitive ones. Based on the unusually high populations of viable MRB and some simple experiments, we propose that many marine bacterial species are selected, possibly through acquisition of plasmids and/or transposable elements and modifying Hg, whose concentration, according to recent studies, is on the rise in marine habitats.
BibTeX:
@article{RamaiahN2003,
  author = {Ramaiah N, De J},
  title = {Unusual rise in mercury-resistant bacteria in coastal environs},
  journal = {Microb Ecol},
  year = {2003},
  number = {45(4)},
  pages = {444-54}
}
Ramamurthy VD Baseline study of the level of concentration of mercury in the food fishes of Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean 1979 Bulletin-of-the-Japanese-Society-of- Scientific-Fisheries-(Nihon-Suisan-Gakkai-shi)
Vol. 45 (11), pp. 1405-1407 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Ramamurthy-VD1979,
  author = {Ramamurthy-VD},
  title = {Baseline study of the level of concentration of mercury in the food fishes of Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean},
  journal = {Bulletin-of-the-Japanese-Society-of- Scientific-Fisheries-(Nihon-Suisan-Gakkai-shi)},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {45 (11)},
  pages = {1405-1407}
}
Roy Chowdhary A, Makhija S Methylmercury Chloride induced changes in testicular histomorphology and DNA, RNA, Protein content in rats. 1990 Ind. J. Physiol & Allied Sci.
Vol. 44(2) 
article  
Abstract: 30 days old rats (weighing 75 � 5 gm) were treated intraperitoneally with methylmercury chloride (CH3HgCl) at the doses of 5 and 10 ?g/kg over a period of 90 days. Testicular histomorphology and 25 testicular protein, DNA, RNA levels were noted at the interval of 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days of the experiment. Gradual degeneration of testicular tissues along with DNA, RNA and protein levels were observed by day 90 in respect of dose and duration after CH5HgCl treatment. Significant decrease in ration of protein: DNA and protein: RNA was noted on the 60th and 90th days in the experimental groups. Moreover, gradual decrement in testicular weight along with loss of germinal cell layers reveled that CH3HgCl retarded the testicular cellular growth in rats.
BibTeX:
@article{RoyChowdharyA1990,
  author = {Roy Chowdhary A, Makhija S},
  title = {Methylmercury Chloride induced changes in testicular histomorphology and DNA, RNA, Protein content in rats.},
  journal = {Ind. J. Physiol & Allied Sci.},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {44(2)}
}
Roy chowdhury A, Vachhrajani KD, S.Makhija, Kashyap SK Histomorphometric and biochemical changes in the testicular tissues of rats treated with mercuric chloride 1986 Biomed Biochem, Acta
Vol. (45) 7, pp. 949-956 
article  
Abstract: Gradual alterations of testicular tissues were noted in rats treated with mercuric chloride at dosages of 0.05 mg/kg and 0.10-mg/kg body weight (i.p.) over a period of 90 days. Significant reduction in body and testicular weights were observed throughout the experimental period in treated animals. Consequently, testicular protein. DNA and RNA also exhibited a similar type if diminution in the same groups. Moreover, high cholesterol and low ascorbic acid concentrations were found in testis at both doses. Testicular degeneration and permatogenic arrest were more pronounced in the high dose group over a period of 90 days
BibTeX:
@article{RoychowdhuryA.;VachhrajaniKD1986,
  author = {Roy chowdhury A.; Vachhrajani KD, S.Makhija and S.K.Kashyap},
  title = {Histomorphometric and biochemical changes in the testicular tissues of rats treated with mercuric chloride},
  journal = {Biomed Biochem, Acta},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {(45) 7},
  pages = {949-956}
}
Roy chowdhury A, Vachhrajani KD Effects of mercuric chloride on hydrolytic enzymes of rat testicular tissues 1987 Ind. J.Exp.boil
Vol. 25, pp. 542-547 
article  
Abstract: Two groups of male albino rats (70 gm) were daily administered (i.p) doses of mercuric chloride (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg body weight) , over a period of 90 days and observation were made on 15th,30th,60th and 90th days of the experiments. Spermatogenic inhibition and testicular degeneration along with gradual decline of hydrolytic enzymes, i.e. acid phosphatase , alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase and 5�-adenosine monophosphatase in testicular tissues after mercuric chloride treatment were noted and found to be dose and duration related. The growth rates and the testicular weights of the experimental rats were noted to be retarded throughout the experimental period as compared to controls.
BibTeX:
@article{RoychowdhuryA.;Vachhrajani1987,
  author = {Roy chowdhury A.; Vachhrajani, K.D},
  title = {Effects of mercuric chloride on hydrolytic enzymes of rat testicular tissues},
  journal = {Ind. J.Exp.boil},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {542-547}
}
Loomba K, Pandey GS Removal of Mercury from Chloralkali Plant Effluent Using Granulated Slag of Steel Plant 1992 Indian Journal of Environmental Protection(7)  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{S1992,
  author = {Loomba K; Pandey G. S},
  title = {Removal of Mercury from Chloralkali Plant Effluent Using Granulated Slag of Steel Plant},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Environmental Protection},
  year = {1992},
  number = {7}
}
Nanda S The environmental impact of a chloro-alkali factory in a river basin in eastern India 1993 Environmentalist(13), pp. 121-124  article  
Abstract: It has been established that the electrodes of the dialyser in a chloro-alkali plant in Eastern India release mercury beyond the permissible limits into the River Koel. Mercury in elemental form, as well as certain organo-mercury compounds, including methyl mercury, have been detected at a distance of 25 km from the discharge point. Even at a distance of 5�10 km, the mercury content of the sediment may be as high as 0.6�3.2 mg kg�1 above the value of sediment upstream of the plant. This sediment itself is contaminated, probably by battery and paint factories, etc., still further upstream. Thus, the chloro-alkali factory has contributed 60�320 times above the permissible limit (0.01 mg kg�1) of mercury release, at a distance of 5�10 km from the point of release. Furthermore, various phytoplankton and zooplankton have been contaminated, leading to very high mercury contents in certain fish. This food chain, therefore, threatens man himself.
BibTeX:
@article{S1993,
  author = {Nanda S},
  title = {The environmental impact of a chloro-alkali factory in a river basin in eastern India},
  journal = {Environmentalist},
  year = {1993},
  number = {13},
  pages = {121-124}
}
Mahdihassan S The tradition of alchemy in India 1981 Am J Chin Med. Spring
Vol. 9(1), pp. 23-33 
article  
Abstract: The Aryan of ancient times was a nomad who lived mainly by hunting. The aged, incapable of partaking in such activity, were considered parasites and were exiled as lonely ascetics to the forest. The ascetic began searching for a strength-giving drug so that he could collect edible plants from the forest. He discovered ephedra or the soma plant as an energizer-cumeuphoriant. Feeling stronger and happier he entertained the idea of a drug of rejuvenation. The Aryan nomad as a hunter often overexerted himself and became exhausted. He then took soma juice thrice daily to prevent exhaustion. With such benefits soma became a popular drink in the Aryan community as a whole. When the Aryans entered India soma became unavailable. Its need persisting, the ascetic substituted ephedra with a mixture of other drugs. If soma was Rasa, or the juice, the substituted medicament was called Rasayana, signifying "juice-incorporate". Rasayana again was geriatric medicine which promised rejuvenation. Later came contact with the Chinese and their use of mercurials. These proved to be efficient energizers and were accepted as Rasayana. Then Aryan medicine first extolled ephedra, next some herbal drugs, and finally mercurials. As energizers-cum-euphoriants, both ephedra and mercurials are antisomnolents, a feature absent in intoxicants and nacrotics.
BibTeX:
@article{S.1981,
  author = {Mahdihassan S.},
  title = {The tradition of alchemy in India},
  journal = {Am J Chin Med. Spring},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {9(1)},
  pages = {23-33}
}
Roy Chowdhary A, Makhija S, Vachhrajani KD Methyl mercury induced biochemical and histochemical alterations in rat testis 1989 Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmec
Vol. 33(4) 
article  
Abstract: The methyl mercury chloride (MMC) administered at doses of 5 and 10?g/kg over a period of 90 days to male rats caused enzymatic impairments in testicular tissue. The study at intervals of 15, 30, 60 and 90 days showed gradual diminution of testicular weight and gradual decrements in
testicular protein and inhibition in testicular succinic dehydrogenase activity. Histochemical and biochemical studies reveled that testicular acid phosphatase activity was also inhibited at both the doses of MMC treatment. The inhibition of enzyme activity in testicular tissues after MMC treatment caused the impairment of both spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats.
BibTeX:
@article{S.;1989,
  author = {Roy Chowdhary A. Makhija S.; and Vachhrajani KD},
  title = {Methyl mercury induced biochemical and histochemical alterations in rat testis},
  journal = {Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmec},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {33(4)}
}
Sadhukhan PC, Ghosh S, Chaudhuri J, Ghosh DK, Mandal A Mercury and organomercurial resistance in bacteria isolated from freshwater fish of wetland fisheries around Calcutta 1997 Environ Pollut(97(1-2)), pp. 71-8  article  
Abstract: Mercury-resistant bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Sarcina, Shigella,
Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were isolated from gills and guts of fresh water fish collected from 17 wetland fisheries around Calcutta, India, contaminated with mercury compounds. The total number of bacteria, as well as Hg-resistant bacteria, were always higher in guts than gills. Bottom-dwelling fish contained higher number of bacteria, including Hg-resistant bacteria, than surface and middle water dwelling fish. They belonged either to narrow-spectrum or to broad-spectrum Hg-resistant groups and they also possessed other heavy metal and antibiotic resistant properties. In the presence of toxic levels of HgCl(2), phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) and methylmercuric chloride (MMC), the lag in growth of the bacterial strains gradually increased with increasing concentration of Hgcompounds. Narrow-spectrum Hgresistant bacterial strains volatilized only HgCl(2) from the liquid medium in the range of 64-89%, whereas the broad-spectrum group exhibited a high level of HgCl(2) (80-94%), PMA (72-84%) and MMC (64-80%) volatilizing capacity with inducible mercuric reductase and organomercurial lyase enzyme activities in their cell-free extracts. Cell-free extracts prepared from narrow-spectrum Hg-resistant bacterial strains induced by HgCl(2) exhibited Hg(+2)- dependent NADPH oxidation,
indicating the presence of only mercuric reductase enzyme
BibTeX:
@article{SadhukhanPC1997,
  author = {Sadhukhan PC, Ghosh S, Chaudhuri J, Ghosh DK, Mandal A},
  title = {Mercury and organomercurial resistance in bacteria isolated from freshwater fish of wetland fisheries around Calcutta},
  journal = {Environ Pollut},
  year = {1997},
  number = {97(1-2)},
  pages = {71-8}
}
Samudralwar DL, Garg AN Minor and trace elemental determination in the Indian herbal and other medicinal preparations. 1996 Biol Trace Elem Res(54(2)), pp. 113-21  article  
Abstract: Medicinal plants described in the Indian "Ayurvedic" literature viz. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Gulvel (Tinospora cardifolia), bitter Neem (Azadirachta indica), Kanher (Nerium Andicum), Vekhand (Acorus calamus), and Peacock's feather (ash) were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples and the standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA and IAEA,
Vienna were irradiated for 5 min, 1h, 5 h, and 10 h with thermal neutrons at a flux of 10(12)-10(13) n cm-2 s-1 in APSARA and CIRUS reactor at BARC, Bombay. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was performed using a 45 cm3 HPGe detector and a 4096 MCA system. Concentrations of 13
elements were determined. Zinc, manganese, and sodium were significantly higher in Tulsi leaves while zinc is higher in Neem leaves. Peacock's feathers were found to be rich in manganese, iron, copper, and zinc. A high concentration of mercury was also found in the peacock's feather ash.
The therapeutic significance in restoring ionic balance is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{SamudralwarDL1996,
  author = {Samudralwar DL, Garg AN},
  title = {Minor and trace elemental determination in the Indian herbal and other medicinal preparations.},
  journal = {Biol Trace Elem Res},
  year = {1996},
  number = {54(2)},
  pages = {113-21}
}
Selvaraj K Total dissolvable copper and mercury concentrations in innershelf waters, off Kalpakkam, Bay of Bengal. 1999 Curr.-Sci(77), pp. 494-497  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Selvaraj-K1999,
  author = {Selvaraj-K},
  title = {Total dissolvable copper and mercury concentrations in innershelf waters, off Kalpakkam, Bay of Bengal.},
  journal = {Curr.-Sci},
  year = {1999},
  number = {77},
  pages = {494-497}
}
Namasivayam C; Senthilkumar S Recycling of industrial solid waste for the removal of mercury (II) by adsorption process. 1997 Chemosphere(34), pp. 357-375  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Senthilkumar-S1997,
  author = {Namasivayam-C; Senthilkumar-S},
  title = {Recycling of industrial solid waste for the removal of mercury (II) by adsorption process.},
  journal = {Chemosphere},
  year = {1997},
  number = {34},
  pages = {357-375}
}
Sheerin NS, Monk PN, Aslam M, Thurston H Simultaneous exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury from Indian ethnic remedies 1994 Br J Clin Pract(48(6)), pp. 332-3  article  
Abstract: We report the case of an Asian woman who was exposed to toxic levels of lead, arsenic and mercury through the use of Indian ethnic remedies, and who suffered symptomatic lead poisoning. We know of no other case of exposure to such a combination of heavy metals from this source. We
believe that control of the dispensing of these compounds is essential.
BibTeX:
@article{SheerinNS1994,
  author = {Sheerin NS, Monk PN, Aslam M, Thurston H},
  title = {Simultaneous exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury from Indian ethnic remedies},
  journal = {Br J Clin Pract},
  year = {1994},
  number = {48(6)},
  pages = {332-3}
}
Shrivastava AK, Tandon SG Studies on mercury pollution: microdetermination of mercury in biological materials by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry 1982 Int J Environ Anal Chem
Vol. 11(3-4), pp. 221-6 
article  
Abstract: A simple, rapid, precise and accurate method for the determination of mercury in biological material is described. Biological samples were digested with nitric acid and acidified potassium permanganate and determined by cold vapour analyser. The proposed method was successfully employed for the determination of mercury in samples of fish, hair and blood.
BibTeX:
@article{ShrivastavaAK1982,
  author = {Shrivastava AK, Tandon SG.},
  title = {Studies on mercury pollution: microdetermination of mercury in biological materials by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry},
  journal = {Int J Environ Anal Chem},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {11(3-4)},
  pages = {221-6}
}
Singh B;, Shah VR, Gulvady NU, Parameswaran M Mercury levels in blood and urine of healthy young adults. 1985 Indian Journal of Occupational Health
Vol. 28(2), pp. 43-53 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Singh1985,
  author = {Singh, B; Shah, VR; Gulvady, NU; Parameswaran, M.},
  title = {Mercury levels in blood and urine of healthy young adults.},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Occupational Health},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {28(2)},
  pages = {43-53}
}
Soni JP, Singhania RU, Bansal A, Rathi G Acute mercury vapor poisoning 1992 Indian Pediatrics(29(3)), pp. 365-8  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{Soni1992,
  author = {Soni, J. P.; Singhania, R. U.; Bansal, A.; Rathi, G},
  title = {Acute mercury vapor poisoning},
  journal = {Indian Pediatrics},
  year = {1992},
  number = {29(3)},
  pages = {365-8}
}
Murthy SR An occurrence of cinnabar in Rasarnavakalpa 1979 Indian J Hist Sci
Vol. 14(2), pp. 83-6 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{SR1979,
  author = {Murthy SR},
  title = {An occurrence of cinnabar in Rasarnavakalpa},
  journal = {Indian J Hist Sci},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {14(2)},
  pages = {83-6}
}
Srikanth R, Rao AM, Khanum A, Reddy SR Mercury contamination of groundwater around Hussain Sagar Lake 1993 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol(51(1)), pp. 96-8  article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{SrikanthR1993,
  author = {Srikanth R, Rao AM, Khanum A, Reddy SR},
  title = {Mercury contamination of groundwater around Hussain Sagar Lake},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol},
  year = {1993},
  number = {51(1)},
  pages = {96-8}
}
Subramanian V, Madhavan N, Saxena R, Lundin LC Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India 2003 J Environ Monit(5(3)), pp. 427-34  article  
Abstract: Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard
procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement
could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain
near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Muller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical
distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin.
BibTeX:
@article{SubramanianV2003,
  author = {Subramanian V, Madhavan N, Saxena R, Lundin LC},
  title = {Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India},
  journal = {J Environ Monit},
  year = {2003},
  number = {5(3)},
  pages = {427-34}
}
Rajgopal T Mercury pollution in India 2003 Lancet
Vol. 362(9398), pp. 1856 
article  
Abstract: Abstract not available
BibTeX:
@article{T2003,
  author = {Rajgopal T},
  title = {Mercury pollution in India},
  journal = {Lancet},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {362},
  number = {9398},
  pages = {1856}
}
Tewari A, Joshi HV, Trivedi RH, Sravankumar VG, Raghunathan C, Khambhaty Y, Kotiwar OS, Mandal SK The effect of ship scrapping industry and its associated wastes on the biomass production and biodiversity of biota in in situ condition at Alang 2001 Mar Pollut Bull(42(6)), pp. 462-9  article  
Abstract: The main pollutants for the ship scrapping industry and its associated wastes at Alang are heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbon and bacterial
contaminations. The concentration of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and mercury were 25 to 15,500% more at nearshore station of Alang as compared to control site at Piram. The concentration of heavy metals in the nearshore station of Alang was always higher than its concentration at 10 km away. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was 16,973 and 53,900% more at the nearshore and 10 km away respectively at Alang as compared to controls. The concentration of chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin were in nondetectable range (< 0.2 and < 0.1 mg m3) or much lower concentration at both the stations of Alang as compared to controls. The total viable count, total coliform, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and other Vibrio, Streptococcus faecalis, Shigella, Salmonella, Proteus, and Klebsiella were always higher (17%-605%) at the nearshore station of Alang as compared to control. Similar trend was observed at 10 km away from Alang. Bacteria in sediment also showed the same pattern of variation. Phytoplankton counts at the nearshore station and 10 km away from Alang were only slightly raised. In contrast to phytoplankton, the zooplankton showed considerable reduction of growth (-10 to -66%) at Alang.
BibTeX:
@article{TewariA2001,
  author = {Tewari A, Joshi HV, Trivedi RH, Sravankumar VG, Raghunathan C, Khambhaty Y, Kotiwar OS, Mandal SK},
  title = {The effect of ship scrapping industry and its associated wastes on the biomass production and biodiversity of biota in in situ condition at Alang},
  journal = {Mar Pollut Bull},
  year = {2001},
  number = {42(6)},
  pages = {462-9}
}
Vachhrajani KD, Makhija S, Chinoy NJ, Roy chowdhury A Structural and functional alterations in the testis of rats after mercuric chloride treatment 1988 J Reprod Biol Comp Endocrinol
Vol. 8(2), pp. 97-104 
article  
Abstract: Administration (I.p.) of mercuric chloride (MC) to immature (30�2 days old) Male albino rats at dosed of 50 and 100mg/kg body weight, daily for 90 days gradually decreased body and testicular weights. Progressive degeneration of testicular tissue was correlated with graded decrease in testicular protein, acid phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase levels after MC treatment. Biochemical impairments in testicular tissue were observed by day 15 while, morphological changes were noted only after day 30 of MC treatment. The histological and biochemical alterations revealed that MC adversely affected the structural and functional integrity of testicular tissue.
BibTeX:
@article{VachhrajaniK.D1988,
  author = {Vachhrajani K.D, Makhija S., Chinoy N.J. and Roy chowdhury A},
  title = {Structural and functional alterations in the testis of rats after mercuric chloride treatment},
  journal = {J Reprod Biol Comp Endocrinol},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {8(2)},
  pages = {97-104}
}
Zerpa R, Huicho L, Guillen A Modified India ink preparation for Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid specimens 1996 J Clin Microbiol(34(9)), pp. 2290-1  article  
Abstract: A novel modified India ink technique for the diagnosis of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid specimens is described. It employs 2%
chromium mercury and India ink. This technique allows a clear identification of some external and internal structures of the organism. Three layers from the outer capsule that have previously been discerned only by electron microscopy are distinguished.
BibTeX:
@article{ZerpaR1996,
  author = {Zerpa R, Huicho L, Guillen A},
  title = {Modified India ink preparation for Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid specimens},
  journal = {J Clin Microbiol},
  year = {1996},
  number = {34(9)},
  pages = {2290-1}
}
(Last Updated Upto:2016)