Bibliography : Occupational Skin Hazards

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Nag A, Vyas H, Nag P Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector. 2016 Ind Health.
Vol. 54(4), pp. 377-85 
article  
Abstract: Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector.
BibTeX:
@article{NagA2016,
  author = {Nag A, Vyas H, Nag P},
  title = {Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector.},
  journal = {Ind Health.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {54(4)},
  pages = {377-85}
}
Singhal VK, Deswal BS, Singh BN Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. 2015 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 19(3), pp. 129-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers.
OBJECTIVES:
(1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:
Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7).
RESULTS:
All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes. 48.48% and 90.52% of the workers were using hand gloves in the sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating industry, respectively. Only 27.27% and 37.50% of the workers were using masks in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. No worker was using protective clothing or barrier cream in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry. 40.65% and 12.50% workers were using protective clothing and barrier cream in the chrome plating industry.
CONCLUSION:
Workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating are at a great risk of skin and mucous membrane disorders including chrome holes and nasal septum perforation. Protective measures and awareness of the management and workers about the exposure hazards and safeguarding against them will be useful public measures to prevent these occupationalhazards among workers engaged in these processes.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghalVK2015,
  author = {Singhal VK, Deswal BS, Singh BN},
  title = {Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {19(3)},
  pages = {129-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.173994}
}
Saraswat A Ethical use of topical corticosteroids. 2014 Indian J Dermatol.
Vol. 59(5), pp. 469-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: Dermatologists rely very heavily on corticosteroids for treating many common dermatoses. Concerns about their incorrect use are widely expressed both in lay public and specialist discourse. From the point of view of medical ethics, issues of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence are all raised frequently when we prescribe topical corticosteroids to our patients. We need to be aware of situations when conflicts between these issues arise and have a clear thought process about resolving them. This can only be achieved if we have a thorough understanding of the skin disease being treated coupled with expertise in the use of the varied potencies and available dosage forms of topical corticosteroids. A good understanding of human psychology and effective communication is also needed to use these agents optimally.
BibTeX:
@article{A.2014,
  author = {Saraswat A.},
  title = {Ethical use of topical corticosteroids.},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {59(5)},
  pages = {469-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.139877}
}
Agarwal MC, Bhargava RR, Mital OP Health hazards in foundry workers 1973 Indian J Chest Dis.
Vol. 15(4)(0019-5111), pp. 276-84 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{AgarwalMC1973,
  author = {Agarwal MC, Bhargava RR, Mital OP},
  title = {Health hazards in foundry workers},
  journal = {Indian J Chest Dis.},
  year = {1973},
  volume = {15(4)},
  number = {0019-5111},
  pages = {276-84}
}
Bhargava K, Banerjee P, White IR Investigating contact allergy to CS spray. 2012 Contact Dermatitis.
Vol. 66(2), pp. 109-10 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BhargavaK2012,
  author = {Bhargava K, Banerjee P, White IR.},
  title = {Investigating contact allergy to CS spray.},
  journal = {Contact Dermatitis.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {66(2)},
  pages = {109-10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.2011.01989.x}
}
Lakshmi C Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema. 2014 Indian J Dermatol.
Vol. 59(3), pp. 283-6 
article  
Abstract: Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.
BibTeX:
@article{C.2014,
  author = {Lakshmi C.},
  title = {Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema.},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {59(3)},
  pages = {283-6}
}
Chattopadhyay BP, Mukherjee AK, Gangopadhyay PK, Alam J, Roychowdhury A Respiratory effect related to exposure of different concentrations of arsenic in drinking water in West Bengal, India. 2010 J Environ Sci Eng
Vol. 52(2), pp. 147-54 
article  
Abstract: Arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic contaminated water has been one of the worst environmental health hazards. High levels of arsenic have been reported in different natural water sources from West Bengal for more than two decades. Groundwater contamination by arsenic and its adverse effects on the health of a big population in nine districts of West Bengal have been reported. The problems found were mainly related to skin and respiratory, digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. The respiratory effects are largely confined to those who had the skin lesion. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the respiratory effects of exposure to different levels of arsenic in drinking water. The water samples were collected from different tube wells and wells in the study area. Analysis of arsenic was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with hydride generation system. Based on the consumption of arsenic concentrations in drinking water the populations were divided into three categories, i.e., <=50 microg/L, >50 - <= 150 microg/L and >150 microg/L. Standard techniques of medical examination were applied to elicit signs and recorded in the pre-designed proforma. A written consent was taken from each subject for their voluntary participation in the study. 112 subjects were investigated. The respiratory effect was evaluated by measuring the pulmonary function test (PFT). Vital Capacity (VC) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) were measured by Spirovit-SP-10 (Schiller Health Care Pvt Ltd., Switzerland) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate by Wrights Peak Flow Meter (Clement and Clarke, UK). The PFT values showed gradual decrement among the males following skin pigmentation, keratosis and arsenicosis. The respiratory function impairment among the male subjects found as restrictive type (26.41%), obstructive type (3.77%) and combined type (7.54%), whereas in females only the restrictive type of impairment (10.16%) was found. Restrictive type of impairments among the subjects increased as the concentration of arsenic in drinking water increased, in males 15.78%, 29.41% and 35.29% and in females 4.54%, 5.00% and 23.52% respectively. The pathophysiologic mechanism, by which ingested arsenic leads to impairments of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms, is yet to be understood and needs further investigation.
BibTeX:
@article{ChattopadhyayBP2010,
  author = {Chattopadhyay BP, Mukherjee AK, Gangopadhyay PK, Alam J, Roychowdhury A},
  title = {Respiratory effect related to exposure of different concentrations of arsenic in drinking water in West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {52(2)},
  pages = {147-54}
}
Chauhan A, Anand T, Kishore J, Danielsen TE, Ingle GK Occupational hazard exposure and general health profile of welders in rural Delhi. 2014 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 18(1), pp. 21-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Welding is a common industrial process associated with various health hazards. The aspect of duration of hazard exposure among welders at their workplace has been studied to limited extent in India.
OBJECTIVE:
To assess the duration of occupational hazard exposure and its association with symptoms among the welders.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 106 welders in North Delhi. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing items to assess the socio-demographic profile, their medical history and individual hazard exposure.
RESULTS:
Majority of them were involved in skilled/semi-skilled job (n = 99; 93%). The predominant nature of work for majority was manual. More than half reported their work to be physically hard (n = 56; 53%), involves much lifting of weight (n = 61; 57%), and is dangerous (n = 59; 56%). Dust/smoke followed by noise was reported to be most common hazards at the workplace by them. Most of them were suffering from eye related symptoms (n = 63; 59%) followed by skin conditions (n = 28; 26%). Skin diseases were reported to be significantly common among group of welders who were exposed to dust and radiation for ?4 hours in a day (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
Nearly half of the welders found their job to be dangerous and were being exposed to at least one hazardous substance at their workplace. Majority of them complained of eye symptoms. There is a need for health and safety training of this economically productive group.
BibTeX:
@article{ChauhanA2014,
  author = {Chauhan A, Anand T, Kishore J, Danielsen TE, Ingle GK},
  title = {Occupational hazard exposure and general health profile of welders in rural Delhi.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {18(1)},
  pages = {21-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.134953}
}
Ghosh SK, Bandyopadhyay D Concurrent allergic contact dermatitis of the index fingers and lips from toothpaste: report of three cases. 2011 J Cutan Med Surg.
Vol. 15(6), pp. 356-7 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshSK2011,
  author = {Ghosh SK, Bandyopadhyay D},
  title = {Concurrent allergic contact dermatitis of the index fingers and lips from toothpaste: report of three cases.},
  journal = {J Cutan Med Surg.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15(6)},
  pages = {356-7}
}
Ghosh SK, Sarkar S Photosensitive erythematous skin rash 2013 Am Fam Physician.  article  
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshSK2013,
  author = {Ghosh SK, Sarkar S},
  title = {Photosensitive erythematous skin rash},
  journal = {Am Fam Physician.},
  year = {2013}
}
Handa S, De D, Mahajan R Epidemiological trends in contact dermatitis to hair dye: Comparing para-phenylenediamine positivity after a decade long interval. 2011 Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
Vol. 77(4), pp. 511-2 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{HandaS2011,
  author = {Handa S, De D, Mahajan R.},
  title = {Epidemiological trends in contact dermatitis to hair dye: Comparing para-phenylenediamine positivity after a decade long interval.},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {77(4)},
  pages = {511-2},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.82386}
}
Khan FH, Ambreen K, Fatima G, Kumar S Assessment of health risks with reference to oxidative stress and DNA damage in chromium exposed population. 2012 Sci Total Environ
Vol. 430, pp. 68-74 
article DOI  
Abstract: Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is widely used in tanning industrial processes. The population living in tanning industrial area is continuously exposed to Cr(III) which appears to be associated with both acute and chronic health problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the health risk with special reference to oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde - MDA, glutathione - GSH, and superoxide dismutase - SOD) and DNA damage in 100 Cr-exposed and 100 unexposed populations. The total blood Cr level, SOD level, MDA level and DNA damage were significantly (p<0.05) higher and GSH level was significantly (p<0.05) lower in exposed group as compared to the unexposed group. The altered oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage were found to be slightly higher in female population of both groups. In simple and multiple correlation analyses (adjusted with potential confounders), blood Cr level showed negative significant correlation with GSH level and positive significant correlation with level of MDA, SOD and DNA damage in both groups. The overall prevalence of morbidity was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the exposed group as compared to the unexposed group. In the exposed group, the prevalence of respiratory illness is highest, followed by diabetes, gastrointestinal tract problems and dermal problems respectively. Our results concluded that the Cr(III) exposed population is at high risk for healthhazards and the female population is slightly more susceptible to Cr(III) exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{KhanFH2012,
  author = {Khan FH, Ambreen K, Fatima G, Kumar S},
  title = {Assessment of health risks with reference to oxidative stress and DNA damage in chromium exposed population.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {430},
  pages = {68-74},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.063}
}
Kumar P, Paulose R Patch testing in suspected allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics. 2014 Dermatol Res Pract.  article DOI  
Abstract: Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1-5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21-40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarP2014,
  author = {Kumar P, Paulose R},
  title = {Patch testing in suspected allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.},
  journal = {Dermatol Res Pract.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/695387}
}
Mahajan VK, Sharma V, Gupta M, Chauhan PS, Mehta KS, Garg S Parthenium dermatitis: is parthenolide an effective choice for patch testing? 2014 Contact Dermatitis.
Vol. 70(6), pp. 340-3 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Patch test positivity to parthenolide was observed less often than expected in strongly suspected cases of parthenium dermatitis after Chemotechnique Diagnostics (Sweden) replaced parthenium extract with parthenolide (0.5% pet.) by itself while marketing its Indian baseline series for patch testing.
OBJECTIVE:
The study was performed to find whether parthenolide detects parthenium contact sensitivity more effectively than parthenium extract in patients clinically presenting with classic parthenium dermatitis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
One hundred consecutive patients with suspected parthenium dermatitis were patch tested prospectively with the Indian baseline series, parthenium extract (1% aq.) and parthenolide (0.5% pet.) between July 2011 and April 2012.
RESULTS:
Only 37 of 100 patients with suspected parthenium dermatitis (male/female ratio of 20:17) reacted to parthenium extract (32 patients), parthenolide (17 patients), or both (12 patients). Reactions to parthenium extract were generally stronger than reactions to parthenolide.
CONCLUSION:
Patch testing with parthenolide (0.5% pet.) detects fewer cases of suspected parthenium dermatitis than patch testing with parthenium extract (1% aq.).
BibTeX:
@article{MahajanVK2014,
  author = {Mahajan VK, Sharma V, Gupta M, Chauhan PS, Mehta KS, Garg S.},
  title = {Parthenium dermatitis: is parthenolide an effective choice for patch testing?},
  journal = {Contact Dermatitis.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {70(6)},
  pages = {340-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cod.12194}
}
Mehra R, Juneja M Adverse health effects in workers exposed to trace/toxic metals at workplace. 2003 Indian J Biochem Biophys
Vol. 40(2), pp. 131-5 
article  
Abstract: Widespread use of metals in industrial activities has enhanced the occupational exposure to toxic metals as well as the health risks of metal hazards to humans. Elemental analysis in human tissues is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of such exposures and risk. Among various biopsy materials, blood, hair, nail, teeth and body fluids may be used as bio indicators for this purpose. The present paper deals with the determination of Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn elemental concentration in workers exposed to these metals at workplace by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, with adequate quality control measures using hair as biopsy material. The study group includes the male workers such as welders, foundry man, fitter, hammer man, machine man, cupola man etc., besides office workers of locomotive workshop in Ajmer and surrounding areas exposed to different metals. Age and sex matched controls of persons working in the same area of work in offices etc. and not exposed to metal pollution were selected for valid comparison. It is proposed to validate the use of hair as a biological marker for assessing metal body burden of workers. In our study significant correlations have been found between skin disease and Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu; chest pain and Pb; hypertension and Cu, Mn; mental stress and Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn; liver problem and Ni; indigestion and Cr; Ni, diabetes and Cr, Mn, Ni; tuberculosis and Zn; breathing trouble and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn. The advantages of choosing hair as a biopsy material are also given.
BibTeX:
@article{MehraR2003,
  author = {Mehra R, Juneja M},
  title = {Adverse health effects in workers exposed to trace/toxic metals at workplace.},
  journal = {Indian J Biochem Biophys},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {40(2)},
  pages = {131-5}
}
Mehta V, Vasanth V, Balachandran C Nickel contact dermatitis from hypodermic needles. 2011 Indian J Dermatol.
Vol. 56(2), pp. 237-8 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{MehtaV2011,
  author = {Mehta V, Vasanth V, Balachandran C.},
  title = {Nickel contact dermatitis from hypodermic needles.},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {56(2)},
  pages = {237-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.80438}
}
Prajapati P, Sethuraman R, Bector S, Patel JR Contact dermatitis due to methyl methacrylate: uncommon and unwanted entity for dentists. 2013 BMJ Case Rep.  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{PrajapatiP2013,
  author = {Prajapati P, Sethuraman R, Bector S, Patel JR.},
  title = {Contact dermatitis due to methyl methacrylate: uncommon and unwanted entity for dentists.},
  journal = {BMJ Case Rep.},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-200520}
}
Rai R, Dinakar D, Kurian SS, Bindoo YA Investigation of contact allergy to dental materials by patch testing. 2014 Indian Dermatol Online J.
Vol. 5(3), pp. 282-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Dental products are widely used by patients and dental personnel alike and may cause problems for both. Dental materials could cause contact allergy with varying manifestations such as burning, pain, stomatitis, cheilitis, ulcers, lichenoid reactions localized to the oral mucosa in patients, and hand dermatitis in dental personnel. Patch testing with the dental series comprising commonly used materials can be used to detect contact allergies to dental materials.
AIM:
This study aimed to identify contact allergy among patients who have oral mucosal lesions after dental treatment and among dental personnel who came in contact with these materials.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Twenty patients who had undergone dental procedures with symptoms of oral lichen planus, oral stomatitis, burning mouth, and recurrent aphthosis, were included in the study. Dental personnel with history of hand dermatitis were also included in the study. Patch testing was performed using Chemotechnique Dental Series and results interpreted as recommended by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG).
RESULTS:
Out of 13 patients who had undergone dental treatment/with oral symptoms, six patients with stomatitis, lichenoid lesions, and oral ulcers showed positive patch tests to a variety of dental materials, seven patients with ulcers had negative patch tests, seven dental personnel with hand dermatitis showed multiple allergies to various dental materials, and most had multiple positivities.
CONCLUSION:
The patch test is a useful, simple, noninvasive method to detect contact allergies among patients and among dental personnel dealing with these products. Long term studies are necessary to establish the relevance of these positive patch tests by eliminating the allergic substances, identifying clinical improvement, and substituting with nonallergenic materials.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiR2014,
  author = {Rai R, Dinakar D, Kurian SS, Bindoo YA},
  title = {Investigation of contact allergy to dental materials by patch testing.},
  journal = {Indian Dermatol Online J.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {5(3)},
  pages = {282-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5178.137778}
}
Raja DS, Sultana B Potential health hazards for students exposed to formaldehyde in the gross anatomy laboratory 2012 J Environ Health.
Vol. 74(6), pp. 36-40 
article  
Abstract: Formaldehyde, which has been a well-established preservative for cadavers in the anatomy laboratory for years, has an odor that many anatomy students find unpleasant. Anatomy faculty and students, embalmers in funeral homes, histopathology laboratory workers, and other biological researchers are continually exposed to the toxic vapors of formaldehyde. The immediate effects of that agent are nausea, headache, and ocular irritation that causes tear overflow and a burning sensation in the throat. Long-term exposure to formaldehyde can cause contact dermatitis, congenital defects, and cancer. This article discusses the adverse effects of continual exposure to formaldehyde and formalin and suggests various measures that can eliminate or minimize that danger to staff and students in gross anatomy laboratories.
BibTeX:
@article{RajaDS2012,
  author = {Raja DS, Sultana B.},
  title = {Potential health hazards for students exposed to formaldehyde in the gross anatomy laboratory},
  journal = {J Environ Health.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {74(6)},
  pages = {36-40}
}
Tiwari RR Occupational health hazards in sewage and sanitary workers 2008 5 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 12(3), pp. 112-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: An estimated 1.2 million scavengers in the country are involved in the sanitation of our surroundings. The working conditions of these sanitary workers have remained virtually unchanged for over a century. Apart from the social atrocities that these workers face, they are exposed to certain health problems by virtue of their occupation. These health hazards include exposure to harmful gases such as methane and hydrogen sulfide, cardiovascular degeneration, musculoskeletal disorders like osteoarthritic changes and intervertebral disc herniation, infections like hepatitis, leptospirosis and helicobacter, skin problems, respiratory system problems and altered pulmonary function parameters. This can be prevented through engineering, medical and legislative measures. While the engineering measures will help in protecting against exposures, the medical measures will help in early detection of the effects of these exposures. This can be partly achieved by developing an effective occupational health service for this group of workers. Also, regular awareness programs should be conducted to impart education regarding safer work procedures and use of personal protective devices.
BibTeX:
@article{RR2008,
  author = {Tiwari RR},
  title = {Occupational health hazards in sewage and sanitary workers},
  journal = {5 Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {12(3)},
  pages = {112-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.44691}
}
Tiwari RR Occupational health hazards in sewage and sanitary workers. 2008 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 12(3)(112-5) 
article DOI  
Abstract: An estimated 1.2 million scavengers in the country are involved in the sanitation of our surroundings. The working conditions of these sanitary workers have remained virtually unchanged for over a century. Apart from the social atrocities that these workers face, they are exposed to certain health problems by virtue of their occupation. These health hazards include exposure to harmful gases such as methane and hydrogen sulfide, cardiovascular degeneration, musculoskeletal disorders like osteoarthritic changes and intervertebral disc herniation, infections like hepatitis, leptospirosis and helicobacter, skin problems, respiratory system problems and altered pulmonary function parameters. This can be prevented through engineering, medical and legislative measures. While the engineering measures will help in protecting against exposures, the medical measures will help in early detection of the effects of these exposures. This can be partly achieved by developing an effective occupational health service for this group of workers. Also, regular awareness programs should be conducted to impart education regarding safer work procedures and use of personal protective devices.
BibTeX:
@article{RR2008a,
  author = {Tiwari RR},
  title = {Occupational health hazards in sewage and sanitary workers.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {12(3)},
  number = {112-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.44691}
}
Saxena S, Abdel-Rahman MS Pharmacodynamics of benzyl chloride in rats. 1989 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol
Vol. 18(5), pp. 669-77 
article  
Abstract: In today's world of high industrialization, toxicity and pollution have become common terms of references. Both laymen and experts are becoming increasingly concerned about various health hazards created by occupational and industrial wastes dumped in and around public places. Benzyl chloride (BCl) was one of the chemicals dumped by Hooker Chemicals in Love Canal, N.Y. Benzyl chloride (BCl) is extensively used in industry in the manufacture of dyes, perfumes, resins, and synthetic tannins. It has been found at various dump sites and industrial wastes, which has led to potentialhazards to health. This study was conducted to investigate the pharmacodynamics of BCl in rats. Rats were given 14C-BCl in corn oil by gavage. The peak plasma level was reached at 30 min and began to decline. BCl elimination pattern follows a two compartment model. The distribution half-life (alpha-phase) was 1.3 hr while the half-life of elimination (beta-phase) was 58.53 hr. Distribution studies after 48 hr of BCl administration revealed that the concentration of radioisotopes was highest in the stomach, gastric content, ileum, and duodenum followed by liver, adrenal, bone marrow, whole blood, pancreas, lung, esophagus, skin, kidney, heart, thymus, fat, testes, spleen, brain, and carcass. Approximately 76% of the initial dose was excreted by kidney during the 72 hr studies. About 7% was detected in expired air as 14CO2, while less than 1.3% was present as 14C-BCl or 14C-BCl metabolites in expired air during 72 hr. Metabolism studies revealed that S-benzyl-N-acetyl cysteine, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde were the metabolites present in the urine.
BibTeX:
@article{SaxenaS1989,
  author = {Saxena S, Abdel-Rahman MS},
  title = {Pharmacodynamics of benzyl chloride in rats.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {18(5)},
  pages = {669-77}
}
Shah KR, Tiwari RR Occupational skin problems in construction workers. 2010 Indian J Dermatol
Vol. 55(4) 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Construction workers handle cement which has constituents to produce both irritant contact dermatitis and corrosive effects (from alkaline ingredients, such as lime) and sensitization, leading to allergic contact dermatitis (from ingredients, such as chromium).
AIM:
The present study has been carried out among unorganized construction workers to find the prevalence of skin problems.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 construction workers of Ahmedabad and Vadodara.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
All the workers were subjected to clinical examination after collection of information regarding demographic characteristics, occupational characteristics and clinical history on a predesigned proforma. Of them, 47.8% had morbid skin conditions. Frictional callosities in palm were observed in 18 (19.6%) subjects while 4 (4.3%) subjects had contact dermatitis. Other conditions included dry, fissured and scaly skin, infectious skin lesion, tinea cruris, lesion and ulcers on hands and/or soles.
CONCLUSION:
The skin conditions were common in the age group of 20-25 years, males, those having ?1 year exposure and those working for longer hours. Half of the workers not using personal protective equipment had reported skin-related symptoms
BibTeX:
@article{ShahKR2010,
  author = {Shah KR, Tiwari RR.},
  title = {Occupational skin problems in construction workers.},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {55(4)},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.74537}
}
Sharma V, Mahajan VK, Mehta KS, Chauhan PS Occupational contact dermatitis among construction workers: results of a pilot study. 2014 Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
Vol. 80(2), pp. 159-61 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaV2014,
  author = {Sharma V, Mahajan VK, Mehta KS, Chauhan PS},
  title = {Occupational contact dermatitis among construction workers: results of a pilot study.},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {80(2)},
  pages = {159-61},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.129402}
}
Singhi MK1, Menghani PR, Gupta LK, Kachhawa D, Bansal M Occupational contact dermatitis among the traditional 'tie and dye' cottage industry in Western Rajasthan. 2005 Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol.(71(5))  article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Dyeing is an age-old process and forms an integral part of textile industries. Tying is a process by which a particular part of cloth is prevented from the process of dyeing. The skin diseases in workers engaged in the 'tie and dye' industry have not been extensively studied.
AIMS:
To study the prevalence of contact dermatitis among workers engaged in the 'tie and dye' industries in and around Jodhpur (Western Rajasthan).
METHODS:
One thousand three hundred workers engaged in 'tie and dye' work were evaluated for occupation-related dermatitis. Those with skin lesions were subjected to patch tests using 2% aqueous solution of the dyes and chemicals commonly used by them. These included direct dyes, VAT dyes, sulfur dyes and azo dyes. Fifty workers without skin lesions served as controls.
RESULTS:
One hundred patients (7.69%) had dermatitis involving the exposed sites, mainly the hands and forearms. Eighty-one patients showed positive reactions to one or more dyes, most commonly Red RC base (azo dye), followed by naphthol.
CONCLUSION:
Red RC base and naphthol were the commonest allergens in the 'tie and dye' industry.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghiMK12005,
  author = {Singhi MK1, Menghani PR, Gupta LK, Kachhawa D, Bansal M.},
  title = {Occupational contact dermatitis among the traditional 'tie and dye' cottage industry in Western Rajasthan.},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol.},
  year = {2005},
  number = {71(5)}
}
Banerjee SR Agricultural child labor in West Bengal. 1993 Indian Pediatr
Vol. 30(12), pp. 1425-9 
article  
Abstract: Five hundred agricultural child workers of the age group 7-14 years from nine villages of three districts of West Bengal were studied to investigate the socio-economic problems, health hazards and health status. Majority (65%) were Muslims and the rest were Hindus; 79% were boys and most were the eldest children in the families. Nearly 65% children were part-time workers of whom 54% were unpaid helpers and the rest mostly received meagre wages of Rs. 5 to 6 per day. Seventy per cent fathers and 96% mothers were illiterate. A total of 33.6% children did not attend schools and 37.6% had discontinued their studies due to poor economic conditions. Reasons for taking up jobs were mostly due to low family income. Almost 85% children lived in kaccha houses and 98.5% used open fields for sanitation. Different grades of malnutrition were observed in 77.4% boys and 88.5% girls. None had undergone any systemic health check-ups. The associated ailments recorded were anemia (68.5%), gastrointestinal tract infections (65.8%), upper respiratory tract infections (15.5%), vitamin deficiencies (81.2%), eye diseases (30.2%) and skin diseases (22.8%). Health hazards, to which the children were exposed, included heat-induced disorders (4%), mechanical injuries (16%), toxic effects of chemicals (3%), bites of poisonous insects (34%) and death of two children due to poisonous snake bite. No legal protection was available to child.
BibTeX:
@article{SR1993,
  author = {Banerjee SR},
  title = {Agricultural child labor in West Bengal.},
  journal = {Indian Pediatr},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {30(12)},
  pages = {1425-9}
}
Srinivasa Gowd S1, Govil PK Distribution of heavy metals in surface water of Ranipet industrial area in Tamil Nadu, India. 2008 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 136(1-3), pp. 197-207 
article  
Abstract: Ranipet industrial area is about 120 km from Chennai on Chennai-Bangalore highway and is a chronic polluted area identified by Central Pollution Control Board of India. It is one of the biggest exporting centers of tanned leather in India. The total number of industries located in and around Ranipet town are 240 tanneries along with ceramic, refractory, boiler auxiliaries plant, and chromium chemicals. Studies were carried out to find out the contamination of surface water bodies due to industrial effluents. The results reveal that the surface water in the area is highly contaminated showing very high concentrations of some of the heavy/toxic metals like Cadmium ranging from 0.2 to 401.4 microg/l (average of 51.1 microg/l), Chromium 2.4-1,308.6 (average of 247.2 microg/l), Copper 2.1-535.5 microg/l (average of 95.5 microg/l), Nickel 1.6-147.0 microg/l (average of 36.7 microg/l), Lead 6.4-2,034.4 microg/l (average of 467.8 microg/l) and Zinc 20.8-12,718.0 microg/l (average of 3,760.4 microg/l). The concentration levels of these metals are much above the permissible limits in surface water and are health hazards especially for the people working in the tannery industries. It was observed that the people in the area are seriously affected and suffering from occupational diseases such as asthma, chromium ulcers and skin diseases. Distribution of metals, their contents at different locations, and their effects on human health are discussed in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{SrinivasaGowdS12008,
  author = {Srinivasa Gowd S1, Govil PK},
  title = {Distribution of heavy metals in surface water of Ranipet industrial area in Tamil Nadu, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {136(1-3)},
  pages = {197-207}
}
T Rajan S, Malathi N Health Hazards of Xylene: A Literature Review. 2014 J Clin Diagn Res.
Vol. 8(2), pp. 271-274 
article DOI  
Abstract: Xylene, an aromatic hydrocarbon is widely used in industry and medical laboratory as a solvent. It is a flammable liquid that requires utmost care during its usage. On exposure the vapours are rapidly absorbed through the lungs and the slowly through the skin. Prolonged exposure to xylene leads to significant amount of solvent accumulation in the adipose and muscle tissue. This article reviews the various acute and chronic health effects of xylene through various routes of exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{TRajanS2014,
  author = {T Rajan S, Malathi N},
  title = {Health Hazards of Xylene: A Literature Review.},
  journal = {J Clin Diagn Res.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {8(2)},
  pages = {271-274},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/7544.4079}
}
Tiwary G, Gangopadhyay PK A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry. 2011 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 15(1), pp. 18-24 
article DOI  
Abstract: Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors - the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work - the work place is not proper - the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field.
BibTeX:
@article{TiwaryG2011,
  author = {Tiwary G, Gangopadhyay PK},
  title = {A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15(1)},
  pages = {18-24},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.83003}
}
Verma GK, Mahajan VK, Shanker V, Tegta GR, Jindal N, Minhas S Contact depigmentation following irritant contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol (Dettol). 2011 Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol.
Vol. 77(5), pp. 612-4 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{VermaGK2011,
  author = {Verma GK, Mahajan VK, Shanker V, Tegta GR, Jindal N, Minhas S.},
  title = {Contact depigmentation following irritant contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol (Dettol).},
  journal = {Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {77(5)},
  pages = {612-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.84086}
}
(Last Updated Upto:2014)