Bibliography : Occupational Cancer

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Ahmed MN, Sinha SN, Vemula SR, Sivaperumal P, Vasudev K, Ashu S, Mendu VV, Bhatnagar VAhmed MN, Sinha SN, Vemula SR, Sivaperumal P, Vasudev K, Ashu S, Mendu VV, Bhatnagar V Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish and assessment of dietary exposure: a study in Hyderabad City, India 2016 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 188(2)(94) 
article DOI  
Abstract: The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in different fish species collected from fish outlets in the south Indian city of Hyderabad. The samples of fish extracted by using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 45 congeners) were determined by gas chromatography-microelectron capture detection (GC-?ECD) method. The intake of individual PCB congeners through fish, toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs), hazardous quotient, quantitative assessment, and risk evaluations was estimated in the Indian population. Daily dietary intakes of PCBs at the 95th-percentile-measured concentrations were twice the values of the 50th-percentile-measured concentrations in all socio-economic groups. The dietary intakes of PCBs through fish consumption in middle-income group, low-income group, and industrial laborers (0.023 ?g kg(-1) day(-1)), the high-income group (0.031 ?g kg(-1) day(-1)), and slum dwellers (0.039 ?g kg(-1) day(-1)) exceeded the reference dose. The observed estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of our study for all socio-economic sections (0.0087 ?g/kg/day) crossed the cancer benchmark concentration of 0.0003 ?g/kg/day. In slum dwellers, the ingestion of fish from freshwater and marine water results in the highest lifetime cancer risks of 4.7 in 100,000 and 7.8 in 100,000, respectively. Ultimately, the concentrations of PCBs were determined high in all of the fish species collected. Risk assessment showed that the fish were highly contaminated with PCBs and may pose health threats to consumers in the city of Hyderabad as well as a lifetime cancer risk.
BibTeX:
@article{AhmedMN,
  author = {Ahmed MN, Sinha SN, Vemula SR, Sivaperumal P, Vasudev K, Ashu S, Mendu VV, Bhatnagar VAhmed MN, Sinha SN, Vemula SR, Sivaperumal P, Vasudev K, Ashu S, Mendu VV, Bhatnagar V},
  title = {Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish and assessment of dietary exposure: a study in Hyderabad City, India},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  volume = {188(2)},
  number = {94},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-5068-3}
}
Ramanakumar AV Need for epidemiological evidence from the developing world to know the cancer-related risk factors. 2007 J Cancer Res Ther.
Vol. 3(1), pp. 29-33 
article  
Abstract: The existing evidence on cancer etiology has mostly come from epidemiological studies conducted in the developed world. Now there is an urgent need to gather information on cancer risks in developing countries. Due to recent economic, demographic and health transitions, cancers are on the rise in many developing countries. Future epidemiological studies in these countries should address changing diet, level of physical activity, various environmental and occupational exposures, smoking habits and infections, relative to cancers. In many low resource settings western and conventional lifestyles can be found side by side. Therefore, epidemiological studies in such societies should determine the wide varieties of potentially dangerous exposures, examine changing patterns of related factors and should study other contributing variables as well. Apart from the advantages of such research, there are some challenges. For example, incomplete cancer and death registration, lack of documentation, only partial computerization of medical records, cultural barriers and other technical difficulties can present problems. Some strategies to meet these challenges will be discussed in this paper. There is an immediate need for more detailed epidemiological studies before these developing societies are transformed.
BibTeX:
@article{AV2007,
  author = {Ramanakumar AV},
  title = {Need for epidemiological evidence from the developing world to know the cancer-related risk factors.},
  journal = {J Cancer Res Ther.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {3(1)},
  pages = {29-33}
}
Venkata Ratnam B How important is "pseudogynecomastia"? 2011 Aesthetic Plast Surg.
Vol. 35(4), pp. 668-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: The textile printing industry in South India employs a great number of workers that may possibly be exposed to toxic compounds. In the present study, subjects from textile printing units were investigated for the presence of genetic damage in their peripheral blood lymphocytes using micronucleus assay. Proliferation was also investigated using a nuclear division index. It was found that the micronucleus frequency was considerably greater in exposed subjects than in non exposed control subjects, but division was not increased in a statistically significant way. For the time being, this investigation should be considered as a preliminary study in which the influence of potential confounders could be adequately assessed. However, our results are non-ambiguous, indicating a potential health risk in these workers.
BibTeX:
@article{B.2011,
  author = {Venkata Ratnam B.},
  title = {How important is "pseudogynecomastia"?},
  journal = {Aesthetic Plast Surg.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {35(4)},
  pages = {668-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-010-9629-0}
}
Balachandar V, Kumar RK, Prakash V, Devi SM, Kumar BL, Manikantan P, Sasikala K, Malathi J, Brahmanandhan M, Khanna D, Selvasekarapandian S Evaluation of genetic alterations in inhabitants of a naturally high level background radiation and Kudankulam nuclear power project site in India. 2011 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 12(1) 
article  
Abstract: Evaluation of genetic alterations in inhabitants of an area of Tamil Nadu, India, chronically exposed to high background radiation (HBRA), was the major purpose of the present study. A total of 216 samples (exposed inhabitants, 108; control subjects, 108) were selected based on the confirmation of radiation dose level using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). After signing a consent form, volunteers provided blood samples (5 ml each) to establish cell cultures at 52 h. One hundred complete metaphase cells from each subject were evaluated for karyotyping. The frequencies of chromosomal alterations (CA) were found to be higher in the exposed groups and the aberrations predominately observed were of chromatid-type. Smoking was found to have considerable effect on the frequency of CA in exposed subjects. With the comet assay for DNA damage, a significant increase in comet tail frequency was also observed in exposed subjects compared to controls. At present there are no radioepidemiological data regarding the cytogenetic studies in these areas. Furthermore, the Kudankulam nuclear power plant nuclear power plant is being constructed in the same area. The study gives potentially important information on the general health effects due to radiation exposure and increases people's understanding of the hazardous nature of chronic low level natural radiation exposure. However, we may conclude that the HBRA by itself does not pose any significant risk of genetic damage as measured by conventional cytogenetic analysis.
BibTeX:
@article{BalachandarV2011,
  author = {Balachandar V, Kumar RK, Prakash V, Devi SM, Kumar BL, Manikantan P, Sasikala K, Malathi J, Brahmanandhan M, Khanna D, Selvasekarapandian S},
  title = {Evaluation of genetic alterations in inhabitants of a naturally high level background radiation and Kudankulam nuclear power project site in India.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {12(1)}
}
Balamuralikrishnan B, Balachandar V, Kumar SS, Stalin N, Varsha P, Devi SM, Arun M, Manikantan P, Venkatesan C, Sasikala K, Dharwadkar SN Evaluation of chromosomal alteration in electrical workers occupationally exposed to low frequency of electro magnetic field (EMFs) in Coimbatore population, India. 2012 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 13(6) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BalamuralikrishnanB2012,
  author = {Balamuralikrishnan B, Balachandar V, Kumar SS, Stalin N, Varsha P, Devi SM, Arun M, Manikantan P, Venkatesan C, Sasikala K, Dharwadkar SN},
  title = {Evaluation of chromosomal alteration in electrical workers occupationally exposed to low frequency of electro magnetic field (EMFs) in Coimbatore population, India.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {13(6)}
}
Balasubramaniam G, Saoba S, Sarade M, Pinjare S Case-control study of risk factors for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Mumbai, India. 2013 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
Vol. 14(2), pp. 775-80 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
In the year 2010, it is estimated that nearly 0.36 million new cases and 0.19 million deaths with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurred. In India, among males, NHL incidence rates vary across the country which has encouraged us to conduct a case-control study to study risk factors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The present unmatched hospital-based case-control study conducted at Tata Memorial Hospital included subjects registered between the years 1997-99. There were 390 'lymphoma cases' and 1,383 'normal controls.
RESULTS:
Data on age, tobacco habits, occupational history, dietary factors, tea, coffee were collected by the social investigators. Univariate and multivariate methods were applied for obtaining the odds ratios for risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS:
In the study, cigarette smoking (OR=2.0) and bidi smoking (OR=2.8), were associated with excess risk of lymphoma. Among the dietary items, only consumption of mutton showed 7.3-fold significant excess risk for lymphoma. Consumption of milk showed a 6-fold excess risk (OR=1.5); while coffee showed a 50% reduction in risk for lymphoma. Among occupational exposure, exposure to use of pesticides showed 3-fold excess risk for lymphoma.
BibTeX:
@article{BalasubramaniamG2013,
  author = {Balasubramaniam G, Saoba S, Sarade M, Pinjare S},
  title = {Case-control study of risk factors for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Mumbai, India.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {14(2)},
  pages = {775-80}
}
Bhattacharjee P, Chatterjee D, Singh KK, Giri AK Systems biology approaches to evaluate arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity: an overview. 2013 Int J Hyg Environ Health.
Vol. 216(5), pp. 574-86 
article DOI  
Abstract: Long term exposure to arsenic, either through groundwater, food stuff or occupational sources, results in a plethora of dermatological and non-dermatological health effects including multi-organ cancer and early mortality. Several epidemiological studies, across the globe have reported arsenic-induced health effects and cancerous outcomes; but the prevalence of such diseases varies depending on environmental factors (geographical location, exposure level), and genetic makeup (and variants thereof); which is further modulated by several other factors like ethnicity, age-sex, smoking status, diet, etc. It is also interesting to note that, chronic arsenic exposure to a similar extent, even among the same family members, result in wide inter-individual variations. To understand the adverse effect of this toxic metabolite on biological system (cellular targets), and to unravel the underlying molecular basis (at the level of transcript, proteome, or metabolite), a holistic, systems biology approach was taken. Due to the paradoxical nature and unavailability of any suitable animal model system; the literature review is primarily based on cell line and population based studies. Thus, here we present a comprehensive review on the systems biology approaches to explore the underlying mechanism of arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, along with our own observations and an overview of mitigation strategies and their effectiveness till date.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharjeeP2013,
  author = {Bhattacharjee P, Chatterjee D, Singh KK, Giri AK},
  title = {Systems biology approaches to evaluate arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity: an overview.},
  journal = {Int J Hyg Environ Health.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {216(5)},
  pages = {574-86},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.12.008}
}
Bhawna S, Ojha UC, Kumar S, Gupta R, Gothi D, Pal RS Spectrum of high resolution computed tomography findings in occupational lung disease: experience in a tertiary care institute. 2013 J Clin Imaging Sci.
Vol. 3(64) 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To study the spectrum of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in occupational lung disease in industrial workers and to assess the utility of International classification of HRCT for occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICHOERD).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Retrospective analysis of radiological data (radiographs and computed tomography chest scans) gathered over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012) of industrial workers in an organised sector who presented with respiratory complaints. The HRCT findings were evaluated using ICHOERD.
RESULTS:
There were 5 females and 114 males in the study, with a mean age of 49 years. These workers were exposed to different harmful agents including silica, asbestos, cotton dust, metal dust, iron oxide, organic dust, rubber fumes, plastic fumes, acid fumes, and oil fumes. There were 10 smokers in the study. The radiograph of chest was normal in 53 patients. 46% of these normal patients (21.8% of total) demonstrated positive findings on HRCT. When the radiograph was abnormal, HRCT provided more accurate information and excluded the other diagnosis. The HRCT findings were appropriately described using the ICHOERD. Bronchiectasis was the most common finding (44.5%) with mild central cylindrical bronchiectasis as the most common pattern. Pleural thickening was seen in 41 patients (34.5%). Enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymphnodes were seen in 10 patients (8.4%) with egg-shell calcification in 1 patient exposed to silica. Bronchogenic carcinoma was seen in 1 patient exposed to asbestos.
CONCLUSIONS:
Occupational lung disease is a common work related condition in industrial workers even in the organized sector. Though chest radiograph is the primary diagnostic tool, HRCT is the undisputed Gold Standard for evaluation of these patients. Despite the disadvantage of radiation exposure, low dose CT may serve as an important tool for screening and surveillance. The ICHOERD is a powerful and reliable tool not only for diagnosis, but also for quantitative and analytical measurement of disease, thereby contributing to assessing the medical epidemiology of lung disease. It should always be used while evaluating HRCT of a patient with occupational lung disease.
BibTeX:
@article{BhawnaS2013,
  author = {Bhawna S, Ojha UC, Kumar S, Gupta R, Gothi D, Pal RS},
  title = {Spectrum of high resolution computed tomography findings in occupational lung disease: experience in a tertiary care institute.},
  journal = {J Clin Imaging Sci.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {3},
  number = {64},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2156-7514.124097}
}
Chadha DS, Sharma S, Sivasankar R, Kudva N, Sabhiki G, Behl A Abdominal sonography in the medical evaluation of aviation aspirants. 2010 Aviat Space Environ Med.
Vol. 81(10), pp. 965-9 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{ChadhaDS2010,
  author = {Chadha DS, Sharma S, Sivasankar R, Kudva N, Sabhiki G, Behl A},
  title = {Abdominal sonography in the medical evaluation of aviation aspirants.},
  journal = {Aviat Space Environ Med.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {81(10)},
  pages = {965-9}
}
Chakraborty S, Mukherjee S, Roychoudhury S, Siddique S, Lahiri T, Ray MR Chronic exposures to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides adversely affect respiratory health of agricultural workers in India. 2009 J Occup Health.
Vol. 51(6), pp. 488-97 
article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
The impact of long term exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) pesticides on the respiratory health of agricultural workers in India was investigated.
METHODS:
Three hundred and seventy-six nonsmoking agricultural workers (median age 41 yr) from eastern India who sprayed OP and C pesticides in the field and 348 age- and sex-matched control subjects with non-agricultural occupations from the same locality were enrolled. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was obtained by questionnaire survey, and pulmonary function tests were carried out by spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was diagnosed by the Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was measured by the Ellman method.
RESULTS:
Agricultural workers had greater prevalences of upper and lower respiratory symptoms, and appreciable reduction in spirometric measurements. Overall, lung function reduction was noted in 48.9% of agricultural workers compared with 22.7% of control, and a restrictive type of deficit was predominant. COPD was diagnosed in 10.9% of agricultural workers compared with 3.4% of controls (p<0.05 in chi(2) test), and the severity of the disease was greater in agricultural workers. Red blood cell (RBC) AChE was lowered by 34.2% in agricultural workers, and the fall in AChE level was positively associated with respiratory symptoms, lung function decrement and COPD after controlling for education and income as potential confounders.
CONCLUSIONS:
Long-term exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting agricultural pesticides currently in use in India is associated with a reduction in lung function, COPD and a rise in respiratory symptoms.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyS2009,
  author = {Chakraborty S, Mukherjee S, Roychoudhury S, Siddique S, Lahiri T, Ray MR},
  title = {Chronic exposures to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides adversely affect respiratory health of agricultural workers in India.},
  journal = {J Occup Health.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {51(6)},
  pages = {488-97}
}
Patel D Risk of liver, oesophageal and stomach cancers in female textile workers. 2006 Occup Med (Lond).
Vol. 56(5), pp. 360 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{D2006,
  author = {Patel D},
  title = {Risk of liver, oesophageal and stomach cancers in female textile workers.},
  journal = {Occup Med (Lond).},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {56(5)},
  pages = {360}
}
Patel D Shift work, light at night and risk of breast cancer. 2006 Occup Med (Lond).
Vol. 56(6)(433) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{D2006a,
  author = {Patel D},
  title = {Shift work, light at night and risk of breast cancer.},
  journal = {Occup Med (Lond).},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {56(6)},
  number = {433}
}
Dwivedi S, Goel A, Mandhani A, Khattri S, Pant KK Tobacco exposure may enhance inflammation in prostate carcinoma patients: an explorative study in north Indian population. 2012 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 19(3), pp. 310-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Prostate cancer is responsible for major deaths globally after lung cancer. However, etiology of prostate cancer is still unknown. Individual risk and incidence of prostate cancer may result from the interaction of genetic susceptibility with exposure to environmental factors such as infectious agents, tobacco, occupational exposure, dietary carcinogens, and/or hormonal imbalances leading to injury of the prostate and to the development of chronic inflammation. About 30% of all human cancers are caused by tobacco smoking and inhaled pollutants. Inflammation is now regarded as an important hallmark of cancer. The present study has been aimed to explore the pro-inflammatory levels in prostate carcinoma patients by examining the serum levels of novel cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) expression in tobacco exposed population. A total of 578 (n = 284 biopsy proven prostate cancer patients, n = 294 controls with and without tobacco exposed population) were recruited. Serum IL-18 (Interleukin-18) level was done by ELISA. The IL-18 levels between cancer patients and controls within same mode tobacco exposure as tobacco smoking (overall) showed significant difference (P < 0.0001) and further we compared within stratified group, it significantly differ (P < 0.0001) in bidi and cigarette smoking than control non users. Furthermore, IL-18 levels in tobacco chewers (overall) with gutkha and khaini chewers showed significant difference (P < 0.01) than controls non users. Moreover, the IL-18 levels between cancer patients and controls with in of combined mode chewers smokers and alcohol (CSA), smokers with alcohol showed significant difference (P < 0.01) than controls. The IL-18 levels also differed significantly (P < 0.05) with smokers and chewers in higher stages of III and IV, and showed non significant with in lower stages. Tobacco exposure enhance the inflammation in prostate carcinoma patients in stratified group as it have been represented as a risk factors in various cancers, but this study provide further its role that seems to influence inflammation especially in prostate carcinoma.
BibTeX:
@article{DwivediS2012,
  author = {Dwivedi S, Goel A, Mandhani A, Khattri S, Pant KK},
  title = {Tobacco exposure may enhance inflammation in prostate carcinoma patients: an explorative study in north Indian population.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {19(3)},
  pages = {310-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.103681}
}
Felini M, Preacely N, Shah N, Christopher A, Sarda V, Elfaramawi M, Sall M, Bangara S, Gandhi S, Johnson ES A case-cohort study of lung cancer in poultry and control workers: occupational findings. 2012 Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 69(3), pp. 191-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
We conducted a mortality study of members of the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union who worked in poultry slaughtering/processing plants, and controls. Excess deaths from cancer at 11 different cancer sites including lung cancer were observed in the poultry workers. The study described here is a pilot case-cohort study of lung cancer nested within the cohort to examine if it is possible, in a larger study to be conducted later, to identify specific potentially carcinogenic occupational exposures in poultry workers.
METHODS:
Subjects or the next of kin of deceased subjects were interviewed by phone. Logistic regression ORs and Cox proportional HRs were estimated.
RESULTS:
Elevated risks for poultry exposure were recorded for subjects who (1) killed chickens at work (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 14.7; HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.3) and (2) ever had direct contact with chicken blood at work (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.8; HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.0). These activities are associated with high exposure to oncogenic viruses.
CONCLUSION:
These results may have important public health implications, since the general population is also exposed to these viruses. Elevated risks were observed for non-poultry-related occupational exposures such as working in a stockyard, working in a chemical plant, use of chemicals to kill moulds, and working in plants where plastic products were manufactured. These preliminary findings indicate that full scale epidemiological studies of adequate statistical power are needed to examine the role of occupationalexposures in cancer occurrence in poultry workers.
BibTeX:
@article{FeliniM2012,
  author = {Felini M, Preacely N, Shah N, Christopher A, Sarda V, Elfaramawi M, Sall M, Bangara S, Gandhi S, Johnson ES},
  title = {A case-cohort study of lung cancer in poultry and control workers: occupational findings.},
  journal = {Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {69(3)},
  pages = {191-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2011-100310}
}
Gandhi G, Kaur G, Nisar U A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station. 2015 Electromagn Biol Med
Vol. 34(4), pp. 344-54 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mobile phone base stations facilitate good communication, but the continuously emitting radiations from these stations have raised health concerns. Hence in this study, genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls. The power density in the area within 300?m from the base station exceeded the permissive limits and was significantly (p?=?0.000) higher compared to the area from where control samples were collected. The study participants comprised 63 persons with residences near a mobile phone tower, and 28 healthy controls matched for gender, age, alcohol drinking and occupational sub-groups. Genetic damage parameters of DNA migration length, damage frequency (DF) and damage index were significantly (p?=?0.000) elevated in the sample group compared to respective values in healthy controls. The female residents (n?=?25) of the sample group had significantly (p?=?0.004) elevated DF than the male residents (n?=?38). The linear regression analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage. The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer.
BibTeX:
@article{GandhiG2015,
  author = {Gandhi G, Kaur G, Nisar U},
  title = {A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station.},
  journal = {Electromagn Biol Med},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {34(4)},
  pages = {344-54},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2014.933349}
}
Ganesh B, Sushama S, Monika S, Suvarna P A case-control study of risk factors for lung cancer in Mumbai, India. 2011 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
Vol. 12(2), pp. 357-62 
article  
Abstract: In the year 2010, it is estimated that nearly 1.35 million new cases and 1.18 million deaths with lung cancer occurred. In India, among males, lungcancer rates vary across the country which has encouraged us to conduct a case-control study to study the risk factors. The present unmatched hospital-based case-control study conducted at Tata Memorial Hospital included subjects registered between the years 1997-99. There were 408 lung 'cancer cases' and 1383 'normal controls'. Data on age, tobacco habits, occupational history, dietary factors, tea, coffee were collected by the social investigators. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. In the study, cigarette smoking (OR=5.2) and bidi smoking (OR=8.3), as well as alcohol consumption (OR=1.8), demonstrated dose-response relationships with lung cancer risk. Among the dietary items, only red-meat consumption showed 2.2-fold significant excess risk. Consumption of milk showed a 60% reduction in risk; while coffee showed a 2-fold excess risk for lung cancer. In addition, exposure to use of pesticides showed a 2.5-fold significant excess risk for lung cancer.
BibTeX:
@article{GaneshB2011,
  author = {Ganesh B, Sushama S, Monika S, Suvarna P},
  title = {A case-control study of risk factors for lung cancer in Mumbai, India.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {12(2)},
  pages = {357-62}
}
Gemitha G, Sudha S Assessment of Genotoxicity Among Rubber Industry Workers Occupationally Exposed to Toxic Agents Using Micronucleus Assay. 2013 Iran J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 6(2) 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent complexmixture of genotoxic agents, however there is a wide variation in the specificity of biomarkers. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecular cancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to toxic agents among rubber industry workers by using Micronucleus (MN) assay.
METHODS:
In the present study 35 occupationally exposed rubber industry workers and 30 controls were investigated for genetic damage. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from rural areas of South India. Exfoliated Buccal cells were collected from the study population and examined for the presence of MN.
RESULTS:
Rubber industry workers showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells when compared to controls with respect to their smoking and drinking habits (P< 0.05). The present study suggested that occupational exposure to toxic chemicals in rubber industry can cause genetic damage.
CONCLUSION:
MN formation reflects genetic changes and/or events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore the results of this study indicate that rubber industry workers may be at the risk of cancer. Therefore, it is important to take appropriate measures to protect the workers from occupational hazards.
BibTeX:
@article{GemithaG2013,
  author = {Gemitha G, Sudha S},
  title = {Assessment of Genotoxicity Among Rubber Industry Workers Occupationally Exposed to Toxic Agents Using Micronucleus Assay.},
  journal = {Iran J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {6(2)}
}
Giri SK, Yadav A, Kumar A, Dev K, Gulati S, Gupta R, Aggarwal N, Gautam SK CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms: modulator of genetic damage in coal-tar workers. 2012 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 13(7) 
article  
Abstract: AIM:
It is well known that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo (a) pyrene have carcinogenic properties and may cause many types of cancers in human populations. Genetic susceptibility might be due to variation in genes encoding for carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P-450 (CYP450). Our study aimed to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (m1 and m2) on genetic damage in 115 coal-tar workers exposed to PAHs in their work place.
METHODS:
Genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1 were determined by the PCR-RFLP method. Comet and buccal micronucleus assays were used to evaluate genetic damage among 115 coal tar workers and 105 control subjects.
RESULTS:
Both CYP1A1 m1 and CYP1A1 m2 heterozygous and homozygous (wt/mt+mt/mt) variants individually as well as synergistically showed significant association (P<0.05) with genetic damage as measured by tail moment (TM) and buccal micronuclei (BMN) frequencies in control and exposed subjects.
CONCLUSION:
In our study we found significant association of CYP1A1 m1 and m2 heterozygous (wt/mt) +homozygous (mt/mt) variants with genetic damage suggesting that these polymorphisms may modulate the effects of PAH exposure in occupational settings.
BibTeX:
@article{GiriSK2012,
  author = {Giri SK, Yadav A, Kumar A, Dev K, Gulati S, Gupta R, Aggarwal N, Gautam SK},
  title = {CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms: modulator of genetic damage in coal-tar workers.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {13(7)}
}
Gokhale S, Ohri VC, Subramanya H, Reddy PS, Sharma SC Subcutaneous and osteolytic rhinosporidiosis. 1997 Indian J Pathol Microbiol.
Vol. 40(1), pp. 95-8 
article  
Abstract: A young man presented with multiple Subcutaneous nodules over scalp, hand, feet and osteolytic lesions of small bones of hand. Clinically and radiologically he was diagnosed as a case of Giant Cell Tumour. Aspiration cytology and biopsy proved it to be rhinosporidiosis. Epidemiological study revealed that he perhaps contracted this infection as an occupational hazard. This is the third reported case of osteolytic lesions due to rhinosporidiosis. Diagnostic dilemmas of subcutaneous and osteolytic rhinosporidiosis are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{GokhaleS1997,
  author = {Gokhale S, Ohri VC, Subramanya H, Reddy PS, Sharma SC},
  title = {Subcutaneous and osteolytic rhinosporidiosis.},
  journal = {Indian J Pathol Microbiol.},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {40(1)},
  pages = {95-8}
}
Gunasekarana V, Raj GV, Chand P A comprehensive review on clinical applications of comet assay. 2015 J Clin Diagn Res
Vol. 9(3) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Increased levels of DNA damage and ineffective repair mechanisms are the underlying bio-molecular events in the pathogenesis of most of the life-threatening diseases like cancer and degenerative diseases. The sources of DNA damage can be either exogenous or endogenous in origin. Imbalance between the oxidants and antioxidants resulting in increased reactive oxygen species mostly accounts for the endogenously derived attacks on DNA. Among the various methods employed in the estimation of DNA damage, alkaline comet assay is proven to be a relatively simple and versatile tool in the assessment of DNA damage and also in determining the efficacy of DNA repair mechanism. The aim of this article is to review the application of comet assay in the field of medicine towards human biomonitoring, understanding the pathogenesis of cancer and progression of chronic and degenerative diseases, prediction of tumour radio & chemosensitivity and in male infertility. A standardized protocol and analysis system of various variants of comet assay in different types of cells, across the labs will be of useful and reliable clinical tool in the field of Medicine for the estimation of levels of DNA damage and repair mechanisms.
BibTeX:
@article{GunasekaranaV2015,
  author = {Gunasekarana V, Raj GV, Chand P},
  title = {A comprehensive review on clinical applications of comet assay.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {9(3)},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/12062.5622}
}
Gupta D, Boffetta P, Gaborieau V, Jindal SKGupta D, Boffetta P, Gaborieau V, Jindal SK Risk factors of lung cancer in Chandigarh, India. 2001 Indian J Med Res.
Vol. 113, pp. 142-50 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES:
There is a paucity of data from India on the risk factors for lung cancer. In the present paper results of a case-control study on lung cancer undertaken at Chandigarh, north India, are described.
METHODS:
Two hundred and sixty five (235 men, 30 women) histologically confirmed patients of lung cancer and 525 (435 men, 90 women) hospital controls matched for age and sex were interviewed according to a pre-designed questionnaire. Effects of individual variables defining the various aspects of tobacco smoking, indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures were assessed using unconditional logistic regression models.
RESULTS:
Eighty nine per cent of men and 33 per cent of women among the patients were ever-smokers as compared to 60 per cent of men and 20 per cent of women among controls. The Odds Ratio (OR) for ever-smoking was 5.0 (CI 3.11-8.04) among men and 2.47 (CI 0.79-7.75) among women. Among the patients, men were found to smoke a higher average number of cigarette-equivalents per day, for longer duration and started at an earlier age as compared to controls. Smoking of bidi and hooka as well as cigarettes had similar ORs for cumulative consumption. ORs for female smokers were lower than those for male smokers. Cumulative exposure of > 45 yr in women to indoor air pollution from use of coal or wood for cooking or heating showed an OR of 1.43 (CI 0.33-6.30). Residence in urban areas did not entail an increased risk for developing lung cancer. Very few subjects studied were employed in high-risk occupations.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS:
Smoking (cigarettes or bidis) was the principle risk factor for causation of lung cancer among men. In women there could be several other risk factors besides smoking, as the association with smoking was not as strong.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaD2001,
  author = {Gupta D, Boffetta P, Gaborieau V, Jindal SK},
  title = {Risk factors of lung cancer in Chandigarh, India.},
  journal = {Indian J Med Res.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {113},
  pages = {142-50}
}
Shah HC Diagnostic bias in occupational epidemiologic studies. 1993 Am J Ind Med.
Vol. 24(2), pp. 249-56 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{HC1993,
  author = {Shah HC},
  title = {Diagnostic bias in occupational epidemiologic studies.},
  journal = {Am J Ind Med.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {24(2)},
  pages = {249-56}
}
Jain M, Kumar S, Ghoshal UC, Mittal B CYP1A1 Msp1 T/C polymorphism in esophageal cancer: no association and risk modulation. 2007 Oncol Res
Vol. 16(9), pp. 437-43 
article  
Abstract: Phase I enzyme CYP1A1 metabolizes environmental carcinogens and a Msp1 T/C functional polymorphism in 3'UTR in its gene has been reported to influence the inducibilty of the enzyme. There are controversies regarding association of the polymorphism with risk of esophageal cancer in Chinese and Caucasian populations. Moreover, no study has been done in Indian populations. The present study was aimed to explore the associations of CYP1A1 3'UTR polymorphism with clinical phenotypes and environmental interaction in esophagealcancer from North Indian population. A total of age- and gender-matched 161 cases and 201 healthy controls were used to genotype the CYP1A1 3'UTR polymorphism by PCR-EFLP methodology. None of the CYP1A1 genotypes and alleles was significantly associated with risk of esophageal cancer, even after adjusting for age and sex. After stratifying the genotypes according to disease characteristics such as tumor histology, location, and lymph nodes, individuals with TT genotype were at high risk for developing tumor in the upper third location (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 0.81-6.2, p = 0.11). Interaction of tobacco usage (smoking or nonsmoking) and presence of occupational exposure in esophageal cancer patients did not show significant increase in cancer risk with CYP1A1 genotypes. However, in patients with alcohol habits, TT genotype showed a higher risk, which was not significant (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.61-10.6, p = 0.19). In conclusion, CYP1A1 genotype did not influence the susceptibility of developing esophageal cancer. The presence of variant CYP1A1 genotypes together with environmental exposures also did not modulate the cancer risk.
BibTeX:
@article{JainM2007,
  author = {Jain M, Kumar S, Ghoshal UC, Mittal B},
  title = {CYP1A1 Msp1 T/C polymorphism in esophageal cancer: no association and risk modulation.},
  journal = {Oncol Res},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {16(9)},
  pages = {437-43}
}
Jain M, Kumar S, Lal P, Tiwari A, Ghoshal UC, Mittal B Association of genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 and susceptibility to esophageal cancer in north Indian population. 2007 Cancer Invest.
Vol. 25(5), pp. 340-6 
article  
Abstract: Esophageal cancer is multifactorial disease involving environmental and genetic risk factors. Tobacco smoke and alcohol are strong environmental risk factors. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is known to metabolize heterocyclic amine carcinogens in tobacco smoke. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic polymorphism in the NAT2 and their interaction with environmental factors influence the susceptibility for esophageal cancer. For our study, 126 patients and 164 controls were genotyped for NAT2 2 * 5, 2 * 6 and 2 * 7 polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP method. In a case-control study, NAT2 slow acetylator genotype was not significantly associated with risk of esophageal cancer(OR 1.3, 95%CI = 0.78-2.2, P = 0.28). There was significant linkage disequilibrium between 2 * 5-2 * 6 and 2 * 5-2*7 (P < 0.05). Using expectation maximization algorithm, 6 haplotypes were obtained but none of them revealed any significant contribution to disease susceptibility. In case only analysis, the smokers with rapid acetylator were at slightly higher risk of esophageal cancer (OR 1.3, 95%CI = 0.62-3.0, P = 0.43) which was not statistically significant. NAT2 slow or fast genotypes did not affect the risk of esophageal cancer in patients with alcohol consumption oroccupational exposure. These results suggest that NAT2 acetylator genotypes did not influence the susceptibility to esophageal cancer. NAT2 polymorphism did not significantly modulate the cancer risk after interaction with environmental factors like tobacco, alcohol or occupationalexposure.
BibTeX:
@article{JainM2007a,
  author = {Jain M, Kumar S, Lal P, Tiwari A, Ghoshal UC, Mittal B},
  title = {Association of genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 and susceptibility to esophageal cancer in north Indian population.},
  journal = {Cancer Invest.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {25(5)},
  pages = {340-6}
}
Jain M Kumar S, R.N.L.P.G.U.T.A.P.M.B.M.M.B. GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 genetic polymorphisms and interaction with tobacco, alcohol and occupationalexposure in esophageal cancer patients from North India. 2006 Cancer Lett.
Vol. 242(1), pp. 60-7 
article  
Abstract: Glutathione S-transferases(GSTs) are detoxification enzymes that provide critical defense against carcinogens. Our hypothesis was that altered frequencies of GST genotypes and environmental exposures might be associated with increased susceptibility for the development of esophagealcancer. A total of 100 esophageal cancer patients and 137 age and gender matched healthy controls were analyzed for GST polymorphisms. Frequencies of GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null and GSTP1 genotypes did not differ between patients and controls. However, a two-fold risk was observed for GSTM1 null genotype in adenocarcinoma (OR(odds ratio) 2.1; 95% CI(confidence intervals)=0.53-8.6). Further, we used a case only design to study gene-environment interactions in esophageal cancer. In patients with smoking habits, GSTM1 null and GSTP1 ile/ile genotype were at higher risk for esophageal cancer (OR 1.5; 95% CI=0.50-4.4 and OR 1.3; 95% CI=0.40-3.5), respectively. A moderate risk for cancer was observed from alcohol usage along with GSTM1 null(OR 1.3; 95% CI=0.50-3.6) and GSTP1 val/val genotypes(OR 1.2; 95% CI=0.20-5.7). Interaction of GST genotypes with occupational exposure did not affect risk for esophageal cancer. These findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 are not associated with higher risk of esophageal cancer. However, interaction of smoking or alcohol with GSTM1 null or GSTP1 ile/ile moderately increases the risk for esophageal cancer in North Indian population.
BibTeX:
@article{JainM2006,
  author = {Jain M, Kumar S, Rastogi N, Lal P, Ghoshal UC, Tiwari A, Pant MC, Baiq MQ, Mittal B},
  title = {GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 genetic polymorphisms and interaction with tobacco, alcohol and occupationalexposure in esophageal cancer patients from North India.},
  journal = {Cancer Lett.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {242(1)},
  pages = {60-7}
}
Jain NB, Hart JE, Smith TJ, Garshick E, Laden F Smoking behavior in trucking industry workers. 2006 Am J Ind Med.
Vol. 49(12), pp. 1013-20 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
In retrospective occupational studies, the degree of confounding by smoking depends on variation in smoking among job-related exposure groups. We assessed the relationship between job title and smoking behavior as part of a study on occupational exposures and lungcancer.
METHODS:
A questionnaire on smoking was mailed to a sample of 11,986 trucking industry workers. Company records were used to gather other relevant information.
RESULTS:
The response rate was 40.5%. Among white males, the age-adjusted prevalence of ever smoking was highest among longhaul truck drivers (67%) and lowest among clerks (44%). Smoking rates among workers with other job titles were similar.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our results will be used to adjust for the differences in smoking among job-related exposure groups when assessing the association between particulate matter exposure and lung cancer mortality. Our study also suggests that an assessment of methods to control for smoking should be considered in the design of retrospective occupational health studies.
BibTeX:
@article{JainNB2006,
  author = {Jain NB, Hart JE, Smith TJ, Garshick E, Laden F},
  title = {Smoking behavior in trucking industry workers.},
  journal = {Am J Ind Med.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {49(12)},
  pages = {1013-20}
}
Joshi JM, Barve KS, Basu S Pulmonary nodules with cavitary mass in a flour mill worker. 2012 J Postgrad Med.
Vol. 58(4), pp. 328-30 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiJM2012,
  author = {Joshi JM, Barve KS, Basu S},
  title = {Pulmonary nodules with cavitary mass in a flour mill worker.},
  journal = {J Postgrad Med.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {58(4)},
  pages = {328-30},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0022-3859.105485}
}
Joshi MS, Verma Y, Gautam AK, Shivgotra VK, Parmar G, Kumar S Assessment of genetic damage among chewers of mixture containing mainly areca nut and tobacco. 2011 Asia Pac J Public Health
Vol. 23(6), pp. 852-60 
article  
Abstract: Chewing mixture containing areca nut and tobacco is believed to be associated with oral cancer. Habit of chewing such mixture is prevalent among South Asian countries. This study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect of areca nut and tobacco on human lymphocytes. Peripheral blood from 107 subjects (nonchewers, 48; chewers, 59, including 20 subjects with oral submucous fibrosis [OSMF]) analyzed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and alkaline comet assay. Nuclear anomalies, namely, binucleated cells with micronuclei (BN MN), total MN, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear buds were higher in chewers whereas elevation in BN MN and total MN were significant among subjects with OSMF than nonchewers. DNA damage assessed by comet assay showed increased percentage of Tail DNA, Tail moment, and Olive tail moment among chewers as well as OSMF subjects. Significant positive correlation was observed between induction of CBMN and consumption of quids per day (r = .280, P = .033).
RESULTS:
suggested cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of mixture containing areca nut and tobacco.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiMS2011,
  author = {Joshi MS, Verma Y, Gautam AK, Shivgotra VK, Parmar G, Kumar S},
  title = {Assessment of genetic damage among chewers of mixture containing mainly areca nut and tobacco.},
  journal = {Asia Pac J Public Health},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {23(6)},
  pages = {852-60}
}
Joshi MS, Verma Y, Gautam AK, Shivgotra VK, Parmar G, Kumar S Assessment of genetic damage among chewers of mixture containing mainly areca nut and tobacco. 2011 Asia Pac J Public Health.
Vol. 23(6), pp. 852-60 
article  
Abstract: Chewing mixture containing areca nut and tobacco is believed to be associated with oral cancer. Habit of chewing such mixture is prevalent among South Asian countries. This study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect of areca nut and tobacco on human lymphocytes. Peripheral blood from 107 subjects (nonchewers, 48; chewers, 59, including 20 subjects with oral submucous fibrosis [OSMF]) analyzed by cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and alkaline comet assay. Nuclear anomalies, namely, binucleated cells with micronuclei (BN MN), total MN, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear buds were higher in chewers whereas elevation in BN MN and total MN were significant among subjects with OSMF than nonchewers. DNA damage assessed by comet assay showed increased percentage of Tail DNA, Tail moment, and Olive tail moment among chewers as well as OSMF subjects. Significant positive correlation was observed between induction of CBMN and consumption of quids per day (r = .280, P = .033).
RESULTS:
suggested cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of mixture containing areca nut and tobacco.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiMS2011a,
  author = {Joshi MS, Verma Y, Gautam AK, Shivgotra VK, Parmar G, Kumar S},
  title = {Assessment of genetic damage among chewers of mixture containing mainly areca nut and tobacco.},
  journal = {Asia Pac J Public Health.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {23(6)},
  pages = {852-60}
}
Joshi TK, Bhuva UB, Katoch P Asbestos ban in India: challenges ahead. 2006 Ann N Y Acad Sci.
Vol. 1076, pp. 292-308 
article  
Abstract: Rapidly industrializing India is described by the International Monetary Fund as a young, disciplined, and vibrant economy with a projected growth of 6.7% for 2005. The total workforce of 397 million has only 7% of workers employed in the organized sector with construction, where asbestos exposure is prevalent, employing 4.4%. The domestic production of asbestos declined from 20,111 tons in 1998-1999 to 14,340 tons in 2002-2003. The imports from Russia and Canada increased from 61,474 tons in 1997-1998 to 97,884 tons in 2001-2002. The production of asbestos cement products went up from 0.68 million tons in 1993-1994 to 1.38 million tons in 2002-2003. The asbestos industry has been delicensed since March 2003. The number of asbestos-based units stood at 32, with the western state of Maharashtra having the largest number. According to official figures, the industry employs 8000 workers. The occupational exposure standard is still 2 fibers/mL, worse still, mesothelioma is not recognized as an occupational disease. The latest cancer registry data have no information on mesothelioma. The health and safety legislation does not cover 93% of workers in the unorganized sector where asbestos exposures are extremely high. Workers remain uninformed and untrained in dealing with asbestos exposure. Enforcement agencies are not fully conscious of the risks of asbestos exposure. Industrial hygiene assessment is seldom carried out and pathologists do not receive training in identifying mesothelioma histopathologically. The lack of political will and powerful influence of the asbestos industry are pushing India toward a disaster of unimaginable proportion.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiTK2006,
  author = {Joshi TK, Bhuva UB, Katoch P},
  title = {Asbestos ban in India: challenges ahead.},
  journal = {Ann N Y Acad Sci.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {1076},
  pages = {292-308}
}
Joshi TK, Gupta RK Asbestos in developing countries: magnitude of risk and its practical implications. 2004 Int J Occup Med Environ Health.
Vol. 17(1) 
article  
Abstract: In developing countries, aggressive marketing of chrysotile asbestos continues as a result of restrictions on its use being imposed by the developed countries. In the Asian continent, China and India are emerging as the major users of asbestos. There is enough evidence to link chrysotile with pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer in humans, even at low levels of exposure, hence the need to apply the Precautionary Principle for phasing out its use globally. Due to poor occupational health and safety systems in developing countries and difficulties in early detection of pulmonary malignancy related to asbestos, the statistics remain sketchy. This is hampering efforts to create pressure on policy makers and to counter the propaganda of the asbestos industry. The International Labour Office believes that more than 100,000 deaths a year occur from asbestos-related disease. In the view of studies published in Europe and Australia, the number of deaths due to such malignancies will peak around the year 2020 and could be anywhere between half a million to a million. That means more than a million deaths will occur in developing countries. At about the same time when asbestos-related deaths start to decrease in developed countries, their number will begin to rise in developing countries. This presents a major challenge to the international scientific community.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiTK2004,
  author = {Joshi TK, Gupta RK},
  title = {Asbestos in developing countries: magnitude of risk and its practical implications.},
  journal = {Int J Occup Med Environ Health.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {17(1)}
}
Sheikh K Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of leukemia. 1986 Arch Environ Health.
Vol. 41(1), pp. 56-63 
article  
Abstract: Evidence from animal experiments and human studies suggests that electromagnetic fields may be human leukemogens. Epidemiological studies of leukemia in occupational groups and in the general populations are reviewed. The results are inconsistent. In the few studies showing an association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of leukemia, the temporal relationship between exposure and effect was not established, the observed associations were weak, the dose-response relationships were based on qualitative levels of exposure without regard to the duration of exposure or secondary sources of exposure, and the risk ratios were probably biased due to the population selection procedures used and misclassification of exposure. The proportionate mortality or cancer incidence ratios are unreliable estimates of relative risk. Further epidemiological research is needed to establish an association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of leukemia.
BibTeX:
@article{K1986,
  author = {Sheikh K},
  title = {Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of leukemia.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Health.},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {41(1)},
  pages = {56-63}
}
Kashyap B, Reddy PS Micronuclei assay of exfoliated oral buccal cells: means to assess the nuclear abnormalities in different diseases. 2012 J Cancer Res Ther.
Vol. 8(2), pp. 184-91 
article  
Abstract: The micronuclei assay (MA) in exfoliated buccal cells is an innovative genotoxicity technique, which holds promise for the study of epithelial carcinogens. Micronuclei are suitable internal dosimeters for revealing tissue-specific genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to carcinogenic mixtures. This article reviews the MN assay with respect to oral buccal mucosa, which has been used since the 1980s to demonstrate cytogenetic effects of environmental and occupational exposures, lifestyle factors, dietary deficiencies, and different diseases along with the characteristics of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities.
BibTeX:
@article{KashyapB2012,
  author = {Kashyap B, Reddy PS},
  title = {Micronuclei assay of exfoliated oral buccal cells: means to assess the nuclear abnormalities in different diseases.},
  journal = {J Cancer Res Ther.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {8(2)},
  pages = {184-91}
}
Kaushal RK, Nema AK Multi-stakeholder decision analysis and comparative risk assessment for reuse-recycle oriented e-waste management strategies: a game theoretic approach. 2013 Waste Manag Res.
Vol. 31(9), pp. 881-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: This article deals with assessment of the potential health risk posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances, namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper, chromium (CrVI), zinc, nickel and mercury, present in e-waste. A multi-objective, multi-stakeholder approach based on strategic game theory model has been developed considering cost, as well as human health risk. The trade-off due to cost difference between a hazardous substances-free (HSF) and a hazardous substance (HS)-containing desktop computer, and the risk posed by them at the time of disposal, has been analyzed. The cancer risk due to dust inhalation for workers at a recycling site in Bangalore for Pb, Cr(VI) and Cd was found to be 4, 33 and 101 in 1 million respectively. Pb and Cr(VI) result in a very high risk owing to dust ingestion at slums near the recycling site--175 and 81 in 1 million for children, and 24 and 11 in 1 million for adults respectively. The concentration of Pb at a battery workshop in Mayapuri, Delhi (hazard quotient = 3.178) was found to pose adverse health hazards. The government may impose an appropriate penalty on the land disposal of computer waste and/or may give an incentive to manufacturer for producing HSF computers through, for example, relaxing taxes, but there should be no such incentive for manufacturing HS-containing computers.
BibTeX:
@article{KaushalRK2013,
  author = {Kaushal RK, Nema AK},
  title = {Multi-stakeholder decision analysis and comparative risk assessment for reuse-recycle oriented e-waste management strategies: a game theoretic approach.},
  journal = {Waste Manag Res.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {31(9)},
  pages = {881-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X13490983}
}
Khan MR, Sudha S Evaluation of genotoxicity in automobile mechanics occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities. 2012 Iran J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 5(2) 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent mixtures of genotoxic agents, whereas the specificity of biomarker measurements varies widely. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecularcancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile mechanics by using Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) as a biomarker.
METHODS:
The study population composed of 110 occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and 100 unexposed controls. All the study participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from automobile garages located in the urban area of Coimbatore City, South India. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 110 automobile mechanics and 100 age and sex matched controls. Further, cells were examined for MN frequency and Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs and karyolysis.
RESULTS:
Results showed a statistically significant difference between occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in automobile mechanics were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher degree of NA was observed among the exposed subjects with smoking, drinking, tobacco chewing, which is an indicative of cytogenetic damage in these individuals.
CONCLUSION:
MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that automobile mechanics exposed to PAHs are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, it is important to provide and offer better awareness of occupational hazards among these workers to promote occupational safety.
BibTeX:
@article{KhanMR2012,
  author = {Khan MR, Sudha S},
  title = {Evaluation of genotoxicity in automobile mechanics occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities.},
  journal = {Iran J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {5(2)}
}
Pandey KR Occupational cancer kills more than 200,000 people a year. 2007 BMJ
Vol. 334(7600)(925) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KR2007,
  author = {Pandey KR},
  title = {Occupational cancer kills more than 200,000 people a year.},
  journal = {BMJ},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {334(7600)},
  number = {925}
}
Krishnatreya M, Kataki AC, Sharma JD, Lahkar K A retrospective analysis of occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for non-melanoma skin cancers. 2015 South Asian J Cancer
Vol. 4(1), pp. 47-8 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KrishnatreyaM2015,
  author = {Krishnatreya M, Kataki AC, Sharma JD, Lahkar K},
  title = {A retrospective analysis of occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for non-melanoma skin cancers.},
  journal = {South Asian J Cancer},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {4(1)},
  pages = {47-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2278-330X.149955}
}
Kumar A, Singh BP, Punia M, Singh D, Kumar K, Jain VK Assessment of indoor air concentrations of VOCs and their associated health risks in the library of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. 2014 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 21(3), pp. 2240-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present work investigated the levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) in different microenvironments in the library of Jawaharlal Nehru University in summer and winter during 2011-2012. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks due to organic compounds were also evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conventional approaches. Real-time monitoring was done for TVOC using a data-logging photo-ionization detector. For BTEX measurements, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method which consists of active sampling of air through activated charcoal, followed by analysis with gas chromatography, was performed. Simultaneously, outdoor measurements for TVOC and BTEX were carried out. Indoor concentrations of TVOC and BTEX (except benzene) were higher as compared to the outdoor for both seasons. Toluene and m/p-xylene were the most abundant organic contaminant observed in this study. Indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios of BTEX compounds were generally greater than unity and ranged from 0.2 to 8.7 and 0.2 to 4.3 in winter and summer, respectively. Statistical analysis and I/O ratios showed that the dominant pollution sources mainly came from indoors. The observed mean concentrations of TVOC lie within the second group of the Molhave criteria of indoor air quality, indicating a multifactorial exposure range. The estimated lifetime cancer risk (LCR) due to benzene in this study exceeded the value of 1 × 10(-6) recommended by USEPA, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk came under an acceptable range.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2014,
  author = {Kumar A, Singh BP, Punia M, Singh D, Kumar K, Jain VK},
  title = {Assessment of indoor air concentrations of VOCs and their associated health risks in the library of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(3)},
  pages = {2240-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2150-7}
}
Kumar A, Singh BP, Punia M, Singh D, Kumar K, Jain VK Determination of volatile organic compounds and associated health risk assessment in residential homes and hostels within an academic institute, New Delhi. 2014 Indoor Air
Vol. 24(5), pp. 474-83 
article DOI  
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different indoor microenvironments of residential homes and hostels in an academic institute, in New Delhi, during March-May 2011. Eleven VOCs (aromatic and halogenated) were assessed. Sampling and analytical procedure were based on National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method. The lifetime cancer and non-cancer risk were calculated for targeted VOCs using US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The mean concentrations of ? VOCs (sum of monitored VOCs) and individual VOC were found to be higher indoors as compared to outdoors at both types of premises. Indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios of the targeted VOCs exceeded 1.0, suggesting the significant presence of indoor sources. Strong correlations between I/O concentrations of VOCs in the current study suggest the presence of common sources. Factor analysis (FA) was used for source evaluation separately at two premise types. The estimated lifetime cancer risks in the current study for all occupants at both premises exceeded 10(-6) .
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2014a,
  author = {Kumar A, Singh BP, Punia M, Singh D, Kumar K, Jain VK},
  title = {Determination of volatile organic compounds and associated health risk assessment in residential homes and hostels within an academic institute, New Delhi.},
  journal = {Indoor Air},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {24(5)},
  pages = {474-83},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ina.12096}
}
Kumar A, Vashist M, Rathee R Maternal factors and risk of childhood leukemia. 2014 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 15(2), pp. 781-4 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Although the cause in most cases of childhood leukemia is not known, the contribution of environmental risk factors in the context of genetic predisposition has been reported with inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to examine association of childhood leukemia with maternal factors especially during pregnancy, to help in avoiding risk factors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This case-control study included children younger than 18 years diagnosed with leukemia from 2008 to 2012. Controls were randomly selected and individually matched to cases with respect to age, sex, and residency. All variables were compared between cases and control to determine any significant association with leukemia.
RESULTS:
Statistically significant associations between risk of childhood leukemia with mother's education (p=0.001), occupation (p=0.0005) and pesticides exposure (p=0.005) during pregnancy were found. However, there were no significant links with maternal age (p=0.090), history of fetal loss (0.85), history of radiography during pregnancy (p=0.400), history of drug intake (p=0.689) and infection (p=0.696) during pregnancy.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results showed increased risk of leukemia in children whose mothers were working in agriculture and were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy. The further study needs to be investigated to know association of various maternal risk factors with leukemia which remained unknown in this study.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2014b,
  author = {Kumar A, Vashist M, Rathee R},
  title = {Maternal factors and risk of childhood leukemia.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {15(2)},
  pages = {781-4}
}
Kumar M, Tewari S, Sharma P, Verma VK, Chauhan LK, Agarwal SK, Dwivedi UN, Goel SK Study of genetic polymorphism in solvent exposed population and its correlation to in vitro effect of trichloroethylene on lymphocytes. 2009 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 30(5), pp. 685-91 
article  
Abstract: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is major industrial pollutant that contaminate environment. Its exposure may lead to hepato-renal toxicity along with thecancer progression. Although extensive research is done on its toxicity still not much is known about its genotoxic potential on humans in relation to genetic polymorphism. Cytochrome P450 (CYP P-450) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are important in cellular detoxification of TCE. Variations in gene sequences result in population specific regional genetic variations (polymorphism). Genotyping of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphism was performed in 220 normal and 97 solvent-exposed individuals from northern part of India using real time PCR, PCR and restriction digestion techniques. The parameters examined to study genotoxicity were chromosomal aberration (CA) and cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in lymphocyte culture in vitro. The observed average frequencies for GSTM1 (null) and GSTT1 (null) were 41, 22 and 12.7%, respectively in normal subjects whereas frequencies of CYP1A1/GSTP1 with (ile/ile) or (ile/val) or(val/val) were found to be 76.2/52, 21.4/42.1 and 2.4/5.9% respectively. It was further observed that the frequencies of above genes were found to be similar in solvent exposed groups. The distribution frequencies of GST genes, when compared with other reports from various regions of India show variations. In vitro TCE exposure (2, 4 and or 6 mM) did not show any significant genotoxic effect. TCE maybe toxic due to its metabolite.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarM2009,
  author = {Kumar M, Tewari S, Sharma P, Verma VK, Chauhan LK, Agarwal SK, Dwivedi UN, Goel SK},
  title = {Study of genetic polymorphism in solvent exposed population and its correlation to in vitro effect of trichloroethylene on lymphocytes.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(5)},
  pages = {685-91}
}
Kumar S, Budhwar R, Nigam A, Priya S Cytoprotection against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage by alpha-lipoic acid: implications in reducingoccupational cancer risk. 2009 Mutagenesis.
Vol. 24(6), pp. 495-500 
article  
Abstract: Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), the metabolic antioxidant, was evaluated for its potential to protect against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage. Potassium dichromate was administered to Swiss albino mice orally ad libitum at the doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg body weight in drinking water to set DNA damage in cells, which was characterized in mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bone marrow cells using single-cell gel electrophoresis and analyses of generated comets for Tail moment, Tail DNA and Tail length. DNA damage was dose dependent. Cytoprotection by LA was remarkable. LA (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally) in pre-, co- and post-toxicant administration schedule abrogated DNA damage substantially in both cell types. Protection by LA was also dose dependent. LA annulled DNA damage by Cr(6+) in plasmid relaxation assay. A negligible DNA damage resulted during interaction of Cr(6+) and LA. Compared to ascorbate, LA emerged as a better antioxidant and least DNA damaging. In conclusion, our study advocated an experimental therapeutic research potential in LA against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage for reduction of occupational cancer risk in humans.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS2009,
  author = {Kumar S, Budhwar R, Nigam A, Priya S},
  title = {Cytoprotection against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage by alpha-lipoic acid: implications in reducingoccupational cancer risk.},
  journal = {Mutagenesis.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {24(6)},
  pages = {495-500}
}
Kumar S, Nigam A, Priya S, Bajpai P, Budhwar R Lipoic acid prevents Cr(6+) induced cell transformation and the associated genomic dysregulation. 2013 Environ Toxicol Pharmacol
Vol. 36(1), pp. 182-93 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS2013,
  author = {Kumar S, Nigam A, Priya S, Bajpai P, Budhwar R},
  title = {Lipoic acid prevents Cr(6+) induced cell transformation and the associated genomic dysregulation.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol Pharmacol},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {36(1)},
  pages = {182-93},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2013.02.016}
}
Kumar S, Wairagkar NS, Mahanta J Demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in serum of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. 2001 Indian J Cancer.
Vol. 38(2-4), pp. 72-5 
article  
Abstract: A total of eighty six blood samples (17, 19 & 50 of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, oesophageal cancer and normal healthy control respectively) were collected from Naga Hospital, Kohima, Nagaland and B. Barooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati, Assam and were processed for the detection of EBV-IgG antibody using Elisa test. The results showed that EBV positivity is higher among NPC patients as compared to oesophageal carcinoma patients and/or healthy control. The data also indicated that EBV antibody titre is significantly higher among NPC cases as compared to control.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS2001,
  author = {Kumar S, Wairagkar NS, Mahanta J},
  title = {Demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in serum of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.},
  journal = {Indian J Cancer.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {38(2-4)},
  pages = {72-5}
}
Murthy KV Primary cutaneous carcinoma of the scrotum. 1993 J Occup Med.
Vol. 35(9), pp. 888-9 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KV1993,
  author = {Murthy KV},
  title = {Primary cutaneous carcinoma of the scrotum.},
  journal = {J Occup Med.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {35(9)},
  pages = {888-9}
}
Kundi M Occupational exposure to magnetic fields. 2002 Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 59(7)(496) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{M2002,
  author = {Kundi M},
  title = {Occupational exposure to magnetic fields.},
  journal = {Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {59(7)},
  number = {496}
}
Pandey M Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a reappraisal. 2003 Eur J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 12(1), pp. 15-24 
article  
Abstract: Carcinoma of the gallbladder has a very unusual geographical distribution with pockets of high incidence seen in Chile, Poland, India, Japan and Israel; it occurs rarely in the rest of the world. It is a common malignancy in the Western Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh regions of India. Patients present with extremes of clinical symptoms, indicating benign biliary diseases on the one hand and incurable malignant disease on the other. Laboratory and roentgenographic data tend to confirm the clinical diagnosis of the advanced incurable disease at presentation, in most cases. Various aetiopathological agents have been proposed but none has stood the test of time. In this article, we have reviewed the aetiopathological agents proposed from time to time over the past two centuries, with special emphasis on the developments made in the last 25 years.
BibTeX:
@article{M2003,
  author = {Pandey M},
  title = {Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a reappraisal.},
  journal = {Eur J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {12(1)},
  pages = {15-24}
}
Sharma M Understanding the mechanism of toxicity of carbon nanoparticles in humans in the new millennium: A systemic review. 2010 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 14(1), pp. 3-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Manmade nanoparticles range from the well-established multi-ton production of carbon black and fumed silica for applications in plastic fillers and car tyres to microgram quantities of fluorescent quantum dots used as markers in biological imaging. While benefits of nanotechnology are widely publicized, the discussion of the potential effects of their widespread use in the consumer and industrial products are just beginning to emerge. Acceptance of nanoparticle toxicity led to wide acceptance of the fact that nanotoxicology, as a scientific discipline shall be quite different fromoccupational hygiene in approach and context. Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is important for human and environmental health and safety as well as public acceptance. Assessing the state of knowledge about nanotoxicology is an important step in promoting comprehensive understanding of the health and environmental implications of these new materials. Very limited data exist for health effects secondary to inhalation of very fine respirable particles in the occupational environment. Nanomaterials may have effects on health due to their size, surface, shape, charge, or other factors, which are not directly predictable from mass concentration measurements. Numerous epidemiological studies have associated exposure to small particles such as combustion-generated fine particles with lung cancer, heart disease, asthma and/or increased mortality. The omnipresence of nanoparticles shifts focus of research toward efforts to mitigate the health effects of nanoparticles. Newer health assessment methods and newer techniques need to be developed for diagnosing sub-optimal health in populations exposed to carbon nanoparticles.
BibTeX:
@article{M2010,
  author = {Sharma M},
  title = {Understanding the mechanism of toxicity of carbon nanoparticles in humans in the new millennium: A systemic review.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {14(1)},
  pages = {3-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.64607}
}
Mahboob M, Rahman MF, Rekhadevi PV, Sailaja N, Balasubramanyam A, Prabhakar PV, Singh SP, Reddy UA, Rao GS, Grover P Monitoring of oxidative stress in nurses occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs. 2012 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 19(1), pp. 20-4 
article DOI  
Abstract: Antineoplastic drugs (ANDs) have been in clinical usage for more than five decades. The nonselective mechanism of action of ANDs between cancerous and noncancerous cells had well documented side effects such as acute symptoms, reproductive health issues, and potential cancer development in healthcare workers as a result of occupational exposure. The anticancer mechanism of ANDs is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are responsible for various side effects in patients undergoing chemotherapy and the healthcare personnel occupationally exposed to them. ROS have potential to damage lipids, DNA, proteins, and so on leading to oxidative stress condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible oxidative stress effect of antineoplastic drugs in nurses who routinely handle ANDs in an oncology hospital in south India. Malondialdehyde levels, reduced glutathione content, and glutathione S-transferase activity were analyzed in serum collected from 60 female nurses handling ANDs and compared with equal number of healthy volunteers matched by age and sex except AND exposure. The results showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in malondialdehyde levels in the serum of exposed nurses. However, glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly decreased in these nurses. Our study suggests that the nurses occupationally exposed to ANDs were susceptible to the oxidative stress and emphasizes the need for a harmonized safe handling approach that assures minimal risk to the working nurses.
BibTeX:
@article{MahboobM2012,
  author = {Mahboob M, Rahman MF, Rekhadevi PV, Sailaja N, Balasubramanyam A, Prabhakar PV, Singh SP, Reddy UA, Rao GS, Grover P},
  title = {Monitoring of oxidative stress in nurses occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {19(1)},
  pages = {20-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.94510}
}
Majumdar D, Ray S, Chakraborty S, Rao PS, Akolkar AB, Chowdhury M, Srivastava A Emission, speciation, and evaluation of impacts of non-methane volatile organic compounds from open dump site. 2014 J Air Waste Manag Assoc.
Vol. 64(7), pp. 834-45 
article  
Abstract: Surface emission from Dhapa, the only garbage disposal ground in Kolkata, is a matter of concern to the local environment and also fuels the issues of occupational and environmental health. Surface emission of the Dhapa landfill site was studied using a flux chamber measurement for nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Eighteen noncarbonyl volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and 14 carbonyl VOCs, including suspected and known carcinogens, were found in appreciable concentrations. The concentrations of the target species in the flux chamber were found to be significantly higher for most of the species in summer than winter. Surface emission rate of landfill gas was estimated by using two different approaches to assess the applicability for an open landfill site. It was found that the emissions predicted using the model Land GEM version 3.02 is one to two orders less than the emission rate calculated from flux chamber measurement for the target species. Tropospheric ozone formation has a serious impact for NMVOC emission. The total ozone-forming potential (OFP) of the Dhapa dumping ground considering all target NMVOCs was estimated to be 4.9E+04 and 1.2E+05 g/day in winter and summer, respectively. Also, it was found that carbonyl VOCs play a more important role than noncarbonyl VOCs for tropospheric ozone formation. Cumulative cancer risk estimated for all the carcinogenic species was found to be 2792 for 1 million population, while the total noncancer hazard index (HI) was estimated to be 246 for the occupational exposure to different compounds from surface emission to the dump-site workers at Dhapa. Implications: This paper describes the real-time surface emission of NMVOCs from an open municipal solid waste (MSW) dump site studied using a flux chamber. Our study findings indicate that while planning for new landfill site in tropical meteorology, real-time emission data must be considered, rather than relying on modeled data. The formation of tropospheric ozone from emitted NMVOC has also been studied. Our result shows how an open landfill site acts as a source and adds to the tropospheric ozone for the airshed of a metropolitan city.
BibTeX:
@article{MajumdarD2014,
  author = {Majumdar D, Ray S, Chakraborty S, Rao PS, Akolkar AB, Chowdhury M, Srivastava A},
  title = {Emission, speciation, and evaluation of impacts of non-methane volatile organic compounds from open dump site.},
  journal = {J Air Waste Manag Assoc.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {64(7)},
  pages = {834-45}
}
Mishra GA, Majmudar PV, Gupta SD, Rane PS, Hardikar NM, Shastri SS Call centre employees and tobacco dependence: making a difference. 2010 Indian J Cancer.
Vol. 1, pp. 43-52 
article  
Abstract: CONTEXT:
India is known as the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) capital of the world. Safeguarding health of millions of youngsters employed in this new growing economy is an occupational health challenge.
AIMS:
This study was initiated in June 2007 in India with the objectives to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and study the factors responsible for initiating and continuing its use. The main aim, however, was to assess the effect of different tobacco cessation intervention strategies, thus identifying effective methods to assist these employees to quit tobacco.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This is a 4-arm cluster randomized trial of 18 months duration among 646 BPO employees, working in 4 different BPO units. The employees were invited to participate in interviews following which tobacco users of each BPO were offered specific tobacco cessation interventions to assist them to quit tobacco use.
RESULTS:
The prevalence of tobacco dependence is 41%, mainly cigarette smoking. The tobacco quit rate is similar (nearly 20%) in the 3 intervention arms. Significantly higher reduction in tobacco consumption of 45% is seen in Arm 4 with the use of pharmacotherapy. BPO employees change jobs frequently, hence follow-up remains a major challenge.
CONCLUSION:
Inaccessibility of pharmacotherapy in the developing countries should not deter tobacco cessation efforts as good tobacco quit rates can be achieved with health education and behavioral therapy. Tobacco cessation should be an integral activity in all BPOs, so that the employees receive this service continuously and millions of our youths are protected from the hazards of tobacco.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraGA2010,
  author = {Mishra GA, Majmudar PV, Gupta SD, Rane PS, Hardikar NM, Shastri SS},
  title = {Call centre employees and tobacco dependence: making a difference.},
  journal = {Indian J Cancer.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {43-52}
}
Mishra P, Jacob SE, Basu D, Panigrahi MK, Govindaraj V Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in chronic silicosis: a case report. 2014 Case Rep Pathol.  article DOI  
Abstract: Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica. People working in occupations like sandblasting, surface drilling, tunneling, silica flour milling, ceramic making, and so forth are predisposed to develop silicosis. Crystalline forms of silica are more fibrogenic than the amorphous forms, highlighting the importance of the physical form in pathogenesis. Lung biopsy is rarely performed for the diagnosis of silicosis as it can easily be detected by occupational history and radiological features. Patients with silicosis can develop complications like tuberculosis, lung cancer, progressive massive fibrosis, cor pulmonale, broncholithiasis, or tracheobronchial compression by lymph nodes. Pleural involvement in silicosis is rare. Spontaneous pneumothorax is a pleural complication that can develop in such patients. Usually in silicosis pneumothorax is unilateral. We hereby report the lung biopsy findings and discuss the mechanism of pneumothorax development in a case of chronic silicosis who, later on died during the course of the disease.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraP2014,
  author = {Mishra P, Jacob SE, Basu D, Panigrahi MK, Govindaraj V},
  title = {Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in chronic silicosis: a case report.},
  journal = {Case Rep Pathol.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/561861}
}
Mishra PK, Raghuram GV, Bunkar N, Bhargava A, Khare NK Molecular bio-dosimetry for carcinogenic risk assessment in survivors of Bhopal gas tragedy 2015 Int J Occup Med Environ Health
Vol. 28(6), pp. 921-39 
article  
Abstract: December 2014 marked the 30th year anniversary of Bhopal gas tragedy. This sudden and accidental leakage of deadly poisonous methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas instigated research efforts to understand the nature, severity of health damage and sufferings of 570 000 ailing survivors of this tragedy. In a decade-long period, our systematic laboratory investigations coupled with long-term molecular surveillance studies have comprehensively demonstrated that the risk of developing an environmental associated aberrant disease phenotype, including cancer, involves complex interplay of genomic and epigenetic reprogramming. These findings poised us to translate this knowledge into an investigative framework of "molecular biodosimetry" in a strictly selected cohort of MIC exposed individuals. A pragmatic cancer risk-assessment strategy pursued in concert with a large-scale epidemiological study might unfold molecular underpinnings of host-susceptibility and exposureresponse relationship. The challenges are enormous, but we postulate that the study will be necessary to establish a direct initiation-promotion paradigm of environmental carcinogenesis. Given that mitochondrial retrograde signaling-induced epigenetic reprogramming is apparently linked to neoplasticity, a cutting-edge tailored approach by an expert pool of biomedical researchers will be fundamental to drive these strategies from planning to execution. Validating the epigenomic signatures will hopefully result in the development of biomarkers to better protect human lives in an overburdened ecosystem, such as India, which is continuously challenged to meet population demands. Besides, delineating the mechanistic links between MIC exposure and cancer morbidity, our investigative strategy might help to formulate suitable regulatory policies and measures to reduce the overall burden of occupational and environmental carcinogenesis.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraPK2015,
  author = {Mishra PK, Raghuram GV, Bunkar N, Bhargava A, Khare NK},
  title = {Molecular bio-dosimetry for carcinogenic risk assessment in survivors of Bhopal gas tragedy},
  journal = {Int J Occup Med Environ Health},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {28(6)},
  pages = {921-39}
}
Joseph P Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. 2009 Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.
Vol. 238(3), pp. 272-9 
article  
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern, has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The carcinogenic potential of Cd as well as the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis following exposure to Cd has been studied using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. Exposure of cells to Cd results in their transformation. Administration of Cd in animals results in tumors of multiple organs/tissues. Also, a causal relationship has been noticed between exposure to Cd and the incidence of lung cancer in human. It has been demonstrated that Cd induces cancer by multiple mechanisms and the most important among them are aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, induction of oxidative stress, and inhibition of apoptosis. The available evidence indicates that, perhaps, oxidative stress plays a central role in Cd carcinogenesis because of its involvement in Cd-induced aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.
BibTeX:
@article{P2009,
  author = {Joseph P},
  title = {Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis.},
  journal = {Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {238(3)},
  pages = {272-9}
}
Pandey S, Sharma V, Titiyal GS, Satyawali V Sequential occurrence of basal cell carcinoma in symmetrically identical positions of both lower eyelids: A rare finding of a common skin cancer. 2010 Oman J Ophthalmol.
Vol. 3(3), pp. 145-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer in white-skinned individuals but is rare in blacks and Indians. There are only few case reports about bilateral BCC of lower eyelids. Here we present a case of BCC appearing sequentially in symmetrically identical positions in both lower eyelids. The patient was a resident of high altitude and had worked out doors for seven to eight hours every day. Environmental andoccupational parameters may have an important role to play in this context. There was no evidence of local invasion or distant metastasis.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyS2010,
  author = {Pandey S, Sharma V, Titiyal GS, Satyawali V},
  title = {Sequential occurrence of basal cell carcinoma in symmetrically identical positions of both lower eyelids: A rare finding of a common skin cancer.},
  journal = {Oman J Ophthalmol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {3(3)},
  pages = {145-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-620X.71895}
}
Patil G, Khan MI, Akhtar MJ, Ashquin M, Sultana S, Ahmad I Nanotoxicity of dolomite mineral of commercial importance in India. 2011 J Biomed Nanotechnol
Vol. 7(1), pp. 114-5 
article  
Abstract: The risk of occupational exposure to dolomite, an important mineral exists both in organized as well as unorganized sectors. Toxicological profiles of bulk dolomite are meagerly known in general and its nanotoxicity in particular. Effects of micro- and nano particles on cell viability, LDH leakage and markers of oxidative stress were observed. The study indicated that cytotoxicity of dolomite nanoparticles is significantly higher than the microparticles. The study thus suggests for the prescription of exposure limit for nanodolomite in the best interest of health of workers at risk of exposure under mining, milling and industrial environment.
BibTeX:
@article{PatilG2011,
  author = {Patil G, Khan MI, Akhtar MJ, Ashquin M, Sultana S, Ahmad I},
  title = {Nanotoxicity of dolomite mineral of commercial importance in India.},
  journal = {J Biomed Nanotechnol},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {7(1)},
  pages = {114-5}
}
Prabhu JS, Korlimarla A, Desai K, Alexander A, Raghavan R, Anupama C, Dendukuri N, Manjunath S, Correa M, Raman N, Kalamdani A, Prasad M, Gopinath KS, Srinath BS, Sridhar TS A Majority of Low (1-10%) ER Positive Breast Cancers Behave Like Hormone Receptor Negative Tumors. 2014 J Cancer
Vol. 5(2), pp. 156-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
The 2010 guidelines by ASCO-CAP have mandated that breast cancer specimens with ?1% positively staining cells by immunohistochemistry should be considered Estrogen Receptor (ER) positive. This has led to a subclass of low-ER positive (1-10%) breast cancers. We have examined the biology and clinical behavior of these low ER staining tumors.
METHODS:
We have developed a probabilistic score of the "ER-positivity" by quantitative estimation of ER related gene transcripts from FFPE specimens. Immunohistochemistry for ER was done on 240 surgically excised tumors of primary breast cancer. Relative transcript abundance of 3 house-keeping genes and 6 ER related genes were determined by q-RT PCR. A logistic regression model using 3 ER associated genes provided the best probability function, and a cut-off value was derived by ROC analysis. 144 high ER (>10%), 75 ER negative and 21 low-ER (1-10%) tumors were evaluated using the probability score and the disease specific survival was compared.
RESULTS:
Half of the low-ER positive tumors were assigned to the ER negative group based on the probability score; in contrast 95% of ER negative and 92% of the high ER positive tumors were assigned to the appropriate ER group (p<0.0001). The survival of the low-ER group was intermediate between that of the high ER positive and ER negative groups (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Our results suggest that the newly lowered ASCO-CAP criteria for ER positivity, leads to the false categorization of biologically ER negative tumors as ER positive ones. This may have particular relevance to India, where we have a much higher proportion of ER negative tumors in general.
BibTeX:
@article{PrabhuJS2014,
  author = {Prabhu JS, Korlimarla A, Desai K, Alexander A, Raghavan R, Anupama C, Dendukuri N, Manjunath S, Correa M, Raman N, Kalamdani A, Prasad M, Gopinath KS, Srinath BS, Sridhar TS},
  title = {A Majority of Low (1-10%) ER Positive Breast Cancers Behave Like Hormone Receptor Negative Tumors.},
  journal = {J Cancer},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {5(2)},
  pages = {156-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.7668}
}
Praveen Kumar AS, Chandramohan R, Suri Subrahmanyam DK, Dutta TK Adenocarcinoma lung in a painter. 2011 J Cancer Res Ther
Vol. 7(3), pp. 358-60 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{PraveenKumarAS2011,
  author = {Praveen Kumar AS, Chandramohan R, Suri Subrahmanyam DK, Dutta TK},
  title = {Adenocarcinoma lung in a painter.},
  journal = {J Cancer Res Ther},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {7(3)},
  pages = {358-60},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/.4103/0973-1482.87012}
}
Raja DS, Sultana B Potential health hazards for students exposed to formaldehyde in the gross anatomy laboratory. 2012 J Environ Health
Vol. 74(6), pp. 36-40 
article  
Abstract: Formaldehyde, which has been a well-established preservative for cadavers in the anatomy laboratory for years, has an odor that many anatomy students find unpleasant. Anatomy faculty and students, embalmers in funeral homes, histopathology laboratory workers, and other biological researchers are continually exposed to the toxic vapors of formaldehyde. The immediate effects of that agent are nausea, headache, and ocular irritation that causes tear overflow and a burning sensation in the throat. Long-term exposure to formaldehyde can cause contact dermatitis, congenital defects, and cancer. This article discusses the adverse effects of continual exposure to formaldehyde and formalin and suggests various measures that can eliminate or minimize that danger to staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories.
BibTeX:
@article{RajaDS2012,
  author = {Raja DS, Sultana B},
  title = {Potential health hazards for students exposed to formaldehyde in the gross anatomy laboratory.},
  journal = {J Environ Health},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {74(6)},
  pages = {36-40}
}
Rajendran R, Anil S, Vijayakumar T A rare human model for oncogenesis. 1988 Singapore Dent J
Vol. 13(1) 
article  
Abstract: A rare female human model of oral carcinoma (OC) who refrained from any type of tobacco and/or betel nut habits, belonged to an younger age group, had no pre-existing precancerous lesions in the oral cavity and who was exposed chronically to cashew nut oil, is presented. The role of genetic inherited influences, occupational and endocrine disturbances with racial factors in the causation of oral carcinoma is discussed. The significance of further studies at the genetic level, to rule out protooncogenic activation in the causation of oral cancer is summed up. The literature on the concept of oncogenesis is reviewed briefly.
BibTeX:
@article{RajendranR1988,
  author = {Rajendran R, Anil S, Vijayakumar T},
  title = {A rare human model for oncogenesis.},
  journal = {Singapore Dent J},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {13(1)}
}
Ramanathan AL, Subramanian V Present status of asbestos mining and related health problems in India--a survey. 2001 Ind Health.
Vol. 39(4), pp. 309-15 
article  
Abstract: At present in India more than thirty mines are in operation. It produces 2800 tones of asbestos per month (mainly chrysotile and tremolite) and in recent years substantial quantity (-70%) is imported from Canada. The quality of asbestos produced in India is very poor. The mining and milling and other related processes expose the people to cancer and related diseases. Women are more affected by their exposure in processing unit compared to male who are generally working in mines. Direct and indirect employment in asbestos related industry and mine is around 100,000 workers. Latency period (length of the time between exposure and the onset of diseases) in India is estimated to be 20-37 yr. The causes for lung and breathing problem are mainly due to obsolete technology and direct contact with the asbestos products without proper precaution, because in India asbestos are sold without statutory warning. This paper reviews health effects (such as fibrosis, sequelae, bronchogenic cancer, and malignant mesothelioma) on the Indian mine workers caused due to asbestos mining related activities with respect to their present day condition.
BibTeX:
@article{RamanathanAL2001,
  author = {Ramanathan AL, Subramanian V},
  title = {Present status of asbestos mining and related health problems in India--a survey.},
  journal = {Ind Health.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {39(4)},
  pages = {309-15}
}
Rao GP, Malhotra S, Marwaha RK Psychosocial study of leukemic children and their parents. 1992 Indian Pediatr.
Vol. 29(8), pp. 985-90 
article  
Abstract: Psychosocial assessment was carried out in 35 children with acute lymphatic leukemic, an equal number with non-leukemic chronic illness and their parents. Psychological dysfunction existed more frequently in parents of leukemic children. Depression as an initial reaction on being conveyed the diagnosis, was seen in 85.8% whilst anger was observed in 42.8%. Majority (89.7%) entertained doubts about whether a correct diagnosis has been established. Understanding of the disease, its possible course and the need for prolonged treatment, was appreciated by about 65.7% of parents. The disease imposed serious social, financial and occupational burdens on the family. Measures used to cope with such stresses included meeting close friends and relatives and finding solace in religious activities. When comparing psychopathology in leukemic children with that in chronically ill non-leukemic counterparts, significant differences were observed in certain specific syndrome scores. Conduct disorder, anxiety, depression and psychotic symptoms were more prevalent in leukemic children. This study emphasizes the necessity of active psychosocial intervention in the total care of childhood leukemia.
BibTeX:
@article{RaoGP1992,
  author = {Rao GP, Malhotra S, Marwaha RK},
  title = {Psychosocial study of leukemic children and their parents.},
  journal = {Indian Pediatr.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {29(8)},
  pages = {985-90}
}
Rastogi SK, Kesavachandran C, Mahdi F, Pandey A Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review. 2007 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 11(1), pp. 3-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicularcancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned.
BibTeX:
@article{RastogiSK2007,
  author = {Rastogi SK, Kesavachandran C, Mahdi F, Pandey A},
  title = {Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {11(1)},
  pages = {3-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.32456}
}
Ray MR, Roychoudhury S, Mukherjee G, Roy S, Lahiri T Respiratory and general health impairments of workers employed in a municipal solid waste disposal at an open landfill site in Delhi. 2005 Int J Hyg Environ Health.
Vol. 208(4) 
article  
Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the respiratory and general health of workers employed in a municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal at an open landfill site in India. Ninety-six landfill workers of Okhla landfill site, Delhi, and 90 controls matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic conditions were enrolled. Health data was obtained from questionnaire surveys, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Compared with matched controls, landfill workers had significantly higher prevalences of both upper and lower respiratory symptoms, and they suffered more often from diarrhea, fungal infection and ulceration of the skin, burning sensation in the extremities, tingling or numbness, transient loss of memory, and depression. Spirometry revealed impairment of lung function in 62% of the landfill workers compared to 27% of the controls. Sputum cytology showed squamous metaplasia, abundance of inflammatory cells, alveolar macrophages (AM) and siderophages (macrophages with iron deposits), and high elastase enzyme activity in neutrophils and AM of a majority of landfill workers, indicating adverse cellular lung reaction. Hematological profiles of these workers depicted low hemoglobin and erythrocyte levels with high total leukocyte, eosinophil and monocyte counts. Erythrocytes with target cell morphology were abundant in 42% of the landfill workers compared to 10% of the controls. Toxic granulation in neutrophils, an indication of infection and inflammation, was recorded in 94% of the landfill workers and in 49% of the controls. The results demonstrated higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, inflammation of the airways, lung function decrement and a wide range of general health problems in MSW disposal workers.
BibTeX:
@article{RayMR2005,
  author = {Ray MR, Roychoudhury S, Mukherjee G, Roy S, Lahiri T},
  title = {Respiratory and general health impairments of workers employed in a municipal solid waste disposal at an open landfill site in Delhi.},
  journal = {Int J Hyg Environ Health.},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {208(4)}
}
Ray MR, Roychoudhury S, Mukherjee S, Lahiri T Occupational benzene exposure from vehicular sources in India and its effect on hematology, lymphocyte subsets and platelet P-selectin expression. 2007 Toxicol Ind Health
Vol. 23(3), pp. 167-75 
article  
Abstract: Benzene exposure from vehicular sources and its health impact are relatively unexplored in India. We have investigated in this study hematology and lymphocyte subsets of 25 petrol pump attendants, 25 automobile service station workers and 35 controls matched for age, sex and socioeconomic conditions. The participants were non-smoking males of Kolkata (former Calcutta) in eastern India. Compared with controls, the workers had 3.8- times more trans,trans-muconic acid in urine, suggesting higher level of benzene exposure. The exposed subjects had decreased erythrocyte, hemoglobin, lymphocyte and platelet levels, but increased neutrophil, band cells, RBC aniso-poikilocytosis and target cells. In addition, CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ cells were decreased by 37, 20 and 47% respectively, but CD 16+ 56+ NK cells were increased by 20%. P-selectin expression on platelet surface of the workers was significantly elevated (P < 0.05), indicating upregulation of platelet activity. In summary, the study revealed high level of benzene exposure from vehicular sources in India, and the exposed subjects had hematological and immunological alterations.
BibTeX:
@article{RayMR2007,
  author = {Ray MR, Roychoudhury S, Mukherjee S, Lahiri T},
  title = {Occupational benzene exposure from vehicular sources in India and its effect on hematology, lymphocyte subsets and platelet P-selectin expression.},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {23(3)},
  pages = {167-75}
}
Ray MR, Roychoudhury S, Mukherjee S, Siddique S, Banerjee M, Akolkar AB, Sengupta B, Lahiri T Airway inflammation and upregulation of beta2 Mac-1 integrin expression on circulating leukocytes of female ragpickers in India. 2009 J Occup Health
Vol. 51(3), pp. 232-8 
article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
Over one million ragpickers collect and sale recyclable materials from municipal solid wastes (MSW) in India for a living. Since MSW contains a host of pathogenic microorganisms, we investigated the occurrence of airway inflammation and its underlying mechanism in 52 non-smoking female ragpickers (median age 29 yr) and 42 control women matched for age, smoking habit and socioeconomic conditions in Kolkata, eastern India.
METHODS:
Spontaneously expectorated sputum were stained using the Papanicolau method for cytology, and flow cytometry was used for measurements of surface expression of beta(2) Mac-1 integrin (CD11b/CD18) on leukocytes and P-selectin on platelets. The concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS:
Compared with controls, sputum samples of ragpickers contained significantly increased numbers of alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes, suggesting airway inflammation. Circulating neutrophils and monocytes of the ragpickers overexpressed CD11b/CD18 and their platelets had upregulated surface expression of P-selectin, implying functional activation of these cells. In addition, plasma levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased, indicating greater trafficking of leukocytes from circulation to the tissues. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a positive association between the ragpicking profession and leukocyte activation after controlling for potential confounders.
CONCLUSIONS:
Ragpickers experience leukocyte and platelet activation and airway inflammation that could make them more vulnerable to tissue damage and cardiovascular diseases.
BibTeX:
@article{RayMR2009,
  author = {Ray MR, Roychoudhury S, Mukherjee S, Siddique S, Banerjee M, Akolkar AB, Sengupta B, Lahiri T},
  title = {Airway inflammation and upregulation of beta2 Mac-1 integrin expression on circulating leukocytes of female ragpickers in India.},
  journal = {J Occup Health},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {51(3)},
  pages = {232-8}
}
Rekhadevi PV, Sailaja N, Chandrasekhar M, Mahboob M, Rahman MF, Grover P Genotoxicity assessment in oncology nurses handling anti-neoplastic drugs. 2007 Mutagenesis.
Vol. 22(6), pp. 395-401 
article  
Abstract: Many anti-neoplastic drugs are used globally during chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. However, occupational exposure to anti-cancerdrugs can represent a potential health risk to humans. Investigations on the genotoxicity of these drugs are inconsistent. Further, information on the genotoxic potential of anti-neoplastic drugs in medical personnel from India is not available. Hence, the aim of this study was to carry out genotoxicity monitoring of nurses from the oncology department of a hospital in South India, occupationally exposed to anti-neoplastic drugs under routine working conditions. The level of genome damage was determined in whole blood with the comet assay as well as micronucleus test (MNT) and in buccal epithelial cells with MNT alone of 60 nurses handling anti-neoplastic drugs and 60 referents matched for age and sex. Urinary cyclophosphamide (CP), used as a marker for drug absorption, was also measured in the urine of the nurses. The DNA damage observed in the lymphocytes of exposed nurses was significantly higher than the controls. Similarly, a significant increase in micronuclei (MN) frequency with peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal cells was observed in the exposed nurses compared to controls (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that occupational exposure and age had a significant effect on mean comet tail length as well as on frequency of MN. The mean value of CP in urine of the nurses handling anti-neoplastic drugs was (mean +/- standard deviation; 0.44 +/- 0.26 microg/ml). Our study has shown that increased genetic damage was evident in nurses due to occupational exposure to anti-neoplastics. This data corroborate the need to maintain safety measures to avoid exposure and the necessity of intervention in the case of exposure when using and handling anti-neoplastic drugs.
BibTeX:
@article{RekhadeviPV2007,
  author = {Rekhadevi PV, Sailaja N, Chandrasekhar M, Mahboob M, Rahman MF, Grover P},
  title = {Genotoxicity assessment in oncology nurses handling anti-neoplastic drugs.},
  journal = {Mutagenesis.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {22(6)},
  pages = {395-401}
}
Bhatt RV Environmental influence on reproductive health. 2000 Int J Gynaecol Obstet
Vol. 70(1), pp. 69-75 
article  
Abstract: A rise in industrialization and the consequent environmental pollution, an increase in the use of synthetic chemicals and repeated exposure to hazardous compounds at the workplace and at home adversely affects reproductive health. Biohazardous compounds, some of which act as endocrine disrupters, are being increasingly implicated in infertility, menstrual irregularities, spontaneous abortions, birth defects, endometriosis and breast cancer. In some cases, women are at a greater risk than men, especially with the rise in environmental estrogens. Only a fraction of these chemicals have been adequately examined for toxicity and for synergistic effects due to multiple exposures. There is a need for a greater awareness and vigilance of the effects of environmental pollution on reproductive health.
BibTeX:
@article{RV2000,
  author = {Bhatt RV},
  title = {Environmental influence on reproductive health.},
  journal = {Int J Gynaecol Obstet},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {70(1)},
  pages = {69-75}
}
Kumar S Panmasala chewing induces deterioration in oral health and its implications in carcinogenesis. 2008 Toxicol Mech Methods.
Vol. 18(9), pp. 665-77 
article  
Abstract: Panmasala containing tobacco was introduced in the Indian market during the 1970s. Panmasala consists of areca nut (betel nut), catechu, lime, cardamom, spices, and unspecified flavoring agents, etc., with tobacco locally known as gutkha or without tobacco (Plain or sada), and consumed abundantly in India and also other parts of the world, predominantly in South East Asian countries. Available studies demonstrate that the habits of chewing panmasala gutkha or plain by students and adolesescents are on the increase, which may lead to deterioration of oral health and other organ systems. Based on the experimental as well as clinical studies available on panmasala as well as on different components of panmasala, this review suggests that it has the potential in causation of various oral diseases such as Oral Sub Mucosis Fibrosis (OSMF) and leucoplakia which may lead to oral cancer. Studies reviewed on these chewing mixtures also reveal that it is likely to be carcinogenic, as tobacco and areca nut have carcinogenic potential and both have encompassing addictive potential leading to dependence on chewing mixture containing areca nut and tobacco. These mixtures might not only lead to cancer but may also affect other organs of the body, including oral hard tissues in the form of dental attrition and sensitivity. There is a need to consider the potential health hazards associated with the habits of these products, especially oral cancer. More research is needed to find out early changes which could be reversible and also intervention measures through education to desist people in indulging in such habits.
BibTeX:
@article{S2008,
  author = {Kumar S},
  title = {Panmasala chewing induces deterioration in oral health and its implications in carcinogenesis.},
  journal = {Toxicol Mech Methods.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {18(9)},
  pages = {665-77}
}
Saikia KC, Bhuyan SK, Goswami S, Bora A Rare site giant cell tumors: report of two cases on phalanges of the finger and review of literature. 2009 J Orthop Traumatol.
Vol. 10(4), pp. 193-7 
article  
Abstract: Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone arising from a phalanx of a finger is extremely rare. We report two cases of GCT arising from a phalanx of a finger. One case presented with recurrence following the amputation of the left ring finger (performed elsewhere). He was treated successfully with ray amputation. The other case was treated primarily by intralesional curettage and autogenous bone graft. At their most recent follow-ups (80 and 24 months, respectively), both were recurrence free and had returned to their previous occupational and recreational activities.
BibTeX:
@article{SaikiaKC2009,
  author = {Saikia KC, Bhuyan SK, Goswami S, Bora A},
  title = {Rare site giant cell tumors: report of two cases on phalanges of the finger and review of literature.},
  journal = {J Orthop Traumatol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {10(4)},
  pages = {193-7}
}
Sameer AS, Chowdri NA, Syeed N, Banday MZ, Shah ZA, Siddiqi MA SMAD4--molecular gladiator of the TGF-beta signaling is trampled upon by mutational insufficiency in colorectal carcinoma of Kashmiri population: an analysis with relation to KRAS proto-oncogene. 2010 BMC Cancer.
Vol. 10(300) 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
The development and progression of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied and the genes responsible have been well characterized. However the correlation between the SMAD4 gene mutations with KRAS mutant status has not been explored by many studies so far. Here, in this study we aimed to investigate the role of SMAD4 gene aberrations in the pathogenesis of CRC in Kashmir valley and to correlate it with various clinicopathological variables and KRAS mutant genotype.
METHODS:
We examined the paired tumor and normal tissue specimens of 86 CRC patients for the occurrence of aberrations in MCR region of SMAD4 and exon 1 of KRAS by PCR-SSCP and/or PCR-Direct sequencing.
RESULTS:
The overall mutation rate of mutation cluster region (MCR) region of SMAD4 gene among 86 patients was 18.6% (16 of 86). 68.75% (11/16) of the SMAD4 gene mutants were found to have mutations in KRAS gene as well. The association between the KRAS mutant genotype with SMAD4 mutants was found to be significant (P = or < 0.05). Further more, we found a significant association of tumor location, tumor grade, node status, occupational exposure to pesticides and bleeding PR/Constipation with the mutation status of the SMAD4 gene (P = or < 0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Our study suggests that SMAD4 gene aberrations are the common event in CRC development but play a differential role in the progression of CRC in higher tumor grade (C+D) and its association with the KRAS mutant status suggest that these two molecules together are responsible for the progression of the tumor to higher/advanced stage.
BibTeX:
@article{SameerAS2010,
  author = {Sameer AS, Chowdri NA, Syeed N, Banday MZ, Shah ZA, Siddiqi MA},
  title = {SMAD4--molecular gladiator of the TGF-beta signaling is trampled upon by mutational insufficiency in colorectal carcinoma of Kashmiri population: an analysis with relation to KRAS proto-oncogene.},
  journal = {BMC Cancer.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10},
  number = {300}
}
Sarkar BK, Arora M, Gupta VK, Reddy KS Determinants of tobacco cessation behaviour among smokers and smokeless tobacco users in the states of Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. 2013 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 14(3), pp. 1931-5 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarBK2013,
  author = {Sarkar BK, Arora M, Gupta VK, Reddy KS},
  title = {Determinants of tobacco cessation behaviour among smokers and smokeless tobacco users in the states of Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {14(3)},
  pages = {1931-5}
}
Sellappa S, Prathyumnan S, Balachandar V DNA damage induction and repair inhibition among building construction workers in South India. 2010 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 11(4) 
article  
Abstract: Construction industry workers are exposed to many known carcinogens in their complex occupational environment. Since there are no past studies on genotoxicity among this group in the Indian subcontinent, workers engaged in different construction sites at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, were assessed here. We enrolled 96 workers and 68 control subjects with similar mean age, smoking, tobacco chewing prevalence and alcohol consumption, for analysis of DNA damage in blood leucocytes by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. DNA repair inhibition was also analyzed by assessing the XPD gene. Construction workers showed a significant increase in MN and comet tail length compared to controls with adjustment for smoking habits, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption and years of exposure (P<0.05). The results indicated that chronicoccupational exposure to cement during construction work could lead to increased levels of DNA damage and repair inhibition.
BibTeX:
@article{SellappaS2010,
  author = {Sellappa S, Prathyumnan S, Balachandar V},
  title = {DNA damage induction and repair inhibition among building construction workers in South India.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {11(4)}
}
Sellappa S, Prathyumnan S, Keyan KS, Joseph S, Vasudevan BS, Sasikala K Evaluation of DNA damage induction and repair inhibition in welders exposed to hexavalent chromium. 2010 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 11(1) 
article  
Abstract: The soluble hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) used in industrial welding is an environmental contaminant widely recognized to act as a carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen towards humans and animals. The carcinogenic potential of metals is a major issue in defining human health risk from exposure. In the present investigation, 93 welders and 60 control subjects with similar mean ages, smoking prevalences and alcohol consumption were enrolled for DNA damage analysis in blood leucocytes by Micronucleus assay (MN) and the Comet assay. DNA repair inhibition was also analyzed by assessing XPD gene polymorphism. Welders showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells compared to controls with respect to their smoking habits and alcohol consumption, age and years of exposure (P<0.05). Results indicated that the welders had a larger mean comet tail length than that of the controls (P<0.05). The current study suggested that chronic occupational exposure to Cr (VI) during welding could lead to increased levels of DNA damage and repair inhibition.
BibTeX:
@article{SellappaS2010a,
  author = {Sellappa S, Prathyumnan S, Keyan KS, Joseph S, Vasudevan BS, Sasikala K},
  title = {Evaluation of DNA damage induction and repair inhibition in welders exposed to hexavalent chromium.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {11(1)}
}
Sengupta P, Ray DN, Poddar SP Cancer of the tongue and palate following occupational exposure to petroleum products. 1984 J Indian Med Assoc.
Vol. 82(2), pp. 59-61 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SenguptaP1984,
  author = {Sengupta P, Ray DN, Poddar SP},
  title = {Cancer of the tongue and palate following occupational exposure to petroleum products.},
  journal = {J Indian Med Assoc.},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {82(2)},
  pages = {59-61}
}
Sharma GG, Hall EJ, Dhar S, Gupta A, Rao PH, Pandita TK Telomere stability correlates with longevity of human beings exposed to ionizing radiations. 2003 Oncol Rep.
Vol. 10(6), pp. 1733-6 
article  
Abstract: Normal somatic cells have a finite number of divisions, a limited capacity to proliferate. Human telomeres contain TTAGGG repeats which are considered a molecular clock marker. The gradual and progressive telomere shortening at each replicative cycle is associated, through the activation of pRB and p53 pathways and genomic instability, to the replicative senescence, a non-dividing state and widespread cell death. There is no information available about telomere status in individuals who live long and have been exposed to ionizing radiations (IR). To determine the telomere stability, we examined telomeres at metaphase, G2-type chromosome aberrations after IR treatment and karyotypic analysis of 15 individuals. Three individuals were above the age of 80 years and 1 among the 3 was estimated to have received more than 10 Gy of occupational exposure about 30 years back. The other 12 were cancer patients that had received more than 50 Gy of gamma-radiation for therapeutic purposes. No telomere instability or defective G2 chromosome repair was found in 3 individuals above the age of 80 years. Whereas, 3 out of 7 prostate and 1 out of 5 breast cancer patients showed higher G2-type chromosome damage as well as a high frequency of telomeric association (also known as chromosome end associations) along with frequent loss of telomeres. Present studies demonstrate that telomere stability along with normal G2 chromosome repair correlates with the longevity of human beings, whereas defective G2 chromosome repair and telomere instability correlate with the radiotherapy related late toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaGG2003,
  author = {Sharma GG, Hall EJ, Dhar S, Gupta A, Rao PH, Pandita TK},
  title = {Telomere stability correlates with longevity of human beings exposed to ionizing radiations.},
  journal = {Oncol Rep.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {10(6)},
  pages = {1733-6}
}
Sharma M, Majumdar PK Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue. 2009 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 13(3), pp. 109-12 
article  
Abstract: Lifestyle diseases characterize those diseases whose occurrence is primarily based on the daily habits of people and are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment. The main factors contributing to lifestyle diseases include bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body posture, and disturbed biological clock. A report, jointly prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Economic Forum, says India will incur an accumulated loss of $236.6 billion by 2015 on account of unhealthy lifestyles and faulty diet. According to the report, 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 (35 million) resulted from noncommunicable diseases and accounted for 44% of premature deaths. What's worse, around 80% of these deaths will occur in low and middle-income countries like India which are also crippled by an ever increasing burden of infectious diseases, poor maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. According to a survey conducted by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ASSOC-HAM), 68% of working women in the age bracket of 21-52 years were found to be afflicted with lifestyle ailments such as obesity, depression, chronic backache, diabetes and hypertension. The study 'Preventive Healthcare and Corporate Female Workforce' also said that long hours and working under strict deadlines cause up to 75% of working women to suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to women with lesser levels of psychological demand at work. The study cited scientific evidence that healthy diet and adequate physical activity - at least 30 minutes of moderate activity at least five days a week - helped prevent NCDs. In India, 10% of adults suffer from hypertension while the country is home to 25-30 million diabetics. Three out of every 1,000 people suffer a stroke. The number of deaths due to heart attack is projected to increase from 1.2 million to 2 million in 2010. The diet [or lifestyle] of different populations might partly determine their rates of cancer, and the basis for this hypothesis was strengthened by results of studies showing that people who migrate from one country to another generally acquire the cancer rates of the new host country, suggesting that environmental [or lifestyle factors] rather than genetic factors are the key determinants of the international variation in cancer rates. Some of the common diseases encountered because of occupational lifestyle are Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, chronic liver disease/cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nephritis/CRF, and stroke. Occupational lifestyle diseases include those caused by the factors present in the vicinity like heat, sound, dust, fumes, smoke, cold, and other pollutants. These factors are responsible for allergy, respiratory and hearing problems, and heat or cold shock. So, A healthy lifestyle must be adopted to combat these diseases with a proper balanced diet, physical activity and by giving due respect to biological clock. Kids spending too much time slouched in front of the TV or PCs, should be encourage to find a physical sport or activity they enjoy. Fun exercises should be encouraged into family outings. A pizza-and-video evening should be replaced for a hike and picnic. Kids who do participate in sport, especially at a high competitive level, can find the pressure to succeed very stressful. To decrease the ailments caused by occupational postures, one should avoid long sitting hours and should take frequent breaks for stretching or for other works involving physical movements.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaM2009,
  author = {Sharma M, Majumdar PK},
  title = {Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {13(3)},
  pages = {109-12}
}
Sharma P, Kumar N, Gupta R, Jain S Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism. A case report. 2004 Acta Cytol.
Vol. 48(2), pp. 219-22 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid in association with hyperthyroidism is rare. The malignant lesion may remain occult for a long time. Certain clinical and cytologic features may be helpful in raising the alarm.
CASE:
An elderly male with a history of occupational exposure to X rays, long-standing toxic multinodular goiter and clinical hyperthyroidism presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in the neck. Cytologic smears showed a prominent microfollicular pattern, scanty colloid, anisonucleosis and nuclear overlapping. The noteworthy feature was the presence of marginal vacuoles. The cytologic diagnosis of follicular neoplasm with highly suggestive malignancy was made. Subsequently, multiple pulmonary nodules provided radiologic evidence of possible metastatic spread.
CONCLUSION:
This case report demonstrates the rare association of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism and analyzes certain high-risk clinical and cytologic features to be considered in the follow-up of long-standing hyperfunctioning multinodular goiter.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaP2004,
  author = {Sharma P, Kumar N, Gupta R, Jain S},
  title = {Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperthyroidism. A case report.},
  journal = {Acta Cytol.},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {48(2)},
  pages = {219-22}
}
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J Occupational cancer: public health interventions to minimize its burden and impact on the society. 2014 Iran J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 7(2), pp. 111-3 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{ShrivastavaSR2014,
  author = {Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J},
  title = {Occupational cancer: public health interventions to minimize its burden and impact on the society.},
  journal = {Iran J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {7(2)},
  pages = {111-3}
}
Siddiqui SS, Jha A, Konar N, Ranganathan P, Deshpande DD, Divatia JV Radiation exposure among medical professionals working in the Intensive Care Unit. 2014 Indian J Crit Care Med.
Vol. 18(9), pp. 591-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS:
With the expanding use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiological modalities in critically ill patients, doctors working in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are increasingly exposed to ionizing radiation. This risk of radiation exposure occurs not only during bedside radiologic procedures, but also when ICU physicians accompany patients to radiology suites. The aim of this study was to quantify levels of radiation exposure among medical professionals working in the ICU.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was carried out prospectively over 6 months in the ICU of a tertiary-referral cancer hospital. Two teams consisting of 4 ICU resident doctors each were instructed to wear thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during their duty shifts. Standard radiation protection precautions were used throughout the study period. TLDs were also placed in selected areas of the ICU to measure the amount of scattered radiation. TLDs were analyzed at the end of every 3 months.
RESULTS:
The readings recorded on TLDs placed in the ICU were almost immeasurable. The mean value of residents' radiation exposure was 0.059 mSv, though the highest individual reading approached 0.1 mSv. The projected maximum yearly radiation exposure was 0.4 mSv.
CONCLUSIONS:
If standard radiation safety precautions are followed, the cumulative radiation exposure to ICU resident doctors is well within permissible limits and is not a cause of concern. However, with the increasing use of radiological procedures in the management of critically ill patients, there is a need to repeat such audits periodically to monitor radiation exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{SiddiquiSS2014,
  author = {Siddiqui SS, Jha A, Konar N, Ranganathan P, Deshpande DD, Divatia JV},
  title = {Radiation exposure among medical professionals working in the Intensive Care Unit.},
  journal = {Indian J Crit Care Med.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {18(9)},
  pages = {591-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-5229.140150}
}
Sidhu KS, Sidhu JS An alleged poisoning with methanol and formaldehyde. 1999 Vet Hum Toxicol.
Vol. 41(4), pp. 237-42 
article  
Abstract: It was alleged that a defendant added an unspecified amount of undyed formalin solution, containing formaldehyde and methanol, to the victim's bottle of ice and drinking water. The medical report indicated that except for a slight elevation of total creatine kinase, all other chemistry profiles were within normal ranges. The elevation of creatine kinase suggested muscle injury and inflammation; however, the significance of this elevation was not clear. Toxicological evaluations were made by conducting risk assessments. Based upon the medical report and risk assessments, the following conclusions were made: The calculated exposure doses of methanol and formaldehyde were too low to cause appreciable adverse effects; however, formaldehyde may have irritated the gastrointestinal tract causing smooth muscle and mucosal inflammation. The doses of methanol and formaldehyde were too low to cause death. The exposure scenario (a single oral exposure to formaldehyde) would not likely increase the cancer risk in the victim. The risk assessments provided resulted in a reduction in charge from attempted murder to felony.
BibTeX:
@article{SidhuKS1999,
  author = {Sidhu KS, Sidhu JS},
  title = {An alleged poisoning with methanol and formaldehyde.},
  journal = {Vet Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {41(4)},
  pages = {237-42}
}
Silva M, Iyer P Toxicity endpoint selections for a simazine risk assessment. 2014 Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol.
Vol. 101(4), pp. 308-24 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
California uses simazine at one of the highest levels for states in the United States (approximately 2.5 million lbs 2006-2010). Simazine causes neuroendocrine disruption and mammary cancer in test animals. A risk assessment was prioritized by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation because of the nondietary concern for simazine exposure to occupational/nonoccupational simazine users, resident nonusers, and bystanders (especially children and children exhibiting pica) at greatest risk.
METHODS:
No observed effect levels (NOELs) from animal studies as well as human exposure data were used to determine nondietary values for the above populations. Registrant-submitted and open literature studies focusing on oral (major human route) effects for simazine and the major metabolites desisopropyl-s-atrazine and diaminochlorotriazine were reviewed as part of the hazard identification process.
RESULTS:
Developmental, reproduction, and chronic studies provided the lowest NOELs for the acute (5 mg/kg/day), subchronic (0.56 mg/kg/day), and chronic (0.52 mg/kg/day) exposure durations, respectively. A benchmark dose (95th percentile) was calculated for mammary tumorigenesis, assuming a threshold mechanism in rats (benchmark dose lower limit [95th percentile; BMDL05 ]: 2.9 mg/kg/day). Margins of exposure and uncertainty factors (100-300×, depending on exposure scenario) were used to characterize risk for designated population subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS:
Fetal developmental delays, endocrine disruption, and mammary tumors resulted from simazine treatment. Systemic and maternal/fetal effects determined the critical NOELs used in risk assessment. Margins of exposures for most scenarios were below acceptable levels, especially for children who may be bystanders where simazine is applied and children who exhibit pica. This risk characterization raises a concern for long-term effects in humans.
BibTeX:
@article{SilvaM2014,
  author = {Silva M, Iyer P},
  title = {Toxicity endpoint selections for a simazine risk assessment.},
  journal = {Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {101(4)},
  pages = {308-24},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.21114}
}
Singh AK, Khan AJ, Prasad R Study of radon concentrations in oil refinery premises and city dwellings. 2001 J Radiol Prot.
Vol. 21(2), pp. 163-70 
article  
Abstract: Radon and its progeny concentrations were measured in several dwellings at an oil refinery premises and these concentrations were compared with those found in dwellings in Mathura and Agra cities. Radon progeny concentrations were measured using LR-115 type II nuclear track etch detectors. The radon concentrations were estimated by using a value of 0.42 for the equilibrium factor. The geometric means (GM) of radon concentrations in the refinery dwellings, Mathura city and Agra city dwellings were 97, 91 and 75 Bq m(-3) with geometric standard deviations of 1.7, 1.8 and 1.8 respectively. The average lifetime risk of lung cancer for an adjusted annual average chronic radon exposure of 69 Bq m(-3) (7.8 mWL; WL = working level) with an occupancy factor of 0.7 comes out to be 5.4 x 10(-3).
BibTeX:
@article{SinghAK2001,
  author = {Singh AK, Khan AJ, Prasad R},
  title = {Study of radon concentrations in oil refinery premises and city dwellings.},
  journal = {J Radiol Prot.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {21(2)},
  pages = {163-70}
}
Singh LP, Kapoor M, Singh SB Heat: not black, not white. It's gray!!! 2013 J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol
Vol. 24(4), pp. 209-24 
article  
Abstract: Heat-related illness (HRI) is a broad term that includes clinical conditions ranging from heat cramps and syncope to heat exhaustion and heatstroke, which may result in death. HRIs are one of the major causes of death worldwide and continue to increase in severity with the rise in global temperature. The identification and estimation of heat-related morbidity and mortality is a major challenge. Heat stress manifests itself into respiratory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disorders, leading to the attribution of the deaths caused by heat stress to these disorders. Although HRIs affect mankind in general, certain occupational workers such as soldiers and athletes are more prone. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies have been employed to combat HRIs. Despite this, heat exposure results in significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, complete understanding of HRIs at physiological as well as molecular level is required to facilitate design of more efficient preventive and treatment strategies. The impact of heat on mankind is not just restricted to HRIs. Heat treatment, i.e., thermotherapy, has been used extensively since ancient times for relieving pain, making heat a two-edged sword. This review attempts to summarize various HRIs, their physiological and molecular basis, and the state-of-the-art techniques/research initiatives to combat the same. It also illustrates the application of thermotherapy as a means for improving quality of life and morbidity associated with several disease conditions such as fibromyalgia syndrome, heart diseases, cancer, chronic pain, and depression.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghLP2013,
  author = {Singh LP, Kapoor M, Singh SB},
  title = {Heat: not black, not white. It's gray!!!},
  journal = {J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {24(4)},
  pages = {209-24}
}
Singh S, Devanna S, Edakkanambeth Varayil J, Murad MH, Iyer PG Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2014 BMC Gastroenterol
Vol. 30 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Physical activity has been inversely associated with risk of several cancers. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between physical activity and risk of esophageal cancer (esophageal adenocarcinoma [EAC] and/or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma [ESCC]).
METHODS:
We conducted a comprehensive search of bibliographic databases and conference proceedings from inception through February 2013 for observational studies that examined associations between recreational and/or occupational physical activity and esophageal cancer risk. Summary adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the random-effects model.
RESULTS:
The analysis included 9 studies (4 cohort, 5 case-control) reporting 1,871 cases of esophageal cancer among 1,381,844 patients. Meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of esophageal cancer was 29% lower among the most physically active compared to the least physically active subjects (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.89), with moderate heterogeneity (I2?=?47%). On histology-specific analysis, physical activity was associated with a 32% decreased risk of EAC (4 studies, 503 cases of EAC; OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55-0.85) with minimal heterogeneity (I2?=?0%). There were only 3 studies reporting the association between physical activity and risk of ESCC with conflicting results, and the meta-analysis demonstrated a null association (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.21-5.64). The results were consistent across study design, geographic location and study quality, with a non-significant trend towards a dose-response relationship.
CONCLUSIONS:
Meta-analysis of published observational studies indicates that physical activity may be associated with reduced risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Lifestyle interventions focusing on increasing physical activity may decrease the global burden of EAC.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghS2014,
  author = {Singh S, Devanna S, Edakkanambeth Varayil J, Murad MH, Iyer PG},
  title = {Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.},
  journal = {BMC Gastroenterol},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {30},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-14-101}
}
Singh S, Edakkanambeth Varayil J, Devanna S, Murad MH, Iyer PG Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis 2014 Cancer Prev Res (Phila).
Vol. 7(1), pp. 12-22 
article  
Abstract: Physical activity may be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the magnitude of the association and the quality of supporting evidence. After a comprehensive search of bibliographic databases and conference proceedings through February 2013 for observational studies that examined associations between recreational and/oroccupational physical activity and gastric cancer risk, we identified 16 studies (seven cohort, nine case control) reporting 11,111 cases of gastric cancer among 1,606,760 patients. Summary adjusted-OR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the random-effects model. Meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of gastric cancer was 21% lower among the most physically active people as compared with the least physically active people (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.87) with moderate heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 55%). This protective effect was seen for gastric cancers in the cardia (four studies; OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.63-1.00) and distal stomach (five studies; OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.52-0.76). The effect size was significantly smaller in high-quality studies (six studies; OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99), as compared with low-quality studies (10 studies; OR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.69-0.81). The results were consistent across sex, study quality, study design, and geographic location. In conclusion, meta-analysis of published observational studies indicates that physical activity is associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. Lifestyle interventions focusing on increasing physical activity may decrease the global burden of gastric cancer, in addition to a myriad of other health benefits.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghS2014a,
  author = {Singh S, Edakkanambeth Varayil J, Devanna S, Murad MH, Iyer PG},
  title = {Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis},
  journal = {Cancer Prev Res (Phila).},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {7(1)},
  pages = {12-22}
}
Singh V, Meena H, Bairwa R, Singh S, Sharma BB, Singh A Clinico-radiological profile and risk factors in patients with anthracosis. 2015 Lung India
Vol. 32(2), pp. 102-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Anthracosis is the black pigmentation of the mucosal lining of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The significance of this finding is not known and often ignored. The aim of the present study is to find the association of anthracosis with demographic variables, biomass fuel and occupational exposure, respiratory diseases, radiological pattern and functional morbidity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Enrolment of the subjects for the study was done at SMS hospital, Jaipur. Patients with anthracosis evident on bronchoscopy were included as the cases. Patients without anthracosis on bronchoscopy, matched according to age, gender and smoking habits, were included in the control group. Subjects in both the arms completed a questionnaire and also underwent computed tomography (CT) of the chest and six minute walk test (6MWT).
RESULTS:
Thirty cases and 53 controls were included in the study. The patients with anthracosis presented with symptoms ranging from cough (76.65%), hemoptysis (46.6%), fever (26.6%), dyspnea (90%) and malaise (73.3%). Biomass fuel exposure for the cases was 35.13 ± 55.86 hours in a year and for the controls was 28.15 ± 40.09 hours in a year (P > 0.05). Stone mining was significantly associated with anthracosis (P < 0.05). CT chest revealed fibrosis (43.3%), consolidation (33.3%), cavitation (16.6%) and mass (46.6%) in the cases. Sixty percent of cases and 15% of controls were diagnosed to have either old or active pulmonary tuberculosis (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
Anthracosis is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Biomass exposure is not significantly associated with anthracosis. Post tubercular fibrosis is more common on CT chest of patients with anthracosis.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghV2015,
  author = {Singh V, Meena H, Bairwa R, Singh S, Sharma BB, Singh A},
  title = {Clinico-radiological profile and risk factors in patients with anthracosis.},
  journal = {Lung India},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {32(2)},
  pages = {102-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-2113.152614}
}
Jindal SK Silicosis in India: past and present. 2013 Curr Opin Pulm Med.
Vol. 19(2), pp. 163-8 
article  
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
This particular review focusses on the burden of the problem of silicosis and its clinical manifestations reported from India.
RECENT FINDINGS:
In recent estimates from India, there are over 3 million workers exposed to silica dust, whilst 8.5 million more work in construction and building activities, similarly exposed to quartz. Several recent reports on lung function assessment show both restrictive and obstructive patterns. Tuberculosis is a common complication reported in Indian studies. Occasionally, silico-mycosis, lungcancer and connective tissue disorders in association with silicosis are also reported. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in response to the direction from the Supreme Court of India has made several recommendations on preventive, remedial and rehabilitative measures. The NHRC has been asked to work with various stakeholders such as individual organizations, state and central governments and other agencies to implement the measures.
SUMMARY:
Silicosis is a common occupational disorder seen all over India, particularly in the Central and Western States. It is an important cause of respiratory morbidity. The problem has been highlighted on the national level as a major human-rights concern in India.
BibTeX:
@article{SK2013,
  author = {Jindal SK},
  title = {Silicosis in India: past and present.},
  journal = {Curr Opin Pulm Med.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {19(2)},
  pages = {163-8}
}
Singh SK Re: Association of polymorphism in cytochrome P450 2C9 with susceptibility to head and neck cancerand treatment outcome: Pragmatic use of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and statistical interaction analysis 2014 Appl Transl Genom.
Vol. 3(3)(14), pp. 48-9 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{SK2014,
  author = {Singh SK},
  title = {Re: Association of polymorphism in cytochrome P450 2C9 with susceptibility to head and neck cancerand treatment outcome: Pragmatic use of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and statistical interaction analysis},
  journal = {Appl Transl Genom.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {3(3)},
  number = {14},
  pages = {48-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atg.2014.05.002}
}
Subahir MN, Shah SA, Zainuddin ZM Risk factors for prostate cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre: a case-control study. 2009 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 10(6) 
article  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
In Malaysia, prostate cancer is ranked 6th among male cancer and expected to increase in the future. Several factors have shown to be related to prostate cancer such as sociodemographic, lifestyle, diet, occupational exposure, medical and health status. This is the first time a similar study was conducted in Malaysia to recognize the risk factors for prostate cancer patients who came for treatment at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC).
METHODS:
Prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 which met with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. One hundred and twelfth (112) pairs of cases and controls matched by age and ethnicity were analysed. McNemar Odds Ratios (OR(M)) were calculated using McNemar Calculator software for univariate analysis while conditional logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, both using SPSS version 12.0.
RESULTS:
Most of the prostate cancer patients (68.8%) that came for treatment in UKMMC were above 70 years old. The majority were Chinese (50.0%) followed by Malay (46.4%) and Indian (3.6%). Multivariate analysis showed cases were more likely to have a first-degree relative with a history of cancer (OR= 3.77, 95% CI= 1.19-11.85), to have been exposed to pesticides (OR= 5.57, 95% CI= 1.75-17.78) and consumed more meat (OR= 12.23, 95% CI= 3.89-39.01). Significantly reduced risks of prostate cancer were noted among those consuming more vegetables (OR= 0.12, 95% CI= 0.02-0.84), more tomatoes (OR= 0.35, 95% CI= 0.13-0.93) and those who had frequent sexual intercourse (OR= 0.44, 95% CI= 0.19-0.96).
CONCLUSION:
Some lifestyle and occupation factors are strong predictors of the occurrence of prostate cancer among patients in UKMMC. More importantly, with the identification of the potentially modifiable risk factors, proper public health intervention can be improved.
BibTeX:
@article{SubahirMN2009,
  author = {Subahir MN, Shah SA, Zainuddin ZM},
  title = {Risk factors for prostate cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre: a case-control study.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {10(6)}
}
Sudha S, Kripa SK, Shibily P, Joseph S, Balachandar V Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects among shielded manual metal arc welders. 2011 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 12(4) 
article  
Abstract: Hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) used in shielded metal arc welding is widely recognized to act as a carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen. The carcinogenic potential of metals is a major issue in defining human health risk from exposure. Hence in the present investigation, 66 welders and 60 control subjects with similar mean ages, smoking prevalences and alcohol consumption were enrolled for DNA damage analysis of buccal cells by micronucleus (MN) and comet assay. Welders showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells compared to controls and a larger mean comet tail length. The current study thus suggested that chronic occupational exposure to Cr (VI) during welding could lead to increased level of DNA damage. Understanding the complexity of the relationships between exposure, basal DNA damage and MN frequencies requires larger scale studies and application of complementary biomarkers.
BibTeX:
@article{SudhaS2011,
  author = {Sudha S, Kripa SK, Shibily P, Joseph S, Balachandar V},
  title = {Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects among shielded manual metal arc welders.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {12(4)}
}
Sudha S, Kripa SK, Shibily P, Shyn J Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium. 2011 Iran J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 4(3) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SudhaS2011a,
  author = {Sudha S, Kripa SK, Shibily P, Shyn J},
  title = {Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium.},
  journal = {Iran J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4(3)}
}
Sundaramoorthy R, Srinivasan V, Gujar J, Sen A, Sekar N, Abilash VG Clinical, cytogenetic and CYP1A1 exon-1 gene mutation analysis of Beedi workers in Vellore region, Tamil Nadu. 2013 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.
Vol. 14(12), pp. 7555-60 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Beedi rollers are exposed to unburnt tobacco dust through cutaneous and pharyngeal route and it is extremely harmful to the body since it is carcinogenic in nature and can cause cancer during long exposure. This indicates that occupational exposure to tobacco imposes considerable genotoxicity among beedi workers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In the present study, 27 beedi workers and age and sex matched controls were enrolled for clinical, cytogenetics and molecular analysis. Clinical features were recorded. The workers were in the age group of 28-67 years and were workers exposure from 8-60 years. Blood samples were collected from workers and control subjects and lymphocyte cultures were carried out by using standard technique, slides were prepared and 50 metaphases were scored for each sample to find the chromosomal abnormalities. For molecular analysis the genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, to screen the variations in gene, the exon 1 of CYP1A1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then screened with Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis.
RESULTS:
A statistically significant increase was observed in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in exposed groups when compared to the respective controls and variations observed in Exon 1 of CYP1A1(Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1) gene.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study shows that, the toxicants present in the beedi that enter into human body causes disturbance to normal state and behavior of the chromosomes which results in reshuffling of hereditary material causing chromosomal aberrations and genomic variations.
BibTeX:
@article{SundaramoorthyR2013,
  author = {Sundaramoorthy R, Srinivasan V, Gujar J, Sen A, Sekar N, Abilash VG},
  title = {Clinical, cytogenetic and CYP1A1 exon-1 gene mutation analysis of Beedi workers in Vellore region, Tamil Nadu.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {14(12)},
  pages = {7555-60}
}
Swami S, Suryakar AN, Katkam RV, Kumbar KM Absorption of nicotine induces oxidative stress among bidi workers. 2006 Indian J Public Health.
Vol. 50(4), pp. 231-5 
article  
Abstract: Chronic exposure to tobacco dust causes nasal inhalation and cutaneous absorption of tobacco alkaloids especially nicotine, therefore the considerable evidences showed that workers employed in bidi industries are at risk of cancer, lung diseases and other many health related common problems. Many references revealed that tobacco dust exposure induces mutations, damage to DNA etc. which are supposed to be the consequences of free radical generation. In present study attempt have been made to evaluate the status of oxidants and antioxidants and their relation with nicotine. 90 bidi workers were screened for serum lipid peroxide (MDA) and serum nitric oxide (NO*) as oxidant and erythrocytic-Superoxide Dismutase (RBC-SOD), Vitamin-C as antioxidant. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and urinary cotinine were also measured. These bidi workers were further divided in 3 groups, Group 1, 11 and III exposed to tobacco dust for about 10 to 14 yrs, 15 to 19 yrs and 20 to 24 yrs of exposure respectively. Highly significant excretion of Urinary cotinine was found in all groups of bidi workers as compared with control (p < 0.001). The levels of MDA, and NO* were found to be significantly elevated in all the three groups with progression of exposure, than the control (p < 0.001), where as the levels of RBC-SOD, Vitamin-C and TAC were significantly decreased in all the three groups as compared with controls (p < 0.001). From our findings it is evident that nicotine absorption might contribute to the disturbed oxidant and antioxidant balance leading to oxidative stress.
BibTeX:
@article{SwamiS2006,
  author = {Swami S, Suryakar AN, Katkam RV, Kumbar KM},
  title = {Absorption of nicotine induces oxidative stress among bidi workers.},
  journal = {Indian J Public Health.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {50(4)},
  pages = {231-5}
}
Patel T New insights into the molecular pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. 2014 J Gastroenterol.
Vol. 49(2), pp. 165-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy and is one of the most devastating cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. The molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of these cancers are not well understood. The recognition and distinction of these cancers from other tumors such as perihilar or extrahepatic distal cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma are important in defining the pathogenesis. New insights into molecular mechanisms contributing to disease pathogenesis are emerging from recent epidemiological, genome-wide profiling and laboratory based studies. These have contributed to an improved understanding of risk factors, genetic mutations and pathophysiological mechanisms that are associated with these tumors. The contribution of well-established risk factors such as biliary tract inflammation and key signaling pathways involved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are being further defined. These new insights have several important implications for both molecular diagnosis and therapy of these cancers.
BibTeX:
@article{T2014,
  author = {Patel T},
  title = {New insights into the molecular pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.},
  journal = {J Gastroenterol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {49(2)},
  pages = {165-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-013-0894-y}
}
Umar M, Upadhyay R, Kumar S, Ghoshal UC, Mittal B Null association of NQO1 609C>T and NQO2 -3423G>A polymorphisms with susceptibility and prognosis of Esophageal cancer in north Indian population and meta-analysis. 2012 Cancer Epidemiol.
Vol. 36(6), pp. 373-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2), involved in detoxification of environmental carcinogens and activation of chemotherapeutic agents, are supposed to play critical role in carcinogenesis. So, we aimed to investigate the association of NQO1 609C>T and NQO2 -3423G>A polymorphisms with susceptibility and prognosis of Esophagealcancer (EC) in north Indian population. We also performed Meta analysis of published literatures on NQO1 609C>T polymorphism to systematically evaluate its association with EC.
METHODS:
We genotyped NQO1 609C>T and NQO2 -3423G>A polymorphisms in 200 incident EC cases (including 150 follow-up cases) and 200 controls using PCR RFLP based methods. Binary logistic regression was applied for risk estimation, while Kaplan Meier and Cox regression tests were applied for survival analysis. All Meta analysis tests were performed using MIX 2.0 software.
RESULTS:
The present study did not find any significant association of NQO1 609C>T and NQO2 -3423G>A polymorphisms with susceptibility to EC or its clinical phenotypes (histopathology, tumor location or lymph node metastasis) or interactions with lifestyle risk factors (tobacco usage, smoking, alcohol habit and occupational exposures). Meta analysis of NQO1 polymorphism also indicated null association of the polymorphism with EC overall or with cancer cases stratified by tumor histopathology/ethnicity. Moreover, no prognostic implication of both polymorphisms was observed in EC.
CONCLUSION:
NQO1 609C>T and NQO2 -3423G>A polymorphisms do not seem to play any significant role in susceptibility or prognosis of EC in north Indian population and results of Meta-analysis further reinforces null association of NQO1 609C>T polymorphism with EC susceptibility.
BibTeX:
@article{UmarM2012,
  author = {Umar M, Upadhyay R, Kumar S, Ghoshal UC, Mittal B},
  title = {Null association of NQO1 609C>T and NQO2 -3423G>A polymorphisms with susceptibility and prognosis of Esophageal cancer in north Indian population and meta-analysis.},
  journal = {Cancer Epidemiol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {36(6)},
  pages = {373-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2012.06.004}
}
Vaidyanathan VG, Asthana Y, Nair BU Importance of ligand structure in DNA/protein binding, mutagenicity, excision repair and nutritional aspects of chromium(III) complexes. 2013 Dalton Trans.
Vol. 42(7), pp. 2337-46 
article DOI  
Abstract: Chromium is extensively used in leather, chrome plating and refining industries. On one hand the occupational exposure to chromium leads to cancer, whereas on the contrary certain Cr(III) compounds have been proposed as nutritional supplements for Type II diabetes and as muscle building agents. Despite the positive outlook of chromium as a bio-essential element, there is increasing concern over the therapeutic application of Cr(III) based supplements, its bioavailability and toxicity profile. In this perspective, we discuss the role of ligand structure in mediating the interaction of chromium(III) complexes with DNA/protein, their mutagenic outcomes, adduct reparability and as nutritional supplements.
BibTeX:
@article{VaidyanathanVG2013,
  author = {Vaidyanathan VG, Asthana Y, Nair BU},
  title = {Importance of ligand structure in DNA/protein binding, mutagenicity, excision repair and nutritional aspects of chromium(III) complexes.},
  journal = {Dalton Trans.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {42(7)},
  pages = {2337-46},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2dt32124f}
}
Verma DK, Julian JA, Roberts RS, Muir DC, Jadon N, Shaw DS Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): a possible cause of lung cancer mortality among nickel/copper smelter and refinery workers. 1992 Am Ind Hyg Assoc J.
Vol. 53(5), pp. 317-24 
article  
Abstract: A retrospective industrial hygiene investigation was undertaken to explain the cause of a statistically significant excess lung cancer mortality observed in a subset of a large cohort of nickel workers involved in mining, smelting, and refining of nickel and copper in Ontario. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate how an industrial hygiene follow-up assessment of an epidemiologic finding can help to identify a likely cause. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) alone or in association with particulate and gaseous contaminants (e.g., SO2) were likely the causative agents of the excess lung cancer observed among the lead welders, cranemen, and arc furnace workers of the copper refinery.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaDK1992,
  author = {Verma DK, Julian JA, Roberts RS, Muir DC, Jadon N, Shaw DS},
  title = {Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): a possible cause of lung cancer mortality among nickel/copper smelter and refinery workers.},
  journal = {Am Ind Hyg Assoc J.},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {53(5)},
  pages = {317-24}
}
Vyas D, Pihl K, Kavuturu S, Vyas A Mesothelioma as a rapidly developing Giant Abdominal Cyst. 2012 World J Surg Oncol.
Vol. 10(277) 
article DOI  
Abstract: The benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare lesion and is known for local recurrence. This is first case report of a rapidly developing massive abdominal tumor with histological finding of benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM). We describe a BCM arising in the retroperitoneal tis[sue on the right side, lifting ascending colon and cecum to the left side of abdomen. Patient was an active 58-year-old man who noticed a rapid abdominal swelling within a two month time period with a weight gain of 40 pounds. Patient had no risk factors including occupational (asbestos, cadmium), family history, social (alcohol, smoking) or history of trauma. We will discuss the clinical, radiologic, intra-operative, immunohistochemical, pathologic findings, and imaging six months after surgery. Patient has no recurrence and no weight gain on follow up visits and imaging.
BibTeX:
@article{VyasD2012,
  author = {Vyas D, Pihl K, Kavuturu S, Vyas A},
  title = {Mesothelioma as a rapidly developing Giant Abdominal Cyst.},
  journal = {World J Surg Oncol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {10},
  number = {277},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-10-277}
}