Bibliography : Pesticide

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AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
Bagavathiannan MV, Norsworthy JK Multiple-Herbicide Resistance Is Widespread in Roadside Palmer Amaranth Populations. 2016 PLoS One., pp. 11  article  
Abstract: Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is a widespread issue in row-crop production in the Midsouthern US. Palmer amaranth is commonly found on roadside habitats in this region, but little is known on the degree of herbicide resistance in these populations. Herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations can represent the spread of an adaptive trait across a selective landscape. A large-scale survey was carried out in the Mississippi Delta region of eastern Arkansas to document the level of resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, two important herbicides with broad history of use in the region. A total of 215 Palmer amaranth populations collected across 500 random survey sites were used in the evaluations. About 89 and 73% of the surveyed populations showed >90% survival to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, respectively. Further, only 3% of the populations were completely susceptible to glyphosate, while none of the populations was completely controlled by pyrithiobac. Among the 215 populations evaluated, 209 populations showed multiple resistance to both pyrithiobac and glyphosate at varying degrees. Dose-response assays confirmed the presence of high levels of herbicide resistance in the five selected populations (? 25-fold compared to a susceptible standard). Results demonstrate the prevalence of multiple-herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations in this region. Growers should be vigilant of Palmer amaranth infestation in roadsides adjacent to their fields and implement appropriate control measures to prevent likely spread of herbicide resistance into their fields.
BibTeX:
@article{BagavathiannanMV12016,
  author = {Bagavathiannan MV1, Norsworthy JK2.},
  title = {Multiple-Herbicide Resistance Is Widespread in Roadside Palmer Amaranth Populations.},
  journal = {PLoS One.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {11}
}
Bhatia T, Gupta MK, Singh P, Chauhan A, Saxena PN, Mudiam MK Sol-gel approach for extracting highly versatile aspirin and its metabolites using MISPE followed by GC-MS/MS analysis. 2016 Bioanalysis., pp. 805  article DOI  
Abstract: AIM:
Aspirin is known to be a salicylate drug widely used as an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug.
METHODOLOGY:
Sol-gel based nanosized molecularly imprinted polymer (nMIP) has been synthesized for extraction of aspirin and its metabolites in urine followed by GC-MS/MS analysis.
RESULTS:
Binding affinity of nMIP and nonimprinted polymer was found to be in the range of 70-95% and 29-45%, respectively. LOD and LOQ of aspirin and its metabolites were found to be in the range of 0.63-2.4 ng/ml and 2.07-7.68 ng/ml, respectively.
CONCLUSION:
The developed method was found to be applicable for routine analysis of aspirin and its metabolites in biological samples.
BibTeX:
@article{BhatiaT12016,
  author = {Bhatia T1,2, Gupta MK1,2, Singh P1, Chauhan A1, Saxena PN3, Mudiam MK1,2,4.},
  title = {Sol-gel approach for extracting highly versatile aspirin and its metabolites using MISPE followed by GC-MS/MS analysis.},
  journal = {Bioanalysis.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {805},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.16.28}
}
Bhattacherjee AK, Dikshit A Dissipation kinetics and risk assessment of thiamethoxam and dimethoate in mango. 2016 Environ Monit Assess., pp. 188  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacherjeeAK12016,
  author = {Bhattacherjee AK1, Dikshit A2.},
  title = {Dissipation kinetics and risk assessment of thiamethoxam and dimethoate in mango.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {188},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5160-3}
}
Dutta S, Bahadur M Cytogenetic analysis of micronuclei and cell death parameters in epithelial cells of pesticide exposed tea garden workers. 2016 Toxicol Mech Methods., pp. 27  article  
Abstract: Buccal micronucleus cytome assay was carried out in 47 exposed (sprayers and leaf harvesters), 47 non-exposed (controls) to determine the extent of damage working in the tea plantations of Terai region of West Bengal, India. As the pesticide exposed male workers were found to consume alcohol and smoked cigarettes/bidis, 35 smokers and 30 alcoholics were also included for comparison. Results showed a significant difference in micronuclei (9.91±2.74, p?0.001), nuclear bud (4.98±1.31, p?0.001), binucleate (6.26±2.84, p?0.001), karyorrhectic (8.36±2.28, p?0.001), pyknotic (5.62±1.78, p?0.05) as well as karyolytic (6.81±3.00, p?0.001) nuclei compared to control. Comparison also revealed a higher frequency of micronuclei (6.11±2.55, p?0.01), nuclear bud (4.06±1.97, p?0.05), binucleate (4.34±1.85, p?0.001), karyorrhectic (6.83±2.12, p?0.001) and karyolytic (6.20±2.54, p?0.001) nuclei except pyknotic cell in the smoker than control. Frequency of binucleate (3.80±1.73, p?0.05), karyorrhectic (5.57±2.34, p?0.05), pyknotic (5.50±1.36, p?0.05) and karyolytic (6.30±2.71, p?0.001) nuclei was higher in the alcoholics than control (non-alcoholics), whereas, the micronuclei and nuclear bud were found to be non-significant compared to the control. Our analyses also revealed a higher proportion of the micronucleus and the cell death parameters in the pesticide exposed males than females, which indicated that pesticide, smoking and alcohol may act synergistically to cause more damage to the buccal epithelial cells. However, age and the exposure duration have no influence on the micronucleus and other cell death parameters.
BibTeX:
@article{DuttaS12016,
  author = {Dutta S1, Bahadur M1.},
  title = {Cytogenetic analysis of micronuclei and cell death parameters in epithelial cells of pesticide exposed tea garden workers.},
  journal = {Toxicol Mech Methods.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {27}
}
Gupta P, Ahammad SZ, Sreekrishnan TR Improving the cyanide toxicity tolerance of anaerobic reactor: Microbial interactions and toxin reduction. 2016 J Hazard Mater, pp. 60  article  
Abstract: Anaerobic biological treatment of high organics containing wastewater is amongst the preferred treatment options but poor tolerance to toxins makes its use prohibitive. In this study, efforts have been made to understand the key parameters for developing anaerobic reactor, resilient to cyanide toxicity. A laboratory scale anaerobic batch reactor was set up to treat cyanide containing wastewater. The reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment plant and fresh cow dung in the ratio of 3:1. The focus was on acclimatization and development of cyanide-degrading biomass and to understand the toxic effects of cyanide on the dynamic equilibrium between various microbial groups. The sludge exposed to cyanide was found to have higher bacterial diversity than the control. It was observed that certain hydrogenotrophic methanogens and bacterial groups were able to grow and produce methane in the presence of cyanide. Also, it was found that hydrogen utilizing methanogens were more cyanide tolerant than acetate utilizing methanogens. So, effluents from various industries like electroplating, coke oven plant, petroleum refining, explosive manufacturing, and pesticides industries which are having high concentrations of cyanide can be treated by favoring the growth of the tolerant microbes in the reactors. It will provide much better treatment efficiency by overcoming the inhibitory effects of cyanide to certain extent.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaP12016,
  author = {Gupta P1, Ahammad SZ1, Sreekrishnan TR2.},
  title = {Improving the cyanide toxicity tolerance of anaerobic reactor: Microbial interactions and toxin reduction.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {60}
}
Kapoor A, Shaffer N, Hanchate A, Roberts M, Smith K Massachusetts Health Reform Cost Less and Was More Effective for Uninsured Individuals With Venous Thromboembolism: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. 2016 Med Care., pp. 54  article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) require access to comprehensive physician and pharmacy benefits to prevent recurrence and hemorrhage. Before 2006, Massachusetts provided these benefits through a program restricted to safety net hospitals called Free Care. Providing portable health insurance through Massachusetts health reform could improve outcomes for uninsured with VTE but its cost-effectiveness is unknown.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
We constructed a Markov decision analysis model comparing our conceptualization of the Massachusetts health reform (health reform strategy) to no health reform strategy for a patient beginning warfarin for new episode of VTE. In the model, a patient may develop recurrent VTE or develop hemorrhage or stop warfarin after 6 months if no event occurs. To measure effectiveness, we analyzed laboratory data from Boston Medical Center, the largest safety net hospital in Massachusetts. Specifically, we measured the probability of having a subtherapeutic warfarin level for patients newly insured compared with those on Free Care prereform adjusting for secular trends. To calculate inpatient costs, we used the Health Care Utilization Project. We then calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the health reform strategy adjusted to 2014 USD per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and performed sensitivity analyses. The health reform strategy cost less and gained more QALYs than the no health reform strategy. Our result was most sensitive to the odds that Health Reform protected against a subtherapeutic warfarin level, the cost of Health Reform, and the percentage of total health care costs attributable to VTE in Massachusetts.
CONCLUSION:
The health reform strategy cost less and was more effective than the no health reform strategy for patients with VTE.
BibTeX:
@article{KapoorA12016,
  author = {Kapoor A1, Shaffer N, Hanchate A, Roberts M, Smith K},
  title = {Massachusetts Health Reform Cost Less and Was More Effective for Uninsured Individuals With Venous Thromboembolism: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.},
  journal = {Med Care.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {54},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000000506}
}
Kumar S, Kaushik G, Villarreal-Chiu JF Scenario of organophosphate pollution and toxicity in India: A review. 2016 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int., pp. 91  article DOI  
Abstract: The present study on organophosphate deals with the reports on pollution and toxicity cases throughout India. The use of pesticides was introduced in India during the 1960s which are now being used on a large scale and represents the common feature of Indian agriculture. Use of organophosphates as a pesticide came as an alternative to chlorinated hydrocarbons due to their easy degradability. Although these xenobiotics degrade under natural condition, their residues have been detected in soil, sediments, and water due to their non-regulated usage practice. The over-reliance on pesticides has not only threatened our environment but contaminations of organophosphate residues have been also detected in certain agricultural products like tea, sugars, vegetables, and fruits throughout India. This paper highlights many of the cases where different organophosphates have been detected exceeding their respective MRL values. Some organophosphates detected are so hazardous that even WHO has listed them in class 1a and class 1b hazardous group. Presence of their residues in blood, milk, honey, and tissues of human and animals revealed their excessive use and bioaccumulating capabilities. Their intentional or unintentional uptake is causing thousands of deaths and severity each year. Most of the toxicity cases presented here are due to their uptake during a suicidal attempt. This shows how easily these harmful substances are available in the market.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS12016,
  author = {Kumar S1, Kaushik G2, Villarreal-Chiu JF3.},
  title = {Scenario of organophosphate pollution and toxicity in India: A review.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {91},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6294-0}
}
Kumari U, Srivastava N, Shelly A, Khatri P, N S, Singh DK, Mazumder S Inducible headkidney cytochrome P450 contributes to endosulfan immunotoxicity in walking catfish Clarias gariepinus. 2016 Aquat Toxicol., pp. 54  article DOI  
Abstract: The effect of endosulfan metabolites on fish immune system is not well known. It is also not clear whether endosulfan accumulates in fish immune organs and undergoes metabolic biotransformation in situ. In the present study we investigated the role of headkidney (HK), an important fish immune organ on endosulfan metabolism and the long term effects of endosulfan metabolites on the fish immune system. C. gariepinus (walking catfish) were exposed to 2.884ppb of endosulfan (1/10th LC50) for 30d followed by their maintenance in endosulfan-free water for 30d for recovery. Endosulfan induced time-dependent reduction in the HK somatic index and histo-pathological changes in renal and hemopoietic components of the organ. At cellular level, exposure to endosulfan led to death of HK leucocytes. Gas-liquid-chromatography documented the presence of both ?- and ?-isomers of endosulfan along with the toxic metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ESS) in the HK of exposed fishes. We report that ?-endosulfan accumulates more readily in the HK. Depuration studies suggested the persistence of ESS in the HK. Enzyme-immunoassay and qPCR results demonstrated direct relationship between cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) expression and ESS levels in the HK. Pre-treatment of HKL with CYP1A specific inhibitor ?-Naphthoflavone (ANF) led to reduction in CYP1A mRNA, protein levels, and inhibited ESS formation together implicating the role of CYP1A on endosulfan metabolism. When the exposed fish were transferred to endosulfan-free water ('recovered fish') it was observed that after 30d of recovery period the concentration of endosulfan and its metabolite in the HK were significantly reduced, compared to 30-d exposed fish. We also observed improvement in HK histo-architecture but no significant recovery in HKL number and viability. Collectively, our findings suggest that HK plays an important role in endosulfan metabolism. We propose that endosulfan induces the activation of CYP1A in HK which led to the generation of persistent metabolite, ESS, resulting in immunotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{KumariU12016,
  author = {Kumari U1, Srivastava N1, Shelly A1, Khatri P1, N S2, Singh DK2, Mazumder S3.},
  title = {Inducible headkidney cytochrome P450 contributes to endosulfan immunotoxicity in walking catfish Clarias gariepinus.},
  journal = {Aquat Toxicol.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {54},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.08.009}
}
Mishra A, Kumar J, Melo JS An optical microplate biosensor for the detection of methyl parathion pesticide using a biohybrid of Sphingomonas sp. cells-silica nanoparticles. 2016 Biosens Bioelectron., pp. 328  article  
Abstract: The previously developed Sphingomonas sp. based optical microplate biosensor for methyl parathion (MP) was good as it detected multiple samples but had poor stability and low sensitivity. The present study aims to overcome these limitations. Silica nanoparticles (Si NP) were thus functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and the functionalized silica nanoparticles (fSi NP) were then integrated with Sphingomonas sp. cells. The process was optimized for hydrolysis of MP into p-nitrophenol (PNP). Integration of fSi NP with cells was confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Biohybrid of Sphingomonas sp.-fSi NP was immobilized on the wells of microplate and associated directly with the optical transducer of microplate reader. Immobilized biohybrid of Sphingomonas sp.-fSi NP was characterized using SEM. A detection range of 0.1-1ppm MP was achieved from the linear range of calibration plot. After integration with fSi NP the storage stability of biohybrid was enhanced ten times from 18 to 180 days. This study proves that after interaction of cells with fSi NP, improved the sensitivity and stability of the biosensor. Spiked samples were also analyzed and correlated using this biohybrid based biosensor.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraA12016,
  author = {Mishra A1, Kumar J2, Melo JS3.},
  title = {An optical microplate biosensor for the detection of methyl parathion pesticide using a biohybrid of Sphingomonas sp. cells-silica nanoparticles.},
  journal = {Biosens Bioelectron.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {328}
}
Pandey AK, Sonker N, Singh P Efficacy of Some Essential Oils Against Aspergillus flavus with Special Reference to Lippia alba Oil an Inhibitor of Fungal Proliferation and Aflatoxin B1 Production in Green Gram Seeds during Storage. 2016 J Food Sci, pp. 34  article DOI  
Abstract: During mycofloral analysis of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) seed samples taken from different grocery stores by agar and standard blotter paper methods, 5 fungal species were identified, of which Aspergillus flavus exhibited higher relative frequency (75.20% to 80.60%) and was found to produce aflatoxin B1 . On screening of 11 plant essential oils against this mycotoxigenic fungi, Lippia alba essential oil was found to be most effective and showed absolute inhibition of mycelia growth at 0.28 ?L/mL. The oil of L. alba was fungistatic and fungicidal at 0.14 and 0.28 ?L/mL, respectively. Oil had broad range of fungitoxicity at its MIC value and was absolutely inhibited the AFB1 production level at 2.0 ?L/mL. Chemical analysis of this oil revealed geranial (36.9%) and neral (29.3%) as major components followed by myrcene (18.6%). Application of a dose of 80 ?L/0.25 L air of Lippia oil in the storage system significantly inhibited the fungal proliferation and aflatoxin production without affecting the seed germination rate. By the virtue of fungicidal, antiaflatoxigenic nature and potent efficacy in storage food system, L. alba oil can be commercialized as botanical fungicide for the protection of green gram seeds during storage.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyAK12016,
  author = {Pandey AK1,2, Sonker N1, Singh P1.},
  title = {Efficacy of Some Essential Oils Against Aspergillus flavus with Special Reference to Lippia alba Oil an Inhibitor of Fungal Proliferation and Aflatoxin B1 Production in Green Gram Seeds during Storage.},
  journal = {J Food Sci},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13254}
}
Patel BV, Chawla S, Gor H, Upadhyay P, Parmar KD, Patel AR, Shah PG Residue decline and risk assessment of fluopyram + tebuconazole (400SC) in/on onion (Allium cepa). 2016 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int  article  
Abstract: A method was validated for estimating fluopyram and tebuconazole in onion on LC-MS/MS using dispersive QuEChERS. Three sprays of a combination fungicide fluopyram + tebuconazole (Luna experience, 400 SC) were applied @ 75 + 75 and 150 + 150 g a.i. ha-1 at an interval of 10 days on onion using Knapsack sprayer. First spray was made at bulb setting stage. Spring onion samples were drawn at 0 (1 h), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 days and matured onion bulb at harvest (52 days) after the last spray. Soil samples were also drawn at harvest. Foliar application of the combination product resulted in 1.14 and 2.86 mg kg-1 fluopyram residues on spring onion at standard and double dose, respectively, one hour after the last application. The levels of fluopyram residues gradually declined and recorded 0.25 and 0.58 mg kg-1 on 20th day of application with half-lives of 8.8 and 9.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. For tebuconazole, the corresponding residues observed after 1 h (0 day) of application were 0.92 and 2.29 mg kg-1. The levels declined gradually to 0.12 and 0.33 mg kg-1 on 20th days with half-life of 6.7 to 7.7 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Here, we are proposing a pre-harvest interval of 7 day for fluopyram and tebuconazole in spring onion when applied at 75 + 75 g a.i. ha-1 (400 SC). Risk assessment was done by calculating hazard quotient and by comparing theoretical maximum residue intake (TMRI) with maximum permissible intake (MPI). In all the cases, results of the study showed that HQ (Hazard Quotient) ?1 and TMDI < MPI. Hence, the use of this combination product can be recommended with pre harvest interval of 7 days. The data can be used in establishing MRLs (maximum residue limits) for spring onion after considering multilocation trials.
BibTeX:
@article{PatelBV12016,
  author = {Patel BV1, Chawla S2, Gor H1, Upadhyay P1, Parmar KD1, Patel AR1, Shah PG1.},
  title = {Residue decline and risk assessment of fluopyram + tebuconazole (400SC) in/on onion (Allium cepa).},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int},
  year = {2016}
}
Pathak AK, Bandyopadhyay T Ortho-7 bound to the active-site gorge of free and OP-conjugated acetylcholinesterase: cation-? interactions. 2016 Biopolymers., pp. 10  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{PathakAK12016,
  author = {Pathak AK1, Bandyopadhyay T1.},
  title = {Ortho-7 bound to the active-site gorge of free and OP-conjugated acetylcholinesterase: cation-? interactions.},
  journal = {Biopolymers.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bip.22712}
}
Pawar NN, Badgujar PC, Sharma LP, Telang AG, Singh KP Oxidative impairment and histopathological alterations in kidney and brain of mice following subacute lambda-cyhalothrin exposure. 2016 Toxicol Ind Health.  article  
BibTeX:
@article{PawarNN12016,
  author = {Pawar NN1, Badgujar PC2, Sharma LP1, Telang AG3, Singh KP4.},
  title = {Oxidative impairment and histopathological alterations in kidney and brain of mice following subacute lambda-cyhalothrin exposure.},
  journal = {Toxicol Ind Health.},
  year = {2016}
}
Rasheed MS, Tripathi S, Mishra S, Singh MP Coherent and Contradictory Facts, Feats and Fictions Associated with Metal Accumulation in Parkinson's Disease: Epicenter or Outcome, Yet a Demigod Question. 2016 Mol Neurobiol.  article  
BibTeX:
@article{RasheedMS12016,
  author = {Rasheed MS1,2, Tripathi S1,2, Mishra S1,2, Singh MP3,},
  title = {Coherent and Contradictory Facts, Feats and Fictions Associated with Metal Accumulation in Parkinson's Disease: Epicenter or Outcome, Yet a Demigod Question.},
  journal = {Mol Neurobiol.},
  year = {2016}
}
Sahu AK, Sharma R, Gupta B, Musilek K, Kuca K, Acharya J, Ghosh KK Oxime-mediated in vitro reactivation kinetic analysis of organophosphates-inhibited human and electric eel acetylcholinesterase. 2016 Toxicol Mech Methods., pp. 319-26  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{SahuAK12016,
  author = {Sahu AK1, Sharma R1, Gupta B1, Musilek K2, Kuca K3, Acharya J4, Ghosh KK1.},
  title = {Oxime-mediated in vitro reactivation kinetic analysis of organophosphates-inhibited human and electric eel acetylcholinesterase.},
  journal = {Toxicol Mech Methods.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {319-26},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15376516.2016.1143070}
}
Saxena A, Kesari VP Lack of genotoxic potential of pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil in mice (Mus musculus). 2016 J Environ Biol.  article  
Abstract: Pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil are widely used both in residential and agricultural environments because of its broad spectrum insecticidal activity and effectiveness. The present study was undertaken to estimate genotoxicity of formulations of some pesticides in mice. Three pesticides of diverse group studied were spinosad (45% w/v), imidacloprid (17.8%, w/v) and neem oil. Animals were exposed 37, 4.5 and 50 mg kg?¹ b.wt. for spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil, respectively, through oral gavage for 5 consecutive days. A vehicle control group and one positive control (cyclophosphamide; 20 mg kg?¹ b. wt.) were also selected. The results showed that cyclophosphamide produced 1.12% micronuclei in mice, as against 0.18 in vehicle control, 0.30 in spinosad, 0.28 in imidacloprid and 0.22% in neem oil, respectively. The gross percentage of chromosomal aberration in mice were 28.5% in cyclophosphamide against 6.5% in vehicle control, 8.0% in spinosad, 9.5% in imidacloprid and 7.0% in neem oil, respectively. The overall findings of the present study revealed that all the three pesticide formulations, imidacloprid, spinosad and neem oil at tested dose did not show any genotoxic effect in mice.
BibTeX:
@article{SaxenaA2016,
  author = {Saxena A, Kesari VP.},
  title = {Lack of genotoxic potential of pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil in mice (Mus musculus).},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2016}
}
Sebastian R, Raghavan SC Induction of DNA damage and erroneous repair can explain genomic instability caused by Endosulfan. 2016 Carcinogenesis.  article  
BibTeX:
@article{SebastianR12016,
  author = {Sebastian R1, Raghavan SC2.},
  title = {Induction of DNA damage and erroneous repair can explain genomic instability caused by Endosulfan.},
  journal = {Carcinogenesis.},
  year = {2016}
}
Sharma A, Bhardwaj R, Kumar V, Thukral AK GC-MS studies reveal stimulated pesticide detoxification by brassinolide application in Brassica juncea L. plants. 2016 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaA12016,
  author = {Sharma A1, Bhardwaj R2, Kumar V1, Thukral AK1.},
  title = {GC-MS studies reveal stimulated pesticide detoxification by brassinolide application in Brassica juncea L. plants.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6650-0}
}
Sharma P, Thakur S, Awasthi P In silico and bio assay of juvenile hormone analogs as an insect growth regulator against Galleria mellonella (wax moth) - Part I. 2016 J Biomol Struct Dyn., pp. 78  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaP12016,
  author = {Sharma P1, Thakur S2, Awasthi P1.},
  title = {In silico and bio assay of juvenile hormone analogs as an insect growth regulator against Galleria mellonella (wax moth) - Part I.},
  journal = {J Biomol Struct Dyn.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {78},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2015.1056549}
}
Sharma S, Chadha P Induction of neurotoxicity by organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos and modulating role of cow urine. 2016 Springerplus., pp. 1344  article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
Organophosphate pesticides are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals for controlling a wide variety of pests and for domestic purposes. Among these chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the most extensively used pesticide throughout the world, including India.
OBJECTIVE:
The present study was undertaken to examine the neurotoxicity induced by CPF and modulatory effect of cow urine as a natural antioxidant alternative to reduce the neurotoxic effects of CPF.
DESIGN:
For this purpose LD50 was determined and one fourth of LD50 was selected (38 mg/kg body weight (b.wt)) for treatment of rats. The antioxidant level of cow urine was determined by ABTS assay.
RESULTS:
Exposure to pesticides resulted in significant reduction in the acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity (P ? 0.01). However, groups pretreated with cow urine had improved levels of AChE activity as compared to CPF treated groups.
CONCLUSION:
Thus, the present findings clearly show that oral CPF has the propensity to cause significant neurotoxicity in rat brains while cow urine treatment alleviates CPF induced toxicity to a greater extent. In addition, AChE can be used as a potential biomarker of toxicity associated with pesticide exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaS12016,
  author = {Sharma S1, Chadha P1.},
  title = {Induction of neurotoxicity by organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos and modulating role of cow urine.},
  journal = {Springerplus.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1344},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3004-9}
}
Shera PS, Arora R Comparative study on oviposition and larval preference of spotted bollworm, Earias vittella on Bt and non-Bt cotton. 2016 J Environ Biol., pp. 121-7  article  
Abstract: Oviposition and larval preference of spotted bollworm, Earias vittella (Fabricius) was assessed on four transgenic Bt cotton hybrids, viz. MRC 6304 Bt (cry1Ac gene), JKCH 1947 Bt (modified cry1Ac gene), NCEH 6R Bt (cry1Ab/cry1Ac fused gene) and MRC 7017 BG II (cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes) in comparison to the respective isogenic cotton. The results showed that Bt toxin did not deter oviposition preference of E. vittella moths as there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid on squares/bolls of Bt and non-Bt cotton hybrids, across different crop growth stages. There was also no behavioral change in larval preference with respect to selecting non-Bt cotton in comparison to Bt cotton. Floral bodies from Bt and the respective isogenic cotton genotypes were equally preferred by both first and third instar larvae after 24 hrs indicating that initial selection was independent of susceptibility to Bt toxin. However, E. vittella larvae showed significant difference in preference for different cotton genotypes. Studies on the relative preference indicated that third instar larvae had greater preference for bolls (7.29-7.50%) than for the squares (5.0-5.21%) and reverse was true for the first instar larvae which showed greater preference for squares (7.08-7.29%) than for the bolls (5.21-5.42%), in a multiple-choice test. It may be concluded that oviposition and larval preference of E. vittella did not differ significantly between Bt and isogenic non-Bt cotton genotypes.
BibTeX:
@article{SheraPS2016,
  author = {Shera PS, Arora R.},
  title = {Comparative study on oviposition and larval preference of spotted bollworm, Earias vittella on Bt and non-Bt cotton.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {121-7}
}
Siddamallaiah L, Mohapatra S Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study. 2016 Environ Monit Assess.  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{SiddamallaiahL12016,
  author = {Siddamallaiah L1,2, Mohapatra S3.},
  title = {Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2016},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5165-y}
}
Singh S, Prakash A1, Kaur S, Ming LC, Mani V, Majeed AB The role of multifunctional drug therapy as an antidote to combat experimental subacute neurotoxicity induced by organophosphate pesticides. 2016 Environ Toxicol., pp. 1017-26  article DOI  
Abstract: Organophosphate pesticides are used in agriculture where they are associated with numerous cases of intentional and accidental misuse. These toxicants are potent inhibitors of cholinesterases leading to a massive build-up of acetylcholine which induces an array of deleterious effects, including convulsions, oxidative damage and neurobehavioral deficits. Antidotal therapies with atropine and oxime yield a remarkable survival rate, but fail to prevent neuronal damage and behavioral problems. It has been indicated that multifunction drug therapy with potassium channel openers, calcium channel antagonists and antioxidants (either single-agent therapy or combination therapy) may have the potential to prevent cell death and/or slow down the processes of secondary neuronal damage. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to make a relative assessment of the potential effects of nicorandil (2 mg/kg), clinidipine (10 mg/kg), and grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPE) extract (200 mg/kg) individually against subacute chlorpyrifos induced toxicity. The test drugs were administered to Wistar rats 2 h after exposure to Chlorpyrifos (CPF). Different behavioral studies and biochemical estimation has been carried in the study. The results showed that chronic administration of CPF significantly impaired learning and memory, along with motor coordination, and produced a marked increase in oxidative stress along with significantly reduced acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. Treatment with nicorandil, clinidipine and GSPE was shown to significantly improve memory performance, attenuate oxidative damage and enhance AChE activity in rats. The present study also suggests that a combination of nicorandil, clinidipine, and GSPE has a better neuroprotective effect against subacute CPF induced neurotoxicity than if applied individually.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghS12016,
  author = {Singh S1, Prakash A1,2,3, Kaur S1, Ming LC2,3, Mani V2,3, Majeed AB2,3.},
  title = {The role of multifunctional drug therapy as an antidote to combat experimental subacute neurotoxicity induced by organophosphate pesticides.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1017-26},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22111}
}
Tripathy V, Saha A, Patel DJ, Basak BB, Shah PG, Kumar J Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna). 2016 J Environ Sci Health B., pp. 508  article DOI  
Abstract: A simple multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was established for the determination of 17 organochlorine (OC), 15 organophosphorous (OP) and 7 synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides in an economically important medicinal plant of India, Senna (Cassia angustifolia), by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and flame thermionic detectors (GC/ECD/FTD) and confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The developed method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy-precision and measurement uncertainty; the validation study clearly demonstrated the suitability of the method for its intended application. All pesticides showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 ?g mL(-1) for OCs and OPs and 0.05-2.5 ?g mL(-1) for SPs with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. The method gave good recoveries for most of the pesticides (70-120%) with intra-day and inter-day precision < 20% in most of the cases. The limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.03 mg kg(-1), and the LOQs were determined as 0.01-0.049 mg kg(-1). The expanded uncertainties were <30%, which was distinctively less than a maximum default value of ±50%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine pesticide residues in 12 commercial market samples obtained from different locations in India.
BibTeX:
@article{TripathyV12016,
  author = {Tripathy V1, Saha A1, Patel DJ2, Basak BB1, Shah PG2, Kumar J1.},
  title = {Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna).},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {508},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2016.1170544}
}
Trivedi NS, Mandavgane SA, Kulkarni BD Mustard plant ash: a source of micronutrient and an adsorbent for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. 2016 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int  article  
BibTeX:
@article{TrivediNS12016,
  author = {Trivedi NS1, Mandavgane SA2, Kulkarni BD},
  title = {Mustard plant ash: a source of micronutrient and an adsorbent for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int},
  year = {2016}
}
Bhagavathi Pushpa T, Vijayaraghavan J, Sardhar Basha SJ, Sekaran V, Vijayaraghavan K, Jegan J Investigation on removal of malachite green using EM based compost as adsorbent. 2015 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., pp. 82  article DOI  
Abstract: The discarded materials from different sources can be utilized as effective materials in wastewater remediation. This proposed study was aimed mainly to investigate the possibility of Effective Microorganisms based compost (EMKC), which is derived from the kitchen solid waste, as a non-conventional low cost adsorbent for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the optimum operating parameters like pH (2-9), initial dye concentration (50-1000mg/L), adsorbent particle size (0.6-2.36mm) and adsorbent dosage (2-12g/L). EMKC recorded maximum uptake of 136.6mg/g of MG at pH 8, initial dye concentration 1000mg/L, adsorbent particle size 1.18mm and adsorbent dosage 4g/L. Two and three parameter adsorption models were employed to describe experimental biosorption isotherm data. The results revealed that the Sips model resulted in better fit than other models. The pseudo-first and -second order models were applied to describe kinetic data, of which the pseudo-second order described experimental data better with high correlation coefficient. This investigation suggested that EMKC could be an effective and low cost material for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution.
BibTeX:
@article{BhagavathiPushpaT12015,
  author = {Bhagavathi Pushpa T1, Vijayaraghavan J1, Sardhar Basha SJ2, Sekaran V3, Vijayaraghavan K4, Jegan J5.},
  title = {Investigation on removal of malachite green using EM based compost as adsorbent.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {82},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.04.033}
}
Bhatt AN, Chauhan A, Khanna S, Rai Y, Singh S, Soni R, Kalra N, Dwarakanath BS Transient elevation of glycolysis confers radio-resistance by facilitating DNA repair in cells. 2015 BMC Cancer., pp. 335  article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis for ATP production (the Warburg effect) and macromolecular biosynthesis; it is also linked with therapeutic resistance that is generally associated with compromised respiratory metabolism. Molecular mechanisms underlying radio-resistance linked to elevated glycolysis remain incompletely understood.
METHODS:
We stimulated glycolysis using mitochondrial respiratory modifiers (MRMs viz. di-nitro phenol, DNP; Photosan-3, PS3; Methylene blue, MB) in established human cell lines (HEK293, BMG-1 and OCT-1). Glucose utilization and lactate production, levels of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes were investigated as indices of glycolysis. Clonogenic survival, DNA repair and cytogenetic damage were studied as parameters of radiation response.
RESULTS:
MRMs induced the glycolysis by enhancing the levels of two important regulators of glucose metabolism GLUT-1 and HK-II and resulted in 2 fold increase in glucose consumption and lactate production. This increase in glycolysis resulted in resistance against radiation-induced cell death (clonogenic survival) in different cell lines at an absorbed dose of 5 Gy. Inhibition of glucose uptake and glycolysis (using fasentin, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 3-bromopyruvate) in DNP treated cells failed to increase the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells, suggesting that radio-resistance linked to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration is glycolysis dependent. Elevated glycolysis also facilitated rejoining of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by activating both non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways of DNA double strand break repair leading to a reduction in radiation-induced cytogenetic damage (micronuclei formation) in these cells.
CONCLUSIONS:
These findings suggest that enhanced glycolysis generally observed in cancer cells may be responsible for the radio-resistance, partly by enhancing the repair of DNA damage.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattAN12015,
  author = {Bhatt AN1, Chauhan A2, Khanna S3, Rai Y4, Singh S5, Soni R6, Kalra N7, Dwarakanath BS8.},
  title = {Transient elevation of glycolysis confers radio-resistance by facilitating DNA repair in cells.},
  journal = {BMC Cancer.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {335},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-1368-9}
}
Chauhan N, Kumar P, Mishra S, Verma S, Malik A, Sharma S Insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas extracts against housefly, Musca domestica. 2015 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int., pp. 800  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ChauhanN12015,
  author = {Chauhan N1, Kumar P1, Mishra S1, Verma S2, Malik A3, Sharma S2.},
  title = {Insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas extracts against housefly, Musca domestica.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {800},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4686-1}
}
Dutta A, Mandal A, Manna S, Singh SB, Berns AE, Singh N Effect of organic carbon chemistry on sorption of atrazine and metsulfuron-methyl as determined by (13)C-NMR and IR spectroscopy. 2015 Environ Monit Assess, pp. 620  article DOI  
Abstract: Soil organic matter (SOM) content is the major soil component affecting pesticide sorption. However, recent studies have highlighted the fact that it is not the total carbon content of the organic matter, but its chemical structure which have a profound effect on the pesticide's sorption. In the present study, sorption of atrazine and metsulfuron-methyl herbicides was studied in four SOM fractions viz. commercial humic acid, commercial lignin, as well as humic acid and humin extracted from a compost. Sorption data was fitted to the Freundlich adsorption equation. In general, the Freundlich slope (1/n) values for both the herbicides were <1. Except for atrazine sorption on commercial humic acid, metsulfuron-methyl was more sorbed. Desorption results suggested that atrazine was more desorbed than metsulfuron-methyl. Lignin, which showed least sorption of both the herbicides, showed minimum desorption. Sorption of atrazine was best positively correlated with the alkyl carbon (adjusted R (2) = 0.748) and carbonyl carbon (adjusted R (2) = 0.498) but, their effect was statistically nonsignificant (P = 0.05). Metsulfuron-methyl sorption showed best positive correlation with carbonyl carbon (adjusted R (2) = 0.960; P = 0.05) content. Sorption of both the herbicides showed negative correlation with O/N-alkyl carbon. Correlation of herbicide's sorption with alkyl and carbonyl carbon content of SOM fractions suggested their contribution towards herbicide sorption. But, sorption of metsulfuron-methyl, relatively more polar than atrazine, was mainly governed by the polar groups in SOM. IR spectra showed that H-bonds and charge-transfer bonds between SOM fraction and herbicides probably operated as mechanisms of adsorption.
BibTeX:
@article{DuttaA12015,
  author = {Dutta A1, Mandal A1, Manna S1, Singh SB1, Berns AE2, Singh N3.},
  title = {Effect of organic carbon chemistry on sorption of atrazine and metsulfuron-methyl as determined by (13)C-NMR and IR spectroscopy.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {620},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4837-3}
}
Ganapathi M, Jayaseelan D, Guhanathan S Microwave assisted efficient synthesis of diphenyl substituted pyrazoles using PEG-600 as solvent - A green approach. 2015 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., pp. 92  article DOI  
Abstract: A conventional and microwave assisted efficient synthesis of diphenyl substituted pyrazole using PEG 600 as green solvent has been described. A relatively shorter reaction time with excellent yield of the piperidine mediated protocol has been attracted economically attractive and eco-friendly. All newly synthesized compounds were characterized by standard spectroscopic techniques viz., UV-visible, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and Mass spectra. The anti-microbial activities of compounds have also been tested using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) method with two different microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC3381) and Escherichia coli (MTCC739). The results of the antimicrobial activity revealed that the diphenyl substituted pyrazole derivatives have nice inhibiting nature against both types of bacteria of present investigation than corresponding chalcones. Since, the work has been focused on green chemical approach towards the synthesis, this protocol may be recommended for eco-friendly applications.
BibTeX:
@article{GanapathiM12015,
  author = {Ganapathi M1, Jayaseelan D2, Guhanathan S3.},
  title = {Microwave assisted efficient synthesis of diphenyl substituted pyrazoles using PEG-600 as solvent - A green approach.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {92},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.05.002}
}
Ghosh S, Tiwari SS, Srivastava S, Kumar S, Sharma AK, Nagar G, Kumar KG, Kumar R, Rawat AK In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. 2015 Res Vet Sci., pp. 74  article DOI  
Abstract: In an attempt to identify plants having anti-tick properties, the 95% ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium and leaves of Datura stramonium were evaluated against reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The 95% ethanolic extracts of S. anacardium and D. stramonium caused 50% and 20% mortality, respectively, within 72 h of treatment by adult immersion test. The LC90 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of S. anacardium was determined as 13.5% (CI 12.05-15.12). The extract was also found efficacious (73.3%±3.3%) against the multi-acaricide-resistant IVRI-V line of R.(B.) microplus. The S. anacardium extract significantly affected the reproductive physiology of treated ticks by inhibiting the oviposition and was found safe. The HPTLC fingerprinting profile revealed the presence of pyrocatechol as a marker compound. The acaricidal property of S. anacardium against chemical acaricide-resistant R. (B.) microplus was discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshS12015,
  author = {Ghosh S1, Tiwari SS2, Srivastava S2, Kumar S3, Sharma AK3, Nagar G3, Kumar KG3, Kumar R4, Rawat AK2.},
  title = {In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.},
  journal = {Res Vet Sci.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {74},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.05.015}
}
Gupta PK, Choudhary B, Gheysen G Removing Bt eggplant from the face of Indian regulators. 2015 Nat Biotechnol., pp. 904-7  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaPK12015,
  author = {Gupta PK1, Choudhary B2,3, Gheysen G2,3.},
  title = {Removing Bt eggplant from the face of Indian regulators.},
  journal = {Nat Biotechnol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {904-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3331}
}
Hemalatha D, Amala A, Rangasamy B, Nataraj B, Ramesh M Sublethal toxicity of quinalphos on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. 2015 Environ Toxicol.  article DOI  
Abstract: Extensive use of quinalphos, an organophosphorus pesticide, is likely to reach the aquatic environment and thereby posing a health concern for aquatic organisms. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses may be good indicators of pesticide contamination in aquatic organisms. The data on quinalphos induced oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in carps are scanty. This study is aimed to assess the two sublethal concentrations of quinalphos (1.09 and 2.18 ?L L-1 ) on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses of Cyprinus carpio for a period of 20 days. In liver, the malondialdehyde level was found to be significantly increased in both the concentrations. The results of the antioxidant parameters obtained show a significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase activity in liver of fish. These results demonstrate that environmentally relevant levels of the insecticide quinalphos can cause oxidative damage and increase the antioxidant scavenging capacity in C. carpio. This may reflect the potential role of these parameters as useful biomarkers for the assessment of pesticide contamination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015.
BibTeX:
@article{HemalathaD12015,
  author = {Hemalatha D1, Amala A, Rangasamy B, Nataraj B, Ramesh M.},
  title = {Sublethal toxicity of quinalphos on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22145}
}
Kaur R, Mandal K, Kumar R, Singh B Analytical method for determination of fipronil and its metabolites in vegetables using the QuEChERS method and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2015 J AOAC Int., pp. 646-71  article DOI  
Abstract: An easy, simple, and efficient analytical method was validated for the determination of residues of fipronil and its metabolites in different vegetables comprising brinjal, cabbage, capsicum, cauliflower, okra, and tomato. The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Rugged and Safe method was used for the extraction and cleanup of fipronil and its metabolites on these vegetables. Final clear extracts of ethyl acetate were concentrated under vacuum and reconstituted into acetone, and residues were determined by GC/MS with an Rtx-5 capillary column. The retention times of desulfinyl, sulfide, fipronil, sulfone, and amide were 11.8, 15.8, 16.4, 19.7, and 24.1 min, respectively. The average recoveries obtained for fipronil and its metabolites at different spiking levels were determined to be above 85% in all samples. The repeatability and reproducibility in different matrixes ranged from 1.36 to 5.42 and 1.75 to 4.53%, respectively, for fipronil and its metabolites. The LOQ of this method was 0.01 mg/kg and LOD was 0.003 mg/kg.
BibTeX:
@article{KaurR12015,
  author = {Kaur R1, Mandal K, Kumar R, Singh B},
  title = {Analytical method for determination of fipronil and its metabolites in vegetables using the QuEChERS method and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.},
  journal = {J AOAC Int.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {646-71},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.13-066}
}
Kumar A, Sharma N Comparative efficacy of piperine and curcumin in deltamethrin induced splenic apoptosis and altered immune functions. 2015 Pestic Biochem Physiol., pp. 16-27  article DOI  
Abstract: Deltamethrin (DLM) being a potent immunotoxicant affects both humoral and cell mediated immunity. Thus, for the amelioration of its effects, two different bioactive herbal extracts piperine and curcumin are evaluated and their efficacy has been compared. The docking results demonstrated that curcumin has good binding affinity towards CD28 and CD45 receptors as compared to piperine but in vitro studies revealed that piperine is more effective. DLM induced apoptotic markers such as oxidative stress and caspase 3 have been attenuated more significantly by piperine as compared to curcumin. Phenotypic and cytokine changes have also been mitigated best with piperine. Thus, these findings strongly demonstrate that piperine displays the more anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and chemo-protective properties in the DLM induced splenic apoptosis as compared to curcumin. So, piperine can be considered the drug of choice under immunocompromised conditions.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA12015,
  author = {Kumar A1, Sharma N2.},
  title = {Comparative efficacy of piperine and curcumin in deltamethrin induced splenic apoptosis and altered immune functions.},
  journal = {Pestic Biochem Physiol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {16-27},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2015.03.003}
}
Kumar R, Nair KK, Alam MI, Gogoi R, Singh PK, Srivastava C, Gopal M, Goswami A Development and Quality Control of Nanohexaconazole as an Effective Fungicide and Its Biosafety Studies on Soil Nitifiers. 2015 J Nanosci Nanotechnol.  article  
Abstract: The study was aimed to develop a nano form of an existing fungicide for improving plant protection and reducing crop losses caused by fungal pathogens. The protocol for the preparation and estimation of nanohexaconazole was developed. Technically pure hexaconazole was converted into its nanoform using polyethyleneglycol-400 (PEG) as the surface stabilizing agent. Nanohexaconazole was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) studies. The average particle size of nanohexaconazole was about 100 nm. An analytical method was also developed for quality control of the nanofungicide by GLC fitted with flame ionization detector. Its limit of detection was 2.5 ppm. Fungicidal potential of nanohexaconazole was better in comparison to that of conventional hexaconazole. Hydrolytic and thermal stability studies confirmed its stability at par with the conventional formulation of fungicide. Impact of nanohexaconazole on soil nitrifiers was tested in vitro and there were no significant adverse effect in their numbers observed as compared to conventional registered formulation, proving the safety of the nanofungicide.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarR2015,
  author = {Kumar R, Nair KK, Alam MI, Gogoi R, Singh PK, Srivastava C, Gopal M, Goswami A.},
  title = {Development and Quality Control of Nanohexaconazole as an Effective Fungicide and Its Biosafety Studies on Soil Nitifiers.},
  journal = {J Nanosci Nanotechnol.},
  year = {2015}
}
Kumar S, Chauhan N, Gopal M, Kumar R, Dilbaghi N Development and evaluation of alginate-chitosan nanocapsules for controlled release of acetamiprid. 2015 Int J Biol Macromol., pp. 631-7  article DOI  
Abstract: Smart formulations based on nanomaterials have the capability to reduce the consumption of hazardous pesticides and their impact on human health and environment. Nanoformulations of agrochemicals have the potential to improve food productivity without compromising with the ecosystem. In the present work, controlled release nanocapsules containing acetamiprid were prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation of two natural macromolecules, i.e. alginate and chitosan. The size, morphology and chemical interaction studies of the prepared nanocapsules were investigated by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The zetapotential studies revealed stability of the nanocapsules. TEM results show spherical morphology of the nanocapsules. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be 62% as quantified by Ultra High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). Nanocapsules were analysed for controlled release in vitro at three different pH. Maximum release was observed at pH 10 followed by pH 7 and 4, respectively. A non-Fickian release mechanism was found to be followed by the nanoformulation. A controlled release pattern was also found from nanoformulation as compared to commercial formulation in soil. Thus this formulation can reduce the frequency of application of pesticides by controlling the release and will subsequently reduce their side effects.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS12015,
  author = {Kumar S1, Chauhan N2, Gopal M3, Kumar R3, Dilbaghi N2.},
  title = {Development and evaluation of alginate-chitosan nanocapsules for controlled release of acetamiprid.},
  journal = {Int J Biol Macromol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {631-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.08.062}
}
Manna S, Singh N Effect of wheat and rice straw biochars on pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption and persistence in a sandy loam soil. 2015 J Environ Sci Health B., pp. 463-72  article DOI  
Abstract: The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of wheat and rice biochars on pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption in a sandy loam soil. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was poorly sorbed in the soil (3.5-8.6%) but biochar amendment increased the herbicide adsorption, and the effect varied with the nature of the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. Biochars prepared at 600°C were more effective in adsorbing pyrazosulfuron-ethyl than biochars prepared at 400°C. Rice biochars were better than wheat biochars, and higher herbicide adsorption was attributed to the biochar surface area/porosity. The Freundlich constant 1/n suggested nonlinear isotherms, and nonlinearlity increased with increase in the level of biochar amendment. Desorption results suggested sorption of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was partially irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with increase in the level of biochar. Both sorption and desorption of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl correlated well with the content of biochars. The free energy change (?G) indicated that the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption process was exothermic, spontaneous and physical in nature. Persistence studies indicated that biochar (0.5%) amendment did not have significant effect on herbicide degradation, and its half-life values in the control, 0.5% WBC600- and RBC600-amended rice planted soils were 7, 8.6, and 10.4 days, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{MannaS12015,
  author = {Manna S1, Singh N.},
  title = {Effect of wheat and rice straw biochars on pyrazosulfuron-ethyl sorption and persistence in a sandy loam soil.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {463-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2015.1018757}
}
Mohan B, Gupta V, Ralhan S, Gupta D, Puri S, Wander GS, Singh B Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning-Induced Reversible Myocardial Dysfunction: A Novel Therapeutic Modality. 2015 J Emerg Med., pp. 651-6  article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning carries a high rate of mortality despite intensive care management, primarily because of refractory myocardial depression, resistant hypotension, and severe metabolic acidosis as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified "heart-lung" machine to provide temporary cardiorespiratory support. We studied the novel use of ECMO in the management of a subset of patients with AlP poisoning.
CASE REPORT:
In this case series, seven patients with AlP poisoning suffering from severe metabolic acidosis and refractory cardiogenic shock with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (<35%) received ECMO treatment. The acidosis and hemodynamic status improved within 6-12 h and 12-24 h, respectively, in five patients. Two patients did not survive because of a long delay in presentation after ingestion. The majority of the patients developed dysrhythmias, ECMO cannulation site bleeding, and thrombocytopenia. Two patients required surgical exploration of the femoral artery. At 9 months of follow-up, all five surviving patients were doing well, with the near normalization of ventricular function. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We have found that timely intervention with ECMO in patients with AlP poisoning-induced severe metabolic acidosis and refractory cardiogenic shock may lead to a significant improvement in overall survival. Therefore, ECMO might be considered as a bridge therapy for patients with intractable cardiorespiratory failure caused by AlP poisoning who are not responding to conventional treatment. ECMO, however, also is associated with significant complication rates, which must be incorporated into the risk-benefit analysis while considering treatment options.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanB12015,
  author = {Mohan B1, Gupta V2, Ralhan S3, Gupta D2, Puri S4, Wander GS1, Singh B1.},
  title = {Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning-Induced Reversible Myocardial Dysfunction: A Novel Therapeutic Modality.},
  journal = {J Emerg Med.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {651-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2015.06.071}
}
Mukherjee I, Das TK, Kumar A, Sarkar B, Sharma KK Behavior and bioefficacy of tribenuron-methyl in wheat (Triticum astevum L.) under irrigated agro-ecosystem in India. 2015 Environ Monit Assess., pp. 610  article DOI  
Abstract: Possible bioaccumulation of pesticides in crop produce may cause ill effects on animals and humans. Tribenuron-methyl is a new post-emergence herbicide and is highly efficient to control the broad-leaf weeds in cereals, pasture, and plantation crops. There are scarce studies on its bioefficacy, sensitivity to weeds, tolerance to wheat, and persistence in crop produce, which are important information required before recommending an herbicide for use by the farmers. Weed control efficiency of an herbicide is dose-sensitive and site/soil-specific. Tribenuron-methyl (75% DF) was applied at 22.5 and 45.0 g a.i./ha along with the surfactant 300.12 mL/ha as a tank mixes after 30 days of sowing in wheat as post-emergence herbicide. The samples of wheat foliage, soil, and grains at harvest were processed and analyzed for residues by high-performance liquid chromatography using a UV detector at 240 nm. The study revealed that there was a significant reduction in weed population and dry matter accumulation due to tribenuron-methyl application at a higher dose (45.0 g/ha) compared to a lower dose (of 22.5 g/ha). The weed density was found to be from 16.1 to 44.3 no/m(2) for application rate of 22.5 g/ha while at the 45.0 g/ha application, the weed density was 5.3-5.9 as compared to untreated control, where 184.3-120.5 no/m(2) was observed. The yield varied from 4.30 to 4.80 t/ha as compared to 2.25-3.55 t/ha in unweeded control with the LSD value being 21.5-16.3 to 0.27-0.19. Residues were below detectable level (BDL, <0.005 mg/kg) of tribenuron-methyl since they were detected in wheat grains at 22.5 g a.i./ha rates. However, 0.012 ?g/g residues were detected in wheat foliage at an application rate of 45.0 g a.i./ha. It can be concluded that it is safe to use tribenuron-methyl at 22.5 g a.i./ha on wheat crop as post-emergence herbicide.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeI12015,
  author = {Mukherjee I1, Das TK, Kumar A, Sarkar B, Sharma KK.},
  title = {Behavior and bioefficacy of tribenuron-methyl in wheat (Triticum astevum L.) under irrigated agro-ecosystem in India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {610},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4826-6}
}
Mukherjee I, Kumar A, Kumar A Dissipation of deltamethrin, triazophos, and endosulfan in ready mix formulations in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.). 2015 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int., pp. 77  article DOI  
Abstract: Persistence of delltamethrin, endosulfan, and triazophos in egg plant and tomato was studied following application of two ready mix formulations of insecticides viz. deltametrhin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000; 0.75% deltamethrin?+?29.5% endosulfan) and deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus; 1% deltamethrin?+?35% triazophos) at recommended (1.0 L/ha and double dose 2.0 L/ha). The residues of deltamethrin persisted till 7 and 5 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively, in the ready mix formulation of Cobra 5000 whereas endosulfan persisted till 15 and 10 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively. Dissipation of the insecticides followed first-order kinetics with half-life values of deltamethrin and endosulfan ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 and 1.4 to 1.7 days, respectively, for both the vegetables. In case of combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus), deltamethrin persisted beyond 5 days in both tomato and egg plant fruits, while triazophos persisted till 10 days in both the vegetables. Residues of deltamethrin and triazophos dissipated with half-life of 2.6-4.2 and 1.7-4.1 days, respectively, on tomato and egg plant fruits. Based on the Codex MRL limits, a safe waiting period of 5 and 3 days is suggested for tomato and egg plant, respectively, for the ready mix formulation of deltamethrin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000), and 5-day waiting period is suggested for tomato and egg plant for the combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeI12015a,
  author = {Mukherjee I1, Kumar A, Kumar A.},
  title = {Dissipation of deltamethrin, triazophos, and endosulfan in ready mix formulations in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.).},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {77},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4637-x}
}
Muthusamy R, Shivakumar MS Involvement of metabolic resistance and F1534C kdr mutation in the pyrethroid resistance mechanisms of Aedes aegypti in India. 2015 Acta Trop., pp. 41  article  
Abstract: Pesticide resistance poses a serious problem for worldwide mosquito control programs. Resistance to insecticides can be caused by an increased metabolic detoxification of the insecticide and/or by target site insensitivity. In the present study, we estimated the tolerance of Indian Aedes aegypti populations using adult bioassays that revealed high resistance levels of the field populations to permethrin (RR-6, 5.8 and 5.1 folds) compared to our susceptible population. Enzymatic assays revealed increased activities of glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase enzymes in the field populations comparatively to the susceptible population. PBO synergist assays did not confirm that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase metabolic detoxification acted as a major cause of resistance. Hence the role of target site resistance was therefore investigated. A single substitution Phe1534Cys in the voltage gated sodium channel was found in domain III, segment 6 (III-S6) of the resistance populations (allele frequency=0.59, 0.51 and 0.47) suggesting its potential role in permethrin resistance in A. aegypti.
BibTeX:
@article{MuthusamyR12015,
  author = {Muthusamy R1, Shivakumar MS2.},
  title = {Involvement of metabolic resistance and F1534C kdr mutation in the pyrethroid resistance mechanisms of Aedes aegypti in India.},
  journal = {Acta Trop.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {41}
}
Arora PK Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. 2015 Front Microbiol., pp. 820  article DOI  
Abstract: Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic, and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic amines has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.
BibTeX:
@article{PK1.2015,
  author = {Arora PK1.},
  title = {Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.},
  journal = {Front Microbiol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {820},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00820}
}
Rajesh Y, Narayanan K, Reddy MS, Bhaskar VK, Shenoy GG, Subrahmanyam VM, Rao JV Production of ? -cyclodextrin from pH and thermo stable Cyclodextrin Glycosyl Transferase, obtained from Arthrobacter mysorens and its evaluation as a drug carrier for Irbesartan. 2015 Curr Drug Deliv., pp. 444-53  article  
Abstract: Cyclodextrins (CDs) are carrier molecules produced by cyclization of ?-1,4-glucans by Cyclodextrin Glycosyl Transferase (CGTase). These torus shaped molecules have hydrophobic cavity and hydrophilic shell making them useful in pharmaceutical, food, textile, pesticide and cosmetic industries. In this study, culture conditions for the production of CGTase by organism belonging to Arthrobacter genus obtained from a paddy field soil were optimized by single parameter mode. Soluble starch, yeast extract and magnesium sulphate played an important role in CGTase production. Percentage increase in CGTase yield under optimized conditions was 396.77%. The enzyme precipitated by 60% ammonium sulphate was purified using DEAE-sepharose. The molecular weight of the purified protein as determined by SDS-PAGE was 75 kDa. Purified CGTase was thermostable and stable over a wide pH range. Dissolution studies on ? -cyclodextrin-Irbesartan complex revealed that ? -CDs formed were useful in preparing immediate release oral dosage forms.
BibTeX:
@article{RajeshY2015,
  author = {Rajesh Y, Narayanan K, Reddy MS, Bhaskar VK, Shenoy GG, Subrahmanyam VM1, Rao JV},
  title = {Production of ? -cyclodextrin from pH and thermo stable Cyclodextrin Glycosyl Transferase, obtained from Arthrobacter mysorens and its evaluation as a drug carrier for Irbesartan.},
  journal = {Curr Drug Deliv.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {444-53}
}
Aggarwal S Suicide in India. 2015 Br Med Bull., pp. 34  article DOI  
Abstract: SOURCES OF DATA:
The current report reviews the data from the series Accidental Death and Suicide in India published by India's National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) reporting official suicide rates based on police reports over the period of 10 years from 2004 to 2013. A reference to wider literature is made to present a comprehensive picture.
AREAS OF AGREEMENT:
Suicide in India is more prevalent in young, is likely to involve hanging and ingestion of pesticides and is related to social and economic causes. Reducing alcohol consumption, unemployment, poverty, social inequities, domestic violence and improving social justice are essential to reduce suicide in India.
AREAS OF CONTROVERSY:
NCRB data might underreport suicide. Discrepancy in farmers' suicide rate between reports suggests that this might be overrepresented in NCRB data.
GROWING POINTS:
An integrated suicide prevention programme with a multidimensional approach is needed. Mental health care bill and the recent launch of first national mental health policy are welcome measures. Decriminalization of suicide is likely to positively influence mental health practice and policy in India.
AREA TIMELY FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH:
Nationally representative studies investigating fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviours, evaluation of models of service delivery for the vulnerable population, investigating suicide following different treatment services and effects of decriminalization of suicide on suicide rates should be the focus of future research.
© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
BibTeX:
@article{S1.2015,
  author = {Aggarwal S1.},
  title = {Suicide in India.},
  journal = {Br Med Bull.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldv018}
}
Sharma A, Sangwan N, Negi V, Kohli P, Khurana JP, Rao DL, Lal R Pan-genome dynamics of Pseudomonas gene complements enriched across hexachlorocyclohexane dumpsite. 2015 BMC Genomics., pp. 313  article DOI  
Abstract: Phylogenetic heterogeneity across Pseudomonas genus is complemented by its diverse genome architecture enriched by accessory genetic elements (plasmids, transposons, and integrons) conferring resistance across this genus. Here, we sequenced a stress tolerant genotype i.e. Pseudomonas sp. strain RL isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated pond (45 mg of total HCH g(-1) sediment) and further compared its gene repertoire with 17 reference ecotypes belonging to P. stutzeri, P. mendocina, P. aeruginosa, P. psychrotolerans and P. denitrificans, representing metabolically diverse ecosystems (i.e. marine, clinical, and soil/sludge). Metagenomic data from HCH contaminated pond sediment and similar HCH contaminated sites were further used to analyze the pan-genome dynamics of Pseudomonas genotypes enriched across increasing HCH gradient.
RESULTS:
Although strain RL demonstrated clear species demarcation (ANI???80.03%) from the rest of its phylogenetic relatives, it was found to be closest to P. stutzeri clade which was further complemented functionally. Comparative functional analysis elucidated strain specific enrichment of metabolic pathways like ?-linoleic acid degradation and carbazole degradation in Pseudomonas sp. strain RL and P. stutzeri XLDN-R, respectively. Composition based methods (%codon bias and %G?+?C difference) further highlighted the significance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in evolution of nitrogen metabolism, two-component system (TCS) and methionine metabolism across the Pseudomonas genomes used in this study. An intact mobile class-I integron (3,552 bp) with a captured gene cassette encoding for dihydrofolate reductase (dhfra1) was detected in strain RL, distinctly demarcated from other integron harboring species (i.e. P. aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. putida). Mobility of this integron was confirmed by its association with Tnp21-like transposon (95% identity) suggesting stress specific mobilization across HCH contaminated sites. Metagenomics data from pond sediment and recently surveyed HCH adulterated soils revealed the in situ enrichment of integron associated transposase gene (TnpA6100) across increasing HCH contamination (0.7 to 450 mg HCH g(-1) of soil).
CONCLUSIONS:
Unlocking the potential of comparative genomics supplemented with metagenomics, we have attempted to resolve the environment and strain specific demarcations across 18 Pseudomonas gene complements. Pan-genome analyses of these strains indicate at astoundingly diverse metabolic strategies and provide genetic basis for the cosmopolitan existence of this taxon.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaA12015,
  author = {Sharma A1, Sangwan N2, Negi V3, Kohli P4, Khurana JP5, Rao DL6, Lal R7.},
  title = {Pan-genome dynamics of Pseudomonas gene complements enriched across hexachlorocyclohexane dumpsite.},
  journal = {BMC Genomics.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {313},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-1488-2}
}
Sharma P, Thakur S, Awasthi P Synthesis, Characterization, Biological Evaluation and Docking Study of Heterocyclic-Based Synthetic Sulfonamides as Potential Pesticide Against G. mellonella. 2015 Appl Biochem Biotechnol., pp. 125-39  article DOI  
Abstract: Juvenile hormone is an important hormone which controls the developmental process in the lepidopteran insects, hence, referred as insect growth regulator. Juvenile hormone binding proteins are the carrier of juvenile hormone from the site of secretion to the site of action and play vital role in juvenile hormone action. We have designed four different juvenile hormone analogs incorporating sulfonamide and heterocyclic moieties using computer-aided tools. All analogs (T3-T6) gave comparative energy profile in comparison to in use insect growth regulators like fenoxycarb (T2) and pyriproxyfen (T1). Further, theses analogs have been screened on biological model Galleria mellonella (wax moth) for their mortality rate. All analogs were evaluated using three different concentrations (1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm) and five different exposure periods (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h). In vivo study showed that analog N-(1-isopropyl-2-oxo-2-morpholino-ethyl) toluene sulfonamide (T6) and N-(1-isopropyl-2-oxo-2-piperidino-ethyl) toluene sulfonamide (T4) exhibit the good larval mortality at lower concentration (1000 ppm) after 8 h exposure in comparison to pyriproxyfen (T1) and fenoxycarb (T2). The findings demonstrate the effectiveness and validity of the virtual screening approach (docking) and provide a starting point for the development of novel juvenile hormone analogs to counter G. mellonella.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaP12015,
  author = {Sharma P1, Thakur S, Awasthi P.},
  title = {Synthesis, Characterization, Biological Evaluation and Docking Study of Heterocyclic-Based Synthetic Sulfonamides as Potential Pesticide Against G. mellonella.},
  journal = {Appl Biochem Biotechnol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {125-39},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-015-1562-x}
}
Shrestha S, Sapkota B, Kumpakha A, Acharya U, Sharma R Evaluation of patients' knowledge on warfarin in outpatient pharmacy of a tertiary care cardiac center. 2015 BMC Res Notes., pp. 429  article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Warfarin is widely used for the prevention and treatment of cardiac, thromboembolic and hypercoagulable diseases. Since warfarin is a narrow therapeutic index medicine, it requires close monitoring when used in the outpatient setting and on long term basis. Warfarin has been found to be associated with a number of complications especially bleeding. Patients' knowledge on warfarin can improve anticoagulation control with decrease in adverse drug reaction and other associated complications. The objective was to assess knowledge level of warfarin therapy among its users and to provide adequate education and counseling to the patients.
METHODS:
In the present cross sectional study, 34 patients on warfarin were interviewed. Patients' knowledge on warfarin was assessed using a validated Anticoagulation Knowledge Assessment (AKA) questionnaire comprising 29 questions. Each correct answer scored 3.45 points whereas an incorrect answer scored zero point. Patient who answered at least 21 questions correctly or scored (21 × 3.45 = 72.4%) was considered to have adequate level of knowledge or have obtained a passing score. Association between independent variables and AKA score was assessed using Pearson Chi square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Patients were counseled regarding proper warfarin use by the researcher pharmacists at the end of each data collection schedule.
RESULTS:
Of the 34 patients, only 5.8% (n = 2) achieved a passing score whereas 94.1% (n = 32) failed to achieve the passing score. 67.6% of the patients (n = 23) achieved a score below 50%. More than 50% of the patients incorrectly answered 15 questions in the questionnaire. None of the patients scored 100%. No significant association was found between age, gender of patients and total warfarin score. A significant association (p < 0.05) was found between duration of warfarin therapy and total warfarin score.
CONCLUSIONS:
Warfarin knowledge was poor among the patients. Hence, regular counseling with timely assessment of their understanding was felt necessary.
BibTeX:
@article{ShresthaS12015,
  author = {Shrestha S1, Sapkota B2, Kumpakha A3, Acharya U4, Sharma R5.},
  title = {Evaluation of patients' knowledge on warfarin in outpatient pharmacy of a tertiary care cardiac center.},
  journal = {BMC Res Notes.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {429},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1416-1}
}
Shukla S, Singh D, Kumar V, Chauhan AK, Singh S, Ahmad I, Pandey HP, Singh C NADPH oxidase mediated maneb- and paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rat polymorphs: Crosstalk with mitochondrial dysfunction. 2015 Pestic Biochem Physiol., pp. 74  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ShuklaS12015,
  author = {Shukla S1, Singh D2, Kumar V2, Chauhan AK2, Singh S1, Ahmad I1, Pandey HP3, Singh C4.},
  title = {NADPH oxidase mediated maneb- and paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rat polymorphs: Crosstalk with mitochondrial dysfunction.},
  journal = {Pestic Biochem Physiol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {74},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2015.03.007}
}
Singh G, Prakash S Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis. 2015 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int., pp. 12559-65  article DOI  
Abstract: Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 °C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC90 and LC99 values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghG12015,
  author = {Singh G1, Prakash S.},
  title = {Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {12559-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4531-6}
}
Singh M, Pratap Singh V, Dubey G, Mohan Prasad S Exogenous proline application ameliorates toxic effects of arsenate in Solanum melongena L. seedlings. 2015 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf., pp. 164-73  article DOI  
Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate an effect of exogenous application of proline (Pro; 25 µM) in alleviating arsenate (As(V); 5 and 25 µM) toxicity in Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) seedlings. Exposure of As(V) declined growth of eggplant, which was coincided with an enhanced accumulation of As. However, exogenous Pro application alleviated As(V) toxicity in eggplant seedlings by reducing the accumulation of As. The fluorescence characteristics (JIP-test): ?P0, ?0, ?E0, PIABS, ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC, DI0/RC, NPQ and qP were also affected by As(V). However, the effects of As(V) were more prominent on PIABS DI0/RC and NPQ. In Pro treated seedlings, following parameters viz. ?P0, ?0, ?E0 and PIABS were stimulated, while, energy flux parameters (ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC) were inhibited. Toxic effects of As(V) on photochemistry of photosystem II (PS II) were ameliorated by an exogenous application of Pro. Oxidative stress markers: superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) were enhanced by As(V) exposure, however, their levels were significantly diminished by an exogenous application of Pro. Treatment of As(V) stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase except that of glutathione-S-transferase. Exogenous Pro application improved the activities of enzymatic antioxidants. The level of endogenous Pro was higher in As(V) treated as well as in Pro fed seedlings. The activity of a key enzyme of Pro biosynthesis: ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase was higher in Pro fed seedlings. The activity of Pro dehydrogenase was inhibited under As(V) stress, and its activity was minimum in case of Pro+As(V) combination. These results indicate that Pro metabolism could play a key role in regulating the accumulation of As and levels of antioxidants, which concomitantly result into a better growth of eggplant seedlings when compared to the As(V) treatments alone.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghM12015,
  author = {Singh M1, Pratap Singh V2, Dubey G3, Mohan Prasad S4.},
  title = {Exogenous proline application ameliorates toxic effects of arsenate in Solanum melongena L. seedlings.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {164-73},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.03.021}
}
Singh VP, Singh S, Kumar J, Prasad SM Hydrogen sulfide alleviates toxic effects of arsenate in pea seedlings through up-regulation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle: Possible involvement of nitric oxide. 2015 J Plant Physiol.  article DOI  
Abstract: In plants, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an emerging novel signaling molecule that is involved in growth regulation and abiotic stress responses. However, little is known about its role in the regulation of arsenate (As(V)) toxicity. Therefore, hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; a source of H2S) is involved in the regulation of As(V) toxicity in pea seedlings. Results showed that As(V) caused decreases in growth, photosynthesis (measured as chlorophyll fluorescence) and nitrogen content, which was accompanied by the accumulation of As. As(V) treatment also reduced the activities of cysteine desulfhydrase and nitrate reductase, and contents of H2S and nitric oxide (NO). However, addition of NaHS ameliorated As(V) toxicity in pea seedlings, which coincided with the increased contents of H2S and NO. The cysteine level was higher under As(V) treatment in comparison to all other treatments (As-free; NaHS; As(V)+NaHS). The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage to lipids, proteins and membranes increased by As(V) while NaHS alleviated these effects. Enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (AsA-GSH cycle) showed inhibition of their activities following As(V) treatment while their activities were increased by application of NaHS. The redox status of ascorbate and glutathione was disturbed by As(V) as indicated by a steep decline in their reduced/oxidized ratios. However, simultaneous NaHS application restored the redox status of the ascorbate and glutathione pools. The results of this study demonstrated that H2S and NO might both be involved in reducing the accumulation of As and triggering up-regulation of the AsA-GSH cycle to counterbalance ROS-mediated damage to macromolecules. Furthermore, the results suggest a crucial role of H2S in plant priming, and in particular for pea seedlings in mitigating As(V) stress.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghVP12015,
  author = {Singh VP1, Singh S2, Kumar J2, Prasad SM},
  title = {Hydrogen sulfide alleviates toxic effects of arsenate in pea seedlings through up-regulation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle: Possible involvement of nitric oxide.},
  journal = {J Plant Physiol.},
  year = {2015},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2015.03.015}
}
Tomar M, Kumar A, Kataria SK Evaluation of Acute toxicity of Lambda Cyhalothrin in Mus musculus L. 2015 Indian J Exp Biol., pp. 551-5  article  
Abstract: Lambda Cyhalothrin (LCT) is a type II synthetic pyrethroid widely used in agriculture, home pest control and protection of food stuff. Here, we evaluated its toxicity on biochemical parameters (Total protein, Acetyl cholinesterase, RNA and DNA) and liver histological alteration in mice after 24 h of oral administration @ 25, 50 and 75% of LD50 i.e.; 26.49 mg/kg/body wt. Distilled water (DW) and Cyclophosphamide (CP @ 40 mg/kg/body wt.) were used as negative and positive control; respectively. LCT treated mice showed significant decrease in total protein (P < 0.01), acetyl cholinesterase (P < 0.001) and DNA (P < 0.001) in a dose dependent manner. On the contrary, RNA content showed significant increase (P < 0.01) at 50% of LD50 of LCT. Histological observations of the mice liver showed vascular congestion and hepatocyte degeneration with 6.63 mg/kg/body wt. of LCT; and accumulation of RBCs with sinusoid degeneration and wide necrotic area with pyknosis with 13.25 and 19.88 mg/kg/body wt., respectively. The results demonstrated LCT induced biochemical changes and hepatotoxicity in female mice.
BibTeX:
@article{TomarM2015,
  author = {Tomar M, Kumar A, Kataria SK.},
  title = {Evaluation of Acute toxicity of Lambda Cyhalothrin in Mus musculus L.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {551-5}
}
Mohan A Pesticide residues in food. 2013 Natl Med J India.(26(5))  article  
BibTeX:
@article{A.2013,
  author = {Mohan A.},
  title = {Pesticide residues in food.},
  journal = {Natl Med J India.},
  year = {2013},
  number = {26(5)}
}
Abhilash PC, Srivastava S, Singh N Comparative bioremediation potential of four rhizospheric microbial species against lindane. 2011 Chemosphere.
Vol. 82(1), pp. 56-63. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Four microbial species (Kocuria rhizophila, Microbacterium resistens, Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticus) were isolated from the rhizospheric zone of selected plants growing in a lindane contaminated environment and acclimatized in lindane spiked media (5-100 ?g mL?¹). The isolated species were inoculated with soil containing 5, 50 and 100 mg kg?¹ of lindane and incubated at room temperature. Soil samples were collected periodically to evaluate the microbial dissipation kinetics, dissipation rate, residual lindane concentration and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). There was a marked difference (p < 0.05) in the MBC content and lindane dissipation rate of microbial isolates cultured in three different lindane concentrations. Further, the dissipation rate tended to decrease with increasing lindane concentrations. After 45 d, the residual lindane concentrations in three different spiked soils were reduced to 0%, 41% and 33%, respectively. Among the four species, S. cohnii subspecies urealyticus exhibited maximum dissipation (41.65 mg kg?¹) and can be exploited for the in situ remediation of low to medium level lindane contaminated soils.
BibTeX:
@article{AbhilashPC2011,
  author = {Abhilash PC, Srivastava S, Singh N.},
  title = {Comparative bioremediation potential of four rhizospheric microbial species against lindane.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {82(1)},
  pages = {56-63.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.009}
}
Adhikari B, Nanda J, Banerjee A Pyrene-containing peptide-based fluorescent organogels: inclusion of graphene into the organogel. 2011 Chemistry
Vol. 17(41), pp. 11488-96 
article DOI  
Abstract: The N-terminally pyrene-conjugated oligopeptide, Py-Phe-Phe-Ala-OMe, (Py=pyrene 1-butyryl acyl) forms transparent, stable, supramolecular fluorescent organogels in various organic solvents. One of these organogels was thoroughly studied using various techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and rheology. Unfunctionalized and non-oxidized graphene was successfully incorporated into this fluorescent organogel in o-dichlorobenzene (ODCB) to form a stable hybrid organogel. Graphene is well dispersed into the gel medium by using non-covalent ?-? stacking interactions with the pyrene-conjugated gelator peptide. In the presence of graphene, the minimum gelation concentration (mgc) of the hybrid organogel was lowered significantly. This suggests that there is a favorable interaction between the graphene and the gelator peptide within the hybrid organogel system. This hybrid organogel was characterized using TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, and rheological studies. The TEM study of graphene-containing hybrid organogel revealed the presence of both graphene sheets and entangled gel nanofibers. The AFM study indicated the presence of 3 to 4 layers in exfoliated graphene in ODCB and the presence of both graphene nanosheets and the network of gel nanofibers in the hybrid gel system. The rheological investigation suggested that the flow of the hybrid organogel had become more resistant towards the applied angular frequency upon the incorporation of graphene into the organogel. The hybrid gel is about seven times more rigid than that of the native gel.
BibTeX:
@article{AdhikariB2011,
  author = {Adhikari B, Nanda J, Banerjee A},
  title = {Pyrene-containing peptide-based fluorescent organogels: inclusion of graphene into the organogel.},
  journal = {Chemistry},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {17(41)},
  pages = {11488-96},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201101360}
}
Agrahari P, Singh DK Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates and amino acids in bait pellets. 2010 Ann Trop Med Parasitol.
Vol. 104(8), pp. 667-71 
article DOI  
Abstract: Snail control could play an important role in programmes against fascioliasis, especially if the methods used for molluscicide delivery could be improved, such as by the development of bait formulations containing both an effective attractant and a molluscicide, to ensure good levels of contact between the molluscicide and the target snail populations. In a recent study, the attractiveness to Lymnaea acuminata (an intermediate host of the digenean trematode Fasciola gigantica) of potential components of snail-attractant pellets was investigated. Carbohydrates (glucose, maltose, sucrose or starch, each at 10 mM) and amino acids (citrulline, tryptophan, proline or serine, each at 20 mM), were tested in aquaria, with the snails initially placed 22.5, 30 or 45 cm from an agar pellet containing the component under test. Under these conditions, starch and proline emerged as the strongest attractants for L. acuminata, followed by maltose and serine.
BibTeX:
@article{AgrahariP2010,
  author = {Agrahari P, Singh DK},
  title = {Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates and amino acids in bait pellets.},
  journal = {Ann Trop Med Parasitol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {104(8)},
  pages = {667-71},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/136485910X12851868780144}
}
Agrawal VK, Agarwal A, Choudhary V, Singh R, Ahmed N, Sharma M, Narula K, Agrawal P Efficacy of imidacloprid and fipronil gels over synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosols in control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae). 2010 J Vector Borne Dis
Vol. 47(1), pp. 39-44 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES:
Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the spray insecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which can be selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies but very few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil (0.01%) and imidacloprid (2.15%) gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin) and propoxur (2%) aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field.
METHODS:
Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and houses by visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houses having high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments and houses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control). Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroid aerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil and imidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave better indications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followed for post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks.
RESULTS:
Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestation in the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation up to 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction and propoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroach density by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started declining after 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test.
CONCLUSION:
The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gel baits for control of cockroaches
BibTeX:
@article{AgrawalVK2010,
  author = {Agrawal VK, Agarwal A, Choudhary V, Singh R, Ahmed N, Sharma M, Narula K, Agrawal P},
  title = {Efficacy of imidacloprid and fipronil gels over synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosols in control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae).},
  journal = {J Vector Borne Dis},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {47(1)},
  pages = {39-44}
}
Ahmed RS, Suke SG, Seth V, Chakraborti A, Tripathi AK, Banerjee BD Protective effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinales Rosc.) on lindane-induced oxidative stress in rats. 2008 Phytother Res.
Vol. 22(7), pp. 902-6. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The protective effect of dietary feeding of Zingiber officinales Rosc. (ginger) against lindane-induced oxidative stress was investigated in male albino rats. Oxidative stress was monitored by estimating the extent of lipid peroxidation, activities of the oxygen free radical (OFR) scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the status of the glutathione redox cycle antioxidants. Lindane administration (30 mg/kg bw orally for 4 weeks) was associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation and compromised antioxidant defenses in rats fed a normal diet. Concomitant dietary feeding of ginger (1%w/w) significantly attenuated lindane-induced lipid peroxidation, accompanied by modulation of OFR scavenging enzymes as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and the GSH dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in these rats. These findings suggest that a diet containing naturally occurring compounds is effective in exerting protective effects by modulating oxidative stress.
BibTeX:
@article{AhmedRS2008,
  author = {Ahmed RS, Suke SG, Seth V, Chakraborti A, Tripathi AK, Banerjee BD.},
  title = {Protective effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinales Rosc.) on lindane-induced oxidative stress in rats.},
  journal = {Phytother Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {22(7)},
  pages = {902-6.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2412}
}
Ahmed T, Tripathi AK, Suke SG, Kumar V, Ahmed RS, Das S, Banerjee BD Role of HSP27 and reduced glutathione in modulating malathion-induced apoptosis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: ameliorating effect of N-acetylcysteine and curcumin. 2009 Toxicol In Vitro.
Vol. 23(7), pp. 1319-25 
article DOI  
Abstract: Malathion exerts cholinergic effects at high doses. However, a consequence of low dose (non-cholinergic) exposure causes immunotoxicity and oxidative stress. Hence, this study was designed to find out (i) the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of cholinergic and non-cholinergic doses of malathion using cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and (ii) the role of GSH and HSP27 and (iii) protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (GSH inducer) and curcumin (HSP27 inducer). In low doses, malathion caused mild depletion of GSH, threefold increase in HSP27 level and a range bound cytotoxicity and apoptosis of PBMC. In contrast, cholinergic dose exposures caused severe GSH depletion and exhibited dose dependent cytotoxicity and necrosis without any significant effect on HSP27 levels. Curcumin increased the levels of HSP27 in PBMC only in presence of low doses and not at high doses of malathion. Both NAC and curcumin were able to prevent malathion-mediated apoptosis of PBMC effectively at non-cholinergic doses and at this concentration of malathion, HSP27 induction keeps apoptosis and GSH depletion under control. Also NAC and curcumin may act as potential therapeutic agents to prevent malathion-induced immunotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{AhmedT2009,
  author = {Ahmed T, Tripathi AK, Suke SG, Kumar V, Ahmed RS, Das S, Banerjee BD.},
  title = {Role of HSP27 and reduced glutathione in modulating malathion-induced apoptosis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: ameliorating effect of N-acetylcysteine and curcumin.},
  journal = {Toxicol In Vitro.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {23(7)},
  pages = {1319-25},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2009.07.016}
}
Aktar MW, Sengupta D, Purkait S, Ganguly M, Paramasivam M Degradation dynamics and dissipation kinetics of an imidazole fungicide (Prochloraz) in aqueous medium of varying pH. 2008 Interdiscip Toxicol.
Vol. (3-4), pp. 203-5. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Laboratory degradation studies were performed in water at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.2 using Prochloraz (450 EC) formulation at the concentration of 1.0 (T(1)) and 2.0 (T(2)) µg/mL. Water samples collected on 0 (2 h), 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after treatments were processed for residue analysis of Prochloraz by HPLC-UV detector. In 60 days, dissipation was 89.1-90.5% at pH 4.0, 84.1-88.2% at pH 7.0, and 92.4-93.8% at pH 9.2 in both treatments. The results indicate that at pH 7.0 the degradation of Prochloraz was much slower as compared to other two. Between pH 4.0 and 9.2 the degradation of compound is little faster at pH 9.2. The half-life periods observed were 18.35 and 19.17 days at pH 4.0, 22.6 and 25.1 days at pH 7.0 and 15.8 and 16.6 days at pH 9.2 at T(1) and T(2) doses respectively
BibTeX:
@article{AktarMW2008,
  author = {Aktar MW, Sengupta D, Purkait S, Ganguly M, Paramasivam M},
  title = {Degradation dynamics and dissipation kinetics of an imidazole fungicide (Prochloraz) in aqueous medium of varying pH.},
  journal = {Interdiscip Toxicol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {(3-4)},
  pages = {203-5.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10102-010-0047-6}
}
Amaraneni SR1, Kumar S, Gourinath S Biophysical aspects of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos. 2014 Anal Bioanal Chem, pp. 5477-85  article DOI  
Abstract: The present study on in vitro formation and characterization of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos (MP) evaluates the potential of lysozyme to be used as a sensitive biomarker to monitor exposure levels to the commonly used organophosphorus pesticide monocrotophos. Crystallization of lysozyme protein adduct with monocrotophos was also undertaken to understand the adduct formation mechanism at a molecular level. The binding of organophosphorus pesticides to lysozyme is one of the key steps in their mutagenicity. The formation and structural characterization of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos was done using MALDI-TOFMS, fluorescence, UV/Vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and X-ray diffraction studies. We report the crystal structure of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos at 1.9 Å. It crystallized in the P43 space group with two monomers in one asymmetric unit having one molecule of monocrotophos bound to each protein chain. The results proved that the fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by monocrotophos is due to binding of monocrotophos with a tryptophan residue of lysozyme. Monocrotophos interacts most strongly with the Trp-108 and Asp-52 of lysozyme. The interactions of the monocrotophos molecule with the lysozyme suggest the formation of a stable adduct. In addition, the alteration of lysozyme secondary structure in the presence of monocrotophos was confirmed by circular dichroism and fluorescence inhibition of lysozyme by increasing monocrotophos and UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The formation of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos was confirmed by MALDI-TOFMS.
BibTeX:
@article{AmaraneniSR12014,
  author = {Amaraneni SR1, Kumar S, Gourinath S.},
  title = {Biophysical aspects of lysozyme adduct with monocrotophos.},
  journal = {Anal Bioanal Chem},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {5477-85},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-014-7953-y}
}
Anil, Sharma PC Bioefficacy of insecticides against Leucinodes orbonalis on brinjal. 2010 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 31(4), pp. 399-402 
article  
Abstract: Studies on bioefficacy of insecticides against brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee on brinjal were carried out during 2007 and 2008. The results on bioefficacy of insecticides showed that in terms of shoot infestation, emamectin benzoate (0.002%), endosulfan (0.05%), novaluron (0.01%) and lambda-cyhalothrin (0.004%) were found superior. The total number of drooping shoots was minimum (4.17) in emamectin benzoate followed by endosulfan (6.83) and novaluron (7.00), as compared to spinosad (9.17), deltamethrin (11.67) and Bacillus thuringiensis (13.17). In terms of reduction in fruit infestation, emamectin benzoate (0.002%) was highly effective followed by endosulfan (0.05%), agrospray oil T (0.2%) and spinosad (0.0024%). However, cost benefit ratio was highest in agrospray oil T (0.2%) followed by lambda-cyhalothrin (0.004%), endosulfan (0.05%) and deltamethrin (0.0028%).
BibTeX:
@article{Anil2010,
  author = {Anil, Sharma PC},
  title = {Bioefficacy of insecticides against Leucinodes orbonalis on brinjal.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {31(4)},
  pages = {399-402}
}
Anilakumar KR, Saritha V, Khanum F, Bawa AS Ameliorative effect of ajwain extract on hexachlorocyclohexane-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver. 2009 Food Chem Toxicol
Vol. 47(2), pp. 279-82 
article DOI  
Abstract: Effect of ajwain extract on hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in rats were investigated. Six groups of rats were maintained for 12 weeks as (1) Control; (2) HCH (300 mg/kg body weight) injected (3) 1% ajwain extract incorporated diet (4)1% ajwain extract incorporated diet+HCH (5) 2% ajwain extract incorporated diet and (6) 2% ajwain extract incorporated diet+HCH. Results revealed that HCH administration lead to an increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation associated with reduction in, levels of glutathione (GSH), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Prefeeding of ajwain extract resulted in decreased hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and increased GSH, GSH-peroxidase, G-6-PDH, SOD, catalase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. At the same time there was a significant reduction in hepatic levels of HCH-induced raise in lipid peroxides as a result of the prefeeding the extract. Prefeeding of ajwain extract at 1% level to rats injected with HCH reverted the significant changes in catalase, G-6-PDH, GST and -glutamyl transpeptidase. HCH-induced formation of micronuclei in femur bone marrow was also reduced significantly. It was concluded that HCH administration resulted in hepatic free radical stress, causing toxicity, which could be reduced by the dietary ajwain extract.
BibTeX:
@article{AnilakumarKR2009,
  author = {Anilakumar KR, Saritha V, Khanum F, Bawa AS.},
  title = {Ameliorative effect of ajwain extract on hexachlorocyclohexane-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {47(2)},
  pages = {279-82},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.09.061}
}
Anjum R, Malik A Mutagenicity assessment of contaminated soil in the vicinity of industrial area. 2012 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 184(5), pp. 3013-26 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the industrial area of Chinhat, Lucknow (India) wastewater coming from pesticide manufacturing and other industries is used to irrigate the agricultural crops. This practice has been polluting the soil and pollutants might reach the food chain. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of certain organochlorine pesticides in soil samples. Samples were extracted using different solvents, i.e., hexane, acetonitrile, methanol, chloroform, and acetone (all were HPLC-grade, SRL, India). Soil extracts were assayed for mutagenicity using Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome test. Mutagenicity was observed in the test samples and TA98 was the most responsive strain for all the soil extracts (irrigated with wastewater) in terms of mutagenic index in the presence (+S9) and absence (-S9) of metabolic activation. In terms of slope (m) of linear dose-response curve for the most responsive strain TA98 exhibited highest sensitivity against the soil extracts in the presence and absence of S9 fraction. Hexane-extracted soil sample (wastewater) exhibited maximum mutagenicity in terms of net revertants per gram of soil in the presence and absence of S9 mix as compared to the other soil extracts. Groundwater-irrigated soil extracts displayed low level of mutagenicity as compared to wastewater-irrigated soil. The soil is accumulating a large number of pollutants due to wastewater irrigation and this practice of accumulation has an adverse impact on soil health.
BibTeX:
@article{AnjumR2012,
  author = {Anjum R, Malik A.},
  title = {Mutagenicity assessment of contaminated soil in the vicinity of industrial area.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {184(5)},
  pages = {3013-26},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2167-7}
}
Anupama KS, Paul S Ex situ and in situ biodegradation of lindane by Azotobacter chroococcum. 2010 J Environ Sci Health B.
Vol. 45(1), pp. 58-66 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the potential of Azotobacter chroococcum for degrading lindane. Ten cultures were screened for lindane degradation by a chloride estimation method and the best A. chroococcum culture JL 102 was selected for further studies. This strain was subjected to a lindane-tolerance experiment and based on the results obtained, 10 and 100 ppm of lindane were selected to study the potential of the A. chroococcum strain for ex situ and in situ biodegradation of lindane. The organism was grown in 2 different media viz. Jensen's broth and soil extract broth and ex situ lindane degradation was studied for a period of 6 days. Maximum degradation of lindane was recorded at 10 ppm concentration. The degradation was higher in Jensen's medium, compared to the soil extract broth. A pot culture experiment was conducted using both sterile and non-sterile soils supplemented with 10 ppm lindane to study in situ degradation potential of this strain for a period of 8 weeks. In both the conditions (sterile and non-sterile), the organism exhibited increased degradation over the days with maximum degradation observed on the 8th week of incubation. It could degrade most of the applied lindane by the end of the study period.
BibTeX:
@article{AnupamaKS2010,
  author = {Anupama KS, Paul S.},
  title = {Ex situ and in situ biodegradation of lindane by Azotobacter chroococcum.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {45(1)},
  pages = {58-66},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601230903404465}
}
Arora PK, Jyot G, Singh B, Battu RS, Singh B, Aulakh PS Persistence of imidacloprid on grape leaves, grape berries and soil. 2009 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 82(2), pp. 239-42. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Residues of imidacloprid were estimated in grape leaves, grape berries and soil following four applications of Confidor 200SL at 400 and 800 mL ha(-1) using 1,000 L water. The average initial deposits of imidacloprid on grape leaves were found to be 10.01 and 16.97 mg kg(-1) at single and double dosages, respectively. These residues of imidacloprid dissipated to be the extract of 98.8% and 97.0%, respectively, at single and double dosages in 15 days, with half-life period of 2.35 and 2.97 days. Residues of imidacloprid in grape berries at harvest time were observed to below determination limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) at single dose and 0.06 mg kg(-1) at double dose. However, acceptable daily intake (ADI) of imidacloprid is 0.06 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), which means an adult of 60 kg and a child of 10 kg can safely tolerate intake of 3,600 and 600 microg imidacloprid, respectively, without any appreciable risk to their life. Assuming consumption of 200 g grape berries contaminated at 0.06 mg kg(-1), it will lead to an intake of only 12 microg of imidacloprid, which is quite safe for a child as well as for an adult. Hence, the use of imidacloprid on grape crop seems to be toxicologically acceptable.
BibTeX:
@article{AroraPK2009,
  author = {Arora PK, Jyot G, Singh B, Battu RS, Singh B, Aulakh PS},
  title = {Persistence of imidacloprid on grape leaves, grape berries and soil.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {82(2)},
  pages = {239-42.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-008-9554-y}
}
Arora SK, Batra P, Sharma T, Banerjee BD, Gupta S Role of organochlorine pesticides in children with idiopathic seizures. 2013 ISRN Pediatr  article DOI  
Abstract: Background. Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are persistent organic pollutants that have been implicated in causing several deleterious effects in humans. These are known neurotoxins in high doses, but the role of environmentally acquired OCPs in the body to induce seizures in children has not been investigated yet. Objectives. To assess the serum levels of OCPs in children aged 2-12 with idiopathic seizure and to find out any association between the two are our objectives. Methods. It was a cross-sectional pilot study. Twenty developmentally normal children aged 2-12, presenting with idiopathic generalized seizures, were recruited. Twenty age-matched controls without any history of seizures were also taken. Their serum levels of ?, ?, and ? hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); and aldrin; dieldrin; p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p-DDT, and p,p dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); and ? and ? endosulfan were analysed using gas chromatography (GC). Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare OCP levels between the groups. Spearman correlation was used to find the correlation between individual pesticide levels with age and seizure duration. Results. Levels of ?, ?, and total HCH were significantly higher among cases as compared to the control group (P ? 0.05). Conclusion. There exists a possible association between idiopathic seizures and high serum levels of OCPs, especially HCH.
BibTeX:
@article{AroraSK2013,
  author = {Arora SK, Batra P, Sharma T, Banerjee BD, Gupta S},
  title = {Role of organochlorine pesticides in children with idiopathic seizures.},
  journal = {ISRN Pediatr},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/849709}
}
Aurade RM, Jayalakshmi SK, Sreeramulu K P-glycoprotein ATPase from the resistant pest, Helicoverpa armigera: purification, characterization and effect of various insecticides on its transport function. 2010 Biochim Biophys Acta.
Vol. 1798(6), pp. 1135-43 
article DOI  
Abstract: Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agricultural crops and has developed resistance to various insecticides. A P-glycoprotein (Pgp) with ATPase activity likely to be involved in insecticide resistance was purified and characterized from insecticide-resistant H. armigera. The purification was 18-fold with 3% yield. The optimum pH and temperature were found to be 7.4 and 30-40 degrees C, respectively. Kinetic studies indicated that this enzyme had a K(m) value of 1.2mM for ATP. Pgp from H. armigera was partially sequenced and found to be homologous to conserved sequences of mammalian Pgps. Pesticides stimulated H. armigera Pgp ATPase activity with a maximum stimulation of up to 40%. Quenching of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of purified Pgp was used to quantitate insecticide binding. Using the high-affinity fluorescent substrate, tetramethylrosamine, transport was monitored in real time in proteoliposomes containing H. armigera Pgp. The presence of Pgp could be one of the reasons for insecticide resistance in this pest.
BibTeX:
@article{AuradeRM2010,
  author = {Aurade RM, Jayalakshmi SK, Sreeramulu K.},
  title = {P-glycoprotein ATPase from the resistant pest, Helicoverpa armigera: purification, characterization and effect of various insecticides on its transport function.},
  journal = {Biochim Biophys Acta.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1798(6)},
  pages = {1135-43},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2010.02.019}
}
Bagavan A, Rahuman AA Evaluation of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against three mosquito vectors. 2011 Asian Pac J Trop Med.
Vol. 4(1), pp. 29-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of plant extracts.
METHODS:
The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf, flower and seed extracts of Abrus precatorius (A. precatorius), Croton bonplandianum (C. bonplandianum), Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon), Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) were tested against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles vagus (An. vagus), Armigeres subalbatus (Ar. subalbatus) and Culex vishnui (Cx. vishnui).
RESULTS:
The highest larval mortality was found in seed ethyl acetate extracts of A. precatorius and leaf extracts of C. bonplandianum, flower chloroform and methanol extracts of M. paradisiaca, and flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against An. vagus with LC(50) values of 19.31, 39.96, 35.18, 79.90 and 85.90 ?g/mL; leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. dactylon, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud methanol extract of S. aromaticum against Ar. subalbatus with LC(50) values of 21.67, 32.62, 48.90 and 78.28 ?g/mL, and seed methanol of A. precatorius, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against Cx. vishnui with LC(50) values of 136.84, 103.36 and 149.56 ?g/mL, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts of different mosquitoes.
BibTeX:
@article{BagavanA2011,
  author = {Bagavan A, Rahuman AA},
  title = {Evaluation of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against three mosquito vectors.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Trop Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4(1)},
  pages = {29-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60027-8}
}
Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Kamaraj C, Geetha K Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). 2008 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 103(1), pp. 223-9. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha indica, Achyranthes aspera, Leucas aspera, Morinda tinctoria and Ocimum sanctum were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. aspera led to the separation and identification ofa saponin as a potential mosquito larvicidal compound, with LC50 value of 18.20 and 27.24 ppm against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the saponin from the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. This study investigates the potential of crude extracts from commonly used medical herbs in India as an environmentally safe measure to control the vector of dengue and lymphatic filariasis.
BibTeX:
@article{BagavanA2008,
  author = {Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Kamaraj C, Geetha K.},
  title = {Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {103(1)},
  pages = {223-9.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-0962-z}
}
Bajpai R, Pandey AK, Deeba F, Upreti DK, Nayaka S, Pandey V Physiological effects of arsenate on transplant thalli of the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl. 2012 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 19(5), pp. 1494-502 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
The changes in photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, protein content, and antioxidant enzymes were investigated in a foliose lichen Pyxine cocoes, which was subjected to increasing concentrations of arsenate.
METHODS:
The arsenate concentrations of 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 ?M were sprayed every alternate day on the lichen thallus. The thalli were then harvested on 10, 20, 30, and 45 days.
RESULTS:
The quantity of photosynthetic pigments exhibited a decreasing trend till 20 days but increased from 30 days onwards. Concomitantly, chlorophyll fluorescence also showed a decreasing trend with increasing arsenic treatment duration as well as concentration. The higher concentration of arsenate was found to be deleterious to the photosynthesis of lichen as the chlorophyll fluorescence and the amount of pigments decreased significantly. The protein content of lichen increased uninterruptedly as the concentration of arsenate as well as duration of treatment increased. The activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxide increased initially at lower concentration of arsenate but declined at higher concentrations and longer duration of treatment.
CONCLUSIONS:
The catalase activity was found to be most susceptible to arsenate stress as its activity started declining from very beginning of the experiment. P. cocoes also proved to be an excellent accumulator of arsenate whose concentration increased in the thallus corresponding to its increase in the treatment and duration. Thus, it can be utilized for active biomonitoring of arsenic pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{BajpaiR2012,
  author = {Bajpai R, Pandey AK, Deeba F, Upreti DK, Nayaka S, Pandey V.},
  title = {Physiological effects of arsenate on transplant thalli of the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {19(5)},
  pages = {1494-502},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0628-8}
}
Bajwa U, Sandhu KS Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review. 2014 J Food Sci Technol.
Vol. 51(2), pp. 201-20 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of pesticide. There is diversified information available in literature on the effect of preparation, processing and subsequent handling and storage of foods on pesticide residues which has been compiled in this article.
BibTeX:
@article{BajwaU2014,
  author = {Bajwa U, Sandhu KS},
  title = {Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.},
  journal = {J Food Sci Technol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {51(2)},
  pages = {201-20},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0499-5}
}
Banerjee I, Tripathi SK, Roy AS Clinico-epidemiological profile of poisoned patients in emergency department: A two and half year's single hospital experience. 2014 nt J Crit Illn Inj Sci.
Vol. 14-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: CONTEXT:
Poisoning is a common cause for attending emergency department of hospitals.
AIMS:
To explore the epidemiological characteristics and clinical profile of patients presenting with poisoning in emergency department.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
Prospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Relevant epidemiological and clinical data from patients, presenting with history/clinical features of poisoning in emergency department of a tertiary care district hospital in India, were collected and analyzed.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:
DATA ANALYSIS WAS DONE BY USING DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICAL METHODS: Frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation (SD). A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
RESULTS:
A total of 4,432 patients with history and/clinical features of poisoning were included in the study. The females clearly outnumbered male patients. Poisoning with suicidal intent was more frequent (81.08%) than accidental (18.92%) (P < 0.0001). Majority of the patients were housewives followed by farmers, businessmen, laborers, and students. The mean time interval between poison consumption and admission to hospital was 6.4 hours (Mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 2.29). Snakebite (31.90%) was the most common cause of poisoning followed by organophosphorus compounds (21.84%), rodenticide (16.49%), alcohol (13.80%), chemicals (9.04%), and drugs (2.3%). The mean GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale) score of the poisoned patients at presentation was 6.85 ± 1.62. Of all the patients included in the study, 3,712 patients (83.76%) survived and 720 patients (16.24%) expired.
CONCLUSIONS:
The current piece of work suggests that most of the poisoning cases involved young age group particularly females. Snakebite and organophosphorus compounds contributed most of the poisoning cases which calls for urgent government initiatives for improvement in proper lighting of the district to prevent snakebite and controlled use of pesticides.
BibTeX:
@article{BanerjeeI2014,
  author = {Banerjee I, Tripathi SK, Roy AS},
  title = {Clinico-epidemiological profile of poisoned patients in emergency department: A two and half year's single hospital experience.},
  journal = {nt J Crit Illn Inj Sci.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {14-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5151.128007}
}
Banerjee K, Patil SH, Dasgupta S, Oulkar DP, Patil SB, Savant R, Adsule PG Optimization of separation and detection conditions for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in grapes by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. 2008 J Chromatogr A.
Vol. 1190(1-2), pp. 350-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: A comprehensive GCxGC-TOFMS method was optimized for multiresidue analysis of pesticidesusing a combination of a non-polar (RTX-5MS, 10 m x 0.18 mm x 0.2 microm) and a polar capillary column (TR-50MS, 1 m x 0.1 mm x 0.1 microm), connected in series through a dual stage thermal modulator. The method resolved the co-elution problems as observed in full scan one-dimensional GC-MS analysis and allowed chromatographic separation of 51 pesticides within 24 min run time with library-searchable mass spectrometric confirmation. Four pesticides, viz. chlorpyrifos-methyl, vinclozoline, parathion-methyl and heptachlor could be baseline separated on GCxGC, which were otherwise closely eluting and interfering each other's detection in 1D GC-MS run. Similarly, it could be possible to separate myclobutanil, buprofezin, flusilazole and oxyfluorfen on GCxGC. Although in 1D GC-MS, these closely eluting compounds could be identified through deconvolution algorithm and 'peak-find' option of the Chromatof software but the spectral purity significantly improved on GCxGC analysis. Thorough optimization was accomplished for the oven temperature programming, ion source temperature and GCxGC parameters like modulation period, duration of hot pulses, modulation-offset temperature, acquisition rate, etc. to achieve best possible separation of the test compounds. The limit of detection significantly improved by 2-12 times on GCxGC-TOFMS against GC-TOFMS because of sharper and narrower peak shapes. The method was tested for grape matrix after preparing the samples using previously described method and recoveries of the entire test pesticides were within 70-110% at 10 ng/g level of fortification. GCxGC-TOFMS was found to be an excellent technique for library-based screening of pesticides with high accuracy and sensitivity.
BibTeX:
@article{BanerjeeK2008,
  author = {Banerjee K, Patil SH, Dasgupta S, Oulkar DP, Patil SB, Savant R, Adsule PG},
  title = {Optimization of separation and detection conditions for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in grapes by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.},
  journal = {J Chromatogr A.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {1190(1-2)},
  pages = {350-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2008.03.017}
}
Banerjee S, Singha S, Laskar S, Chandra G Efficacy of Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) leaf extract on larval immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823. 2011 Asian Pac J Trop Med.
Vol. 4(9), pp. 711-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the role of leaf extract of Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) as a biocontrol agent against the larval form of Culex quinquefasciatus, and characterization of bioactive component responsible for larvicidal activity.
METHODS:
Larval mortality of mosquito species was observed after 24, 48 and 72 hours of exposure to different concentrations of aqueous extract, solvent extract and subsequently bioactive compound. The bioactive compound was subjected to IR and GC-MS analysis.
RESULTS:
Mortality rate at 3% concentration of crude extract were highest (90%) amongst all concentrations tested and subsequently highest (95%) mortality was achieved in chloroform: methanol extract at 100 ppm concentrations. IR and GC-MS analysis of bioactive compound revealed the presence of steroid compound which may act as larvicide.
CONCLUSIONS:
The chloroform: methanol extract of mature leaves of Limonia acidissima was found to exhibit considerable mosquito larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus
BibTeX:
@article{BanerjeeS2011,
  author = {Banerjee S, Singha S, Laskar S, Chandra G},
  title = {Efficacy of Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) leaf extract on larval immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Trop Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4(9)},
  pages = {711-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60179-X}
}
Bansal N, Kanwar SS Peroxidase(s) in environment protection. 2013 ScientificWorldJournal  article DOI  
Abstract: Industrial discharges of untreated effluents into water bodies and emissions into air have deteriorated the quality of water and air, respectively. The huge amount of pollutants derived from industrial activities represents a threat for the environment and ecologic equilibrium. Phenols and halogenated phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC), pesticides, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), industrial dyes, and other xenobiotics are among the most important pollutants. Peroxidases are enzymes that are able to transform a variety of compounds following a free radical mechanism, thereby yielding oxidized or polymerized products. The peroxidase transformation of these pollutants is accompanied by a reduction in their toxicity, due to loss of biological activity, reduction in the bioavailability, or the removal from aqueous phase, especially when the pollutant is found in water. The review describes the sources of peroxidases, the reactions catalyzed by them, and their applications in the management of pollutants in the environment.
BibTeX:
@article{BansalN2013,
  author = {Bansal N, Kanwar SS.},
  title = {Peroxidase(s) in environment protection.},
  journal = {ScientificWorldJournal},
  year = {2013},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/714639}
}
Bansal SK, Singh KV, Sharma S Larvicidal potential of wild mustard (Cleome viscosa) and gokhru (Tribulus terrestris) against mosquito vectors in the semi-arid region of Western Rajasthan. 2014 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 35(2), pp. 327-32 
article  
Abstract: Cleome viscosa L. (Family: Capparaceae) commonly known as Tickweed or wild mustard and Tribulus terrestris L. (Family: Zygophyllaceae) commonly known as Gokhru, growing wildly in the desert areas in the monsoon and post monsoon season, are of great medicinal importance. Comparative larvicidal efficacy of the extracts from seeds of C. viscosa and fruits and leaves of T. terrestris was evaluated against 3rd or early 4th stage larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in different organic solvents. 24 and 48 hr LC50 and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/ heterogeneity of the response was determined by log probit regression analysis. The 24 hr LC50 values as determined for seeds of C. viscosa were 144.1, 99.5 and 127.1 (methanol); 106.3, 138.9 and 118.5 (acetone) and 166.4, 162.5 and 301.9 mg l(-1) (petroleum ether extracts) for all the three mosquito species respectively showing that methanol and acetone extracts were a little bit more effective than the petroleum ether extracts. Experiments were carried out with fruits and leaves of T. terrestris with all the solvents and mosquito species. The 24 hr LC50 values, as determined for fruits of T. terrestris were 70.8, 103.4 and 268.2 (methanol); 74.0,120.5 and 132.0 (acetone) and 73.8,113.5 and 137.4 mg l(-1) (petroleum ether extracts) while the 24 hr LC50 values for leaves were 124.3, 196.8 and 246.5 (methanol); 163.4, 196.9 and 224.3 (acetone) and 135.8, 176.8 and 185.9 mg l(-1) (petroleum ether extracts) for all the three mosquito species respectively. The results clearly indicate that fruit extracts of T. terrestris were more effective as compared to leaves extracts in the three solvents tested. Larvae of An. stephensi were found more sensitive to both fruit and leaves extracts of T. terrestris followed by larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Extracts from the seeds of C. viscosa were found less effective as compared to the fruit extracts of T. terrestris indicating that active larvicidal principle may be present in the fruits of this plant species. The studywould be of great importance while formulating the control strategy, for vectors of malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis, based on alternative plant based insecticides in this semi-arid region.
BibTeX:
@article{BansalSK2014,
  author = {Bansal SK, Singh KV, Sharma S.},
  title = {Larvicidal potential of wild mustard (Cleome viscosa) and gokhru (Tribulus terrestris) against mosquito vectors in the semi-arid region of Western Rajasthan.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {35(2)},
  pages = {327-32}
}
Batabyal L, Sharma P, Mohan L, Maurya P, Srivastava CN Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). 2009 Parasitol Res
Vol. 105(5), pp. 1205-10 
article DOI  
Abstract: In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus.
BibTeX:
@article{BatabyalL2009,
  author = {Batabyal L, Sharma P, Mohan L, Maurya P, Srivastava CN},
  title = {Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).},
  journal = {Parasitol Res},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {105(5)},
  pages = {1205-10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1541-7}
}
Behera SK, Dimri U, Singh SK, Mohanta RK The curative and antioxidative efficiency of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium treatment on canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation. 2011 Vet Res Commun.
Vol. 35(4), pp. 237-44 
article DOI  
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the curative and antioxidative efficacy of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium, and the influence of these agents on oxidative stress parameters in canines infested by Sarcoptes scabiei. Twenty two sarcoptic mites infested dogs and nine healthy dogs of 6 months to 2 years of age were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of healthy dogs (n=9) whereas animals in group II (n=11) and III (n=11) were positive for scabies. Group II animals were treated with only 1% ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg SC whereas group III were additionally treated with Vitamin E and selenium (tocopherol 50 mg + Se 1.5 mg/ml) @ 0.5 ml/20 kg IM at weekly intervals for three times. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 28 post therapy. The values for hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (P<0.05) whereas level of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in all the infested dogs in comparison to the healthy dogs on day 0 which approached normalcy by day 28 post therapy. The dogs of group III showed better clinical recovery in comparison to group II at the end of therapy. Thus, administration of vitamin E and selenium in addition to standard therapy can alleviate these alterations hastening the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for canine sarcoptic mange.
BibTeX:
@article{BeheraSK2011,
  author = {Behera SK, Dimri U, Singh SK, Mohanta RK},
  title = {The curative and antioxidative efficiency of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium treatment on canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.},
  journal = {Vet Res Commun.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {35(4)},
  pages = {237-44},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-011-9468-8}
}
Bhadouria BS, Mathur VB, Kaul R Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in and around Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. 2012 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 184(9), pp. 5295-300 
article DOI  
Abstract: Keoladeo National Park (KNP) is an important wintering ground for thousands of birds that undertake a perilous journey over the Himalaya to make a seasonal home in a wetland ecosystem. However, this wetland is now getting polluted by various types of contaminants such as pesticidesbecause of the agricultural practices in the catchment area from where the park receives water. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been undertaken to assess the organochlorine pesticide(OCP) residues in the sediments inside and around KNP. Samples were collected from the different blocks of the park. The concentrations of ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, S-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, hept.epoxide, endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II, endo.sulfate, S-endosulfan, endrin, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, and DDT were quantified using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Analysis showed that the samples were contaminated with the above mentioned pesticides and that the concentration of total OCPs in the sediments varied from 0.1173 (dieldrin) to 5.558 ppm (? HCH) in the samples collected from inside the park, whereas a range of pesticides varying in concentration from 0.1245 (4,4'-DDD) to 7.54 ppm (? HCH) was found in samples from outside the park. Residues of S-HCH and S-endosulfan were not detected in any of the sediment samples. The occurrence of pesticides inside the park is a major threat to the park's biodiversity. Eco-friendly agriculture practices with minimal use of inorganic chemicals are suggested to minimize thepesticide residue levels in the park.
BibTeX:
@article{BhadouriaBS2012,
  author = {Bhadouria BS, Mathur VB, Kaul R.},
  title = {Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in and around Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {184(9)},
  pages = {5295-300},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2340-z}
}
Bhardwaj M, Bharadwaj L, Trigunayat K, Trigunayat MM Insecticidal and wormicidal plants from Aravalli hill range of India. 2011 J Ethnopharmacol.
Vol. 136(1), pp. 103-10 
article DOI  
Abstract: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Various plants are being used as ethnomedicines against insects and worms in Aravalli hill range of India. In this study, we are focusing upon intellectual traditional ecological knowledge with an objective of revaluation of ethnomedicinal data processing for the plants being utilized against insects and worms. These plants can be explored for drug discovery program against insects and worms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to raise the information on plants against insects and worms from ethnic tribes. The information about the plant part used, dose & mode of administration was collected and verified by interviewing at different times, tribes and places within the study area.
RESULTS:
67 remedies with 49 plants species belonging to 29 families are identified and reported with taxonomic description. Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. is first time reported with ethnomedicinal claims (against insects and worms).
CONCLUSION:
These plants may specially be selected for the drug discovery program against insects and worms. Active ingredients from these plants may serve as novel drug molecules. Beside conservation efforts to these plants there is an urgent need to document the ethnomedicinal knowledge. The survey provides a veritable source of information for traditional medical practitioners and medicinal plant researchers and help in developing strategies for future conservation.
BibTeX:
@article{BhardwajM2011,
  author = {Bhardwaj M, Bharadwaj L, Trigunayat K, Trigunayat MM},
  title = {Insecticidal and wormicidal plants from Aravalli hill range of India.},
  journal = {J Ethnopharmacol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {136(1)},
  pages = {103-10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.013}
}
Bhardwaj S, Srivastava MK, Kapoor U, Srivastava LP A 90 days oral toxicity of imidacloprid in female rats: morphological, biochemical and histopathological evaluations. 2010 Food Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 48(5), pp. 1185-90 
article DOI  
Abstract: A 90 days oral toxicity study of imidacloprid was conducted in female rats with doses of 0, 5, 10, 20mg/kg/day. Decrease in the body weight gain was observed at 20mg/kg/day and at necropsy the relative body weights of liver, kidney and adrenal was also significantly increased at this dose level. No mortality occurred during treatment period while food intake was reduced at high dose level. In clinical chemistry parameters high dose of imidacloprid has caused significant elevation of serum GOT, GPT, glucose and BUN and decreased the activity of AChE in serum and brain. The spontaneous locomotor activity was also decreased at highest dose exposure where as there were no significant changes in hematological and urine parameters. The brain, liver and kidney of rats exposed with high dose of imidacloprid had showed mild pathological changes. Based on the morphological, biochemical, hematological and neuropathological studies it is evident that imidacloprid has not produced any significant effects at 5 and 10mg/kg/day doses but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats. Hence, 10mg/kg/day dose may be considered as no observed effect level (NOEL) for female rats.
BibTeX:
@article{BhardwajS2010,
  author = {Bhardwaj S, Srivastava MK, Kapoor U, Srivastava LP},
  title = {A 90 days oral toxicity of imidacloprid in female rats: morphological, biochemical and histopathological evaluations.},
  journal = {Food Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {48(5)},
  pages = {1185-90},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.02.009}
}
Bhargavi SD, Savitha J Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation. 2014 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 92(3), pp. 369-73 
article DOI  
Abstract: Bioremediation is an effective method for the treatment of major metal contaminated sites. Fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different arsenate contaminated areas across India. An isolate, Penicillium coffeae, exhibited resistance to arsenate up to 500 mM. Results indicated that pretreatment of biomass with alkali (NaOH) enhanced the percentage of adsorption to 66.8% as compared to that of live and untreated dead biomass whose adsorption was 22.9% and 60.2% respectively. The physiological parameters evaluated in this study may help pilot studies aimed at bioremediation of arsenate contaminated effluents using arsenate resistant fungus P. coffeae.
BibTeX:
@article{BhargaviSD2014,
  author = {Bhargavi SD, Savitha J.},
  title = {Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {92(3)},
  pages = {369-73},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1212-y}
}
Bhattacharya M, Kaviraj A Toxicity of the pyrethroid pesticide fenvalerate to freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus: lethality, biochemical effects and role of dietary ascorbic acid. 2009 J Environ Sci Health B.
Vol. 44(6), pp. 578-83 
article DOI  
Abstract: Static bioassays were made in the laboratory to determine lethal concentration of the pyrethroidpesticide fenvalerate [(RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (RS)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyrate] for the freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus and effects of sublethal concentrations of the pesticideon some biochemical parameters of the fish. For exposure periods of 24 to 96 h, LC(50) values of fenvalerate ranged from 5.83-4.76 micro g/L and 4.24-2.94 micro g/L, respectively for water and acetone soluble fenvalerate. Two sublethal concentrations of fenvalerate were used in the bioassays for biochemical parameters: 2.1 micro g/L for 24 h and 1.4 micro g/L for 96 h exposure, both concentrations representing 50% of LC(50) value of acetone soluble fenvalerate for the respective exposure period. Hepatosomatic index, liver glycogen, alkaline phosphatase of liver and ascorbic acid of blood, liver, and kidney decreased while haemoglobin (Hb) %, plasma glucose levels and acid phosphatase level of liver increased after 24 h exposure to 2.1 micro g/L fenvalerate. Longer exposure (96 h) to even a lower concentration (1.4 micro g/L) of fenvalerate resulted in reduction of all the parameters (except Hb %) tested as compared with control. Fish previously fed for 60 days with a diet supplemented by a high level of ascorbic acid (100 mg/100 g diet) could reverse most of the effects caused by 24 h exposure to 2.1 micro g/L fenvalerate. A lower level of ascorbic acid (50 mg/ 100 g diet) supplement could not influence these effects of fenvalerate. Even the higher dose of ascorbic acid supplementation (100 mg/100 g diet) could not relieve the stress parameters, except for Hb% and HSI, when the pesticide was applied at 1.4 micro g/L for a longer time period (96 h).
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaM2009,
  author = {Bhattacharya M, Kaviraj A.},
  title = {Toxicity of the pyrethroid pesticide fenvalerate to freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus: lethality, biochemical effects and role of dietary ascorbic acid.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {44(6)},
  pages = {578-83},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601230903000602}
}
Bhattacharya S, Kumar P An insilico approach to structural elucidation of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana: hints for herbicide design. 2012 Phytochemistry.
Vol. 73(1), pp. 7-14 
article DOI  
Abstract: 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, is responsible for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in microorganisms and plants. The pathway has been of increasing interest in the recent past as the enzymes are being targeted for antimicrobial drug and herbicide design. In the present work the three dimensional structure of the type II DAHPS present in Arabidopsis thaliana (At-DAHPS) is described and compared with type I DAHPS. The structure shows that the enzyme belongs to the (?/?)(8) TIM barrel family and that most of the active site residues are conserved in the type I DAHPS enzymes. Although the overall structures of the type I and type II enzymes are similar, there are differences in the extra barrel elements which may explain the different modes of enzyme regulation. At the N-terminus of At-DAHPS, there are three non-core helices, ?0a (Ala72-Lys83), ?0b (Ala94-Ala106) and ?0c (Ala113-Val128), but no ?(0), in contrast to the microbial type II DAHPS. Also, the (I/L)GAR motif in the type I DAHPS is substituted with xGxR in the case of type II DAHPS. Also, a motif NK(/I)PGR(/K) is present in the sequences of type II DAHPS including At-DAHPS. The elucidation of the active site architecture of At-DAHPS may provide a structural framework useful for the design of specific inhibitors towards herbicide development.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattacharyaS2012,
  author = {Bhattacharya S, Kumar P.},
  title = {An insilico approach to structural elucidation of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana: hints for herbicide design.},
  journal = {Phytochemistry.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {73(1)},
  pages = {7-14},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.09.005}
}
Bhinder P, Chaudhry A Genotoxicity Evaluation of Acephate and Profenofos by the PCR-RFLP Assay. 2014 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 21(1), pp. 84-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
In this study we have evaluated the genotoxic potential of pesticides acephate and profenofos by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay with the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus taken as experimental model.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Second instar larvae were treated with LC20 of each pesticide for 24 h and induced mutations in the sequence of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene were studied from restriction patterns generated with PacI and PsiI restriction endonucleases.
RESULTS:
Variations in the number and size of digested fragments were recorded from treated individuals compared with controls showing that the restriction enzymes created a cut at different locations. In addition, sequences of the 16S gene from control and treated individuals were also used to confirm the RFLP patterns. From the sequence alignment data, it was found that mutations caused the destruction and generation of restriction sites in the gene sequence of treated individuals.
CONCLUSION:
This study indicates that both the pesticides had significant potential to induce mutations in the 16S gene of Culex quinquefasciatus
BibTeX:
@article{BhinderP2014,
  author = {Bhinder P, Chaudhry A.},
  title = {Genotoxicity Evaluation of Acephate and Profenofos by the PCR-RFLP Assay.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {21(1)},
  pages = {84-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.128809}
}
Bhinder P, Chaudhry A Mutagenicity Assessment of Organophosphates using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay. 2013 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 20(3), pp. 254-60 
article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
In this study we have evaluated the mutagenicity of organophosphate pesticides acephate, chlorpyrifos, and profenofos using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay with the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus taken as an experimental model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Second instar larvae were treated with LC20 of each pesticide for 24 h and mutations induced in the sequence of mitochondrial COII gene (690bp) were studied from restriction patterns generated with AluI, PacI, and PsiI restriction endonucleases.
RESULTS:
Variations in the number and size of digested fragments were recorded from treated individuals compared with controls showing that the restriction enzymes created a cut at different locations. In addition, sequences of COII gene from control and treated individuals were also used to confirm the RFLP patterns. From the sequence alignment data, it was found that mutations caused the destruction and generation of restriction sites in the gene sequence of treated individuals.
CONCLUSION:
This study indicates that all the three pesticides had potential to induce mutations in the normal sequence of COII gene and also advocates the use of PCR-RFLP assay as an efficient, rapid, and sensitive technique to detect mutagenicity of pesticides.
BibTeX:
@article{BhinderP2013,
  author = {Bhinder P, Chaudhry A.},
  title = {Mutagenicity Assessment of Organophosphates using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {20(3)},
  pages = {254-60}
}
Bhinder P, Chaudhry A Evaluation of toxic potential of acephate and chlorpyrifos by dominant lethal test on Culex quinquefasciatus. 2013 J Environ Biol
Vol. 34(3), pp. 573-7 
article  
Abstract: The present paper deals with the toxicity evaluation of pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos by applying dominant lethal test (DLT) on mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus taken as an experimental model. For this, the adult male mosquitoes emerging from LC20 treated larval stock were allowed to crossmate with normal virgin females under controlled conditions of mosquito rearing laboratory along with the parallel controls, separately for each pesticide. The eggs obtained from such females were allowed to hatch after which they were examined under suitable magnification. The number of unhatched eggs was taken as the measure for calculating the dominant lethality caused by the pesticides and the data was analyzed statistically by applying Student's t-test. The statistical analysis of the results for acephate treated groups was 9.49 +/- 1.50 as against 3.92 +/- 0.41 in the control groups and chlorpyrifos treated groups gave the value 9.94 +/- 1.92 as against 4.26 +/- 0.35 in the control groups. The results indicated that these pesticides induced significant (p < 0.05) dominant lethality.
BibTeX:
@article{BhinderP2013a,
  author = {Bhinder P, Chaudhry A.},
  title = {Evaluation of toxic potential of acephate and chlorpyrifos by dominant lethal test on Culex quinquefasciatus.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {34(3)},
  pages = {573-7}
}
Binukumar BK, Bal A, Gill KD Chronic dichlorvos exposure: microglial activation, proinflammatory cytokines and damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. 2011 Neuromolecular Med.
Vol. 13(4), pp. 251-65 
article DOI  
Abstract: Dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra are highly vulnerable to the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, mechanisms that enhance their susceptibility to injury bear important implications for disease pathogenesis. We have previously shown that chronic dichlorvos exposure caused nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and significant behavioral impairments. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between microglial activation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration to examine the possibility that neuroinflammation may induce dopaminergic neuronal loss in the nigrostriatal system. Chronic dichlorvos exposure causes microglial activation including induction of NADPH oxidase and a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in rat. Microglial marker expression was increased at transcription as well as translational levels in the substantia nigra (SN) and corpus striatum (CS) of rats exposed to dichlorvos. Activated microglia were seen in SN and CS of dichlorvos-treated animals but were rarely observed in controls. Immunostaining revealed lesser number of TH-positive neurons and higher number of microglia in SN and CS regions after dichlorvos treatment. The mRNA and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase main subunit gp91(phox) were significantly increased after dichlorvos administration. Dichlorvos exposure also leads to increased level of microglial noxious mediators such as IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6 in ventral midbrain and CS at transcription as well as translational levels. Data indicate that microglial activation and consequent induction of NADPH oxidase and proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 may act as risk factors for Parkinson's disease by increasing the vulnerability of dopaminergic cells to dichlorvos toxic injury.
BibTeX:
@article{BinukumarBK2011,
  author = {Binukumar BK, Bal A, Gill KD.},
  title = {Chronic dichlorvos exposure: microglial activation, proinflammatory cytokines and damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.},
  journal = {Neuromolecular Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {13(4)},
  pages = {251-65},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12017-011-8156-8}
}
Bisht DS, Joshi SC, Padalia RC, Mathela CS Isoiridomyrmecin rich essential oil from Nepeta erecta Benth. and its antioxidant activity. 2012 Nat Prod Res.
Vol. 26(1), pp. 29-35 
article DOI  
Abstract: The essential oil composition of the aerial parts of Nepeta erecta Benth. (Family: Lamiaceae) from Uttarakhand, India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 34 constituents were identified representing 94.6% of the oil composition. Oxygenated monoterpenes (74.0%) constituted the major proportion of the oil, dominated by isoiridomyrmecin (70.6%) as a single major constituent. Other significant constituents were caryophyllene oxide (9.6%), ?-Bourbonene (2.0%), humulene epoxide II (1.7%) and linalool (1.0%). The in vitro antioxidant activity (AOA) was assessed using ?-Carotene bleaching assay, reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation methods. The oil was found to exhibit AOA by inhibiting ?-Carotene bleaching (54.6?±?2.52%) and by scavenging DPPH free radical (IC(50)?=?0.74?±?0.12?mg?mL(-1)). The AOA of the essential oil of N. erecta and its major compound isoiridomyrmecin has not been reported so far.
BibTeX:
@article{BishtDS2012,
  author = {Bisht DS, Joshi SC, Padalia RC, Mathela CS.},
  title = {Isoiridomyrmecin rich essential oil from Nepeta erecta Benth. and its antioxidant activity.},
  journal = {Nat Prod Res.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {26(1)},
  pages = {29-35},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.531393}
}
Bist R, Bhatt DK The evaluation of effect of alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E on the lipid peroxidation, gamma-amino butyric acid and serotonin level in the brain of mice (Mus musculus) acutely intoxicated with lindane. 2009 J Neurol Sci.
Vol. 276(1-2), pp. 99-102. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of lindane, in mice and the protective potential of two antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and vitamin E, against the observed lindane induced toxicity. 7-8 weeks old healthy Swiss mice were administered acute doses of lindane (40 mg/kg b.w.) or antioxidants or both subcutaneously and analyzed 18 h later. ALA and vitamin E were used in the combination for neuroprotection in the concentration of 20 mg/kg b.w. and 50 mg/kg b.w. respectively. Lipid peroxidation, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and serotonin level were used as biochemical test of toxic action for lindane induced acute toxicity. Protective effects of ALA and vitamin E were also evaluated on the same parameters. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level served as an index for determining the extent of lipid peroxidation. Treatment of lindane to normal control animals resulted in a significant decrease and increase in GSH (P<0.01) and TBARS level (P<0.01) respectively in crude homogenate of whole brain. Antioxidants treatment significantly altered the level of GSH (P<0.01) and TBARS (P<0.01). GABA and serotonin level in whole brain as well as in different regions of brain were measured. Main brain regions under the investigation were olfactory lobe, cerebrum, hippocampus-hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons-medulla. Critical difference (CD) of GABA level in various groups was found significant at 1% in cerebrum and hippocampus-hypothalamus, at 5% in whole brain, cerebellum and pons-medulla (i.e. P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). Change in serotonin level in whole brain as well as in all studied brain regions of various groups was found significant at 1% CD (i.e. P<0.01).
BibTeX:
@article{BistR2009,
  author = {Bist R, Bhatt DK.},
  title = {The evaluation of effect of alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E on the lipid peroxidation, gamma-amino butyric acid and serotonin level in the brain of mice (Mus musculus) acutely intoxicated with lindane.},
  journal = {J Neurol Sci.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {276(1-2)},
  pages = {99-102.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2008.09.008}
}
Chahil GS, Mandal K, Sahoo SK, Battu RS, Singh B Risk assessment of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in chickpea pods and leaves. 2014 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.  article DOI  
Abstract: Dissipation of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in chickpea pods and leaves was measured following three applications of Solomon 300 OD (?-cyfluthrin 9 percent +imidacloprid 21 percent) at 200 and 400mLha(-1). Residues of ?-cyfluthrin on chickpea pods and leaves were found to be below its limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01mgkg(-1) after 7 days at both the dosages. Similarly, imidacloprid residues were found to be below its LOQ of 0.01mgkg(-1) at 10 days. Half-life periods on chickpea pods and leaves for ?-cyfluthrin were found to be 1.06 and 0.58 days, whereas for imidacloprid these values were observed to be 2.07 and 1.75 days at recommended dose. As the theoretical maximum residue contributions on chickpea pods and leaves are found to be less than the maximum permissible intake values even on 0 day, therefore consumer health risks are minimal at both the dosages on chickpea.
BibTeX:
@article{ChahilGS2014,
  author = {Chahil GS, Mandal K, Sahoo SK, Battu RS, Singh B},
  title = {Risk assessment of ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in chickpea pods and leaves.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.12.010}
}
Chaitanya RK, Sridevi P, Senthilkumaran B, Gupta AD 20-Hydroxyecdysone regulation of H-fibroin gene in the stored grain pest Corcyra cephalonica, during the last instar larval development. 2011 Steroids.
Vol. 76(1-2), pp. 125-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) controls molting, metamorphosis and reproduction of insects. It binds to a heterodimeric complex of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), and regulates the transcription of genes containing ecdysone response elements (EcREs). However, the 20E regulation of silk fibroin genes is largely unexplored. In most lepidopteran larvae, the silk fibroin primarily consists of a large protein, heavy chain fibroin (H-fibroin) that is associated with two small proteins, L-chain fibroin and P25. In the present study, we demonstrate that 20E regulates the expression of H-fibroin gene in Corcyra cephalonica, in a dose-dependent manner during the last instar larval development. Semi-quantitative and real-time PCR studies reveal that physiological doses of 20E do not alter the normal expression, whereas higher doses cause a significant decline in the expression. Luciferase activity assays and gel shift experiments further confirm the presence of a functional EcRE in the upstream region of H-fibroin which regulates the ecdysteroid dependent transcriptional activity of fibroin gene through EcR. In vitro treatment with 20E mimicking insecticides, RH-5849 and RH-5992 decreases the expression of H-fibroin in isolated salivary glands. Insects fed with similar concentrations of these insecticides, metamorphose abnormally. Differences are also observed in the ultrastructure of the silk fibers of control and insecticide fed insects providing additional insight into the disruptive effects of these non-steroidal ecdysteroid agonists.
BibTeX:
@article{ChaitanyaRK2011,
  author = {Chaitanya RK, Sridevi P, Senthilkumaran B, Gupta AD.},
  title = {20-Hydroxyecdysone regulation of H-fibroin gene in the stored grain pest Corcyra cephalonica, during the last instar larval development.},
  journal = {Steroids.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {76(1-2)},
  pages = {125-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2010.09.009}
}
Chakraborti D, Das B, Murrill MT Examining India's groundwater quality management. 2011 Environ Sci Technol.
Vol. 45(1), pp. 27-33 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortiD2011,
  author = {Chakraborti D, Das B, Murrill MT.},
  title = {Examining India's groundwater quality management.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Technol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {45(1)},
  pages = {27-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es101695d}
}
Chakraborty S, Mukherjee S, Roychoudhury S, Siddique S, Lahiri T, Ray MR Chronic exposures to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides adversely affect respiratory health of agricultural workers in India. 2009 J Occup Health.
Vol. 51(6), pp. 488-97 
article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
The impact of long term exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) pesticides on the respiratory health of agricultural workers in India was investigated.
METHODS:
Three hundred and seventy-six nonsmoking agricultural workers (median age 41 yr) from eastern India who sprayed OP and C pesticides in the field and 348 age- and sex-matched control subjects with non-agricultural occupations from the same locality were enrolled. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was obtained by questionnaire survey, and pulmonary function tests were carried out by spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was diagnosed by the Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was measured by the Ellman method.
RESULTS:
Agricultural workers had greater prevalences of upper and lower respiratory symptoms, and appreciable reduction in spirometric measurements. Overall, lung function reduction was noted in 48.9% of agricultural workers compared with 22.7% of control, and a restrictive type of deficit was predominant. COPD was diagnosed in 10.9% of agricultural workers compared with 3.4% of controls (p<0.05 in chi(2) test), and the severity of the disease was greater in agricultural workers. Red blood cell (RBC) AChE was lowered by 34.2% in agricultural workers, and the fall in AChE level was positively associated with respiratory symptoms, lung function decrement and COPD after controlling for education and income as potential confounders.
CONCLUSIONS:
Long-term exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting agricultural pesticides currently in use in India is associated with a reduction in lung function, COPD and a rise in respiratory symptoms.
BibTeX:
@article{ChakrabortyS2009,
  author = {Chakraborty S, Mukherjee S, Roychoudhury S, Siddique S, Lahiri T, Ray MR},
  title = {Chronic exposures to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides adversely affect respiratory health of agricultural workers in India.},
  journal = {J Occup Health.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {51(6)},
  pages = {488-97}
}
Chatterjee S, Basak P, Chaklader M, Das P, Pereira JA, Chaudhuri S, Law S Pesticide induced alterations in marrow physiology and depletion of stem and stromal progenitor population: an experimental model to study the toxic effects of pesticide. 2014 Environ Toxicol.
Vol. 29(1), pp. 84-97 
article DOI  
Abstract: Long-term exposure of agriculturally used organochloride and organophosphate pesticides have been shown to cause long-lasting hematotoxicity and increased incidence of aplastic anemia in humans. The mechanisms involved in pesticide induced hematotoxicity and the features of toxicity that may play a major role in bone marrow suppression are not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hematological consequences of pesticide exposure in swiss albino mice exposed to aqueous mixture of common agriculturally used pesticides for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks. After the end of last exposure, without a recovery period, the strong hematotoxic effect ofpesticide was assessed in mice with long-term bone marrow explant culture (LTBMC-Ex) system and cell colony forming assays. Bone marrow explant culture from the pesticide exposed group of mice failed to generate a supportive stromal matrix and did not produce adequate number of hematopoietic cells and found to contain largely the adipogenic precursors. The decreased cell colony numbers in the pesticide exposed group indicated defective maturational and functional status of different marrow cell lineages. As a whole, exposure of mice to the mixture of pesticidesreduced the total number of bone marrow cells (granulocytes are the major targets of pesticidetoxicity), hematopoietic, and non-hematopoietic progenitor cells and most of the hematological parameters. Replication of primitive stem/progenitor cells in the marrow was decreased followingpesticide exposure with G0/G1-phase arrest of most of the cells. The progenitor cells showed decreased percentage of cells in S/G2/M-phase. The increased apoptosis profile of the marrow progenitors (Increased CD95 expression) and primitive stem cells (High Annexin-V positivity on Sca1+ cells) with an elevated intracellular cleaved caspase-3 level on the Sca1+ bone marrow cells provided the base necessary for explaining the deranged bone marrow microenvironmental structure which was evident from scanning electron micrographs. These results clearly indicate a strong, long lasting toxic effect of pesticides on the bone marrow microenvironment and different microenvironmental components which ultimately leads to the formation of a degenerative disease like aplastic anemia.
BibTeX:
@article{ChatterjeeS2014,
  author = {Chatterjee S, Basak P, Chaklader M, Das P, Pereira JA, Chaudhuri S, Law S.},
  title = {Pesticide induced alterations in marrow physiology and depletion of stem and stromal progenitor population: an experimental model to study the toxic effects of pesticide.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {29(1)},
  pages = {84-97},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.20775}
}
Chauhan N, Pundir CS An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides. 2011 Anal Chim Acta.
Vol. 701(1), pp. 66-74. 
article DOI  
Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe(3)O(4)/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe(3)O(4)NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35°C, 600 ?M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OPpesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10nM for endosulfan. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA ?M(-1)), reusability (more than 50 times) and stability (2 months). The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water.
BibTeX:
@article{ChauhanN2011,
  author = {Chauhan N, Pundir CS.},
  title = {An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides.},
  journal = {Anal Chim Acta.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {701(1)},
  pages = {66-74.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.06.014}
}
Chauhan R, Kumari B, Rana MK Effect of fruit and vegetable processing on reduction of synthetic pyrethroid residues. 2014 Rev Environ Contam Toxicol  article DOI  
Abstract: In this review, we emphasize that the advantages associated with applying pesticides to enhance agricultural productivity must be weighed against the possible health hazards arising from the appearance of toxic pesticide residues in food. First and foremost, pesticides should be handled and applied in compliance with good agricultural practices to minimize environmental or food commodity contamination.In developing countries, good agricultural practices are not fully abided by.When vegetables are produced in such countries, pesticides are applied or prospectively applied at each growth stage of the crop. Hence, contamination of vegetables and other food commodities occur. It is well known that processing of food derived from pesticide treated crop commodities can serve to reduce residues that reach consumers. Food safety can therefore partially be enhanced by employing suitable food processing techniques and appropriate storage periods, even in developing countries. Even common and simple household processing techniques for certain foods acquire significance as means to reduce the intake of harmful pesticide food residues.Pesticide residue levels in post-harvest raw agricultural commodities (RAC) are affected by the storage, handling and the processing steps they pass through, while being prepared for human consumption. The review of cogent literature presented in this article demonstrated differences among the pyrethroid insecticide residues present on or in foods, depending on how the RAC from which they came were processed for consumption. Peeling vegetables or fruit reduced pyrethroid residues the most (60-100% ), and juicing was nearly as effective in reducing residues (70-100% ). The least reduction occurred for foodstuffs that were only washed with tap water (I 0-70% ). Washing RACs with saline water and detergent was more effective(34-60%) in reducing residues than was simple washing under tap water. Freezing is also effective in reducing residue levels and achieved reductions between 24% and 94%. Cooking of food products eliminated 75-98% of the pesticide residues present, so was also relatively effective. When foods were cooked in oils, however,reductions in pesticide residues were less (45%).
BibTeX:
@article{ChauhanR2014,
  author = {Chauhan R, Kumari B, Rana MK},
  title = {Effect of fruit and vegetable processing on reduction of synthetic pyrethroid residues.},
  journal = {Rev Environ Contam Toxicol},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03777-6_5}
}
Chauhan S, Singh A Impact of Taraxerol in combination with extract of Euphorbia tirucalli plant on biological parameters of Lymnaea acuminata. 2011 Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo.
Vol. 53(5), pp. 265-70 
article  
Abstract: The present work was carried out to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of active ingredient Taraxerol with the acetone extract of Euphorbia tirucalli against Lymnaea acuminata snail. The (fecundity, hatchability and survivability) of snail L. acuminata exposed to this extract was studied. The effects of the tested extracts on life-history traits of harmful snail L. acuminata have also been evaluated, and this study also expounds the inhibitory effects of these extracts singly as well as in binary combination (1:1 ratio). It concluded that these herbal products act as a potential source of molluscicides, and that they would also have the advantage of easy availability, low cost, biodegradability and greater acceptance amongst users than synthetic pesticide.
BibTeX:
@article{ChauhanS2011,
  author = {Chauhan S, Singh A},
  title = {Impact of Taraxerol in combination with extract of Euphorbia tirucalli plant on biological parameters of Lymnaea acuminata.},
  journal = {Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {53(5)},
  pages = {265-70}
}
Chenniappan K, Ayyadurai N Synergistic activity of Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with Bacillus sphaericus B101 H5a5b against Bacillus sphaericus B101 H5a5b-resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). 2012 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 110(1), pp. 381-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Integrated vector control is an effective and essential part of any successful vector control program. Increasing insecticide resistance requires strategies to prolong the use of highly effective vector control compounds. Synergistic activity between current effective pesticides is a powerful tool and is one such strategy. In the current study, Cyt1A from Bacillus thurigiensis subsp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus B101H5aH5b Bs were evaluated for the synergistic activity against B. sphaericus-resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi. The combinations of Cyt1A and B. sphaericus were found to act synergistically and were greatly enhanced at different ratios. A ratio of 1:4 of Cyt1A and Bs was 13,200-fold more toxic at LC(90) against the Bs-resistant strains of A. stephensi than was Bs alone and this high level of activity resulted from synergism between Cyt1A toxin and Bs. Our results therefore suggest that Cyt1A may enhance toxicity by facilitating the binding or insertion of the binary toxins to the microvillar membrane.
BibTeX:
@article{ChenniappanK2012,
  author = {Chenniappan K, Ayyadurai N.},
  title = {Synergistic activity of Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with Bacillus sphaericus B101 H5a5b against Bacillus sphaericus B101 H5a5b-resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {110(1)},
  pages = {381-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2502-5}
}
Chopra AK, Sharma MK, Chamoli S Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic system--an overview. 2011 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 173(1-4), pp. 905-16 
article DOI  
Abstract: In recent years, various environmental issues have aroused a concern on the pollution of pesticidesin rivers and in their various intercompartments. Multiple residues of pesticides discharged from industries or as a result of extensive use of agrochemicals in agriculture have been monitored. These pesticide residues contaminate the river ecosystem and its intercompartments such as sediments, and aquatic biota, and make it harmful to humans when they contaminate food and drinking water. The pesticide contamination in water, sediments, and aquatic biota has been reported to be beyond the acceptable range. The most commonly found pesticides are organochlorine, namely, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan, heptachlor, lindane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and others. The paper discusses the general description, classification, and toxicity of pesticides; it also aims to create public awareness among people and appraise them with various alternate methods to combat the problem of pesticide contamination. An attempt has also been made to elucidate the findings of various works on pesticides in aquatic system and to highlight the challenging aspects of pesticide contamination, which have not attracted the attention of investigators yet.
BibTeX:
@article{ChopraAK2011,
  author = {Chopra AK, Sharma MK, Chamoli S},
  title = {Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic system--an overview.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {173(1-4)},
  pages = {905-16},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1433-4}
}
Chopra I, Chauhan R, Kumari B, Dahiya KK Fate of fipronil in cotton and soil under tropical climatic conditions. 2011 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 86(2), pp. 242-5. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Field study was carried out to investigate fate of fipronil (Regent 0.3G) in cotton and soil applied at the time of sowing of cotton crop (Variety: H-1117)@56 (T?) and 112 g a.i.ha?¹ (T?) during kharif season (summer season, from April to November) 2006-07. The residues of fipronil in both the doses dissipated almost completely with in 90 days. Kinetic studies revealed that dissipation of fipronil followed first order kinetics with half-life period of 23.35 days in single dose and 24.31 days in double dose. At the time of harvest, residues in soil, cotton lint and seed were below the quantifiable limit of 0.01 mg kg?¹.
BibTeX:
@article{ChopraI2011,
  author = {Chopra I, Chauhan R, Kumari B, Dahiya KK.},
  title = {Fate of fipronil in cotton and soil under tropical climatic conditions.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {86(2)},
  pages = {242-5.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0180-0}
}
Choudhary N, Goyal R, Joshi SC Effect of malathion on reproductive system of male rats. 2008 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 29(2), pp. 259-62. 
article  
Abstract: The pesticides are one of the most potentially harmful chemicals liberated in the environment in an unplanned manner Malathion is widely used as a potent pesticide in many countries and has been shown to produce some adverse health effects. A study was conducted to asses the effects of malathion on the male reproductive system of wistar rats. The pesticide was administered to rats orally at dose levels of 50, 150 and 250 mg/kg/body wt/day for 60 days. In comparison to the control rats, there was a significant reduction in the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Testicular and epididymal sperm density were decreased in the animals treated with malathion. Pre and post fertility test showed 80% negative results after treatment Biochemical profile of the testis revealed a significant decline in the contents of sialic acid and glycogen. Whereas a significant increase in the protein content of testis and testicular cholesterol was observed. The activity of testicular enzyme acid phosphatase increased significantly while decreased alkaline phosphatase activity was found. Malathion also suppressed the level of testosterone significantly Results of the present study clearly suggest that malathion induce toxic effects on the male reproductive system of rats.
BibTeX:
@article{ChoudharyN2008,
  author = {Choudhary N, Goyal R, Joshi SC},
  title = {Effect of malathion on reproductive system of male rats.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {29(2)},
  pages = {259-62.}
}
Chouhan RS, Rana KV, Suri CR, Thampi RK, Thakur MS Trace-level detection of atrazine using immuno-chemiluminescence: dipstick and automated flow injection analyses formats. 2010 J AOAC Int.
Vol. 93(1), pp. 28-35 
article  
Abstract: A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL)-based immunoassay technique based on both dipstick and flow injection analytical formats is reported for the detection of atrazine. In the dipstick-based immunoassay technique, antibody (anti-atrazine) was first immobilized on the nitrocellulose membranes. The dipstick was then treated with atrazine and atrazine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (atra-HRP) to facilitate the competitive binding. The dipstick was further treated with urea-hydrogen peroxide (U-H202) and luminol to generate photons. The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the atrazine concentration. In the flow injection analysis (FIA) format, the antibody was immobilized on protein-A sepharose matrix and packed in a glass capillary column, which functioned as an immunoreactor. Competitive binding of antigen and antibody occurred. The CL signals generated during the biochemical reactions were correlated with atrazine concentrations in the analytical samples. By using dipstick technique, it was possible to detect atrazine concentration down to 0.1 ng/mL; with the FIA format, the detection of atrazine was down to 0.01 ng/mL.
BibTeX:
@article{ChouhanRS2010,
  author = {Chouhan RS, Rana KV, Suri CR, Thampi RK, Thakur MS.},
  title = {Trace-level detection of atrazine using immuno-chemiluminescence: dipstick and automated flow injection analyses formats.},
  journal = {J AOAC Int.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {93(1)},
  pages = {28-35}
}
Chowdhury AN, Banerjee S, Brahma A, Das S, Sarker P, Biswas MK, Sanyal D, Hazra A A prospective study of suicidal behaviour in Sundarban Delta, West Bengal, India. 2010 Natl Med J India.
Vol. 23(4), pp. 201-5 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Deliberate self-harm is a challenging public health issue but there is a paucity of data on non-fatal deliberate self-harm in the literature. We aimed to understand the behaviour of deliberate self-harm, both fatal and nonfatal, in a primary care setting.
METHODS:
A year-long prospective study of all admitted patients of deliberate self-harm at 13 block primary health centres of the Sundarban region was done to examine the sociodemographic profile and clinical outcome of suicidal behaviour. Data were collected by using an especially devised deliberate self-harm register. Each subject was administered a 20-item case history sheet by trained medical officers and nursing staff.
RESULTS:
A total of 1614 deliberate self-harm subjects (619 men, 995 women) were admitted during the year, of whom 143 (62 men, 81 women) died. Although women, especially in the younger age groups, constituted the majority of subjects (61.6%), the fatality trend was higher among men than among women (10% v. 8.1%). Poisoning was the commonest (98.4%) method of self-harm, particularly using pesticide. Easy availability of pesticides was a risk factor. Psychosocial stressors, such as conflict with spouse, guardian or in-laws, failed love affairs and economic distress, were the common underlying reasons. The majority of acts of deliberate self-harm (92.6%) were committed inside the home, especially by women. Only a small proportion of subjects had a past or family history of attempt at deliberate self-harm. The overall incidence of fatal and non-fatal deliberate self-harm was 5.98 and 61.51 per 100 000 population, respectively.
CONCLUSION:
Both fatal and non-fatal pesticide-related deliberate self-harm is a major public health issue in the Sundarban region. An intersectoral approach involving primary health, administration and agriculture may help in developing an effective preventive programme to reduce the morbidity and mortality from deliberate self-harm.
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryAN2010,
  author = {Chowdhury AN, Banerjee S, Brahma A, Das S, Sarker P, Biswas MK, Sanyal D, Hazra A},
  title = {A prospective study of suicidal behaviour in Sundarban Delta, West Bengal, India.},
  journal = {Natl Med J India.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {23(4)},
  pages = {201-5}
}
Chowdhury N, Ghosh A, Chandra G Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti. . 2008 BMC Complement Altern Med
Vol. 3;., pp. 8:10 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Although several plants have been reported for mosquitocidal activity, only a few botanicals have moved from the laboratory to field use, because they are poorly characterized, in most cases active principals are not determined and most of the works are restricted to preliminary screening. Solanum villosum is a common weed distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties, but the larvicidal activity of this plant has not been reported so far.
METHODS:
Aqueous and polar/non-polar solvent extract of fresh, mature, green berries of S. villosum was tested against Stegomyia aegypti, a common vector of dengue fever. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform:methanol extract was performed to search for the active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined (log probit analysis) and compared with Malathion. The chemical nature of the active substance was also evaluated following ultraviolet-visual (UV-Vis) and infrared (IR) analysis.
RESULTS:
In a 72 hour bioassay experiment with the aqueous extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 0.5% extract. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (p < 0.05) mortality was recorded at a concentration of 50 ppm of chloroform:methanol extract (1:1, v/v). The larvicidal activity was lower when compared with the chemical insecticide, Malathion (p < 0.05). Results of regression analysis revealed that the mortality rate (Y) was positively correlated with the period of exposure (X) and the log probit analysis (95% confidence level) recorded lowest value (5.97 ppm) at 72 hours of exposure. Phytochemical analysis of the chlororm:methanol extract reported the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. Two toxic compounds were detected having Rf = 0.82 (70% and 73.33% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively) and Rf = 0.95 (40% and 50% mortality in 24 and 48 hours, respectively). IR analysis provided preliminary information about the steroidal nature of the active ingredient.
CONCLUSION:
S. villosum offers promise as potential bio control agent against S. aegypti particularly in its markedly larvicidal effect. The extract or isolated bioactive phytochemical could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases.
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryN.2008,
  author = {Chowdhury N, Ghosh A, Chandra G.},
  title = {Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti.},
  journal = {BMC Complement Altern Med},
  year = {. 2008},
  volume = {3;.},
  pages = {8:10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-8-10}
}
Chowdhury N, Laskar S, Chandra G Mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity of protein of Solanum villosum leaves. 2008 BMC Complement Altern Med.
Vol. 8:62 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Mosquitoes are associated with the transmission of malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filariasis and other viral diseases throughout the globe, apart from being a nuisance pest. Biological control alone or as a part of integrated vector management stands to be a better alternative to the chemical controls aimed against pest mosquitoes. At the same time it is necessary to control bacteria by synthetic or natural means (plant products). Hence the present study was designed to screen the effect of mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activitiy of protein isolated from matured leaves of Solanum villosum against mosquito immatures and some pathogenic bacteria.
METHODS:
Aqueous solvent extract of fresh mature leaves of S. villosum was tested against 3rd instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Stegomyia aegypti mosquitoes and against four pathogenic bacteria. The protein fraction was isolated and tested for mosquitocidal and antibacterial activities. Amino acid analysis was performed on isolated protein using PICO.TAG amino acid system. SDS-PAGE was also done to detect the bands of amino acid on the basis of their molecular weights.
RESULTS:
Proteins isolated from mature leaves of S. villosum were found to have larvicidal and antimicrobial properties. Analysis of the isolated protein identified fifteen amino acids of which eight were essential amino acids. SDS-PAGE detected seven bands corresponding to different molecular weights in the range of 69-109 KDa.
CONCLUSION:
Proteins of mature leaves of S. villosum exhibited moderate larvicidal and antimicrobial activities. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for isolation of antimicrobial and mosquito larvicidal proteins.
BibTeX:
@article{ChowdhuryN2008,
  author = {Chowdhury N, Laskar S, Chandra G},
  title = {Mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity of protein of Solanum villosum leaves.},
  journal = {BMC Complement Altern Med.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {8:62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-8-62}
}
Dar SA, Das S, Ramachandran VG, Bhattacharya SN, Mustafa MD, Banerjee BD, Verma P Alterations in T-lymphocyte sub-set profiles and cytokine secretion by PBMC of systemic lupus erythematosus patients upon in vitro exposure to organochlorine pesticides. 2012 J Immunotoxicol.
Vol. 9(1), pp. 85-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: Chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) has been suspected of causing immunoregulatory abnormalities that eventually lead to development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the role of these non-genetic stimuli has remained poorly understood. The objectives of the study were to quantify the levels of different OCP residues in the blood of SLE patients and to study the effects of in vitro treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these patients and healthy controls with OCP. Levels of different OCP residues in the blood were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Isolated PBMC were treated in vitro with hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), or phytohemagglutinin-M (PHA-M) for 72 h, then stained with different dye-labeled monoclonal antibodies to analyze alterations in T-lymphocytes using flow cytometry. Levels of different T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokines were also estimated by ELISA. Significantly higher levels of p,p'-DDE and ?-HCH were detected in the blood of SLE patients than in healthy controls. HCH exposure markedly increased the percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+) T-lymphocytes and expression of CD45RO(+) on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, but decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) T-lymphocytes in SLE patients. DDT exposure increased the percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+) T-lymphocytes and decreased those of CD4(+)CD25(+) T-lymphocytes in SLE patients as compared to healthy controls. No significant responsiveness of patient PBMC to PHA-M stimulation was observed indicating suppression of T-lymphocytes by these OCP. Further, both HCH and DDT decreased the levels of IL-2 and IFN? but had no effect on IL-4 levels in SLE patients. DDT also increased significantly the levels of IL-10 in patients. It is likely that higher levels and prolonged durations of exposure to HCH and DDT may significantly influence T-lymphocyte sub-sets and cytokine expression in vivo that could lead to the development or exacerbation of SLE.
BibTeX:
@article{DarSA2012,
  author = {Dar SA, Das S, Ramachandran VG, Bhattacharya SN, Mustafa MD, Banerjee BD, Verma P.},
  title = {Alterations in T-lymphocyte sub-set profiles and cytokine secretion by PBMC of systemic lupus erythematosus patients upon in vitro exposure to organochlorine pesticides.},
  journal = {J Immunotoxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {9(1)},
  pages = {85-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1547691X.2011.642103}
}
Das S, Ghosh A, Adhya TK Nitrous oxide and methane emission from a flooded rice field as influenced by separate and combined application of herbicides bensulfuron methyl and pretilachlor. 2011 Chemosphere.
Vol. 84(1), pp. 54-62. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Combination of divergent active principles to achieve broad-spectrum control is gaining popularity to manage the weed menace in intensive agriculture. However, such application could have non-target impacts on the soil processes affecting soil ecology and environmental interactions. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of separate and combined applications of herbicides bensulfuron methyl and pretilachlor on the emission of N(2)O and CH(4), and related soil and microbial parameters in a flooded alluvial field planted to rice cv Lalat. Single application of the herbicide bensulfuron methyl or pretilachlor resulted in a significant reduction of N(2)O and CH(4) emissions while the combination of these two herbicides distinctly increased N(2)O and CH(4) emissions. Cumulative N(2)O emissions (kg N(2)O-N) followed the order of bensulfuron methyl (0.35 kg ha(-1))
BibTeX:
@article{DasS2011,
  author = {Das S, Ghosh A, Adhya TK},
  title = {Nitrous oxide and methane emission from a flooded rice field as influenced by separate and combined application of herbicides bensulfuron methyl and pretilachlor.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {84(1)},
  pages = {54-62.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.055}
}
Das SK, Mukherjee I Flubendiamide transport through packed soil columns. 2012 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 88(2), pp. 229-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: Flubendiamide insecticide is widely used in Indian subtropical condition to control lepidopteron pests mainly in rice and cotton. The present study reports leaching behaviour of flubendiamide, N(2)-[1,1-dimethyl-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-3-iodo-N(1)-[2-methyl-4-[1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro-1 (trifluoromethyl)ethyl] phenyl]-1,2-benzene dicarboxamide, in packed soil columns under different rainfall conditions. Flubendiamide did not leach out of the 25 cm long soil columns even after percolating water equivalent to 462.18 mm rainfall. After leaching with water equivalent to 462.18 mm rainfall, in analytical grade treatment, 68.06% of the recovered flubendiamide was the major amount present in 5-10 cm depth whereas in the formulation 67.22% of the recovered flubendiamide was confined to 0-5 cm depth. Results revealed that with percolating 160 mL of water residues of desiodo flubendiamide detected up to 20-25 cm layer along with 9.47% residues in this layer, indicating that metabolite is more mobile as compared to analytical grade flubendiamide and 39.35% SC formulation. Formulation slowed the downward mobility of flubendiamide in soil column. Flubendiamide is slightly mobile in sandy loam soil, but desiodo flubendiamide is relatively more mobile and may leach into ground water.
BibTeX:
@article{DasSK2012,
  author = {Das SK, Mukherjee I.},
  title = {Flubendiamide transport through packed soil columns.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {88(2)},
  pages = {229-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0429-2}
}
David D, Prabhakar A, Peter JV, Pichamuthu K Human poisoning with hexastar: a hexaconazole-containing agrochemical fungicide. 2008 Clin Toxicol (Phila).
Vol. 46(7), pp. 692-3 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report a patient who ingested 500 ml of Hexastar 5.5% EC, a hexaconazole-containing product. Clinical toxicity consisted primarily of central nervous system depression and generalized trembling. The patient recovered without sequelae with supportive therapy.
BibTeX:
@article{DavidD2008,
  author = {David D, Prabhakar A, Peter JV, Pichamuthu K.},
  title = {Human poisoning with hexastar: a hexaconazole-containing agrochemical fungicide.},
  journal = {Clin Toxicol (Phila).},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {46(7)},
  pages = {692-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650701447012}
}
Dev V, Raghavendra K, Barman K, Phookan S, Dash AP Wash-resistance and field efficacy of Olyset net, a permethrin-incorporated long-lasting insecticidal netting, against Anopheles minimus-transmitted malaria in Assam, Northeastern India. 2010 Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
Vol. 10(4), pp. 403-10 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
The long-lasting insecticidal nets are ready-to-use, pretreated nets, which do not require retreatment for 4-5 years. Olyset nets that are made of high-density polyethylene monofilament yarn with 2% w/w permethrin incorporated (corresponding to 1 g/m(2)) are type-2 in which insecticide is incorporated into the polymers and are wash resistant. In these, insecticide migrates to the surface of the netting fiber to be bioavailable against mosquitoes and other insect pests. STUDY SITE AND OBJECTIVES: The present study was a village scale, field-based trial that was conducted in Plasmodium falciparum predominant area of Assam to assess feasibility, acceptability, and sustainability of this intervention against vector populations and disease transmission. We here report the research findings of Olyset net as an intervention against Anopheles minimus-transmitted malaria in foothill area of Assam for the first year of observations beginning July 2005 till June 2006.
RESULTS:
An. minimus, the mosquito vector species, was observed to be fully susceptible to permethrin. Follow-up investigations revealed that An. minimus mosquitoes had virtually disappeared in Olyset net villages, which was corroborated by data on human bait mosquito-landing catches. There was a consistent decline in the malarial incidence in Olyset net intervention villages, and the overall impact on the malarial transmission was significant compared to untreated net and no-net control villages for the corresponding study period. The bioavailability of insecticide on Olyset netting fiber was consistent (100% kill effect) up to 10 months of monitoring, and was observed to be wash resistant even after the 20th wash at fortnightly intervals.
CONCLUSIONS:
The Olyset nets were safe to use, wash resistant, and assessed to be operationally feasible, community-based intervention for sustainable management of disease vectors against malaria. Community compliance and acceptance was high, and users reported decreased nuisance due to biting mosquitoes.
BibTeX:
@article{DevV2010,
  author = {Dev V, Raghavendra K, Barman K, Phookan S, Dash AP.},
  title = {Wash-resistance and field efficacy of Olyset net, a permethrin-incorporated long-lasting insecticidal netting, against Anopheles minimus-transmitted malaria in Assam, Northeastern India.},
  journal = {Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10(4)},
  pages = {403-10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0191}
}
Dhananjayan V, Muralidharan S, Jayanthi P Distribution of persistent organochlorine chemical residues in blood plasma of three species of vultures from India. 2011 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 173(1-4), pp. 803-11 
article DOI  
Abstract: The presence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in blood plasma of white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, and griffon vulture Gyps fulvus collected from Ahmedabad, India. All the samples had varying levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences among species were detected for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), ?HCH, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). The mean concentration of ?HCH, ?DDT, and ?PCBs among plasma ranged from 43.7 to 136, 8.8 to 64.8, and 226 to 585 ng/ml, respectively. Among the various OCPs analyzed, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected most frequently. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides detected were lower than the other organochlorine residues. The levels of pesticides measured in plasma samples of three species of vulture were comparable to the results documented for a number of avian species and were lower than those reported to have deleterious effects on survival or reproduction of birds. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected, continuous monitoring of breeding colonies is recommended. This study is also the first account of a comprehensive analysis of toxicants present in blood plasma of vulture species in India. The values reported in this study can serve as guidelines for future research in general as well as control values during the analysis of samples obtained from birds in the event of suspected organochlorine poisoning.
BibTeX:
@article{DhananjayanV2011,
  author = {Dhananjayan V, Muralidharan S, Jayanthi P},
  title = {Distribution of persistent organochlorine chemical residues in blood plasma of three species of vultures from India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {173(1-4)},
  pages = {803-11},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1424-5}
}
Dhananjayan V, Muralidharan S, Ranapratap S Organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs and tissues of house sparrow, Passer domesticus, from Tamil Nadu, India. 2011 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 87(6), pp. 684-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study provides information on the current status of contamination by organochlorine pesticides(OCPs) in eggs and tissues of House Sparrow, Passer domesticus, in Tamil Nadu, India. The mean concentration of total hexachlorocyclohexane (?HCH) and total dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (?DDT) in eggs ranged from 0.01 to 1.81 ?g/g and 0.02 to 1.29 ?g/g, respectively. Concentration of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranged from below detectable limit (BDL) to 0.64 ?g/g, representing more than 60% of the ?DDTs. About 28% of samples had p,p'-DDE levels above the critical concentration associated with reproductive impairment. However, the mean concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides were less than 0.5 ?g/g. Although OCPs levels detected in tissues are not indicative of toxicity, continuous monitoring is recommended.
BibTeX:
@article{DhananjayanV2011a,
  author = {Dhananjayan V, Muralidharan S, Ranapratap S},
  title = {Organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs and tissues of house sparrow, Passer domesticus, from Tamil Nadu, India.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {87(6)},
  pages = {684-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0414-9}
}
Dhananjayan V, Ravichandran B, Rajmohan HR Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India. 2012 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 88(4), pp. 497-500 
article DOI  
Abstract: To describe exposure level of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) among workers occupationally engaged in agriculture and sheep wool associated jobs, the present study was carried out in rural neighborhood of Bangalore city, India. Thirty participants were interviewed and obtained informed consent before blood sample collection. The maximum concentrations of OCP were detected in blood samples of agriculture workers than sheep wool workers. Among the metabolites of HCH and DDT, lindane (?-HCH) and p,p'-DDE were the most contributed to the total OCP. There were no differences in pesticide residues found between sex and work groups. It was observed that about 30% of samples exceeded the tolerance limits of 10 ?g/L prescribed for HCH under the prevention of food adulteration act. Therefore, the present study recommends continuous monitoring with larger sample size.
BibTeX:
@article{DhananjayanV2012,
  author = {Dhananjayan V, Ravichandran B, Rajmohan HR},
  title = {Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {88(4)},
  pages = {497-500},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0546-6}
}
Dhawan S, Kapil R, Kapoor DN, Kumar M Development and evaluation of in situ gel forming system for sustained delivery of cyclosporine. 2009 Curr Drug Deliv.
Vol. 6(5), pp. 495-504 
article  
Abstract: Phase-sensitive in situ gel forming controlled release formulations of cyclosporine were prepared using poly (lactide-co-glycolide) and a solvent system consisting of various proportions of benzyl benzoate and benzyl alcohol. Uniformity of content of cyclosporine in the formulation and in vitro release samples was determined by radio immune assay (RIA). FTIR and CD spectroscopy ratified the conformational stability of cyclosporine in the formulation and in vitro release samples, respectively. Rheological properties of the formulations, assessed under isothermal conditions, showed dilatant behavior of all the formulations. In vivo studies were carried out on the optimized formulations vis-à-vis pure cyclosporine in rats and drug levels were monitored for 13 days. Mean plasma concentration of cyclosporine was calculated for all the animals and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using Win NonLin software. The studies construed better regulation of plasma drug levels with the optimized formulation vis-à-vis routine once-a-day administration of cyclosporine. The subcutaneous tissues, further subjected to histopathological examinations ascertained the biocompatibility of the formulation.
BibTeX:
@article{DhawanS2009,
  author = {Dhawan S, Kapil R, Kapoor DN, Kumar M},
  title = {Development and evaluation of in situ gel forming system for sustained delivery of cyclosporine.},
  journal = {Curr Drug Deliv.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {6(5)},
  pages = {495-504}
}
Dutta R, Mondal AM, Arora V, Nag TC, Das N Immunomodulatory effect of DDT (bis[4-chlorophenyl]-1,1,1-trichloroethane) on complement system and macrophages. 2008 Toxicology.
Vol. 252(1-3), pp. 78-85 
article DOI  
Abstract: DDT (bis[4-chlorophenyl]-1,1,1-trichloroethane) is responsible for many immuno-dysregulatory functions in exposed animals, but data particularly on complement system and macrophages are limited. In this study we have shown that DDT activates the complement system through the alternative pathway in the absence of any pathogen. A significant (p<0.05) increase in C3b, C3d and C3a generation, and decline in complement hemolytic activity was observed in insecticide exposed sera. The uncontrolled complement consumption reduces the lytic activity of the complement, which enhances the susceptibility to pyogenic infection if the exposure to DDT remains unabated. Further, DDT induced the significant (p<0.05) production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages and thus contributes inflammatory reactions, cytokine imbalance and immune-dysregulation. These molecular changes in macrophages lead to structural aberrations like heterochromatin condensation, loss of pseudopodia, cytoplasmic vacuolization, DNA fragmentation and hypodiploid nuclei as seen in our study, suggesting apoptosis. However, in presence lipopolysaccharide, DDT induced significant (p<0.05) suppression of TNF-alpha and NO generation, suggestive of impairment of macrophage microbiocidal effects. This study concludes that the functional and structural derangements of macrophages in association with uncontrolled and excessive complement consumption by DDT are perhaps one of the major mechanisms contributing to the immunosuppressive effects of insecticide.
BibTeX:
@article{DuttaR2008,
  author = {Dutta R, Mondal AM, Arora V, Nag TC, Das N},
  title = {Immunomodulatory effect of DDT (bis[4-chlorophenyl]-1,1,1-trichloroethane) on complement system and macrophages.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {252(1-3)},
  pages = {78-85},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2008.07.063}
}
Dwivedi N, Bhutia YD, Kumar V, Yadav P, Kushwaha P, Swarnkar H, Flora SJ Effects of combined exposure to dichlorvos and monocrotophos on blood and brain biochemical variables in rats. 2010 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 29(2), pp. 121-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Dichlorvos (DDVP) and monocrotophos (MC) are systemic insecticides and known to produce cholinergic and non-cholinergic effects. Individual toxic effects of these chemicals are known but their combined effects have not been studied. We studied the effect of concomitant exposure to DDVP and MC on selected biochemical variables suggestive of liver damage, changes in whole brain biogenic amines levels, acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities in rats. Female rats were exposed to DDVP (2.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) and MC (1.8 mg/kg oral) either individually or in combination for 4 weeks. We observed significant decrease in more pronounced depletion in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels during co-exposure to DDVP and MC. Brain AChE activity increased and activity of MAO showed significant depletion on co-exposure to DDVP and MC. Brain glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio decreased significantly during exposure to DDVP or MC while co-exposure to these toxicants led to a more pronounced depletion of GSH: GSSG ratio. Serum aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities increased significantly on exposure to MC suggesting liver injury, while DDVP alone had no effect on these variables. There were no effects of DDVP and MC exposure on haematological biochemical variables except for depletion in serum glucose level after MC exposure which was more pronounced DDVP + MC during co-exposure. It can be concluded that only moderate synergistic effects occur between MC and DDVP during co-exposure. A more detailed study with variable doses, prolonged exposure and alterations in different brain regions is recommended.
BibTeX:
@article{DwivediN2010,
  author = {Dwivedi N, Bhutia YD, Kumar V, Yadav P, Kushwaha P, Swarnkar H, Flora SJ.},
  title = {Effects of combined exposure to dichlorvos and monocrotophos on blood and brain biochemical variables in rats.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29(2)},
  pages = {121-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327109357212}
}
Faridi U, Sisodia BS, Shukla AK, Shukla RK, Darokar MP, Dwivedi UN, Shasany AK Proteomics indicates modulation of tubulin polymerization by L-menthol inhibiting human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. 2011 Proteomics.
Vol. 11(10), pp. 2115-9. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Menthol is a naturally occurring cyclic monoterpene used in oral hygiene products, confectionary, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, pesticides, and as a flavoring agent. In the present study, we analyzed the differentially expressing proteome in L-menthol-treated Caco-2 cell line as it was found to inhibit cell proliferation. Interestingly, free tubulin proteins were observed to be limited after menthol treatment. Semiquantitative RT-PCR with ?-tubulin primers showed no change in the level of RNA expression in menthol-treated cell line. However, tubulin polymerization assay with menthol indicated a trend similar to taxol in promoting microtubule assembly. Further, physical counting of apoptotic nuclei and active caspase-3 assays confirmed onset of apoptosis though the rate was slower as compared with that of taxol treatment. This study is the first report of a monoterpene L-menthol modulating tubulin polymerization and apoptosis to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.
BibTeX:
@article{FaridiU2011,
  author = {Faridi U, Sisodia BS, Shukla AK, Shukla RK, Darokar MP, Dwivedi UN, Shasany AK},
  title = {Proteomics indicates modulation of tubulin polymerization by L-menthol inhibiting human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell proliferation.},
  journal = {Proteomics.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {11(10)},
  pages = {2115-9.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201000691}
}
Gahloth D, Shukla U, Birah A, Gupta GP, Kumar PA, Dhaliwal HS, Sharma AK Bioinsecticidal activity of Murraya koenigii miraculin-like protein against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. 2011 Arch Insect Biochem Physiol.
Vol. 78(3), pp. 132-44 
article DOI  
Abstract: Miraculin-like proteins, belonging to the Kunitz superfamily, are natural plant defense agents against pests and predators, and therefore are potential biopesticides for incorporation into pest-resistant crops. Here, a miraculin-like protein from Murraya koenigii was assessed for its in vitro and in vivo effects against two polyphagous lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. M. koenigii miraculin-like protein (MKMLP) inhibited the trypsin-like activity and total protease activity of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGP) by 78.5 and 40%, respectively, and S.litura gut proteinases (SGP) by 81 and 48%, respectively. The inhibitor was stable and actively inhibited the proteolysis of both HGP and SGP enzymes for up to 72 h. Incorporation of MKMLP into artificial diet adversely affected the growth and development of pests in a dose-dependent manner. After 10 days of feeding on diets containing 200 µM MKMLP, larval weight was reduced to 69 and 44.8% and larval mortality was increased to 40 and 43.3% for H. armigera and S litura, respectively. The LC(50) of MKMLP was 0.34 and 0.22% of the diet for H.armigera and S. litura, respectively. These results demonstrate the efficacy of MKMLP as a potential plant defense agent against H. armigera and S. litura.
BibTeX:
@article{GahlothD2011,
  author = {Gahloth D, Shukla U, Birah A, Gupta GP, Kumar PA, Dhaliwal HS, Sharma AK.},
  title = {Bioinsecticidal activity of Murraya koenigii miraculin-like protein against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.},
  journal = {Arch Insect Biochem Physiol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {78(3)},
  pages = {132-44},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.20448}
}
Ganguly S, Bhattacharya S, Mandi S, Tarafdar J Biological detection and analysis of toxicity of organophosphate- and azadirachtin-based insecticides in Lathyrus sativus L. 2010 Ecotoxicology.
Vol. 19(1), pp. 85-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this study, attention was paid to investigate the effect of organophosphate insecticides, profenofos 40% EC, methyl parathion (metacid) 50% EC, and neem-based product nimbecidine 0.03% EC (from Azadirachta indica) on somatic chromosomal behavior, level of leaf protein, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in Lathyrus sativus L., the leguminous herb. The experiments on somatic chromosomes of root tip cells of L. sativus L. revealed that most common type of abnormalities were anaphase bridge, chromosome fragment, breaks, giant interphase, etc. Also, the mitotic index reduced and abnormality index enhanced, which were directly proportional to the rise in concentration as well as time period of exposure of chemicals. The profenofos and metacid induced drastic changes in mitotic index when compared with nimbecidine. The electrophoretic studies of leaf protein of L. sativus L. showed alteration of some major and minor protein bands subjected to spraying of organophosphate insecticides and induced to synthesize additional high molecular mass protein compared to untreated control. Analysis of SOD, EST, and POD activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed different patterns of the isoforms. Complete inhibition of EST was observed in profenofos-treated plants, while with metacid- and nimbecidine-treated plants EST was suppressed. Induction and/or increased activities of SOD and POD were generally enhanced. Our present study not only provides the important information for better understanding of the toxic and tolerance mechanisms, but as well can be used as a bio-indicator for contamination by pesticides, which could cause genetic instabilities of natural plant populations and in crop varieties.
BibTeX:
@article{GangulyS2010,
  author = {Ganguly S, Bhattacharya S, Mandi S, Tarafdar J.},
  title = {Biological detection and analysis of toxicity of organophosphate- and azadirachtin-based insecticides in Lathyrus sativus L.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicology.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {19(1)},
  pages = {85-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-009-0391-5}
}
Garg DP, Kiran R, Bansal AK, Malhotra A, Dhawan DK Role of vitamin E in mitigating methomyl induced acute toxicity in blood of male Wistar rats. 2008 Drug Chem Toxicol
Vol. 31(4), pp. 487-99 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate the protective potential of vitamin E, if any, in attenuating the toxic effects induced by acute methomyl treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing between 230 and 250 g, received either a single oral dose of 9 mg/kg of methomyl, vitamin E alone injected intraperitoneally on alternate days (4 injections) at 50 mg/kg body for 1 week prior to methomyl treatment, or both methomyl plus vitamin E given in a similar manner. The effects of different treatments were studied on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes, which included superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase and various hematological parameters, including total leucocytes count (TLC), differential leukocyte count (DLC), hemoglobin, platelets counts, red cell counts, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Acute 24-h treatment to rats resulted in a significant increase in the LPO. GSH levels and the activities of catalase, GST, and GSHPx were found to be significantly decreased following methomyl treatment. A significant elevation in the activity of SOD and in TLC was also observed after 24 h of methomyl treatment. Further, a significant increase in the neutrophils and eosinophil counts was also observed. However, lymphocytes showed a significant decrease following methomyl treatment. SEMs showed significant morphological changes following methomyl treatment. Vitamin E pretreatment to methomyl-treated rats effectively normalized the levels of LPO and GSH. Vitamin E could also significantly elevate the activity of catalase, increase platelets counts and TLC, and normalized the activities of SOD and GSHPx. Vitamin E pretreatment improved the morphology of the red blood cells. The study concludes that vitamin E affords protection in methomyl-induced toxicity in the rat.
BibTeX:
@article{GargDP2008,
  author = {Garg DP, Kiran R, Bansal AK, Malhotra A, Dhawan DK.},
  title = {Role of vitamin E in mitigating methomyl induced acute toxicity in blood of male Wistar rats.},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {31(4)},
  pages = {487-99},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480540802390775}
}
Ghormade V, Deshpande MV, Paknikar KM Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants. 2011 Biotechnol Adv.
Vol. 29(6), pp. 792-803 
article DOI  
Abstract: Indiscriminate use of pesticides and fertilizers causes environmental pollution, emergence of agricultural pests and pathogens, and loss of biodiversity. Nanotechnology, by virtue of nanomaterial related properties, has potential agro-biotechnological applications for alleviation of these problems. The literature pertaining to the role of nanotechnology in plant and soil systems demonstrates that nanomaterials may assist in a) the controlled release of agrochemicals for nutrition and protection against pests and pathogens, b) delivery of genetic material, c) sensitive detection of plant disease and pollutants and d) protection and formation of soil structure. For instance, porous silica (15nm) and biodegradable, polymeric chitosan (78nm) nanoparticles displayed slow release of encapsulated pesticide and fertilizer, respectively. Further, nanosized gold (5-25nm) delivered DNA to plant cells while iron oxide (30nm) based nanosensors detectedpesticides at minute levels. These functions assist the development of precision farming by minimizing pollution and maximizing the value of farming practice.
BibTeX:
@article{GhormadeV2011,
  author = {Ghormade V, Deshpande MV, Paknikar KM.},
  title = {Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants.},
  journal = {Biotechnol Adv.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {29(6)},
  pages = {792-803},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.06.007}
}
Ghosh A, Chowdhury N, Chandra G Laboratory evaluation of a phytosteroid compound of mature leaves of Day Jasmine (Solanaceae: Solanales) against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and nontarget organisms. 2008 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 103(2), pp. 271-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Crude mature leaves extract of Day Jasmine, Cestrum diurnum (Solanaceae: Solanales), was investigated for larvicidal activities against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of human filariasis. All the graded concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% v/v) showed significant (P < 0.05) larval mortality, and results of regression equations revealed that the mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the extract (R (2) close to 1). LC(50), LC(95), and LC(99) values were calculated at different time intervals, and the lowest value was recorded at the 72-h bioassay for third-instar larvae. Significant changes in the larval mortality (F < 0.05) was also recorded between the periods of exposure and between instars during t test and single analysis of variance analysis. No mortality was noticed for nontarget organisms, such as Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Chironomid larvae within 72 h of postexposure to 1%, 2%, and 3% crude plant extract under the laboratory condition. Qualitative and chromatographic analysis of the crude extract of C. diurnum revealed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. The bioassay experiment with the third-instar larval form established that the presence of a steroid compound (R (f), 0.67) was responsible for mosquitocidal activity.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshA2008,
  author = {Ghosh A, Chowdhury N, Chandra G},
  title = {Laboratory evaluation of a phytosteroid compound of mature leaves of Day Jasmine (Solanaceae: Solanales) against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and nontarget organisms.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {103(2)},
  pages = {271-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-0963-y}
}
Ghosh MC, Ray AK Regulation of cytochrome P4501A by protein kinase C: the role of heat shock protein70. 2012 J Cell Commun Signal.
Vol. 6(1), pp. 37-44 
article DOI  
Abstract: Carbofuran is a pesticide, which is used throughout the world as a nematicide and an acaricide. This pesticide integrates into living organisms through aquatic ecosystem. In earlier report, we had demonstrated that cytochrome P4501A was induced in cultured catfish hepatocytes in response to carbofuran, which might be responsible for the detoxification of this pesticide. As the underlying signaling mechanism associated with induction and regulation of cytochrome P4501A has not yet been well defined, we therefore in the present study have investigated to identify the regulatory network of cytochrome P4501A in catfish liver or cultured hepatocytes by targeting several key signaling molecules such as phosphatidyl inositol (PI) or protein kinase C (PKC), which are critical molecules for many important pathways. PKC and heat shock protein70 (HSP70) have been shown to be induced in response to carbofuran in catfish hepatocytes. Results also indicate that induction of CYP1A is modulated by HSP70 and PKC in fish hepatocytes. Thus our data shed light on the regulation of EROD activity, which has been used as a bio-monitoring tool for measuring aquatic pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshMC2012,
  author = {Ghosh MC, Ray AK},
  title = {Regulation of cytochrome P4501A by protein kinase C: the role of heat shock protein70.},
  journal = {J Cell Commun Signal.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {6(1)},
  pages = {37-44},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12079-011-0143-1}
}
Ghosh S, Das SK, Guha AK, Sanyal AK Adsorption behavior of lindane on Rhizopus oryzae biomass: physico-chemical studies. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 172(1), pp. 485-90. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Rhizopus oryzae biomass (ROB), depending on the age of the culture has been found to adsorb lindane, an organochloro pesticide from its aqueous solution to the extent of 63-90%. The adsorption process does not depend on the pH of the solution or incubation temperature and is very rapid during the first 15 min and reaches equilibrium within 60 min following pseudo-second-order rate model. The adsorption capacity of 1g ROB towards lindane is 107.5 microg as calculated from pseudo-second-order curve. The equilibrium isotherm data better fit to Freundlich (R=0.98) than Langmuir model (R=0.54). Removal of lipids from ROB with organic solvents reduces its adsorption capacity by 55-68% indicating the importance of hydrophobic interaction in the present adsorption process. SEM-EDX analysis reveals that lindane is adsorbed on the biomass. This study shows that ROB may be a good biosorbent for the removal of lindane from water.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshS2009,
  author = {Ghosh S, Das SK, Guha AK, Sanyal AK.},
  title = {Adsorption behavior of lindane on Rhizopus oryzae biomass: physico-chemical studies.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {172(1)},
  pages = {485-90.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.156}
}
/td>
Giri A, Giri S, Sharma GD Malathion and fenvalerate induce micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells. 2011 Environ Mol Mutagen.
Vol. 52(8), pp. 607-13 
article DOI  
Abstract: Health effects of pesticides are a major public health concern. In this study, the genotoxic effects of two commonly-used pesticides, malathion, and fenvalerate, were investigated in mice in vivo. Induction of micronuclei in bone marrow cells was used as the test parameter following exposure to 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg malathion by intraperitoneal (i.p.) or per oral (p.o.) exposure. Exposure by both routes was found to cause a significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.9769; P < 0.05). The highest dose (10 mg/kg) induced significant (P < 0.05) cytotoxicity. In contrast, fenvalerate caused an increase in micronucleated PCEs only at higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) via i.p. injection, and was not associated with cytotoxicity. A significant dose-response correlation was not observed in the dose ranges tested for fenvalerate (r = 0.8704; P > 0.05). The results suggest that technical grade malathion is a genotoxic agent. In contrast, technical grade fenvalerate appears to be a potent genotoxic agent, but this observation should be confirmed with further investigation(s).
BibTeX:
@article{GiriA2011,
  author = {Giri A, Giri S, Sharma GD.},
  title = {Malathion and fenvalerate induce micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells.},
  journal = {Environ Mol Mutagen.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {52(8)},
  pages = {607-13},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.20649}
}
Govindarajan M, Karuppannan P Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae). 2011 Asian Pac J Trop Med.
Vol. 4(1), pp. 24-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
The present study deals with the investigation of larvicidal and ovicidal activities of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of Eclipta alba (E. alba) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti).
METHODS:
Twenty five early III instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was exposed to various concentrations (50-300 ppm) and was assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC(50) values of the E. alba leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis. For ovicidal activity, slightly modified method of Su and Mulla was performed. The ovicidal activity was determined against Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100-350 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The egg hatch rates were assessed 48 h post treatment.
RESULTS:
The LC(50) values of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform extract of E. alba against early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were 151.38, 165.10, 154.88, 127.64 and 146.28 ppm, respectively. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanol extract followed by chloroform, benzene, ethyl acetate and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in control. Among five solvent tested the methanol extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The methanol extracts exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 300 ppm.
CONCLUSIONS:
From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of E. alba was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.
BibTeX:
@article{GovindarajanM2011,
  author = {Govindarajan M, Karuppannan P},
  title = {Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae).},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Trop Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4(1)},
  pages = {24-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60026-6}
}
Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). 2012 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 110(5), pp. 1607-20 
article DOI  
Abstract: Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata against the adults of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 149.81, 172.37 ppm and 288.12, 321.01 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extract of E. alba and A. paniculata plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported E. alba and A. paniculata plants.
BibTeX:
@article{GovindarajanM2012,
  author = {Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R.},
  title = {Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {110(5)},
  pages = {1607-20},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2669-9}
}
Gunasekaran K, Sahu SS, Vijayakumar KN, Jambulingam P Acceptability, willing to purchase and use long lasting insecticide treated mosquito nets in Orissa State, India. 2009 Acta Trop.
Vol. 112(2), pp. 149-55 
article DOI  
Abstract: Long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) that require no re-treatment have been advocated as an effective tool against malaria transmission. However, success of this community based intervention measure largely depends on its acceptability and proper usage by the target population, besides assuring access to bed nets. To determine the acceptability of LLIN, its usage and people's willingness to buy the net, a study was conducted in two tribal districts viz., Malkangiri (with ongoing ITN programme) and Koraput (no ITN programme) of Orissa State, India. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods were used to collect information regarding the objective of the study. A total of 2457 LLINs (Olyset Nets) were distributed in the selected villages of these districts at free of cost. In the study villages of Malkangiri, 58% of the households had either ITNs (73%) or other types of mosquito nets aside from the LLINs and in the villages of Koraput, only 8% had other nets, as majority (96%) informed that buying nets from market was not affordable to them. Physical verification of the nets during the house visits revealed that 75.4% and 83% (in ITNs and non-ITNs villages, respectively) of the LLINs and 76% of the other nets (including ITNs) were used by the respondents, the night before the survey as nets were in a hanging position at the time of the visit. Majority of the respondents (76-98%) felt that reduction of mosquito bites as the main perceived benefit of using the LLINs. About 55% and 67% of the respondents from non-ITNs and ITNs areas, respectively, expressed their willingness to buy the LLINs. Among them, 76.8% and 94.7% offered to pay INR<100 for a net and also ready to buy it by cash payment. Social marketing of LLINs at a subsidized price or free supply to the deserving sections of people (socially/economically poor and/or under-privileged) and ensuring the availability of nets during harvesting season could encourage people to buy and use LLINs.
BibTeX:
@article{GunasekaranK2009,
  author = {Gunasekaran K, Sahu SS, Vijayakumar KN, Jambulingam P.},
  title = {Acceptability, willing to purchase and use long lasting insecticide treated mosquito nets in Orissa State, India.},
  journal = {Acta Trop.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {112(2)},
  pages = {149-55},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.07.013}
}
Gupta A, Chauhan VS, Sankararamakrishnan N Preparation and evaluation of iron-chitosan composites for removal of As(III) and As(V) from arsenic contaminated real life groundwater. 2009 Water Res
Vol. 43(15), pp. 3862-70 
article DOI  
Abstract: A study on the removal of arsenic from real life groundwater using iron-chitosan composites is presented. Removal of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) was studied through adsorption at pH 7.0 under equilibrium and dynamic conditions. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir adsorption models and the various model parameters were evaluated. The monolayer adsorption capacity from the Langmuir model for iron chitosan flakes (ICF) (22.47+/-0.56 mg/g for As(V) and 16.15+/-0.32 mg/g for As(III)) was found to be considerably higher than that obtained for iron chitosan granules (ICB) (2.24+/-0.04 mg/g for As(V); 2.32+/-0.05 mg/g for As(III)). Anions including sulfate, phosphate and silicate at the levels present in groundwater did not cause serious interference in the adsorption behavior of arsenate/arsenite. The column regeneration studies were carried out for two sorption-desorption cycles for both As(III) and As(V) using ICF and ICB as sorbents. One hundred and forty-seven bed volumes of As(III) and 112 bed volumes of As(V) spiked groundwater were treated in column experiments using ICB, reducing arsenic concentration from 500 to <10 microg/l. The eluent used for the regeneration of the spent sorbent was 0.1M NaOH. The adsorbent was also successfully applied for the removal of total inorganic arsenic down to <10 microg/l from real life arsenic contaminated groundwater samples.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaA2009,
  author = {Gupta A, Chauhan VS, Sankararamakrishnan N.},
  title = {Preparation and evaluation of iron-chitosan composites for removal of As(III) and As(V) from arsenic contaminated real life groundwater.},
  journal = {Water Res},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {43(15)},
  pages = {3862-70},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.05.040}
}
Gupta J, Misra S, Mishra SK, Srivastava S, Srivastava MN, Lakshmi V, Misra-Bhattacharya S Antifilarial activity of marine sponge Haliclona oculata against experimental Brugia malayi infection. 2012 Exp Parasitol.
Vol. 130(4), pp. 449-55 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study incorporates the findings on in vitro and in vivo antifilarial activity in the marine sponge, Haliclona oculata using an experimental rodent infection of human lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. The in vitro antifilarial action was determined on both adult female worms as well as microfilariae using two parameters viz. adverse effect on motility and inhibition in MTT reduction by the treated adult parasite over control worm. The antifilarial activity could be located in the methanol extract and one of its four fractions (chloroform). Bioactivity guided fractionation of chloroform fraction led to localization of in vitro activity in one of its eight chromatographic fractions. Methanol extract, chloroform fraction and one of the chromatographic fractions revealed IC(50) values of 5.00, 1.80, and 1.62?g/ml, respectively when adult B. malayi were exposed to these test samples for 72h at 37°C. Under similar exposure conditions, the IC(50) values for microfilariae were 1.88, 1.72 and 1.19?g/ml, respectively. The active test samples were found to be safe revealing >10 selectivity indices (SI) on the basis of cytotoxicity to Vero cells (monkey kidney cells) and therefore selected for in vivo evaluation against primary (adult B. malayi intraperitoneal transplanted jird) and secondary (subcutaneous infective larvae induced mastomys) screens. In primary jird model, the three test samples at 100mg/kg for five consecutive days by subcutaneous route demonstrated significant macrofilaricidal efficacy to the tune of 51.3%, 64% and 70.7% by methanol extract, chloroform and chromatographic fraction, respectively. The three samples demonstrated 45-50% macrofilaricidal activity with moderate embryostatic effect in secondary model at 5×500, 5×250 and 5×125mg/kg by oral route. Chromatographic fraction possessing highest antifilarial action was primarily found to be a mixture of four alkaloids Mimosamycin, Xestospongin-C, Xestospongin-D and Araguspongin-C in addition to few minor compounds.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaJ2012,
  author = {Gupta J, Misra S, Mishra SK, Srivastava S, Srivastava MN, Lakshmi V, Misra-Bhattacharya S.},
  title = {Antifilarial activity of marine sponge Haliclona oculata against experimental Brugia malayi infection.},
  journal = {Exp Parasitol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {130(4)},
  pages = {449-55},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2012.01.009}
}
Gupta S, Babu P, Surolia A Biphenyl ethers conjugated CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots and interpretation of the mechanism of amyloid fibril disruption. 2010 Biomaterials.
Vol. 31(26), pp. 6809-22 
article DOI  
Abstract: The biphenyl ethers (BPEs) are the potent inhibitors of TTR fibril formation and are efficient fibril disrupter. However, the mechanism by which the fibril disruption occurs is yet to be fully elucidated. To gain insight into the mechanism, we synthesized and used a new QD labeled BPE to track the process of fibril disruption. Our studies showed that the new BPE-QDs bind to the fiber uniformly and has affinity and specificity for TTR fiber and disrupted the pre-formed fiber at a relatively slow rate. Based on these studies we put forth the probable mechanism of fiber disruption by BPEs. Also, we show here that the BPE-QDs interact with high affinity to the amyloids of Abeta(42), lysozyme and insulin. The potential of BPE-QDs in the detection of senile plaque in the brain of transgenic Alzheimer's mice has also been explored.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaS2010,
  author = {Gupta S, Babu P, Surolia A},
  title = {Biphenyl ethers conjugated CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots and interpretation of the mechanism of amyloid fibril disruption.},
  journal = {Biomaterials.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {31(26)},
  pages = {6809-22},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.05.031}
}
Habib K, Kumar S, Manikar N, Zutshi S, Fatma T Biochemical effect of carbaryl on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes of cyanobacterium Calothrix brevissima. 2011 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 87(6), pp. 615-20 
article DOI  
Abstract: Carbaryl is used in Indian agriculture for control of rice field pests and it is next to Benzene hexachloride in pesticide consumption. In present study, carbaryl (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L) induced toxic effects were observed after 21 days exposure on a non target rice field biofertilizer Calothrix brevissima with special reference to oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes. At 40 mg/L carbaryl the decrease in carotenoid, chlorophyll, phycobilin and protein were 63%, 43%, 40% and 40% respectively in comparison to control. Total carbohydrate, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and osmolytes showed enhancement at all the treated concentration. Increased amount of MDA (46% at 40 mg/L) indicated free radical mediated deleterious effect of carbaryl. Enhancement of SOD, APX, CAT and osmolytes in presence of carbaryl indicated their involvement in free radical scavenging. SOD, CAT and APX showed maximum activities (79%, 64% and 39% respectively) at 40 mg/L carbaryl. The order of enhancement in osmolytes was glycine-betaine (66%) > proline (54%) > sucrose (50%) at 40 mg/L which might be another adaptive defense strategy of the cyanobacterium against the pesticide.
BibTeX:
@article{HabibK2011,
  author = {Habib K, Kumar S, Manikar N, Zutshi S, Fatma T},
  title = {Biochemical effect of carbaryl on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes of cyanobacterium Calothrix brevissima.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {87(6)},
  pages = {615-20},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0410-0}
}
Jadhav KB, Rajini PS Evaluation of sublethal effects of dichlorvos upon Caenorhabditis elegans based on a set of end points of toxicity. 2009 J Biochem Mol Toxicol
Vol. 23(1), pp. 9-17 
article DOI  
Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to examine a possible correlation among the three endpoints of toxicity, namely, stress gene expression (hsp16), feeding, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in transgenic C. elegans (hsp16-lacZ) exposed to sublethal concentrations of dichlorvos, an organophosphorus insecticide. Worms exposed to dichlorvos (at 5, 40, and 80 microM) exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition in feeding with total cessation in feeding occurring beyond 4 h of exposure. Concomitantly, marked and dose-dependent inhibition (69%-90%) of AChE was also evident after 4 h of exposure. Induction of heat shock protein (Hsp) was evident after 4 h of exposure (as seen from quantitative analysis), although maximum expression of Hsp was evident only after 24 h of exposure (as evident from qualitative analysis). Interestingly, the Hsp induction was restricted only to the pharyngeal region. Significant correlation was discernible between the three evaluated end points suggesting their possible interrelated role in the physiological dysfunctions evoked by sublethal concentrations of dichlorvos.
BibTeX:
@article{JadhavKB2009,
  author = {Jadhav KB, Rajini PS.},
  title = {Evaluation of sublethal effects of dichlorvos upon Caenorhabditis elegans based on a set of end points of toxicity.},
  journal = {J Biochem Mol Toxicol},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {23(1)},
  pages = {9-17},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.20258}
}
Jain CK, Gupta M, Prasad Y, Wadhwa G, Sharma SK Homology modeling and protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121: in silico insights. 2014 J Mol Model
Vol. 20(7) 
article DOI  
Abstract: The degradation of hydrocarbons plays an important role in the eco-balancing of petroleum products, pesticides and other toxic products in the environment. The degradation of hydrocarbons by microbes such as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Burkhulderia, Gordonia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. has been studied intensively in the literature. The present study focused on the in silico protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase (ladA)-a protein involved in the alkane degradation pathway. We demonstrated the improvement in substrate binding energy with engineered ladA in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121. We identified an ortholog of ladA monooxygenase found in B. thailandensis MSMB121, and showed it to be an enzyme involved in an alkane degradation pathway studied extensively in Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. Homology modeling of the three-dimensional structure of ladA was performed with a crystal structure (protein databank ID: 3B9N) as a template in MODELLER 9v11, and further validated using PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D and WHATIF tools. Specific amino acids were substituted in the region corresponding to amino acids 305-370 of ladA protein, resulting in an enhancement of binding energy in different alkane chain molecules as compared to wild protein structures in the docking experiments. The substrate binding energy with the protein was calculated using Vina (Implemented in VEGAZZ). Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamics of different alkane chain molecules inside the binding pockets of wild and mutated ladA. Here, we hypothesize an improvement in binding energies and accessibility of substrates towards engineered ladA enzyme, which could be further facilitated for wet laboratory-based experiments for validation of the alkane degradation pathway in this organism.
BibTeX:
@article{JainCK2014,
  author = {Jain CK, Gupta M, Prasad Y, Wadhwa G, Sharma SK.},
  title = {Homology modeling and protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121: in silico insights.},
  journal = {J Mol Model},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {20(7)},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-014-2340-3}
}
Jambulingam P, Gunasekaran K, Sahu S, Vijayakumar T Insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in India-experience from a tribal area on operational feasibility and uptake. 2008 Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz
Vol. 103(2):, pp. 165-71. 
article  
Abstract: The study assessed the operational feasibility and acceptability of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) in one Primary Health Centre (PHC) in a falciparum malaria endemic district in the state of Orissa, India, where 74% of the people are tribes and DDT indoor residual spraying had been withdrawn and ITNs introduced by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. To a population of 63,920, 24,442 ITNs were distributed free of charge through 101 treatment centers during July-August 2002. Interview of 1,130, 1,012 and 126 respondents showed that the net use rates were 80%, 74% and 55% in the cold, rainy and summer seasons, respectively. Since using ITNs, 74.5-76.6% of the respondents observed reduction of mosquito bites and 7.2-32.1% reduction of malaria incidence; 37% expressed willingness to buy ITNs if the cost was lower and they were affordable. Up to ten months post-treatment, almost 100% mortality of vector mosquitoes was recorded on unwashed and washed nets (once or twice). Health workers re-treated the nets at the treatment centers eight months after distribution on a cost-recovery basis. The coverage reported by the PHC was only 4.2%, mainly because of unwillingness of the people to pay for re-treatment and to go to the treatment centers from their villages. When the re-treatment was continued at the villages involving personnel from several departments, the coverage improved to about 90%. Interview of 126 respondents showed that among those who got their nets re-treated, 81.4% paid cash for the re-treatment and the remainder were reluctant to pay. Majority of those who paid said that they did so due to the fear that if they did not do so they would lose benefits from other government welfare schemes. The 2nd re-treatment was therefore carried out free of charge nine months after the 1st re-treatment and thus achieved coverage of 70.4%. The study showed community acceptance to use ITNs as they perceived the benefit. Distribution and re-treatment of nets was thus possible through the PHC system, if done free of charge and when personnel from different departments, especially those at village level, were involved.
BibTeX:
@article{JambulingamP2008,
  author = {Jambulingam P, Gunasekaran K, Sahu S, Vijayakumar T.},
  title = {Insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in India-experience from a tribal area on operational feasibility and uptake.},
  journal = {Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {103(2):},
  pages = {165-71.}
}
Jaya, Singh P, Prakash B, Dubey NK Insecticidal activity of Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oils as fumigant against storage grain insect Tribolium castaneum Herbst. 2014 J Food Sci Technol
Vol. 51(9), pp. 2210-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Essential oils (EOs) from Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit were extracted and tested against Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the storage grain insect. The EOs were found effective against Tribolium castaneum during in vitro as well as in vivo fumigant testing. The EOs of H. suaveolens and A. conyzoides showed 100 % mortality of test insect at 250 ppm while C. aromaticus at 350 ppm. During in vivo fumigant testing of wheat samples against Tribolium castaneum, the essential oils of A. conyzoides and C. aromaticus completely checked the damage of wheat grains by the insect at 1000 ppm while essential oil of H. suaveolens checked the grain damage completely even at 500 ppm concentration. There was no adverse effect on seed germination as well as on seedling growth of EOs treated seeds showing non-phytotoxic nature of the oils. Hence, these EOs may be recommended as botanical insecticide against insect invasion of stored food commodities, thereby enhancing their shelf life.
BibTeX:
@article{Jaya2014,
  author = {Jaya, Singh P, Prakash B, Dubey NK},
  title = {Insecticidal activity of Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oils as fumigant against storage grain insect Tribolium castaneum Herbst.},
  journal = {J Food Sci Technol},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {51(9)},
  pages = {2210-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0698-8}
}
Jeyasankar A, Raja N, Ignacimuthu S Insecticidal compound isolated from Syzygium lineare Wall. (Myrtaceae) against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). 2011 Saudi J Biol Sci.
Vol. 18(4), pp. 329-32 
article DOI  
Abstract: A new crystal compound 2,5-diacetoxy-2-benzyl-4,4,6,6-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione was isolated from the leaves of Syzygium lineare. The insecticidal activity of the compound was assessed against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. Its activity was better than the positive control azadirachtin. The compound was responsible for growth inhibition on S. litura. It induced larval, pupal and adult deformities even at low concentration. The compound may be useful as a botanical pesticide.
BibTeX:
@article{JeyasankarA2011,
  author = {Jeyasankar A, Raja N, Ignacimuthu S},
  title = {Insecticidal compound isolated from Syzygium lineare Wall. (Myrtaceae) against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).},
  journal = {Saudi J Biol Sci.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18(4)},
  pages = {329-32},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2011.01.003}
}
Jha N, Ramaprabhu S Development of Au nanoparticles dispersed carbon nanotube-based biosensor for the detection of paraoxon. 2010 Nanoscale.
Vol. 2(5), pp. 806-10 
article DOI  
Abstract: A disposable and sensitive biosensor has been fabricated for the detection of the organophosphorous (OP) compound paraoxon using an amperometric technique. For the measurements, gold nanoparticles dispersed on the outer surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Au-MWNTs) has been used as the electrode material, as it possesses high electron transfer rates and provides large immobilization sites for the bioenzymes, which combines with the high electrocatalytic activity of MWNTs for thiocholine oxidation at low potential. Au-MWNTs have been synthesized by chemically reducing Au salt over functionalized MWNTs, and the same has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) techniques. The ability of the Au-MWNTs nanocomposite-based biosensor has been demonstrated to reliably measure the concentration of paraoxon in the nanomolar range.
BibTeX:
@article{JhaN2010,
  author = {Jha N, Ramaprabhu S.},
  title = {Development of Au nanoparticles dispersed carbon nanotube-based biosensor for the detection of paraoxon.},
  journal = {Nanoscale.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {2(5)},
  pages = {806-10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b9nr00336c}
}
Jha N, Ramaprabhu S Carbon nanotube-polymer based nanocomposite as electrode material for the detection of paraoxon. 2010 J Nanosci Nanotechnol.
Vol. 10(4), pp. 2798-802. 
article  
Abstract: Biosensor based on the inhibition of enzymes has been used for the detection of organophosphorous compounds wherein amperometic method has been employed. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been grown over YNi3 alloy hydrides and purified for further use. The high surface area and the acidic sites created during the purification of CNT with oxidizing acids have been exploited for the adsorption and entrapment of the enzyme acetylcholine esterase. In the present work, conducting polymer polypyrrole has been uniformly coated over the CNT surface using chemical oxidative technique. The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the present report high catalytic activity of CNT towards the electroxidation of thiocholine has been utilized for the detection of organophosphorous compound paraoxon. Developed biosensor uses the principal of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by nerve agent and hence reduction in oxidation current of thiocholine for the detection of paraoxon. Synthesized PPY-MWNT nanocomposite has been used for the electrode preparation over GC electrode. Due to high porosity of polymer and high electrical conductivity of CNT, a detection level of 3 nM paraoxon could be achieved. The details of fabrication of the sensor and the dependence of the sensitivity have been discussed
BibTeX:
@article{JhaN2010a,
  author = {Jha N, Ramaprabhu S.},
  title = {Carbon nanotube-polymer based nanocomposite as electrode material for the detection of paraoxon.},
  journal = {J Nanosci Nanotechnol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {10(4)},
  pages = {2798-802.}
}
Joshi AB, Das ML, Akhter S, Chowdhury R, Mondal D, Kumar V, Das P, Kroeger A, Boelaert M, Petzold M Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. 2009 BMC Med
Vol. 7:54. 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the three different interventions for VL vector management: indoor residual spraying (IRS); long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN); and environmental modification (EVM) through plastering of walls with lime or mud.
METHODS:
Using a cluster randomized controlled trial we compared three vector control interventions with a control arm in 96 clusters (hamlets or neighbourhoods) in each of the 4 study sites: Bangladesh (one), India (one) and Nepal (two). In each site four villages with high reported VL incidences were included. In each village six clusters and in each cluster five households were randomly selected for sand fly collection on two consecutive nights. Control and intervention clusters were matched with average pre-intervention vector densities.In each site six clusters were randomly assigned to each of the following interventions: indoor residual spraying (IRS); long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN); environmental management (EVM) or control. All the houses (50-100) in each intervention cluster underwent the intervention measures. A reduction of intra-domestic sand fly densities measured in the study households by overnight US Centres for Disease Prevention and Control light trap captures (that is the number of sand flies per trap per night) was the main outcome measure.
RESULTS:
IRS, and to a lesser extent EVM and LLINs, significantly reduced sand fly densities for at least 5 months in the study households irrespective of type of walls or whether or not people shared their house with cattle. IRS was effective in all sites but LLINs were only effective in Bangladesh and India. Mud plastering did not reduce sand fly density.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiAB2009,
  author = {Joshi AB, Das ML, Akhter S, Chowdhury R, Mondal D, Kumar V, Das P, Kroeger A, Boelaert M, Petzold M.},
  title = {Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal.},
  journal = {BMC Med},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {7:54.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-7-54}
}
Joshi AK, Nagaraju R, Rajini PS Insights into the mechanisms mediating hyperglycemic and stressogenic outcomes in rats treated with monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide. 2012 Toxicology.
Vol. 294(1), pp. 9-16 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present investigation provides mechanistic insights into the hyperglycemic and stressogenic effects of monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide. Pre-treatment of rats with mifepristone (glucocorticoid receptor antagonist) prevented induction of liver tyrosine aminotransferase activity (TAT), but was ineffective in attenuating hyperglycemia induced by monocrotophos. Pre-treatment with propranolol (?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and phentolamine (?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) were effective in abrogating monocrotophos-induced hyperglycemia. Interestingly, while propranolol offered partial protection against hyperglycemia, phentolamine completely abolished the same. However, monocrotophos-induced hyperlactacidemia was completely abolished by propranolol. Both the adrenoreceptor antagonists, however, failed to attenuate the stressogenic potential of monocrotophos. Hyperglycemia and hyperlactacidemia induced by monocrotophos were abolished by pre-treatment with atropine. Exogenous epinephrine was associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlactacidemia. The impact of adrenergic antagonists on epinephrine-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlactacidemia were remarkably similar to that of monocrotophos-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlactacidemia. Further, hydrazine sulfate (a gluconeogenesis inhibitor) abolished hyperglycemia in monocrotophos-treated rats. From our data, it can be hypothesized that excessive stimulation of adrenoreceptors, probably elicited by increased plasma epinephrine, mediates hyperglycemic outcomes induced by monocrotophos. Pattern of changes in plasma lactate suggests that ?-adrenergic activation mediates monocrotophos-induced hyperlactacidemia, while ?-adrenergic receptor mediates lactate utilization, leading to hyperglycemia. Induction of liver TAT activity is attributable to glucocorticoid receptor activation as a result of hypercorticosteronemia.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiAK2012,
  author = {Joshi AK, Nagaraju R, Rajini PS.},
  title = {Insights into the mechanisms mediating hyperglycemic and stressogenic outcomes in rats treated with monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide.},
  journal = {Toxicology.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {294(1)},
  pages = {9-16},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2012.01.009}
}
Joshi AK, Raju N, Rajini PS Microplate-based kinetic method for assay of mitochondrial NADH-- and succinate--cytochrome c reductase activities. 2011 Anal Biochem.
Vol. 415(2), pp. 209-11 
article DOI  
Abstract: This article describes a microplate-based kinetic assay for mitochondrial NADH-- and succinate--cytochrome c reductase activities in rat brain mitochondria. The assay reported here is based on the conventional spectrophotometric method and involves substrate-driven reduction of exogenous cytochrome c. Conditions regarding linearity with respect to time and protein concentration have been standardized. Furthermore, the methods were tested for inhibition of respective activities by specific inhibitors. The microplate format described here can be employed for rapid and simultaneous measurements of mitochondrial NADH-- and succinate--cytochrome c reductase activities in a large number of samples.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiAK2011,
  author = {Joshi AK, Raju N, Rajini PS.},
  title = {Microplate-based kinetic method for assay of mitochondrial NADH-- and succinate--cytochrome c reductase activities.},
  journal = {Anal Biochem.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {415(2)},
  pages = {209-11},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2011.04.014}
}
Joshi N, Gupta D Soil mycofloral responses following the exposure to 2, 4-D. 2008 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 29(2), pp. 211-4. 
article  
Abstract: 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a post emergence herbicide. The tests were conducted to study the toxicity of 2,4-D using EC50 value in four dilutions. 2,4-D was applied at concentration of 25, 50, 75, 100, 200 and 300 mg l(-1) in the potato Dextrose agar medium. The effect of this herbicide was evaluated as the colony forming unit (CFU). EC50 value for 10(-3) dilution of soil was 138 +/- 5.944 mg l(-1). Soil physico-chemical parameters and mycofloral properties were also evaluated. Qualitatively 10 genera of fungi were observed in untreated soil, whereas 4 genera were found in 2,4-D administered dose.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiN2008,
  author = {Joshi N, Gupta D},
  title = {Soil mycofloral responses following the exposure to 2, 4-D.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {29(2)},
  pages = {211-4.}
}
Kalyani S S, Sharma J, Singh S, Dureja P, Lata Enrichment and isolation of endosulfan-degrading microorganism from tropical acid soil. 2009 J Environ Sci Health B.
Vol. 44(7), pp. 663-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: Endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,3,4-benzo-dioxathiepin-3-oxide) is a cyclodiene organochlorine currently used as an insecticide all over the world and its residues are posing a serious environmental threat. This study reports the enrichment and isolation of a microbial culture capable of degrading endosulfan with minimal production of endosulfan sulfate, the toxic metabolite of endosulfan, from tropical acid soil. Enrichment was achieved by using the insecticide as sole sulfur source. The enriched microbial culture, SKL-1, later identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, degraded up to 50.25 and 69.77 % of alpha and beta endosulfan, respectively in 20 days. Percentage of bioformation of endosulfan sulfate to total formation was 2.12% by the 20th day of incubation. Degradation of the insecticide was concomitant with bacterial growth reaching up to an optical density of 600 nm (OD600) 2.34 and aryl sulfatase activity of the broth reaching up to 23.93 microg pNP/mL/hr. The results of this study suggest that this novel strain is a valuable source of potent endosulfan-degrading enzymes for use in enzymatic bioremediation. Further, the increase in aryl sulfatase activity of the broth with the increase in degradation of endosulfan suggests the probable involvement of the enzyme in the transformation of endosulfan to its metabolites.
BibTeX:
@article{KalyaniSS2009,
  author = {Kalyani S S, Sharma J, Singh S, Dureja P, Lata.},
  title = {Enrichment and isolation of endosulfan-degrading microorganism from tropical acid soil.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {44(7)},
  pages = {663-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601230903163665}
}
Kamaraj C, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Elango G, Zahir AA, Santhoshkumar T Larvicidal and repellent activity of medicinal plant extracts from Eastern Ghats of South India against malaria and filariasis vectors. 2011 Asian Pac J Trop Med.
Vol. 4(9), pp. 698-705 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the larvicidal and repellent activities of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Acacia concinna (A. concinna), Cassia siamea (C. siamea), Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum),Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum), Lantana camara (L. camara), Nelumbo nucifera (N. nucifera) Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus), Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus).
METHODS:
The larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts were tested against early fourth-instar larvae of malaria and filariasis vectors. The mortality was observed 24 h and 48 h after treatment, data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC(50) and LC(90)) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the tested species. The repellent efficacy was determined against two mosquito species at five concentrations (31.25, 62.50, 125.00, 250.00, and 500.00 ppm) under the laboratory conditions.
RESULTS:
All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h and 48 h of exposure; however, the highest activity was observed after 24 h in the leaf methanol extract of N. nucifera, seed ethyl acetate and methanol extract of P. nigrum against the larvae of An. stephensi (LC(50) = 34.76, 24.54 and 30.20 ppm) and against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 37.49, 43.94 and 57.39 ppm), respectively. The toxic effect of leaf methanol extract of C. siamea, seed methanol extract of C. cyminum, leaf ethyl acetate extract of N. nucifera, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of P. amarus and seed methanol extract of T. ammi were showed 100% mortality against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus after 48 h exposer. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of N. nucifera, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of P. nigrum and methanol extract of T. ammi and the mean complete protection time ranged from 30 to 150 min with the different extracts tested.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of C. siamea, N. nucifera, P. amarus, P. nigrum and T. ammi have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus.
BibTeX:
@article{KamarajC2011,
  author = {Kamaraj C, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Elango G, Zahir AA, Santhoshkumar T},
  title = {Larvicidal and repellent activity of medicinal plant extracts from Eastern Ghats of South India against malaria and filariasis vectors.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Trop Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4(9)},
  pages = {698-705},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60177-6}
}
Kamaraj C, Rajakumar G, Rahuman AA, Velayutham K, Bagavan A, Zahir AA, Elango G Feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Manilkara zapota leaf extract against the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). 2012 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 111(6), pp. 2439-48 
article DOI  
Abstract: With a greater awareness of the hazards associated with the use of synthetic organic insecticides, there has been an urgent need to explore suitable alternative products for pest control. Musca domestica is ubiquitous insect that has the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans and livestock. They are mechanical carriers of more than hundred human and animal intestinal diseases and are responsible for protozoan, bacterial, helminthic, and viral infections. The present work aimed to investigate the feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Manilkara zapota against M. domestica. The synthesized Ag NPs were recorded from UV-vis spectrum at 421 nm and scanning electron microscopy confirm the biosynthesis and characterization of Ag NPs with spherical and oval in shape and size of 70-140 nm. The FTIR analysis of the purified nanoparticles showed the presence of bands 1,079, 1,383, 1,627, 2,353, and 2,648 cm(-1), which were complete synthesis of AgNPs; the XRD pattern of AgNPs showed diffraction peaks at 2? values of 38.06°, 44.37°, 64.51°, and 77.31° sets of lattice planes were observed (111), (200), (220), and (311) facts of silver, respectively. Adult flies were exposed to different concentrations of the aqueous extract of synthesized Ag NPs, 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) solution and aqueous extract of M. zapota for 1, 2, and 3 h; however, AgNPs showed 72% mortality in 1 h, 89% mortality was found in 2 h, and 100% mortality was found in 3 h exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/mL and the leaf aqueous extract showed 32% mortality in 1 h, 48% mortality was found in 2 h, and 83% mortality was found in 3 h exposure at concentration of 50 mg/mL. The most efficient activity was observed in synthesized Ag NPs against M. domestica (LD(50) = 3.64 mg/mL; LD(90) = 7.74 mg/mL), the moderate activity reported in the aqueous extract of M. zapota (LD(50) = 28.35 mg/mL; LD(90) = 89.19 mg/mL) and nil activity were observed in AgNO(3) solution at 3 h exposure time at 10 mg/mL. Dimethyl 2, 2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP) was used as a positive control and showed the LD(50) value of 3.38 mL/L. These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the adult of M. domestica. This method is considered as a new approach to control sanitary pest. Therefore, this study provides first report on the feeding deterrent activity of synthesized Ag NPs against housefly.
BibTeX:
@article{KamarajC2012,
  author = {Kamaraj C, Rajakumar G, Rahuman AA, Velayutham K, Bagavan A, Zahir AA, Elango G.},
  title = {Feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Manilkara zapota leaf extract against the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {111(6)},
  pages = {2439-48},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2689-5}
}
Kamate M, Jain A Accidental endosulfan ingestion in a toddler. 2011 Indian J Pediatr.
Vol. 78(7), pp. 884-5. 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KamateM2011,
  author = {Kamate M, Jain A.},
  title = {Accidental endosulfan ingestion in a toddler.},
  journal = {Indian J Pediatr.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {78(7)},
  pages = {884-5.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-010-0360-2}
}
Kannathasan K, Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V Mosquito larvicidal activity of methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate isolated from the leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn. 2011 Acta Trop.
Vol. 120(1-2), pp. 115-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: The vector-borne diseases caused by mosquitoes are one of the major health problems in many countries especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The resistance of mosquitoes to synthetic chemicals and environmental toxicity created by the chemicals raised the demand for finding of alternate natural molecules that control mosquito. In the present study, a crystalline compound methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate was isolated from the methanol extract of Vitex trifolia leaves and it was identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR and single crystal X-ray diffractometer. The larvicidal potential of the isolated compound was evaluated against early 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The compound exhibited 100% larval mortality of both the mosquitoes at 20 ppm with LC(50) values of 5.77 and 4.74 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti, respectively. The methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, which is reported for the first time to our best of knowledge from V. trifolia can be better explored for the control of mosquito population.
BibTeX:
@article{KannathasanK2011,
  author = {Kannathasan K, Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V},
  title = {Mosquito larvicidal activity of methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate isolated from the leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn.},
  journal = {Acta Trop.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {120(1-2)},
  pages = {115-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2011.07.001}
}
Kanrar B, Mandal S, Bhattacharyya A Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multiresidue method for 42pesticides in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves using ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 2010 J Chromatogr A.
Vol. 1217(12), pp. 1926-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: A rapid, specific and sensitive multiresidue method to determine 42 pesticides in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves has been developed and validated for the routine analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was reproducible (Horwitz ratio (HorRat) <0.5 at 50 ng/g) and validated by the analysis of sample spiked at 50 and 100 ng/g in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate+cyclohexane (9:1; v/v), and the extracts were cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent+graphitized carbon black+Florisil. The recoveries of all the pesticides were between 70% and 120% with a relative standard deviation of less than 15% and correlation coefficient for each pesticide was R(2) > or =0.99. The matrix effect on signal of respective compounds was measured by comparing matrix-matched calibration standards with those in solvent-only. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) met the requirements of the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticides in tea as recommended by the European Union.
BibTeX:
@article{KanrarB2010,
  author = {Kanrar B, Mandal S, Bhattacharyya A.},
  title = {Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multiresidue method for 42pesticides in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves using ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.},
  journal = {J Chromatogr A.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1217(12)},
  pages = {1926-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.01.062}
}
Karmakar R, Singh SB, Kulshrestha G Water based microwave assisted extraction of thiamethoxam residues from vegetables and soil for determination by HPLC. 2012 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 88(2), pp. 119-23 
article DOI  
Abstract: A microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method for determination of thiamethoxam residues in vegetable and soil samples was standardized. Insecticide spiked vegetable and soil samples were extracted by MAE using water as an extraction solvent, cleaned up by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography on photodiode array detector. The recoveries of the insecticide from various vegetable (tomato, radish, brinjal, okra, French been, sugarbeet) and soil (sandy loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay loam, loamy sand) samples at 0.1 and 0.5 ?g g(-1) spiking levels ranged from 79.8% to 86.2% and from 82.1% to 87.0%, respectively. The recoveries by MAE were comparable to those obtained by the conventional blender and shake-flask extraction techniques. The precision of the MAE method was demonstrated by relative standard deviations of <3% for the insecticide.
BibTeX:
@article{KarmakarR2012,
  author = {Karmakar R, Singh SB, Kulshrestha G},
  title = {Water based microwave assisted extraction of thiamethoxam residues from vegetables and soil for determination by HPLC.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {88(2)},
  pages = {119-23},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0444-3}
}
Karmakar R, Singh SB, Kulshrestha G Kinetics and mechanism of the hydrolysis of thiamethoxam. 2009 J Environ Sci Health B.
Vol. 44(5), pp. 435-41 
article DOI  
Abstract: The degradation of thiamethoxam [(EZ)-3-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-yl-methyl)-5-methyl-1,3,5-oxadiazinan-4-ylidene (nitro) amine] insecticide in buffers at different pH and temperature levels was investigated in laboratory studies. Acidic hydrolysis under conventional heating conditions and alkaline hydrolysis under both conventional heating and microwave conditions were carried out. Different hydrolysis products were found to form under alkaline and acidic conditions. Hydrolysis of thiamethoxam in acidic, neutral and alkaline buffers followed first-order reaction rate kinetics at pH 4, 7 and 9.2, respectively. Thiamethoxam readily hydrolyzed in alkaline buffer but was comparatively stable in neutral buffer solution. The main products formed under different conditions were characterized on the basis of infrared (IR), (1)H-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The possible mechanisms for the formation of these hydrolysis products have also been proposed.
BibTeX:
@article{KarmakarR2009,
  author = {Karmakar R, Singh SB, Kulshrestha G.},
  title = {Kinetics and mechanism of the hydrolysis of thiamethoxam.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {44(5)},
  pages = {435-41},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601230902934785}
}
Karn SK, Geetanjali Pentachlorophenol remediation by Enterobacter sp. SG1 isolated from industrial dump site. 2014 Pak J Biol Sci
Vol. 17(3), pp. 388-94 
article  
Abstract: Chlorophenols contamination is serious concern to the environment due toxicity to all forms of life. Among all the chlorophenols, pentachlorophenol (PCP) is more detrimental to the environment. Pentachlorophenol used as pesticide, herbicide, antifungal agent and wood preservative which causes environmental pollution. In the present research a PCP degrading bacterium was isolated and characterized from industrial dump site. This isolate used PCP as its sole source of carbon and energy and was capable of degrading this compound, as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride, ring cleavage activity and biomass formation. Based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis this strain was identified as Enterobacter sp. SG1. Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis revealed that this strain was able to degrade PCP up to a concentration of 2 mM. This study showed that the removal efficiency of PCP by SG1 was found to be very effective and can be used in degradation of PCP contaminated site or waste in the environment.
BibTeX:
@article{KarnSK2014,
  author = {Karn SK, Geetanjali.},
  title = {Pentachlorophenol remediation by Enterobacter sp. SG1 isolated from industrial dump site.},
  journal = {Pak J Biol Sci},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {17(3)},
  pages = {388-94}
}
Karthik L, Gaurav K, Rao KV, Rajakumar G, Rahuman AA Larvicidal, repellent, and ovicidal activity of marine actinobacteria extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus. 2011 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 108(6), pp. 1447-55 
article DOI  
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of crude extracts of marine actinobacteria on larvicidal, repellent, and ovicidal activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent assay with crude extracts of actinobacteria. Saccharomonospora spp. (LK-1), Streptomyces roseiscleroticus (LK-2), and Streptomyces gedanensis (LK-3) were identified as potential biocide producers. Based on the antimicrobial activity, three strains were chosen for larvicidal activity. The marine actinobacterial extracts showed moderate to high larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm and the highest larval mortality was found in extract of LK-3 (LC(50)?= 108.08 ppm and LC(90)?= 609.15 ppm) against the larvae of C. gelidus and (LC(50)?= 146.24 ppm and LC(90)?= 762.69 ppm) against the larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus. Complete protections for 240 min were found in crude extract of LK-2 and LK-3 at 1,000 ppm, against mosquito bites of C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, respectively. After 24-h treatment, mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Crude extracts of LK-1 and LK-3 showed no hatchability at 1,000 ppm against C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. gelidus.
BibTeX:
@article{KarthikL2011,
  author = {Karthik L, Gaurav K, Rao KV, Rajakumar G, Rahuman AA.},
  title = {Larvicidal, repellent, and ovicidal activity of marine actinobacteria extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {108(6)},
  pages = {1447-55},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-2193-3}
}
Kaur H, Chauhan S, Sandhir R Protective effect of lycopene on oxidative stress and cognitive decline in rotenone induced model of Parkinson's disease. 2011 Neurochem Res.
Vol. 36(8), pp. 1435-43 
article DOI  
Abstract: Evidence from clinical and experimental studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective potential of lycopene on oxidative stress and neurobehavioral abnormalities in rotenone induced PD. Rats were treated with rotenone (3 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) for 30 days. NADH dehydrogenase a marker of rotenone action was observed to be significantly inhibited (35%) in striatum of treated animals. However, lycopene administration (10 mg/kg, orally) to the rotenone treated animals for 30 days increased the activity by 39% when compared to rotenone treated animals. Rotenone administration increased the MDA levels (75.15%) in striatum, whereas, lycopene administration to rotenone treated animals decreased the levels by 24.33%. Along with this, significant decrease in GSH levels (42.69%) was observed in rotenone treated animals. Lycopene supplementation on the other hand, increased the levels of GSH by 75.35% when compared with rotenone treated group. The activity of SOD was inhibited by 69% in rotenone treated animals and on lycopene supplementation; the activity increased by 12% when compared to controls. This was accompanied by cognitive and motor deficits in rotenone administered animals, which were reversed on lycopene treatment. Lycopene treatment also prevented release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Collectively, these observations suggest that lycopene supplementation along with rotenone for 30 days prevented rotenone-induced alterations in antioxidants along with the prevention of rotenone induced oxidative stress and neurobehavioral deficits. The results provide an evidence for beneficial effect of lycopene supplementation in rotenone-induced PD and suggest therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases involving accentuated oxidative stress.
BibTeX:
@article{KaurH2011,
  author = {Kaur H, Chauhan S, Sandhir R},
  title = {Protective effect of lycopene on oxidative stress and cognitive decline in rotenone induced model of Parkinson's disease.},
  journal = {Neurochem Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {36(8)},
  pages = {1435-43},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-011-0469-3}
}
Kaushik CP, Sharma HR, Gulati D, Kaushik A Changing patterns of organochlorine pesticide residues in raw bovine milk from Haryana, India. 2011 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 182(1-4), pp. 467-75 
article DOI  
Abstract: Bovine milk samples were collected and analyzed during 1992 and 1998 from rural areas of 14 different districts of Haryana state for the presence of HCH and DDT residues. The study revealed that the mean residues of ?HCH in raw bovine milk have declined by 67.5% while mean levels of ?DDT have decreased by 92.8% during six years gap. The obtained results reveal that during 1992 p,p'-DDT was the main component followed by p,p'-DDD, ?-HCH and ?-HCH while in 1998, p,p'-DDE and ?-HCH followed by p,p'-DDT were relatively more as compared to other isomers and metabolites of these pesticides.
BibTeX:
@article{KaushikCP2011,
  author = {Kaushik CP, Sharma HR, Gulati D, Kaushik A},
  title = {Changing patterns of organochlorine pesticide residues in raw bovine milk from Haryana, India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {182(1-4)},
  pages = {467-75},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-1890-4}
}
Kaushik R, Saini P Larvicidal activity of leaf extract of Millingtonia hortensis (Family: Bignoniaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. 2008 J Vector Borne Dis.
Vol. 45(1)., pp. 66-9 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{KaushikR2008,
  author = {Kaushik R, Saini P.},
  title = {Larvicidal activity of leaf extract of Millingtonia hortensis (Family: Bignoniaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti.},
  journal = {J Vector Borne Dis.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {45(1).},
  pages = {66-9}
}
Kaviraj A, Gupta A Biomarkers of type II synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in freshwater fish. 2014 Biomed Res Int  article DOI  
Abstract: Type II synthetic pyrethroids contain an alpha-cyano group which renders them more neurotoxic than their noncyano type I counterparts. A wide array of biomarkers have been employed to delineate the toxic responses of freshwater fish to various type II synthetic pyrethroids. These include hematological, enzymatic, cytological, genetic, omic and other types of biomarkers. This review puts together the applications of different biomarkers in freshwater fish species in response to the toxicity of the major type II pyrethroid pesticides and assesses their present status, while speculating on the possible future directions.
BibTeX:
@article{KavirajA2014,
  author = {Kaviraj A, Gupta A},
  title = {Biomarkers of type II synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in freshwater fish.},
  journal = {Biomed Res Int},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/928063}
}
Khan AS, Bandyopadhyay T, Ganguly B Probing the simulant behavior of PNPDPP toward parathion and paraoxon: a computational study. 2012 J Mol Graph Model.
Vol. 34, pp. 10-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: The extreme toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents and pesticides mandates to employ models or simulants in place of the actual compounds in the laboratory. The importance of simulants is known, however, their efficacy for direct comparison with the toxic organophosphorus compounds is not well documented. We have examined the potential energy surfaces (PES) for the alkaline hydrolysis of pesticides like paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), parathion (O,O-diethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) and PNPDPP (4-nitrophenyl diphenyl phosphate), a simulant with MP2/6-311+G*//B3LYP/6-311+G*+?G(solv) (HF/6-31+G*) level of theory. The effect of aqueous solvation was considered with the Integral Equation Formalism Polarizable Continuum Model (IEF-PCM). The alkaline hydrolysis of these organophosphorus compounds reveals that the reaction proceeds through the attack of hydroxide ion at the phosphorus center to form a pentacoordinate intermediate. The calculated free energies of activation for the alkaline hydrolysis of paraoxon and parathion are in good agreement with the available experimental activation free energies. The computed results show that the reaction profiles for the alkaline hydrolysis of paraoxon, parathion and PNPDPP are largely similar; however, the rate of hydrolysis of parathion may be higher than that of paraxon and PNPDPP. Such difference arises due to the less electrophilic nature of the phosphorus atom of parathion molecule as observed in the charge analysis study. The conceptual DFT analysis also showed the similar trend for the alkaline hydrolysis of paraoxon, parathion and PNPDPP with hydroxide anion. This computational study provides a quantitative support toward the use of PNPDPP as a simulant for organophosphorus compounds, which cannot be used directly for the laboratory purposes.
BibTeX:
@article{KhanAS2012,
  author = {Khan AS, Bandyopadhyay T, Ganguly B},
  title = {Probing the simulant behavior of PNPDPP toward parathion and paraoxon: a computational study.},
  journal = {J Mol Graph Model.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {34},
  pages = {10-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmgm.2011.12.008}
}
Khanna VG, Kannabiran K, Rajakumar G, Rahuman AA, Santhoshkumar T Biolarvicidal compound gymnemagenol isolated from leaf extract of miracle fruit plant, Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult against malaria and filariasis vectors. 2011 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 109(5), pp. 1373-86 
article DOI  
Abstract: owing to the fact that the application of synthetic larvicide has envenomed the surroundings as well as non-target organisms, natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been tried as an indigenous method for the control of a variety of insect pests and vectors in the recent past. Insecticides of plant origin have been extensively used on agricultural pests and, to a very limited extent, against insect vectors of public health importance, which deserve careful and thorough screening. The use of plant extracts for insect control has several appealing features as these are generally more biodegradable, less hazardous and a rich storehouse of chemicals of diverse biological activities. Moreover, herbal sources give a lead for discovering new insecticides. Therefore, biologically active plant materials have attracted considerable interest in mosquito control study in recent times. The crude leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult (Asclepiadaceae) and purified gymnemagenol compound were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether leaf extract of G. sylvestre led to the separation and identification of gymnemagenol as a potential new antiparasitic compound. Phytochemical analysis of G. sylvestre leaves revealed the presence of active constituents such as carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and tannins. However, cardiac glycosides and phlobatannins are absent in the plant extracts. Quantitative analysis results suggested that saponin (5%) was present in a high concentration followed by tannins (1.0%). The 50 g powder was loaded on silica gel column and eluted with chloroform-methanol-water as eluents. From that, 16 mg pure saponin compound was isolated and analysed by thin layer chromatography using chloroform and methanol as the solvent systems. The structure of the purified triterpenoid fraction was established from infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR and mass spectral data. The carbon skeleton of the compound was obtained by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shift assignments obtained for gymnemagenol from (1)H NMR correspond to the molecular formula C(30)H(50)O(4). The compound was identified as 3?, 16?, 28, 29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene (gymnemagenol sapogenin). Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of purified compound gymnemagenol for 24 h. The results suggested that the larval mortality effects of the compound were 28%, 69%, 100% and 31%, 63%, 100% at 6, 12 and 24 h against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the present study, the per cent mortality were 100, 86, 67, 36, 21 and 100, 78, 59, 38 and 19 observed in the concentrations of 1,000, 500, 250, 125 and 62.75 ppm against the fourth-instar larvae of A. subpitcus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The purified compound gymnemagenol was tested in concentrations of 80, 40, 20, 10 and 5 ppm, and the per cent mortality were 100, 72, 53, 30 and 15 against A. subpitcus and 100, 89, 61, 42 and 30 against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The larvicidal crude leaf extract of G. sylvestre showed the highest mortality in the concentration of 1,000 ppm against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50)?= 166.28 ppm, r (2)?= 0.807) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?= 186.55 ppm, r (2)?= 0.884), respectively. The maximum efficacy was observed in gymnemagenol compound with LC(50) and r (2) values against the larvae of A. subpictus (22.99 ppm, 0.922) and against C. quinquefasciatus (15.92 ppm, 0.854), respectively. The control (distilled water) showed nil mortality in the concurrent assay.
BibTeX:
@article{KhannaVG2011,
  author = {Khanna VG, Kannabiran K, Rajakumar G, Rahuman AA, Santhoshkumar T},
  title = {Biolarvicidal compound gymnemagenol isolated from leaf extract of miracle fruit plant, Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult against malaria and filariasis vectors.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {109(5)},
  pages = {1373-86},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2384-6}
}
Kim JR, Sharma S Acaricidal activities of clove bud oil and red thyme oil using microencapsulation against HDMs. 2011 J Microencapsul.
Vol. 28(1), pp. 82-91 
article DOI  
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to produce a safer microcapsule loaded with clove bud oil and red thyme oil to reduce the population of house dust mites (HDMs). Gelatin-based microcapsules 4-85?µm in size were created, with agitation speed and type of oil playing a critical role in governing their size. Microcapsules made up of single spherical units less than 30?µm in diameter remained separate on the fibre, whereas larger microcapsules of over 30?µm ruptured or aggregated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that microcapsules containing red thyme oil showed a more consistent range of oil loading, from 50 to 80%, than microcapsules containing clove bud oil, which ranged from 30 to 80% (more deviated). Mortality tests on Dermatophagoides farinae conducted on fabric with attached microcapsules showed that clove bud oil, containing a more phenolic monoterpenoid (eugenol), was more effective at reducing the live HDMs (94% mortality).
BibTeX:
@article{KimJR2011,
  author = {Kim JR, Sharma S.},
  title = {Acaricidal activities of clove bud oil and red thyme oil using microencapsulation against HDMs.},
  journal = {J Microencapsul.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {28(1)},
  pages = {82-91},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02652048.2010.529949}
}
Kochhar R, Dutta U, Poornachandra KS, Vaiphei K, Bhagat S, Nagi B, Singh K Clinical profile and outcome of aluminum phosphide-induced esophageal strictures. 2010 J Med Toxicol.
Vol. 6(3), pp. 301-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a lethal solid fumigant pesticide which has been recently linked to esophageal stricture formation. This paper aims to study the clinical profile and response to treatment of AlP-induced esophageal strictures. Data on all patients of AlP-induced strictures seen between January 2004 and June 2008 were retrieved and analyzed for clinical parameters and response to endoscopic dilation. Each patient underwent barium swallow to define the site and length of stricture and then was dilated endoscopically. Twelve patients of AlP-induced esophageal stricture (seven males) with a mean age of 26.83+/-8.43 years were evaluated. They had consumed one to three AlP tablets, 4-156 weeks before reporting to us. They had onset of dysphagia within 2 to 8 weeks of ingestion of AlP. Of 14 strictures in 12 patients, seven were in upper third, two in middle third, and five in lower third of esophagus with a mean length of 1.96+/-0.75 cm. Nine patients responded to dilation requiring 5.56+/-2.65 dilations. Four patients were given intralesional steroids to augment the effect of dilation. Three patients failed and were operated upon. All patients remained symptom free over a follow-up of 3-30 (15.67+/-9.41) months. AlP-induced esophageal strictures can be dilated endoscopically in a majority of patients; however, 25% of them require surgical intervention. AlP-induced esophageal strictures, thus, behave like caustic-induced strictures.
BibTeX:
@article{KochharR2010,
  author = {Kochhar R, Dutta U, Poornachandra KS, Vaiphei K, Bhagat S, Nagi B, Singh K.},
  title = {Clinical profile and outcome of aluminum phosphide-induced esophageal strictures.},
  journal = {J Med Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {6(3)},
  pages = {301-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-010-0082-x}
}
Kumar A, Nayak AK, Shukla AK, Panda BB, Raja R, Shahid M, Tripathi R, Mohanty S, Rath PC Microbial biomass and carbon mineralization in agricultural soils as affected by pesticide addition. 2012 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 88(4), pp. 538-42 
article DOI  
Abstract: A laboratory study was conducted with four pesticides, viz. a fungicide (carbendazim), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and cartap hydrochloride) and an herbicide (pretilachlor) applied to a sandy clay loam soil at a field rate to determine their effect on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and carbon mineralization (C(min)). The MBC content of soil increased with time up to 30 days in cartap hydrochloride as well as chlorpyrifos treated soil. Thereafter, it decreased and reached close to the initial level by 90th day. However, in carbendazim treated soil, the MBC showed a decreasing trend up to 45 days and subsequently increased up to 90 days. In pretilachlor treated soil, MBC increased through the first 15 days, and thereafter decreased to the initial level. Application of carbendazim, chlorpyrifos and cartap hydrochloride decreased C(min) for the first 30 days and then increased afterwards, while pretilachlor treated soil showed an increasing trend.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarA2012,
  author = {Kumar A, Nayak AK, Shukla AK, Panda BB, Raja R, Shahid M, Tripathi R, Mohanty S, Rath PC.},
  title = {Microbial biomass and carbon mineralization in agricultural soils as affected by pesticide addition.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {88(4)},
  pages = {538-42},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0538-6}
}
Kumar B, Kumar A, Pandey BN, Mishra KP, Hazra B Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the apoptosis induced by diospyrin diethylether in human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. 2009 Mol Cell Biochem.
Vol. 320(1-2), pp. 185-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mitochondria and associated oxidative stress have been shown to play critical roles in apoptotic death induced by various stress agents. Previously, we reported the antitumor property of diospyrin (D1), a plant-derived bisnaphthoquinonoid, and its diethylether derivative (D7), which was found to cause apoptotic death in human cancer cell lines. The present study aims to explore the relevant mechanism of apoptosis involving generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by D7 in human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. It was found that while D7 inhibited the proliferation of tumor cells, the associated apoptosis induced by D7 was prevented by treating the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, and cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Experiments using suitable inhibitors also demonstrated that D7 could alter the electron flow in mitochondrial electron transport chain by affecting target(s) between complex I and complex III, and indicated the probable site of D7-induced generation of ROS. These results were further supported by confocal microscopic observation on changes in mitochondrial organization and shape in cells treated with D7. Taken together, the results of our study clearly suggested that the apoptosis induced by D7 would involve alteration of MPT, cardiolipin peroxidation, migration of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, decreased expression of Bcl-2, and release of cytochrome c, indicating oxidative mechanism at the mitochondrial level in the tumor cells.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarB2009,
  author = {Kumar B, Kumar A, Pandey BN, Mishra KP, Hazra B},
  title = {Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the apoptosis induced by diospyrin diethylether in human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells.},
  journal = {Mol Cell Biochem.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {320(1-2)},
  pages = {185-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-008-9920-4}
}
Kumar K, Sharma AK, Kumar S, Patel S, Sarkar M, Chauhan LS Multiple insecticide resistance/susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus, principal vector of bancroftian filariasis from filaria endemic areas of northern India. 2011 Asian Pac J Trop Med.
Vol. 4(6), pp. 426-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To understand the insecticide resistance status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) (Cx. Quinquefasciatus) to deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, permethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, DDT and malathion in filarial endemic areas of Uttar Pradesh, India.
METHODS:
Insecticide susceptibility assays were performed on wild-caught adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to deltamethrin (0.05%), cyfluthrin (0.15%), permethrin (0.75%), lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%), malathion (5.0%) and DDT (4.0%), the discriminating doses recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
RESULTS:
The data showed that Cx. quinquefasciatus is highly resistant to DDT and malathion; the mortality was 28.33% and 27.5%, respectively and incipient resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, permethrin, and lambdacyhalothrin), where mortality ranged from 95.83% in permethrin to 98.33% in cyfluthrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Knockdown times (KDT(50)) in response to synthetic pyrethroids varied significantly between different insecticides (P<0.01) from 31.480 min for permethrin to 21.650 for cyfluthrin.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results presents here provide the status report of the insecticide resistance/susceptibility of Cx. quinquefasciatus in major filaria endemic areas of northern India.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarK2011,
  author = {Kumar K, Sharma AK, Kumar S, Patel S, Sarkar M, Chauhan LS.},
  title = {Multiple insecticide resistance/susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus, principal vector of bancroftian filariasis from filaria endemic areas of northern India.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Trop Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4(6)},
  pages = {426-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60119-3}
}
Kumar M, Verma M, Lal R Devosia chinhatensis sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dump site in India. 2008 Int J Syst Evol Microbiol.
Vol. 58(Pt 4), pp. 861-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a soil sample collected from the area adjoining an India Pesticide Limited plant, Lucknow, India. Strain IPL18T was characterized on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this strain was shown to belong to genus Devosia, with highest sequence similarity of 97.5 % to Devosia riboflavina DSM 7230T. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain IPL18T shows an evolutionary relationship with Devosia neptuniae J1T. Strain IPL18T contains C18 : 1 omega 7c, 11-methyl C18 : 1 omega 7c and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids along with 3-OH C18 : 0, characteristic of the genus Devosia. The branched-chain fatty acid iso-H C18 : 1 (4.69 %), not present in any of the Devosia species known so far, has been reported in strain IPL18T. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments (13 % relatedness with D. riboflavina DSM 7230T and 11 % with D. neptuniae J1T), phylogenetic analysis and biochemical tests confirm that strain IPL18T represents a novel species of the genus Devosia for which the name Devosia chinhatensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IPL18T (=CCM 7426T=MTCC 8593T).
BibTeX:
@article{KumarM2008,
  author = {Kumar M, Verma M, Lal R},
  title = {Devosia chinhatensis sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dump site in India.},
  journal = {Int J Syst Evol Microbiol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {58(Pt 4)},
  pages = {861-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.65574-0}
}
Kumar N, Sharma R, Tripathi G, Kumar K, Dalvi RS, Krishna G Cellular metabolic, stress, and histological response on exposure to acute toxicity of endosulfan in Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). 2014 Environ Toxicol.  article DOI  
Abstract: Endosulfan is one of the most hazardous organochlorines pesticides responsible for environmental pollution, as it is very persistent and shows bio-magnification. This study evaluated the impact of acute endosulfan toxicity on metabolic enzymes, lysozyme activities, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression, and histopathology in Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Among the indicators that were induced in dose dependent manner were the enzymes of amino acid metabolism (serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), carbohydrate metabolism (serum lactate dehydrogenase), pentose phosphate pathway (Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) as well as lysozyme and Hsp70 in liver and gill, while liver and gill Isocitrate dehydrogenase (TCA cycle enzyme) and marker of general energetics (Total adenosine triphosphatase) were inhibited. Histopathological alterations in gill were clubbing of secondary gill lamellae, marked hyperplasia, complete loss of secondary lamellae and atrophy of primary gill filaments. Whereas in liver, swollen hepatocyte, and degeneration with loss of cellular boundaries were distinctly noticed. Overall results clearly demonstrated the unbalanced metabolism and damage of the vital organs like liver and gill in Tilapia due to acute endosulfan exposure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarN2014,
  author = {Kumar N, Sharma R, Tripathi G, Kumar K, Dalvi RS, Krishna G},
  title = {Cellular metabolic, stress, and histological response on exposure to acute toxicity of endosulfan in Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22026}
}
Kumar P, Mishra S, Malik A, Satya S Biocontrol potential of essential oil monoterpenes against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). 2014 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.  article DOI  
Abstract: Housefly (Musca domestica L.), one of the most common insects in human settlements, has been associated as vectors for various food-borne pathogens, causing food spoilage and disease transmission. The control of housefly was attempted using plant monoterpenes; menthone, menthol, menthyl acetate, limonene, citral and 1,8-cineole, against different life stages of housefly. Bioefficacy against housefly adults revealed highest repellent activity by menthol (95.6 percent) and menthone (83.3 percent). Against housefly larvae, menthol with an LC90 of 0.02 µl/cm(2) in contact toxicity assay and menthone with a LC90 value of 5.4 µl/L in fumigation assay were found to be most effective control agent. With respect to pupicidal activity, superior performance was shown by menthol, citral and 1,8-cineole in contact toxicity assay and citral and 1,8-cineole in fumigation assay. Limonene was found to be the poorest performer in all the assays. Overall, highest efficacy observed for menthol and menthone in various bioassays was in agreement with the results of essential oil activity obtained previously. Significant activity of monoterpenes against various life stages of housefly demonstrates their potential as excellent insecticides with prospects of monoterpenes being developed into eco-friendly and acceptable products for housefly control.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarP2014,
  author = {Kumar P, Mishra S, Malik A, Satya S},
  title = {Biocontrol potential of essential oil monoterpenes against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.11.013}
}
Kumar P, Singh VK, Singh DK Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae). 2011 Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo.
Vol. 53(5), pp. 271-5 
article  
Abstract: The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) and Carum carvi (limonene) on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM) in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene). These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarP2011,
  author = {Kumar P, Singh VK, Singh DK},
  title = {Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae).},
  journal = {Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {53(5)},
  pages = {271-5}
}
Kumar R, Nagpure NS, Kushwaha B, Srivastava SK, Lakra WS Investigation of the genotoxicity of malathion to freshwater teleost fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using the micronucleus test and comet assay. 2010 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 58(1), pp. 123-30 
article DOI  
Abstract: Malathion [S-(1,2-dicarboethoxyethyl) O, O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate] is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide throughout the world. However, limited efforts have made to study its genotoxic effect in different fish tissues. The present investigation was aimed to assess the genotoxic potential of the pesticide to the freshwater teleost fish Channa punctatus at sublethal concentrations using the micronucleus test and comet assay. Initially, the 96-h LC50 value of commercial-grade malathion (50% EC) was determined as 5.93 ppm in a semistatic system. Based on LC50, three test concentrations (viz. sublethal I, sublethal II, and sublethal III) were determined to be 1.48, 0.74, and 0.59 ppm, respectively, and the fish specimens were exposed to these concentrations. Tissue samplings were done on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 15, 22 and 29 of malathion exposure for assessment of the induction of micronuclei (MN) frequency and DNA damage. The MN formation in the peripheral blood cells was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the treated specimens at all sampling intervals compared to the control. The MN frequency reached maximum on days 3 and 7 at sublethal I and II concentrations, respectively, followed by a nonlinear decline with the progression of the experiment. Similarly, significant effects (p < 0.05) of both concentration and time of exposure were observed on DNA damage in the gill, kidney, and lymphocytes. All of the tissues exhibited a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage up to day 3, followed by a nonlinear decrease with the duration of exposure. A comparison of the extent of DNA damage among the tissues showed the sensitivity of gill tissue to malathion.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarR2010,
  author = {Kumar R, Nagpure NS, Kushwaha B, Srivastava SK, Lakra WS},
  title = {Investigation of the genotoxicity of malathion to freshwater teleost fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using the micronucleus test and comet assay.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {58(1)},
  pages = {123-30},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-009-9354-3}
}
Kumar S, Habib K, Fatma T Endosulfan induced biochemical changes in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. 2008 Sci Total Environ.
Vol. 403(1-3), pp. 130-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pesticide contamination in aquatic ecosystem including paddy fields is a serious global environmental concern. Cyanobacteria are also affected by pesticides as non- target organism. For better exploitation of cyanobacteria as biofertiliser, it is indispensable to select tolerant strains along with understanding of their tolerance. Three cyanobacterial strains viz. Aulosira fertilissima, Anabaena variabilis and Nostoc muscorum were studied for their stress responses to an organochlorine pesticide 'endosulfan' with special reference to oxidative stress, role of proline and antioxidant enzymes in endosulfan induced free radical detoxification. Reduction in growth, photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrate of the test microorganisms were accompanied with increase in their total protein, proline, malondialdehye (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) in higher endosulfan doses. Increased amount of MDA is indicative of formation of free radicals, while increased level of CAT, APX, SOD and proline indicated their involvement in free radical scavenging mechanism. In lower concentrations, testpesticide showed increase in photosynthetic pigments. Order of tolerance was Nostoc muscorum>Anabaena variabilis>Aulosira fertilissima.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS2008,
  author = {Kumar S, Habib K, Fatma T.},
  title = {Endosulfan induced biochemical changes in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria.},
  journal = {Sci Total Environ.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {403(1-3)},
  pages = {130-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.05.026}
}
Kumar S, Pandey RK, Das S, Das VK Temperature dependent mortality and behavioral changes in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis to dimethoate exposure. 2013 J Environ Biol
Vol. 165-70 
article  
Abstract: Temperature is a crucial determinant of biogeography, directly affecting the behavioral responses of the organisms. An acute static bioassay was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature on dimethoate toxicity in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis. The mussel, were exposed for 96 hr at different concentrations of dimethoate (155.00, 160.00, 165.00, 170.00, 175.00, 180.00, 185.00, 190.00, 195.00, and 200.00 mgl(-1)) in the month of January when water temperature was 14.9 +/- 1.2 degrees C and at concentration 35.00, 37.00, 39.00, 41.00, 43.00, 45.00, 47.00, and 49.00 mgl(-1) in the month of August when the water temperature was 28.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The LC50 values were calculated from the mortality data obtained (using EPA-Probit analysis version 1.5, statistical software). The 96 hr LC50 value recorded at higher temperature was 36.34 mgl(-1) and at low temperature was 163.59 mgl(-1). The mussel exposed at higher temperature showed more sensitive behavioral responses like huge mucus secretion, sudden closure of shell valves, quick post-mortem changes and increased oxygen consumption in comparison to exposure at low temperature. Therefore, the increasing threat of global warming increases the risk of pesticide toxicity in the exposed organisms.
BibTeX:
@article{KumarS2013,
  author = {Kumar S, Pandey RK, Das S, Das VK},
  title = {Temperature dependent mortality and behavioral changes in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis to dimethoate exposure.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {165-70}
}
Kumari B, Kathpal TS Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet. 2009 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 151(1-4), pp. 19-26. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet.
BibTeX:
@article{KumariB2009,
  author = {Kumari B, Kathpal TS.},
  title = {Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {151(1-4)},
  pages = {19-26.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0210-0}
}
Kundu A, Shakil NA, Saxena DB, Kumar J, Walia S Microwave assisted solvent-free synthesis and biological activities of novel imines (Schiff bases). 2009 J Environ Sci Health B.
Vol. 44(5), pp. 428-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: Twelve new ortho-Hydroxyketimines were synthesized by conventional as well as microwave method and evaluated for their antinemic activity against Meloidogyne incognita [(Kofoid and White) Chitwood]. Conventional methods for synthesis of Schiff bases require refluxing at 140 degrees C of the reactants in different solvents for at least 24 h or more, where as the microwave-assisted synthesis has brought down the reaction time from 24 h to 1 minute. The procedure reported is simple as it does not require any organic solvents and the time has been reduced to only 1 minute. Comparative yields of all compounds by different methods revealed that the yield was low in conventional method (79-87%) as compared to microwave assisted synthesis (94-97%). The bioassay revealed that all the test compounds exhibited promising nematicidal activity; N-propyl-2-hydroxypropiophenonimine being the most effective with LC(50) value of 74.46 mgL(-1) followed by N-hexyl-2-hydroxyacetophenonimine with LC(50) value of 99.60 mgL(-1) after 72 h of exposure. The results obtained from bioassay indicated that this class of compounds has not only given a lead with regard to potential of Schiff bases in pest control, but has suggested that a carbon chain length of 6 atoms in the side chain is optimum on the basis of structure activity relationship (SAR).
BibTeX:
@article{KunduA2009,
  author = {Kundu A, Shakil NA, Saxena DB, Kumar J, Walia S.},
  title = {Microwave assisted solvent-free synthesis and biological activities of novel imines (Schiff bases).},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {44(5)},
  pages = {428-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601230902934645}
}
Chowdhury MA The controlled release of bioactive compounds from lignin and lignin-based biopolymer matrices. 2014 Int J Biol Macromol., pp. 136-47  article DOI  
Abstract: This article presents the perspectives on the lignin-based controlled release (CR) of bioactive materials which are based on the researches that took place over the last three decades. It encompasses three broad spectra of observations: CR formulations with mixed-matrix of lignin; CR formulations with modified lignin; and the lignin-based CR formulation modelling. The article covers a range of bioactive materials aimed for agricultural utilisations viz. herbicides, pesticides, insecticides and fertilisers for their controlled release studies, which were formulated either with lignin or lignin-based biopolymers. The inherent complexities, structural heterogeneities, and the presence of myriad range of functionalities in the lignin structure make it difficult to understand and explaining the underlying CR behaviour and process. In conjunction to this issue, the fundamental aspects of the synthetic and biocompatible polymer-based drug controlled release process are presented, and correlated with the lignin-based CR research. The articulation of this correlation and the overview presented in this article may be complemented of the future lignin-based CR research gaining better insights, reflections, and understanding. A recommended approach on the lignin depolymerisation is suggested to fragmenting the lignin, which may be tailored further using the re-polymerisation or other synthetic approaches. Thus it may allow more control with flexibilities and improved properties of the modified lignin materials, and help achieve the desired CR outcomes.
BibTeX:
@article{MA.2014,
  author = {Chowdhury MA.},
  title = {The controlled release of bioactive compounds from lignin and lignin-based biopolymer matrices.},
  journal = {Int J Biol Macromol.},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {136-47},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.01.012}
}
Madhu SK, Vijayan VA, Shaukath AK Bioactivity guided isolation of mosquito larvicide from Piper longum. 2011 Asian Pac J Trop Med.
Vol. 4(2), pp. 112-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To isolate the larvicidal component from the fruits of Piper longum (P. longum) against the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus).
METHODS:
Pulverized fruits of P. longum were subjected to soxhlet extraction using series of organic solvents of increasing polarity. All the solvent extracts were verified for their larvicidal efficacy against 4th instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus employing standard WHO procedure. Bioassay-guided fractionation through column chromatography lead to the isolation of a bioactive amide, pipyahyine from the petroleum ether extract.
RESULTS:
Petroleum ether extract was found to be the most active fraction among all the extracts tested with LC(50) and LC(90) being 1.03 and 2.04 ppm respectively. Whereas, pipyahyine, an isolated component of the same fraction was found to be even more effective than the parent extract in terms of LC(50) being 0.58 and 1.88 ppm respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
From the results, it is evident that P. longum can be considered as a powerful arsenal for the control of mosquito population.
BibTeX:
@article{MadhuSK2011,
  author = {Madhu SK, Vijayan VA, Shaukath AK},
  title = {Bioactivity guided isolation of mosquito larvicide from Piper longum.},
  journal = {Asian Pac J Trop Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4(2)},
  pages = {112-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60048-5}
}
Madhumitha G, Rajakumar G, Roopan SM, Rahuman AA, Priya KM, Saral AM, Khan FR, Khanna VG,Velayutham K, Jayaseelan C, Kamaraj C, Elango G Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa and its compounds against blood-feeding parasites. 2012 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 111(5), pp. 2189-99 
article DOI  
Abstract: Plant products may be alternative sources of parasitic control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are eco-friendly and nontoxic products. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) extracted by immersion method exhibited adulticidal activity against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae) and the hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and larvicidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of A. squamosa fruit peel aqueous extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent of peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa was identified as 1H- cycloprop[e]azulen-7-ol decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-[1ar-(1a?,4a?, 7?, 7 a, ?, 7b?)] (28.55%) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The other major constituents present in the aqueous extract were retinal 9-cis- (12.61%), 3,17-dioxo-4-androsten-11alpha-yl hydrogen succinate (6.86%), 1-naphthalenepentanol decahydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-y,2-bis(methylene)-(1?,4a?,5?,8a?) (14.83%), 1-naphthalenemethanol decahydro -5-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-pentenyl)- 1,4a-di methyl - 6-methylene -(1S-[1?, 4a?, 5?(E), 8a?] (4.44%), (-)-spathulenol (20.75%), podocarp-7-en-3-one13?-methyl-13-vinyl- (5.98%), and 1-phenanthrene carboxaldehyde 7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,4a,7-trimethyl-[1R-(1?,4a?.4b?,7?, 10a?)]-(5.98%). The adult and larval parasitic mortalities observed in fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa were 31, 59, 80, 91, and100%; 27, 42, 66, 87, and 100%; and 33, 45, 68, 92, and 100% at the concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm, respectively, against Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, and R. microplus. The observed larvicidal efficacies were 36, 55, 72, 92, 100% and 14, 34, 68, 89, and 100% at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 ppm, respectively, against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. The highest parasite mortality was found after 24 h of exposure against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (LC(50)?=?404.51 ppm, r (2)?=?0.890), Hippobosca maculata (LC(50)?=?600.75 ppm, r (2)?=?0.983), the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?=?548.28 ppm, r (2)?=?0.975), fourth-instar larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50)?=?327.27 pm, r (2)?=?0.970), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?=?456.29 ppm, r (2)?=?0.974), respectively. The control (distilled water) showed nil mortality in the concurrent assay. The ? (2) values were significant at p?
BibTeX:
@article{MadhumithaG2012,
  author = {Madhumitha G, Rajakumar G, Roopan SM, Rahuman AA, Priya KM, Saral AM, Khan FR, Khanna VG,Velayutham K, Jayaseelan C, Kamaraj C, Elango G},
  title = {Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa and its compounds against blood-feeding parasites.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {111(5)},
  pages = {2189-99},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2671-2}
}
Magadum S, Mondal DB, Ghosh S Comparative efficacy of Annona squamosa and Azadirachta indica extracts against Boophilus microplus Izatnagar isolate. 2009 Parasitol Res
Vol. 105(4), pp. 1085-91 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the search of developing herbal acaricides, eight medicinal plants were screened for their efficacy against Boophilus microplus, the widely distributed tick species in India. Of the seven extracts screened, the extracts prepared from the Annona squamosa seed showed very high level of efficacy (70.8%) after 24 h of treatment. The effect of treatment on oviposition of the survived ticks was also assessed, and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the reproductive index was noted in comparison to control. When efficacy of the in vitro optimized concentration of A. squamosa was compared with previously tested extract of Azadirachta indica in in vivo model, it was observed that the extracts prepared from A. indica is more efficacious than the extracts of A. squamosa. A comparable efficacy against B. microplus fed on animals treated with herbal extracts and commonly used synthetic acaricide was noted. The possibility of using the herbal extracts in IPM format for the management of ticks is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{MagadumS2009,
  author = {Magadum S, Mondal DB, Ghosh S.},
  title = {Comparative efficacy of Annona squamosa and Azadirachta indica extracts against Boophilus microplus Izatnagar isolate.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {105(4)},
  pages = {1085-91},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1529-3}
}
Mahesh Kumar P, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Subramaniam J, Amaresan D Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum (Family: Solanaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis, against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). 2012 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 110(6), pp. 2541-50 
article DOI  
Abstract: The bio-efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis, were assessed against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus, under the laboratory conditions. The medicinal plants were collected from the outskirt Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The shade dried plant materials were extracted by employing the Soxhlet apparatus with ethanol (organic solvent) for 8 h and filtered. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. Both S. xanthocarpum and B. thuringiensis show varied degree of larvicidal and pupicidal activity against various stages of C. quinquefasciatus. The LC(50) and LC(90) of S. xanthocarpum against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae were 155.29, 198.32, 271.12, 377.44, and 448.41 ppm and 687.14, 913.10, 1,011.89, 1,058.85, and 1,141.65 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the LC(50) values of B. thuringiensis against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae were 133.88, 157.14, 179.44, 206.80, and 240.74 ppm; the LC(90) values were 321.04, 346.89, 388.86, 430.95, and 492.70 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of S. xanthocarpum?+?B. thuringiensis (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal and pupicidal activity of the LC(50) values 126.81, 137.62, 169.14, 238.27, and 316.02 ppm and the LC(90) values 476.36, 613.49, 705.29, 887.85, and 1,041.73 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. Therefore, the present investigation clearly exhibit that both S. xanthocarpum and B. thuringiensis materials could serve as a potential of highest mortality rate against the mosquito larvae laboratory as well as the field conditions. Since C. quinquefasciatus is a ditch breeder vector mosquito, this is a user and eco-friendly biopesticide for the control of mosquito vector management program.
BibTeX:
@article{MaheshKumarP2012,
  author = {Mahesh Kumar P, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Subramaniam J, Amaresan D.},
  title = {Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum (Family: Solanaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis, against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {110(6)},
  pages = {2541-50},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2797-2}
}
Malhotra A, Dhawan DK Current view of zinc as a hepatoprotective agent in conditions of chlorpyrifos induced toxicity. 2014 Pestic Biochem Physiol.  article DOI  
Abstract: Human population bears the brunt of deadly hepatotoxic, neurodegenerative, behavioural and various other developmental disorders due to pesticide toxicity through environmental or occupational exposures. The application of pesticides to control pests in land and water has posed potential health hazards to live stock and wildlife including fishes, mammals, birds and humans. Therefore, various scientific approaches are being considered to tackle the problem of pesticide poisoning especially in developing economies. The role of essential trace elements as the promising and efficient preventive prophylactic agents without any toxicity and side effects in attenuating the adverse effects caused by pesticides, have been reported by various scientists, the world over. In this perspective, zinc, a key constituent of more than 300 mammalian enzymes and many transcription factors has proved its protective potential in various models of animal toxicity. The hepato-protective potential of zinc has been proved during various toxic states including pesticide toxicity. However, zinc warrants further examination with regard to documentation of specific molecular pathways to establish the exact mechanisms for zinc-mediated protection during pesticide toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{MalhotraA2014,
  author = {Malhotra A, Dhawan DK},
  title = {Current view of zinc as a hepatoprotective agent in conditions of chlorpyrifos induced toxicity.},
  journal = {Pestic Biochem Physiol.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.04.007}
}
Malik AK, Aulakh JS, Kaur V Capillary electrophoretic analysis of organic pollutants. 2008 Methods Mol Biol
Vol. 384, pp. 93-118 
article DOI  
Abstract: Environmental pollutants comprise a variety of compounds from inorganic anions, cations, ionizable organic compounds and moderately hydrophobic organic compounds to highly hydrophobic organic compounds. Correspondingly different separation strategies are required for their separation. In this chapter, we have presented some methods for the separation and the analysis of the organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenoxy acids, dithiocarbamates, paraquat and diquat, endocrine disruptors, toxins and explosives.
BibTeX:
@article{MalikAK2008,
  author = {Malik AK, Aulakh JS, Kaur V.},
  title = {Capillary electrophoretic analysis of organic pollutants.},
  journal = {Methods Mol Biol},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {384},
  pages = {93-118},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-376-9_5}
}
Mandarapu R, Prakhya BM In vitro myelotoxic effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on human hematopoietic progenitor cells. 2014 J Immunotoxicol.  article  
Abstract: Abstract In the past two decades, hematologic and immunologic disorders in humans have been increasingly reported as a result of pesticide exposures. Therefore, safety assessment is required to assess the effects on hematopoiesis and thus on the immune system in addition to routine toxicity evaluation. Currently, the data available on effects of pesticides on hematopoiesis in humans is limited. In the study here, cypermethrin and mancozeb were evaluated for their possible effects on hematopoiesis in vitro. Hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells from human cord blood were isolated and then exposed for 14 days to cypermethrin or mancozeb at non-cytotoxic doses (0.9-16?µM), and the effect on hematopoiesis screened via a methylcellulose-based clonogenic assay. Results indicated there were significant concentration-related decreases in clonogenic potentials of erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage colony formation. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) value with erythroid progenitors for cypermethrin was 8.7 [±0.2?µM; mean [± SE]) and for mancozeb 6.2 [±0.2] µM. Similarly, IC50 values with granulocyte-macrophage progenitors for cypermethrin and mancozeb were 19.2 [±1.0] and 8.1 [±0.2] µM, respectively. These data suggest that erythroid progenitors are perhaps more sensitive to these pesticides. Still, further studies are needed to understand the functional significance of these in vitro findings. For now, these data, albeit preliminary, emphasize the need to include an expanded battery of tests to understand effects on immune parameters in pre-clinical safety studies with pesticides. This study also emphasizes the utility of human cord blood in assessing potential effects on hematopoiesis in vitro.
BibTeX:
@article{MandarapuR2014,
  author = {Mandarapu R, Prakhya BM.},
  title = {In vitro myelotoxic effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on human hematopoietic progenitor cells.},
  journal = {J Immunotoxicol.},
  year = {2014}
}
Manickam N, Bajaj A, Saini HS, Shanker R Surfactant mediated enhanced biodegradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers by Sphingomonas sp. NM05. 2012 Biodegradation.
Vol. 23(5), pp. 673-82 
article  
Abstract: Environmental biodegradation of several chlorinated pesticides is limited by their low solubility and sorption to soil surfaces. To mitigate this problem we quantified the effect of three biosurfactant viz., rhamnolipid, sophorolipid and trehalose-containing lipid on the dissolution, bioavailability, and biodegradation of HCH-isomers in liquid culture and in contaminated soil. The effect of biosurfactants was evaluated through the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value as determined for each isomer. The surfactant increased the solubilization of HCH isomers by 3-9 folds with rhamnolipid and sophorolipid being more effective and showing maximum solubilization of HCH isomers at 40 ?g/mL, compared to trehalose-containing lipid showing peak solubilization at 60 ?g/mL. The degradation of HCH isomers by Sphingomonas sp. NM05 in surfactant-amended liquid mineral salts medium showed 30% enhancement in 2 days as compared to degradation in 10 days in the absence of surfactant. HCH-spiked soil slurry incubated with surfactant also showed around 30-50% enhanced degradation of HCH which was comparable to the corresponding batch culture experiments. Among the three surfactants, sophorolipid offered highest solubilization and enhanced degradation of HCH isomers both in liquid medium and soil culture. The results of this study suggest the effectiveness of surfactants in improving HCH degradation by increased bioaccessibility.
BibTeX:
@article{ManickamN2012,
  author = {Manickam N, Bajaj A, Saini HS, Shanker R},
  title = {Surfactant mediated enhanced biodegradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers by Sphingomonas sp. NM05.},
  journal = {Biodegradation.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {23(5)},
  pages = {673-82}
}
Manickam N, Ghosh A, Jain RK, Mayilraj S Description of a novel indole-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas indoloxydans sp. nov., isolated from a pesticide-contaminated site. 2008 Syst Appl Microbiol.
Vol. 31(2), pp. 101-7. 
article DOI  
Abstract: A Gram-negative, deep brown-pigmented Gammaproteobacteria, strain IPL-1(T), capable of oxidizing indole was isolated from a lindane-contaminated site and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Most of the physiological and biochemical properties, major fatty acids (C(18:1)omega7c, C(16:1)omega7c/iso C(15:0) 2OH and C(16:0)), estimated DNA G+C content (67.2mol%) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain IPL-1(T) belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. Strain IPL-1(T) exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes (99.0%), followed by Pseudomonas alcaliphila (98.7%), Pseudomonas oleovorans (98.3%), Pseudomonas nitroreducens (98.0%), Pseudomonas mendocina (97.6%) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (97.4%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain IPL-1(T) and the closely related taxa were between 22% and 61%. On the basis of differential phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness, strain IPL-1(T) should be classified within the genus Pseudomonas as a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas indoloxydans is proposed. The type strain is IPL-1(T) (=MTCC 8062(T)=JCM 14246(T)).
BibTeX:
@article{ManickamN2008,
  author = {Manickam N, Ghosh A, Jain RK, Mayilraj S.},
  title = {Description of a novel indole-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas indoloxydans sp. nov., isolated from a pesticide-contaminated site.},
  journal = {Syst Appl Microbiol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {31(2)},
  pages = {101-7.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2008.02.002}
}
Manickam N, Pathak A, Saini HS, Mayilraj S, Shanker R Metabolic profiles and phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities from chlorinated pesticides contaminated sites of different geographical habitats of India. 2010 J Appl Microbiol.
Vol. 109(4), pp. 1458-68 
article DOI  
Abstract: AIMS:
To study the microbial communities in three sites contaminated with chlorinated pesticidesand evaluation of dehydrodechlorinase (linA) gene variants involved in gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH, lindane) degradation.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Using a culture-independent method, 16S rRNA genes were amplified from microbial communities occurring in contaminated soils. From 375 clone libraries analysed, 55 different restriction fragment length polymorphism phylotypes were obtained. Dehydrodechlorinase (linA) gene, which initiates the ?-HCH degradation, was directly amplified by PCR from the DNA extracted from soils. Deduced amino acid sequences of eight variant genotypes of linA showed few amino acid changes. All the variants of linA had mutations of F151L and S154T, and one of the genotype carried 12 amino acid changes when compared to a linA of Sphingomonas sp. reported from the same soil.
CONCLUSIONS:
The microbial communities displayed complex and diverse groups similar to bacteria involved in biodegradation. The presence of biodegradative genes like linA indicates the presence of communities with capacity to biodegrade the persistent pesticide HCH.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:
This study provides insights to evaluate the presence of catabolic genes and assessing the bioremediation potential of the industrial soils contaminated by chlorinated pesticides.
BibTeX:
@article{ManickamN2010,
  author = {Manickam N, Pathak A, Saini HS, Mayilraj S, Shanker R.},
  title = {Metabolic profiles and phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities from chlorinated pesticides contaminated sites of different geographical habitats of India.},
  journal = {J Appl Microbiol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {109(4)},
  pages = {1458-68},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04781.x}
}
Marimuthu G, Rajamohan S, Mohan R, Krishnamoorthy Y Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (L.) Gamble (family: Fabaceae) against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae) vector mosquitoes. 2012 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 111(1), pp. 65-77 
article DOI  
Abstract: Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Delonix elata against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of D. elata against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 93.59 and 111.83, and 163.69 and 202.77 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against two mosquitoes with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 115.28 and 139.04, and 225.07 and 273.03 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 300 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 500 ppm for seed methanol extract of D. elata against A. stephensi and A. aegypti, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activities of the reported D. elata plant.
BibTeX:
@article{MarimuthuG2012,
  author = {Marimuthu G, Rajamohan S, Mohan R, Krishnamoorthy Y.},
  title = {Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (L.) Gamble (family: Fabaceae) against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae) vector mosquitoes.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {111(1)},
  pages = {65-77},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2802-9}
}
Marimuthu S, Rahuman AA, Santhoshkumar T, Jayaseelan C, Kirthi AV, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Elango G,Zahir AA, Rajakumar G, Velayutham K Lousicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Lawsonia inermis leaf aqueous extract against Pediculus humanus capitis and Bovicola ovis. 2012 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 111(5), pp. 2023-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the present work, we describe inexpensive, nontoxic, unreported and simple procedure for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis as eco-friendly reducing and capping agent. The aim of the present study was to assess the lousicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs against human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), and sheep body louse, Bovicola ovis Schrank (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity and impregnated method was used with slight modifications to improve practicality and efficiency of tested materials of synthesized Ag NPs against B. ovis. The synthesized Ag NPs characterized with the UV showing peak at 426 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the silver with lattice constants. XRD analysis showed intense peaks at 2? values of 38.34°, 44.59°, 65.04°, and 77.77° corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) Bragg's reflection based on the fcc structure of Ag NPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of Ag NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,422.13, 2,924.12, 2,851.76, 1,631.41, 1,381.60, 1,087.11, and 789.55 cm(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph showed mean size of 59.52 nm and aggregates of spherical shape Ag NPs. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring percent mortality effects of synthesized Ag NPs were 26, 61, 84, and 100 at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. The average percent mortality for synthesized Ag NPs was 33, 84, 91, and 100 at 10, 15, 20, and 35 min, respectively against B. ovis. The maximum activity was observed in the aqueous leaf extract of L. inermis, 1 mM AgNO(3) solution, and synthesized Ag NPs against P. humanus capitis with LC(50) values of 18.26, 7.77, and 1.33 mg l(-1) and r (2) values of 0.863, 0.900, and 0.803 and against B. ovis showed with LC(50) values of 21.19, 8.49, and 1.41 mg l(-1) and r (2) values of 0.920, 0.938 and 0.870, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized Ag NPs possess excellent anti-lousicidal activity.
BibTeX:
@article{MarimuthuS2012,
  author = {Marimuthu S, Rahuman AA, Santhoshkumar T, Jayaseelan C, Kirthi AV, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Elango G,Zahir AA, Rajakumar G, Velayutham K.},
  title = {Lousicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Lawsonia inermis leaf aqueous extract against Pediculus humanus capitis and Bovicola ovis.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {111(5)},
  pages = {2023-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2667-y}
}
Masih I, Fahmi N, Rajkumar Template synthesis, spectroscopic studies, antimicrobial, nematicidal and pesticidal activities of chromium(III) macrocyclic complexes. 2013 J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem.
Vol. 28(1), pp. 33-40 
article DOI  
Abstract: A new series of Cr(III) macrocyclic complexes have been synthesized by template condensation of ligands 2-[4-chloro-2-(2-oxo-1,2-diphenyl-ethylideneamino)-phenylimino]-1,2-diphenyl-ethanone (ML(1)) and 2-[4-fluro-2-(2-oxo-1,2-diphenyl-ethylideneamino)-phenylimino]-1,2-diphenyl-ethanone (ML(2)) respectively, with appropriate diamines i.e. 1,2-phenylenediamine, 4- chloro 1,2-phenylenediamine and 4-fluro- 1,2-phenylenediamine in the presence of CrCl(3).6H(2)O. The ligands and their complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molecular weight determinations, conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral studies including IR, ESR, electronic spectra and X-ray powder diffraction studies. On the basis of these studies, a six-coordinated octahedral geometry has been proposed for all these complexes. The newly synthesized ligands and their complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial, nematicidal and pesticidal activities. The results are indeed positive.
BibTeX:
@article{MasihI2013,
  author = {Masih I, Fahmi N, Rajkumar.},
  title = {Template synthesis, spectroscopic studies, antimicrobial, nematicidal and pesticidal activities of chromium(III) macrocyclic complexes.},
  journal = {J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {28(1)},
  pages = {33-40},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14756366.2011.625022}
}
Megharaj M, Ramakrishnan B, Venkateswarlu K, Sethunathan N, Naidu R Bioremediation approaches for organic pollutants: a critical perspective. 2011 Environ Int.
Vol. 37(8), pp. 1362-75 
article DOI  
Abstract: Due to human activities to a greater extent and natural processes to some extent, a large number of organic chemical substances such as petroleum hydrocarbons, halogenated and nitroaromatic compounds, phthalate esters, solvents and pesticides pollute the soil and aquatic environments. Remediation of these polluted sites following the conventional engineering approaches based on physicochemical methods is both technically and economically challenging. Bioremediation that involves the capabilities of microorganisms in the removal of pollutants is the most promising, relatively efficient and cost-effective technology. However, the current bioremediation approaches suffer from a number of limitations which include the poor capabilities of microbial communities in the field, lesser bioavailability of contaminants on spatial and temporal scales, and absence of bench-mark values for efficacy testing of bioremediation for their widespread application in the field. The restoration of all natural functions of some polluted soils remains impractical and, hence, the application of the principle of function-directed remediation may be sufficient to minimize the risks of persistence and spreading of pollutants. This review selectively examines and provides a critical view on the knowledge gaps and limitations in field application strategies, approaches such as composting, electrobioremediation and microbe-assisted phytoremediation, and the use of probes and assays for monitoring and testing the efficacy of bioremediation of polluted sites.
BibTeX:
@article{MegharajM2011,
  author = {Megharaj M, Ramakrishnan B, Venkateswarlu K, Sethunathan N, Naidu R.},
  title = {Bioremediation approaches for organic pollutants: a critical perspective.},
  journal = {Environ Int.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {37(8)},
  pages = {1362-75},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.06.003}
}
Mehta KD, Garg GR, Mehta AK, Arora T, Sharma AK, Khanna N, Tripathi AK, Sharma KK Reversal of propoxur-induced impairment of memory and oxidative stress by 4'-chlorodiazepam in rats. 2010 Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol.
Vol. 381(1), pp. 1-10 
article DOI  
Abstract: Carbamate pesticides like propoxur have been shown to adversely affect memory and induce oxidative stress on both acute and chronic exposure. The present study was designed to explore the modulation of the effects of propoxur over cognitive function by progesterone (PROG) and 4'-chlorodiazepam (4CD). Cognitive function was assessed using step-down latency (SDL) on a passive avoidance apparatus, transfer latency (TL) on a plus maze and spatial navigation test on Morris water maze. Oxidative stress was assessed by examining brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity. A significant reduction in SDL and prolongation of TL and spatial navigation test was found for the propoxur (10 mg/kg/d; p.o.) treated group at weeks 6 and 7 as compared with control. One-week treatment with 4CD (0.5 mg/kg/d; i.p.) antagonized the effect of propoxur on SDL, spatial navigation test as well as TL; whereas, PROG failed to modulate this effect at a dose of 15 mg/kg/d, i.p. Propoxur produced a statistically significant increase in the brain MDA levels and decrease in the brain GSH levels and CAT activity. Treatment with 4CD at the above dose attenuated the effect of propoxur on oxidative stress whereas PROG (15 mg/kg/d; i.p.) failed to influence the same. The results of the present study thus show that 4-CD has the potential to attenuate cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by toxicants like propoxur in the brain.
BibTeX:
@article{MehtaKD2010,
  author = {Mehta KD, Garg GR, Mehta AK, Arora T, Sharma AK, Khanna N, Tripathi AK, Sharma KK},
  title = {Reversal of propoxur-induced impairment of memory and oxidative stress by 4'-chlorodiazepam in rats.},
  journal = {Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {381(1)},
  pages = {1-10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-009-0475-z}
}
Mishra K, Sharma RC, Kumar S Organochlorine pollutants in human blood and their relation with age, gender and habitat from North-east India. 2011 Chemosphere.
Vol. 85(3), pp. 454-64 
article DOI  
Abstract: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been beneficial to man and environment but their inadvertent use has caused considerable harm to human health. Despite the proliferation of different types of pesticides, organochlorines such as HCH and DDT still account for two third of the total consumption in India because of their low cost and versatility in action again various pests. Since, Assam, a state in North-eastern part of India is an endemic area with perennial transmission where mosquito borne diseases are serious health problems; these pesticides are still being used in huge quantities in vector control as well as in agriculture. A total of 331 human blood samples were collected from district Nagaon and Dibrugarh of Assam to determine the residue levels of DDT and HCH in human blood. The concentrations of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants were measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. The results demonstrated that the mean levels of total DDT and HCH were 743 ?g L(-1) and 627 ?g L(-1) for district Nagaon while 417 ?g L(-1) and 348 ?g L(-1) for district Dibrugarh. The difference of total HCH and total DDT between these two districts was found to be highly significant (P<0.0001). Among DDT metabolites, the same trend was observed for both the districts as p,p-DDT was the principal component contributed 41% for Nagaon and 58% for Dibrugarh. In case of HCH residues, for Nagaon, ?-HCH was the predominant contaminant comprised more than 34% while for Dibrugarh, it was ?-HCH that was contributing 43% of total HCH concentration.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraK2011,
  author = {Mishra K, Sharma RC, Kumar S},
  title = {Organochlorine pollutants in human blood and their relation with age, gender and habitat from North-east India.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {85(3)},
  pages = {454-64},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.07.074}
}
Mishra M, Sharma A, Shukla AK, Kumar R, Dwivedi UN, Kar Chowdhuri D Genotoxicity of dichlorvos in strains of Drosophila melanogaster defective in DNA repair. 2014 Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen  article DOI  
Abstract: Dichlorvos (DDVP), an organophosphate pesticide, is reported to be genotoxic at high concentrations. However, the roles of DNA damage repair pathways in DDVP genotoxicity are not well characterized. To test whether pre- and post-replication pathways are involved, we measured changes in DNA migration (Comet assay) in the midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R+ larvae and in some mutants of pre- (mei-9, mus201, and mus207) and post- (mei-41 and mus209)replication DNA repair pathways. Insects were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DDVP (up to 15ng/ml) for 48h. After insect exposure to 0.15ng/ml DDVP, we observed greater DNA damage in pre-replication repair mutants; effects on Oregon R+ and post-replication repair mutants were insignificant. In contrast, significant DNA damage was observed in the post-replication repair mutants after their exposure to 1.5 and 15ng/ml DDVP. The pre-replication repair mutant mus207 showed maximum sensitivity to DDVP, suggestive of alkylation damage to DNA. We also examined mutants (SOD- and urate-null) that are sensitive to oxidative stress and the results indicate that significant oxidative DNA damage occurs in DDVP-exposed mutants. This study suggests involvement of both pre- and post-replication repair pathways against DDVP-induced DNA damage in Drosophila, with oxidative DNA damage leading to genotoxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{MishraM2014,
  author = {Mishra M, Sharma A, Shukla AK, Kumar R, Dwivedi UN, Kar Chowdhuri D},
  title = {Genotoxicity of dichlorvos in strains of Drosophila melanogaster defective in DNA repair.},
  journal = {Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.02.004}
}
Mohan L, Sharma P, Srivastava CN Combination larvicidal action of Solanum xanthocarpum extract and certain synthetic insecticides against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (SAY). 2010 Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health.
Vol. 41(2), pp. 311-9. 
article  
Abstract: The combination activities of temephos, fenthion and petroleum ether extract of Solanum xanthocarpum were observed for their larvicidal activities against Culex quinquefasciatus. The combination of temephos and S. xanthocarpum was studied at ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4. Similar ratios were also used for the combination of fenthion and S. xanthocarpum. The temephos/plant extract combination acted antagonistically. The combination of fenthion and plant extract acted synergistically against the target organisms at a ratio of 1:1, which showed the best results of: LC50 0.0144 and 0.0056 ppm and LC90 0.0958 and 0.0209 ppm at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The present study will be helpful in developing a commercial formulation for effective vector management.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanL2010,
  author = {Mohan L, Sharma P, Srivastava CN.},
  title = {Combination larvicidal action of Solanum xanthocarpum extract and certain synthetic insecticides against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (SAY).},
  journal = {Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {41(2)},
  pages = {311-9.}
}
Mohanraj R1, Kumar S, Manikandan S, Kannaiyan V, Vijayakumar L A public health initiative for reducing access to pesticides as a means to committing suicide: Findings from a qualitative study. 2014 Int Rev Psychiatry.
Vol. 26(4), pp. 445-52 
article DOI  
Abstract: Abstract Widespread use of pesticides among farmers in rural India, provides an easy means for suicide. A public health initiative involving storage of pesticides in a central storage facility could be a possible strategy for reducing mortality and morbidity related to pesticide poisoning. This qualitative study explored community perceptions towards a central pesticide storage facility in villages in rural South India. Sixteen focus group discussions held with consenting adults from intervention and control villages were followed by eight more a year after initiation of the storage facility. Analysis revealed four themes, namely, reasons for committing suicide and methods used, exposure to pesticides and first-aid practices, storage and disposal of pesticides, and perceptions towards the storage facility. The facility was appreciated as a means of preventing suicides and for providing a safe haven for pesticide storage. The participatory process that guided its design, construction and location ensured its acceptability. Use of qualitative methods helped provide deep insights into the phenomenon of pesticide suicide and aided the understanding of community perceptions towards the storage facility. The study suggests that communal storage of pesticides could be an important step towards reducing pesticide suicides in rural areas.
BibTeX:
@article{MohanrajR12014,
  author = {Mohanraj R1, Kumar S, Manikandan S, Kannaiyan V, Vijayakumar L.},
  title = {A public health initiative for reducing access to pesticides as a means to committing suicide: Findings from a qualitative study.},
  journal = {Int Rev Psychiatry.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {26(4)},
  pages = {445-52},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2014.924094}
}
Mohanty G, Mohanty J, Nayak AK, Mohanty S, Dutta SK Application of comet assay in the study of DNA damage and recovery in rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings after an exposure to phorate, an organophosphate pesticide. 2011 Ecotoxicology.
Vol. 20(1), pp. 283-92 
article DOI  
Abstract: Labeo rohita (rohu) fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.001, 0.002 and 0.01 ppm) of phorate, an organophosphate pesticide; samplings were done at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The study was carried out to evaluate tissue specific genotoxic effects produced by phorate, on three different tissue systems and to assess DNA repair response in fish. Results of tissue specific DNA damage experiments showed low baseline damage in blood cells followed by gill and liver cells in control individuals whereas more DNA breaks were found in liver followed by gill and blood cells of treated individuals. Concentrations-dependent DNA damage showed a strong, linear and positive relationship (r(2) = >0.7) in all three tissues. Clear time-related increase in DNA damage was observed for all tissues exposed to all concentrations except in liver cells at 0.01 ppm, where the DNA damage declined significantly after 72 h. For the assessment of DNA repair response, fingerlings were first exposed to 0.01 ppm of phorate for 72 h and then transferred to pesticide free water. Tissue chosen for the repair experiment was liver. Samplings were done at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after the release of 72 h pesticide treated fishes into pesticide free water. Fishes showed a reduction in DNA breaks from 3 h onwards in pesticide free water and at 24 h returned to control level damage. The results indicate that phorate is a potential genotoxicant, comet assay can be used in DNA damage and repair analysis, response to pollutants in multicellular animals is often tissue specific.
BibTeX:
@article{MohantyG2011,
  author = {Mohanty G, Mohanty J, Nayak AK, Mohanty S, Dutta SK.},
  title = {Application of comet assay in the study of DNA damage and recovery in rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings after an exposure to phorate, an organophosphate pesticide.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicology.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {20(1)},
  pages = {283-92},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-010-0580-2}
}
Mohapatra S, Ahuja AK, Deepa M, Sharma D, Jagadish GK, Rashmi N Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil. 2010 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 85(3), pp. 352-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: Flubendiamide belongs to a novel class of insecticide which controls lepidopteran pest complex of cabbage such as diamondback moth, cabbage white butterfly, cluster caterpillar etc. Being a newly introduced insecticide no information is available on its residue persistence in cabbage. A study was undertaken to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in cabbage and soil following 2 applications of flubendiamide 480 SC at the recommended and double the recommended dose of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide in cabbage were 0.33 and 0.49 mg kg(-1) respectively. The residues persisted for 10 days from the both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life of 3.9 and 4.45 days, respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite of flubendiamide, was not detected in cabbage at any time during the study period. Soil sample collected from the treated field after 15 days was free from any residue of flubendiamide or its metabolite.
BibTeX:
@article{MohapatraS2010,
  author = {Mohapatra S, Ahuja AK, Deepa M, Sharma D, Jagadish GK, Rashmi N},
  title = {Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {85(3)},
  pages = {352-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0063-4}
}
Mohapatra S, Deepa M, Jagdish GK Residue dynamics of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves, mature onion bulb and soil. 2011 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 87(6), pp. 703-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Residue persistence of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves (spring onion), mature onion bulb and soil was studied following their spray applications 3 times. The applications were untreated control; tebuconazole @ 187.5 and 375 g a.i. ha(-1); quinalphos @ 300 and 600 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of tebuconazole in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.628 and 1.228 mg kg(-1). The residues of tebuconazole dissipated with the half-life of 5 and 7.7 days. The safe pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for consumption of immature onion bulb with leaves were 16 and 35 days, respectively. Initial residue deposits of quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.864 and 2.283 mg kg(-1). Loss of quinalphos residues from immature onion bulb with leaves was very fast. The residues dissipated with the half-life of 1.7 and 2.6 days and the required PHI was 5 and 11 days, respectively. At harvest mature onion bulbs were free from residues of both tebuconazole and quinalphos.
BibTeX:
@article{MohapatraS2011,
  author = {Mohapatra S, Deepa M, Jagdish GK.},
  title = {Residue dynamics of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves, mature onion bulb and soil.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {87(6)},
  pages = {703-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0403-z}
}
Morya K, Vachhrajani KD Impairment of renal structure and function following heterogeneous chemical mixture exposure in rats 2014 Indian J Exp Biol
Vol. 52(4), pp. 332-43 
article  
Abstract: Renal structural and functional alterations following an exposure to a heterogeneous chemical mixture (HCM) of phthalic acid di butyl ester, 1, 2-dichlorobenzene, cadmium chloride and chromium trioxide, administered through oral gavage in low doses (1/100 and 1/1000 of LD50 value of individual chemical) for 60 days, followed by withdrawal till 120 days resulted in significant rise in kidney lipid peroxidation and fall in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants. However, withdrawal of HCM treatment restored most of these altered parameters. Degenerative changes in the kidney included proximal convoluted tubules devoid of brush boarder with cytoplasmic blebbing, dissolution and sloughing of nuclei. Cortical glomeruli were also affected with epithelial disintegration, pyknosis of podocyte nuclei and mesengial cell hyperplasia. The morphological alterations recovered fully in the low dose compared to the high dose treatment group.
BibTeX:
@article{MoryaK2014,
  author = {Morya K, Vachhrajani KD},
  title = {Impairment of renal structure and function following heterogeneous chemical mixture exposure in rats},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {52(4)},
  pages = {332-43}
}
Mukherjee A, Rao KV, Ramesh US Predicted concentrations of biocides from antifouling paints in Visakhapatnam Harbour. 2009 J Environ Manage.
Vol. 90 Suppl 1:S, pp. 51-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: The concentrations of biocides leached from antifouling coatings are monitored in most of the developed countries. However, in India and many other developing countries, there is very little data available on the concentrations of biocides in ports and harbours. The first step was to obtain the order of magnitude levels of concentrations of biocides in the marine environment of the Visakhapatnam Harbour, and the MAM-PEC (Marine Antifoulant Model to Predict Environmental Concentrations) model was used to predict these values. The Visakhapatnam Port lies on the eastern coast of India, roughly halfway between Chennai and Kolkata, and is the largest port in India. This port is a natural harbour; the long and narrow outlet to the open sea makes it a 'poorly flushed' harbour. Predicted concentrations of tributyltin (TBT), copper, dichlofluanid, seanine, irgarol, diuron, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione were computed. The results of the computations indicate that the levels of these biocides are comparable to those in many western countries. This gives credence to the fact that persistence of TBT and some other biocides is a global problem that cannot be ignored.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeA2009,
  author = {Mukherjee A, Rao KV, Ramesh US.},
  title = {Predicted concentrations of biocides from antifouling paints in Visakhapatnam Harbour.},
  journal = {J Environ Manage.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {90 Suppl 1:S},
  pages = {51-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.018}
}
Mukherjee I, Arora S Impact analysis of IPM programs in Basmati rice by estimation of pesticideresidues. 2011 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 86(3), pp. 307-13 
article DOI  
Abstract: Samples of Basmati rice grain, soil and water were collected, from IPM and non-IPM field trials conducted at four regions of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India, for pesticide residue analysis. Out of 45 soil samples collected, only four non-IPM samples indicated the presence of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in the range of ND (<0.001) to 0.05 mg/kg. Carbendazim used at two locations of Dehradun and Kaithal was found below detectable limit (<0.05 mg/kg) in both IPM and non-IPM trials. Out of total 22 samples of water analyzed, chlorpyriphos was detected in samples from Kaithal and Pant Nagar in the range 0.003-0.006 ?L/L, alpha -endosulfan isomer was detected in the range 0.005-0.03 ?L/L and the beta-isomer in the range 0.005-0.02 ?L/L in sample from Pant Nagar and Kaithal. The residues in all the grain sample of paddy were below detectable limit (<0.001-0.05 mg/kg). The insecticides applied in IPM as well as non-IPM trials were found to be below maximum residue level (MRL).
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeI2011,
  author = {Mukherjee I, Arora S.},
  title = {Impact analysis of IPM programs in Basmati rice by estimation of pesticideresidues.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {86(3)},
  pages = {307-13},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0198-y}
}
Mukherjee I, Kumar A Phytoextraction of endosulfan a remediation technique. 2012 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 88(2), pp. 250-4 
article DOI  
Abstract: Endosulfan is a cyclodiene insecticide used all over the world for the control of various insect pests on variety of food and non crop products. Despite judicious use endosulfan has been detected in atmosphere, soil, water, sediment, surface water rain water and food stuffs, which is of concern. In view of the above the use of mustard and maize plants as potential phytoremediation inputs have been evaluated. The potential of mustard (brassica campestris Linn.) and maize (Zea Maize) to remove a organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was investigated. The disappearance rate constants of endosulfan from soil were 0.03684, 0.23490 and 0.17272 day(-1) for unplanted treatment, planted with mustard and maize, respectively, which implied that plant uptake and phytoextraction with maize and mustard contributed 47.2% and 34.5%, respectively and other degradation processes took up 38.7% and 35.9%, respectively to the removal of the applied endosulfan from soil. The accumulated endosulfan decreased by 55%-91% in soil after growing the crop plants in soil, suggesting that plant uptake and phytoextraction might be the dominant process for endosulfan removal by the plant. This plant might be utilized as an efficient, economical and ecological alternative to accelerate the removal and degradation of agro-industrial wastewater polluted with endosulfan.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeI2012,
  author = {Mukherjee I, Kumar A.},
  title = {Phytoextraction of endosulfan a remediation technique.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {88(2)},
  pages = {250-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0454-1}
}
Mukherjee P, Padhan SK, Dash S, Patel S, Mishra BK Clouding behaviour in surfactant systems. 2011 Adv Colloid Interface Sci.
Vol. 162(1-2), pp. 59-79 
article DOI  
Abstract: A study on the phenomenon of clouding and the applications of cloud point technology has been thoroughly discussed. The phase behaviour of clouding and various methods adopted for the determination of cloud point of various surfactant systems have been elucidated. The systems containing anionic, cationic, nonionic surfactants as well as microemulsions have been reviewed with respect to their clouding phenomena and the effects of structural variation in the surfactant systems have been incorporated. Additives of various natures control the clouding of surfactants. Electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, organic substances as well as ionic surfactants, when present in the surfactant solutions, play a major role in the clouding phenomena. The review includes the morphological study of clouds and their applications in the extraction of trace inorganic, organic materials as well as pesticides and protein substrates from different sources.
BibTeX:
@article{MukherjeeP2011,
  author = {Mukherjee P, Padhan SK, Dash S, Patel S, Mishra BK},
  title = {Clouding behaviour in surfactant systems.},
  journal = {Adv Colloid Interface Sci.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {162(1-2)},
  pages = {59-79},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2010.12.005}
}
Murali R, Bhalla A, Singh D, Singh S Acute pesticide poisoning: 15 years experience of a large North-West Indian hospital. 2009 Clin Toxicol (Phila).
Vol. 47(1), pp. 35-8. 
article DOI  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION:
Acute pesticide poisoning is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Better preventive and management strategies can be developed if the incidence and pattern of acute poisoning are known.
METHODS:
This retrospective study covered 15 years (1990 to 2004). The case records of all cases admitted with acute poisoning during these years were reviewed and the results compared to earlier studies.
RESULTS:
A total of 2884 patients with acute poisoning were admitted during the study period (1918 men). The mean age was 27.8 years (range 13 to 82 years). The commonest agents were anticholinesterases (35.1%) and aluminum phosphide (26.1%). A seasonal variation in anticholinesterase poisoning was observed (most cases occurring July to September) but not for aluminum phosphide. No difference in mortality was observed over different months for different agents. Maximum case fatality ratio was due to aluminum phosphide exposures followed by anticholinesterase agents. The case fatality ratios for aluminum phosphide and organophosphate poisonings declined since 2000 despite an increase in aluminum phosphide exposures. The decline in aluminum phosphide mortality may be due to limited availability of 3 gm tablets and improved intensive care.
CONCLUSIONS:
Though incidence of acute pesticide poisoning increased over decades, there has been a decline in mortality for both aluminum phosphide and anticholinesterases. There is still need for measures like integrated pesticide management, development of safer aluminum phosphide formulations, and training of farmers in spraying techniques.
BibTeX:
@article{MuraliR2009,
  author = {Murali R, Bhalla A, Singh D, Singh S.},
  title = {Acute pesticide poisoning: 15 years experience of a large North-West Indian hospital.},
  journal = {Clin Toxicol (Phila).},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {47(1)},
  pages = {35-8.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650701885807}
}
Muralidharan S, Dhananjayan V, Jayanthi P Organochlorine pesticides in commercial marine fishes of Coimbatore, India and their suitability for human consumption. 2009 Environ Res.
Vol. 109(1), pp. 15-21. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in 10 species of fishes caught at Cochin and Rameshwaram coast, and sold in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Species were selected on the basis of their regular availability throughout the year and commercial value. A total of 389 fishes were analyzed for organochlorine residues and their suitability for human consumption was evaluated. Results show varying levels of residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan and dieldrin. Among the 10 species, high concentration of pesticideresidues were recorded in Sardinella longiceps, Carangoides malabaricus, Chlorophthalmus agassizi, Saurida tumbil and Rastrelliger kanagurta. The variation in total organochlorine residues among species and between places was not significant (P>0.05). Only five species of fishes showed monthly variation in residue levels and there was no significant correlation between the body size and residue levels in the tissue. About 22% of the fishes exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRL) of total HCH prescribed by FAO/WHO for fish products. The calculated dietary intake of total HCH through consumption of C. malabaricus, C. agassizi and S. longiceps exceeded the maximum acceptable dietary intake (ADI) limits prescribed for human consumption. The present study recommends continuous monitoring of environmental contaminants in marine fishes to assess the possible impact on human health.
BibTeX:
@article{MuralidharanS2009,
  author = {Muralidharan S, Dhananjayan V, Jayanthi P.},
  title = {Organochlorine pesticides in commercial marine fishes of Coimbatore, India and their suitability for human consumption.},
  journal = {Environ Res.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {109(1)},
  pages = {15-21.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.08.006}
}
Nag SK, Raikwar MK Organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine milk. 2008 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 80(1), pp. 5-9 
article  
Abstract: Monitoring of bovine milk of different places in Bundelkhand region of India was carried out to evaluate the status of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues. Out of a total of 325 samples 206 (63.38%) were contaminated with residues of different OCPs. The average concentration of total HCH was 0.162 mg/kg. Among the different HCH isomers the frequency of occurrence of alpha-isomer was maximum followed by delta-, gamma- and beta. Endosulfan (alpha, beta, sulfate) was detected in 89 samples with mean concentration of 0.0492 mg/kg while total DDT comprising of DDT, DDE and DDD was present in 114 samples having mean concentration of 0.1724 mg/kg. Dicofol was positive in 17 samples.
BibTeX:
@article{NagSK2008,
  author = {Nag SK, Raikwar MK},
  title = {Organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine milk.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {80(1)},
  pages = {5-9}
}
Nethaji S, Sivasamy A, Thennarasu G, Saravanan S Adsorption of Malachite Green dye onto activated carbon derived from Borassus aethiopum flower biomass. 2010 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 181(1-3), pp. 271-80 
article DOI  
Abstract: In the present study, chemically prepared activated carbon derived from Borassus aethiopum flower was used as adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies were performed for the removal of Malachite Green (MG) from aqueous solutions by varying the parameters like initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, initial MG concentration and temperature with three different particle sizes such as 100 microm, 600 microm and 1000 microm. The zero point charge was 2.5 and the maximum adsorption occurred at the pH range from 6.0 to 8.0. Experimental data were analyzed by model equations such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms and it was found that the Langmuir isotherm model best fitted the adsorption data. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG, DeltaH and DeltaS were also calculated for the adsorption processes. Adsorption rate constants were determined using pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order rate equations and also Elovich model and intraparticle diffusion models. The results clearly showed that the adsorption of MG onto PFAC followed pseudo second-order model and the adsorption was both by film diffusion and by intraparticle diffusion.
BibTeX:
@article{NethajiS2010,
  author = {Nethaji S, Sivasamy A, Thennarasu G, Saravanan S},
  title = {Adsorption of Malachite Green dye onto activated carbon derived from Borassus aethiopum flower biomass.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {181(1-3)},
  pages = {271-80},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.008}
}
Niharika N, Jindal S, Kaur J, Lal R Sphingomonas indica sp. nov., isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-contaminated soil. 2012 Int J Syst Evol Microbiol.
Vol. 62(Pt 12), pp. 2997-3002 
article DOI  
Abstract: A bacterial strain, designated Dd16(T), was isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dumpsite at Lucknow, India. Cells of strain Dd16(T) were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Sphingomonas in the family Sphingomonadaceae, as it showed highest sequence similarity to Sphingomonas asaccharolytica IFO 15499(T) (95.36?%), Sphingosinicella vermicomposti YC7378(T) (95.30), 'Sphingomonas humi' PB323 (95.20?%), Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02(T) (95.14%) and Sphingomonas desiccabilis CP1D(T) (95.00%). The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c/C(16:1)?6c) C(14:0) 2-OH, summed feature 8 (C(18:1)?7c and/or C(18:1)?6c) and C(16:0). The polar lipid profile of strain Dd16(T) also corresponded to those reported for species of the genus Sphingomonas (phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and a sphingoglycolipid), again supporting its identification as a member of the genus Sphingomonas. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q(10), and sym-homospermidine was the major polyamine observed. The total DNA G+C content of strain Dd16(T) was 65.8 mol%. The results obtained on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis and after biochemical and physiological tests, clearly distinguished strain Dd16(T) from closely related members of the genus Sphingomonas. Thus, strain Dd16(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas for which the name Sphingomonas indica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Dd16(T) (?= DSM 25434(T)? = CCM 7882(T)).
BibTeX:
@article{NiharikaN2012,
  author = {Niharika N, Jindal S, Kaur J, Lal R.},
  title = {Sphingomonas indica sp. nov., isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-contaminated soil.},
  journal = {Int J Syst Evol Microbiol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {62(Pt 12)},
  pages = {2997-3002},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.033845-0}
}
Nisar K, Kumar J, Arun Kumar MB, Walia S, Shakil NA, Parsad R, Parmar BS Pesticidal seed coats based on azadirachtin-A: release kinetics, storage life and performance. 2009 Pest Manag Sci.
Vol. 65(2), pp. 175-82. 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Infestation of seeds by pests during storage leads to deterioration in quality. Seed coating is an effective option to overcome the menace. Unlike synthetic fungicidal seed coats, little is known of those based on botanicals. This study aims at developing azadirachtin-A-based pesticidal seed coats to maintain seed quality during storage.
RESULTS:
Polymer- and clay-based coats containing azadirachtin-A were prepared and evaluated for quality maintenance of soybean seed during storage. Gum acacia, gum tragacanth, rosin, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyethyl methacrylate, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Agrimer VA 6 polymers and the clay bentonite were used as carriers. The time for 50% release (t(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A into water from the seeds coated with the different coats ranged from 8.02 to 21.36 h. The half-life (T(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A in the coats on seed ranged from 4.37 to 11.22 months, as compared with 3.45 months in azadirachtin-A WP, showing an increase by a factor of nearly 1.3-3.3 over the latter. The coats apparently acted as a barrier to moisture to reduce azadirachtin-A degradation and prevented proliferation of storage fungi. Polyethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were significantly superior to the other polymers. Azadirachtin-A showed a significant positive correlation with seed germination and vigour, and negative correlation with moisture content.
CONCLUSION:
Effective polymeric carriers for seed coats based on azadirachtin-A are reported. These checked seed deterioration during storage by acting as a barrier to moisture and reduced the degradation of azadirachtin-A.
BibTeX:
@article{NisarK2009,
  author = {Nisar K, Kumar J, Arun Kumar MB, Walia S, Shakil NA, Parsad R, Parmar BS},
  title = {Pesticidal seed coats based on azadirachtin-A: release kinetics, storage life and performance.},
  journal = {Pest Manag Sci.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {65(2)},
  pages = {175-82.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.1665}
}
Nisar K, Kumar J, Shakil NA, Walia S, Parmar BS Controlled release formulations of acephate: water and soil release kinetics. 2009 J Environ Sci Health B.
Vol. 44(6), pp. 533-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Controlled release formulations of insecticide acephate (O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate) have been prepared using commercially available polyvinyl chloride, carboxy methyl cellulose and carboxy methyl cellulose with kaolinite. Kinetics of acephate release in soil and water from the different formulations was studied in comparison with the commercially available formulation 75 DF. Release from the commercial formulation was faster than the new controlled pesticide release (CR) formulations. Addition of clay in the carboxy methyl cellulose matrix reduced the rate of release. The diffusion exponent (n value) of acephate in water and soil ranged from 0.462 to 0.875 and 0.420 to 0.547 respectively in the tested formulations. The release was diffusion controlled with a half release time (T(1/2)) of 2.97 to 52.41 days in water and 2.98 to 76.38 days in soil from different matrices. The maximum release of acephate in water and soil from controlled released formulations occurred between 6.33 to 36.34 and 12.49 to 29.09 days respectively. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of acephate can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period.
BibTeX:
@article{NisarK2009a,
  author = {Nisar K, Kumar J, Shakil NA, Walia S, Parmar BS.},
  title = {Controlled release formulations of acephate: water and soil release kinetics.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {44(6)},
  pages = {533-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601230902997717}
}
Srinivas NR CYP2C19 genotype-based (R)-warfarin disposition assessment - some views on data analysis. 2009 J Clin Pharm Ther
Vol. 34(6), pp. 727-8 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{NR.2009,
  author = {Srinivas NR.},
  title = {CYP2C19 genotype-based (R)-warfarin disposition assessment - some views on data analysis.},
  journal = {J Clin Pharm Ther},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {34(6)},
  pages = {727-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2710.2009.01062.x}
}
Ojha A, Gupta Y Evaluation of genotoxic potential of commonly used organophosphate pesticides in peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats. 2014 Hum Exp Toxicol.  article  
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (CPF), methyl parathion (MPT), and malathion (MLT) are among the most extensively used organophosphate (OP) pesticides in India. DNA protein cross-links (DPC) and DNA strand breaks are toxic lesions associated with the mechanism(s) of toxicity of carcinogenic compounds. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that individual and interactive genotoxic effects of CPF, MPT, and MLT are involved in the formation of DPC and DNA strand break. The DNA strand break was measured by comet assay and expressed as DNA damage index, while DPC estimation was carried out by fluorescence emission assay. The results showed that exposure of rat lymphocytes with CPF, MPT, and MLT caused significantly marked increase in DNA damage and DPC formation in time-dependent manner. MPT caused the highest damage, and these pesticides do not potentiate the toxicity of each other.
BibTeX:
@article{OjhaA2014,
  author = {Ojha A, Gupta Y},
  title = {Evaluation of genotoxic potential of commonly used organophosphate pesticides in peripheral blood lymphocytes of rats.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2014}
}
Bansal OP Effect of three carbamate pesticides on population dynamics of soil microorganisms. 2011 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 53(3), pp. 319-24. 
article  
Abstract: The response of soil microflora to increasing concentration (300 and 500 mg kg(-1) of soil) of three carbamate pesticides, viz. Oxamyl (I); S-ethyl-N(methylcarbamoyl) oxythioacetamidate (II) and N-Phenyl-4-ethylcarbamoyl propyl carbamate (III) was determined under fields conditions over a period of 91 days. After 0,7,14,21,28,35,42,49,56,63,70,77,84,91 days of application the number of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and protozoa population was estimated in soil. All the studiedpesticides at both the rates of application initially (35-49 days after treatment, DAT) significantly decrease the population of fungi and actinomycetes and thereafter an enhancement of population occurs. Whereas bacteria population at lower dose of application initially (35-49 DAT) increased and thereafter decreased while at higher dose of pesticides population of bacteria continuously decreased. The protozoa population at both the studied concentration for all the studied pesticidesdecreased with time. The increase in bacteria population and decrease in population of fungi and actinomycetes up to 35-49 days may be due to stimulation of the mineralization rate of organic carbon and ability of bacteria to breakdown the pesticide and utilization of carbon source for their activity. The results also denote that activity of all the studied pesticides is almost same.
BibTeX:
@article{OP.2011,
  author = {Bansal OP.},
  title = {Effect of three carbamate pesticides on population dynamics of soil microorganisms.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {53(3)},
  pages = {319-24.}
}
Pal R, Ahmed T, Kumar V, Suke SG, Ray A, Banerjee BD Protective effects of different antioxidants against endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in albino rats. 2009 Indian J Exp Biol.
Vol. 47(9), pp. 723-9. 
article  
Abstract: Endosulfan exposure (8 and 16 mg/kg) to rats significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, level of reduced glutathione and increased lipid peroxidation. The primary and secondary antiSRBC antibody titers, plaque forming cells counts and delayed hypersensivity reaction, and the TH1 or TH2 cytokines levels were significantly suppressed in a dose dependent manner. L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol produced a synergistic reversal of oxidative stress parameters following endosulfan exposure. N-acetylcysteine produced significant reversal of altered oxidative stress parameters and immune response after endosulfan exposure. A significant attenuation of the oxidative stress markers and immunotoxicity with a combined therapy of L-ascorbic acid plus alpha-tocopherol and with N-acetylcysteine was clearly demonstrated by the present results.
BibTeX:
@article{PalR2009,
  author = {Pal R, Ahmed T, Kumar V, Suke SG, Ray A, Banerjee BD.},
  title = {Protective effects of different antioxidants against endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in albino rats.},
  journal = {Indian J Exp Biol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {47(9)},
  pages = {723-9.}
}
Panchal M, Rawat K, Kumar G, Kibria KM, Singh S, Kalamuddin M, Mohmmed A, Malhotra P, Tuteja R Plasmodium falciparum signal recognition particle components and anti-parasitic effect of ivermectin in blocking nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of SRP. 2014 Cell Death Dis.  article  
Abstract: Signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein complex that targets proteins to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotes. Here we report that Plasmodium falciparum SRP is composed of six polypeptides; SRP9, SRP14, SRP19, SRP54, SRP68 and SRP72 and a 303nt long SRP RNA. We generated four transgenic parasite lines expressing SRP-GFP chimeric proteins and co-localization studies showed the nucleo-cytoplasmic localization for these proteins. The evaluation of the effect of known SRP and nuclear import/export inhibitors on P. falciparum revealed that ivermectin, an inhibitor of importin ?/? mediated nuclear import inhibited the nuclear import of PfSRP polypeptides at submicromolar concentration, thereby killing the parasites. These findings provide insights into dynamic structure of P. falciparum SRP and also raise the possibility that ivermectin could be used in combination with other antimalarial agents to control the disease.
BibTeX:
@article{PanchalM2014,
  author = {Panchal M, Rawat K, Kumar G, Kibria KM, Singh S, Kalamuddin M, Mohmmed A, Malhotra P, Tuteja R},
  title = {Plasmodium falciparum signal recognition particle components and anti-parasitic effect of ivermectin in blocking nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of SRP.},
  journal = {Cell Death Dis.},
  year = {2014}
}
Pande C, Tewari G, Singh C, Singh S, Padalia RC Chemical composition of the essential oil of Feronia elephantum Correa. 2010 Nat Prod Res.
Vol. 24(19), pp. 1807-10 
article DOI  
Abstract: The essential oil composition of Feronia elephantum Correa (family: Rutaceae) was examined by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The analysis revealed the presence of 24 constituents, of which 18 constituents were identified. Trans-anethole (57.73%) and methyl chavicol (37.48%) were the major compounds, while cis-anethole, p-anisaldehyde, (E)-jasmone, methyl eugenol, ?-caryophyllene, linalool and (E)-methyl isoeugenol were also present as the minor constituents.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeC2010,
  author = {Pande C, Tewari G, Singh C, Singh S, Padalia RC},
  title = {Chemical composition of the essential oil of Feronia elephantum Correa.},
  journal = {Nat Prod Res.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {24(19)},
  pages = {1807-10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786411003752078}
}
Pandey AK, Nagpure NS, Trivedi SP, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Lakra WS Investigation on acute toxicity and behavioral changes in Channa punctatus (Bloch) due to organophosphate pesticide profenofos. 2011 Drug Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 34(4), pp. 424-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Acute toxicity of an organophosphate pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2- chlorophenyl-O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) to freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch), was studied in a static bioassay. Estimated 96-hour LC(50) of profenofos was found to be 2.68 ?gL(-1). On the basis of the obtained LC(50) values for 96-hour exposure intervals, profenofos can be rated as highly toxic to C. punctatus. Fish exposed to profenofos showed hyper excitability, discoloration, erratic swimming, and secretion of excess amounts of mucus on the body and gills with eventual exhaustion and death.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyAK2011,
  author = {Pandey AK, Nagpure NS, Trivedi SP, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Lakra WS},
  title = {Investigation on acute toxicity and behavioral changes in Channa punctatus (Bloch) due to organophosphate pesticide profenofos.},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {34(4)},
  pages = {424-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2011.585650}
}
Pandey R, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay S, Ramasesha S, Das PK Geometry and quadratic nonlinearity of charge transfer complexes in solution using depolarized hyper-Rayleigh scattering. 2011 J Chem Phys.
Vol. 134(4):, pp. 044533. 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report large quadratic nonlinearity in a series of 1:1 molecular complexes between methyl substituted benzene donors and quinone acceptors in solution. The first hyperpolarizability, ?(HRS), which is very small for the individual components, becomes large by intermolecular charge transfer (CT) interaction between the donor and the acceptor in the complex. In addition, we have investigated the geometry of these CT complexes in solution using polarization resolved hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS). Using linearly (electric field vector along X direction) and circularly polarized incident light, respectively, we have measured two macroscopic depolarization ratios D=I(2?,X,X)/I(2?,Z,X) and D(')=I(2?,X,C)/I(2?,Z,C) in the laboratory fixed XYZ frame by detecting the second harmonic scattered light in a polarization resolved fashion. The experimentally obtained first hyperpolarizability, ?(HRS), and the value of macroscopic depolarization ratios, D and D('), are then matched with the theoretically deduced values from single and double configuration interaction calculations performed using the Zerner's intermediate neglect of differential overlap self-consistent reaction field technique. In solution, since several geometries are possible, we have carried out calculations by rotating the acceptor moiety around three different axes keeping the donor molecule fixed at an optimized geometry. These rotations give us the theoretical ?(HRS), D and D(') values as a function of the geometry of the complex. The calculated ?(HRS), D, and D(') values that closely match with the experimental values, give the dominant equilibrium geometry in solution. All the CT complexes between methyl benzenes and chloranil or 1,2-dichloro-4,5-dicyano-p-benzoquinone investigated here are found to have a slipped parallel stacking of the donors and the acceptors. Furthermore, the geometries are staggered and in some pairs, a twist angle as high as 30° is observed. Thus, we have demonstrated in this paper that the polarization resolved HRS technique along with theoretical calculations can unravel the geometry of CT complexes in solution.
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyR2011,
  author = {Pandey R, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay S, Ramasesha S, Das PK.},
  title = {Geometry and quadratic nonlinearity of charge transfer complexes in solution using depolarized hyper-Rayleigh scattering.},
  journal = {J Chem Phys.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {134(4):},
  pages = {044533.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3514922}
}
Pandey VK, Dwivedi A, Pandey OP, Sengupta SK Organophosphorus derivatives containing isatin-3-hydrazones as chemotherapeutants against fungal pathogens of sugarcane. 2008 J Agric Food Chem.
Vol. 56(22), pp. 10779-84 
article DOI  
Abstract: A total of 20 novel organophosphorus derivatives have been synthesized by the reactions of O,O-diethylchlorophosphate/thiophosphate with isatin-3-(substituted benzoic acid/phenoxy acetic acid hydrazones). The derivatives have been characterized on the basis of analysis and spectral (IR and (1)H and (13)C NMR) data. Fungicidal activities of the derivatives against Colletotrichum falcatum , Fusarium oxysporum , and Curvularia pallescence have been evaluated. The screening results have been correlated with the structural features of the tested compounds. The greater potency has been observed with thiophosphates compared to phosphates, with substituted phenoxy acetic acid hydrazones compared to substituted benzoic acid hydrazones, and with substitutent Cl(-) attached to the aromatic ring compared to other substitutents. O,O-Diethylchlorophosphate compounds containing isatin-3-(4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid hydrazone) (IIe) and the compound containing two molecules of O,O-diethylchlorophosphate attached to isatin-3-(4-hydroxy phenoxy acetic acid) hydrazone (IIh) were proven to be more active than some prevalent commercial synthetic fungicides
BibTeX:
@article{PandeyVK2008,
  author = {Pandey VK, Dwivedi A, Pandey OP, Sengupta SK.},
  title = {Organophosphorus derivatives containing isatin-3-hydrazones as chemotherapeutants against fungal pathogens of sugarcane.},
  journal = {J Agric Food Chem.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {56(22)},
  pages = {10779-84},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf801975z}
}
Pant D, Singh A, Satyawali Y, Gupta RK Effect of carbon and nitrogen source amendment on synthetic dyes decolourizing efficiency of white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. 2008 J Environ Biol
Vol. 29(1), pp. 79-84. 
article  
Abstract: Decolourization activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for three synthetic dyes viz., congo red, malachite green and crystal violet and impact of additional carbon and nitrogen supply on decolourization capacity of fungus were investigated. Maximum decolourizing capacity was observed up to 15 ppm. Addition of urea as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source significantly enhanced decolourizing capacity (up to 87%) of fungus. In all the cases, both colour and COD were reduced more in non-sterilized treatments as compared to sterilized ones. Significant reductions in COD content of dye solutions (79-84%) were recorded by fungus supplied with additional carbon and nitrogen. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) between colour and COD of dye solutions was recorded. Thus, a readily available carbon and nitrogen source is imperative to enhance the bioremediation activity of this fungus which has been the most suitable for synthetic dyes and textile industry wastewater treatment
BibTeX:
@article{PantD2008,
  author = {Pant D, Singh A, Satyawali Y, Gupta RK.},
  title = {Effect of carbon and nitrogen source amendment on synthetic dyes decolourizing efficiency of white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {29(1)},
  pages = {79-84.}
}
Patel S, Singh K, Singh S, Singh MP Gene expression profiles of mouse striatum in control and maneb + paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype: validation of differentially expressed energy metabolizing transcripts. 2008 Mol Biotechnol
Vol. 40(1), pp. 59-68 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the gene expression patterns of the striatum of control and maneb + paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) phenotype in mouse to identify the differentially expressed transcripts. The animals were treated with and without maneb (30 mg/kg, i.p.) + paraquat (10 mg/kg, i.p.), twice a week, for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The RNA was isolated from control and treated mouse striatum and reverse transcribed, and equal quantities of labeled cDNA were mixed and hybridized with mouse 15 k arrays. Comparative transcription patterns showed the time of exposure dependent alteration in the expression of several transcripts associated with various pathways. RT-PCR reconfirmed the differential expression of some energy metabolizing transcripts. The study provides maneb + paraquat-induced differential expression of many transcripts using high-density microarray approach. Few transcripts, which were previously not reported to be associated with neuronal degeneration, were also identified. The results obtained thus suggest that maneb + paraquat induce neurotoxicity in the striatum in a time of exposure dependent manner via multiple pathways and defective energy metabolism could play a critical role.
BibTeX:
@article{PatelS2008,
  author = {Patel S, Singh K, Singh S, Singh MP.},
  title = {Gene expression profiles of mouse striatum in control and maneb + paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease phenotype: validation of differentially expressed energy metabolizing transcripts.},
  journal = {Mol Biotechnol},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {40(1)},
  pages = {59-68},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-008-9060-9}
}
Pathak R, Mustafa M, Ahmed RS, Tripathi AK, Guleria K, Banerjee BD Association between recurrent miscarriages and organochlorine pesticidelevels. 2010 Clin Biochem.
Vol. 43(1-2), pp. 131-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a challenging medical problem because of its unknown pathogenesis and etiology in most of the cases. Recent studies suggest the role of persistent environmental pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the etiology of RM. The present study was conducted to investigate possible associations of OCPs in the pathogenesis of RM.
DESIGN AND METHODS:
Blood OCP levels were analyzed in women with RM (cases) and women with normal full term delivery with live birth (controls) by using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector.
RESULTS:
A statistically significant association (p=0.01) was observed between blood gamma-HCH levels and women with recurrent miscarriages.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study suggests that high blood levels of gamma-HCH may be associated with risk of RM.
BibTeX:
@article{PathakR2010,
  author = {Pathak R, Mustafa M, Ahmed RS, Tripathi AK, Guleria K, Banerjee BD},
  title = {Association between recurrent miscarriages and organochlorine pesticidelevels.},
  journal = {Clin Biochem.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {43(1-2)},
  pages = {131-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.09.019}
}
Pathak R, Mustafa MD, Ahmed T, Ahmed RS, Tripathi AK, Guleria K, Banerjee BD Intra uterine growth retardation: association with organochlorine pesticideresidue levels and oxidative stress markers. 2011 Reprod Toxicol.
Vol. 31(4), pp. 534-9. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a major complication of pregnancy, affecting ?5% to 10% of newborns. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is an organochlorine pesticide that consists of eight stereoisomers and ?-isomer is the only isomer that possesses insecticidal activity. The aim of the present study was to analyze the OCP residues in maternal and cord blood of women and to assess the level of oxidative stress markers as well as to establish correlation with OCP levels. Fifty women delivering neonates with low birth weight (IUGR) and equal number of women delivering normal birth weight babies (control) were recruited. We have observed higher levels of ?-HCH and T-HCH and increased oxidative stress markers in IUGR subjects versus control subjects. Significant correlations were also found between HCH isomers and oxidative stress markers in IUGR subjects. In conclusion, our results suggest that higher levels of HCH isomers may be associated with IUGR and increased oxidative stress.
BibTeX:
@article{PathakR2011,
  author = {Pathak R, Mustafa MD, Ahmed T, Ahmed RS, Tripathi AK, Guleria K, Banerjee BD.},
  title = {Intra uterine growth retardation: association with organochlorine pesticideresidue levels and oxidative stress markers.},
  journal = {Reprod Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {31(4)},
  pages = {534-9.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2011.02.007}
}
Patil CD, Patil SV, Salunke BK, Salunkhe RB Bioefficacy of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicide) and nontarget fish Poecilia reticulata. 2011 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 108(5), pp. 1253-63 
article DOI  
Abstract: In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, extracts of medicinal plants Plumbago zeylanica and Cestrum nocturnum have been tested for larvicidal activity against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values of all the extracts in different solvents of both the plants were less than 50 ppm (15.40-38.50 ppm) against all tested larval instars. Plant extracts also affected the life cycle of A. aegypti by inhibition of pupal development and adult emergence with increasing concentrations. The larvicidal stability of the extracts at five constant temperatures (19°C, 22°C, 25°C, 28°C, and 31°C) evaluated against fourth instar larvae revealed that toxicity of both plant extracts increases with increase in temperature. Toxicity studies carried out against fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common nontarget organism in the habitats of A. aegypti, showed almost nil to meager toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the plant extracts. The qualitative analysis of crude extracts of P. Zeylanica and C. nocturnum revealed the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with predominance of plumbagin in P. zeylanica and saponins in C. nocturnum. Partially purified plumbagin from P. zeylanica and saponins from C. nocturnum were obtained, and their presence was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and biochemical tests. The bioassay experiment of partially purified secondary metabolites showed potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larval form. Therefore, this study explored the safer and effective potential of plant extracts against vector responsible for diseases of public health importance.
BibTeX:
@article{PatilCD2011,
  author = {Patil CD, Patil SV, Salunke BK, Salunkhe RB.},
  title = {Bioefficacy of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicide) and nontarget fish Poecilia reticulata.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {108(5)},
  pages = {1253-63},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-2174-6}
}
Patil VK, David M Behavioral and morphological endpoints: as an early response to sublethal malathion intoxication in the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. 2010 Drug Chem Toxicol.
Vol. 33(2), pp. 160-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: A short-term definitive test by the static renewal bioassay method was conducted to determine the acute toxicity (LC(50)) of commercial-grade organophosphate insecticide, malathion (50% EC) on the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Carp fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations of malathion for 96 hours. The acute toxicity (LC(50)) of malathion was found to be 4.5 microg/L. One tenth (1/10, 0.45 microg/L) of the acute toxicity value was selected as the sublethal concentration for subacute studies. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentration for 1, 5, 10, and 15 days and allowed to recover in toxicant-free medium for 15 days. Behavioral responses and morphological deformities were studied in the experimental tenures. Fish in toxic media exhibited irregular, random, circular swimming movements, hyperexcitability, loss of equilibrium, and sinking to the bottom. Caudal bending was the prime morphological malformation. The behavioral and morphological deformities were due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Inhibition of AChE activity results in excess accumulation of acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, leading to hyperstimulation and cessation of neuronal transmission (i.e., paralysis). The carp were found under stress, but mortality was insignificant at the sublethal concentration tested. Impaired behavioral responses and morphological deformities were observed during recovery. This may be a consequence due to inhibition of brain and muscular AChE by malaoxon, via the biotransformation of sequestered malathion.
BibTeX:
@article{PatilVK2010,
  author = {Patil VK, David M.},
  title = {Behavioral and morphological endpoints: as an early response to sublethal malathion intoxication in the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita.},
  journal = {Drug Chem Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {33(2)},
  pages = {160-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480540903196816}
}
Phanikrishna Sharma MV, Sadanandam G, Ratnamala A, Durga Kumari V, Subrahmanyam M An efficient and novel porous nanosilica supported TiO2 photocatalyst forpesticide degradation using solar light. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 171(1-3), pp. 626-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: A latex polymer of styrene-acrylic acid emulsion is used as a template for the synthesis of novel porous nanosilica (PNS) material. TiO(2) is dispersed over PNS by solid state dispersion and the composite materials are characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, SEM and TEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the composite TiO(2)/PNS catalysts are evaluated for degradation of isoproturon pesticide in water with different parameters under solar light. Furthermore, commercial pesticide solutions containing imidacloprid and phosphamidon were also degraded successfully with the composite system using the same developed conditions for isoproturon degradation. The 5 wt% TiO(2)/PNS is found to be active in the present investigation.
BibTeX:
@article{PhanikrishnaSharmaMV2009,
  author = {Phanikrishna Sharma MV, Sadanandam G, Ratnamala A, Durga Kumari V, Subrahmanyam M},
  title = {An efficient and novel porous nanosilica supported TiO2 photocatalyst forpesticide degradation using solar light.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {171(1-3)},
  pages = {626-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.040}
}
Prabakaran G, Hoti SL Immobilization of alginate-encapsulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis containing different multivalent counterions for mosquito control. 2008 Curr Microbiol.
Vol. 57(2), pp. 111-4. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Immobilized techniques have been used widely for the controlled release formulation of mosquitoes. Among the microbial formulations, polymeric matrices play an important role in the controlled release of microbial pesticide at rates sufficiently effective to kill mosquitoes in the field. The advantage of these matrices is that they enhance the stability of both spores and toxin against pH, temperature variations, and UV irradiation. The disadvantage of using calcium alginate beads is that they are unstable upon contact with phosphate of potassium or sodium ions rich in the mosquito habitats. To overcome these problems, attempts were made to encapsulate Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis within alginate by using different multivalent counterions, namely, calcium chloride, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, cobalt chloride, and ferric chloride, and the beads formed were tested for its mosquito larvicidal activity. Among all the beads tested, zinc alginate beads resulted in maximum larvicidal activity of 98% (+/-1.40 SE) against Culex quinquefasciatus IIIrd instar larvae and maximum spore count of 3.36 x 10(5) (+/-5291.50 SE) CFU/ml. Zinc alginate beads maintained their structure for up to 48 h when shaken vigorously on a rotary shaker at 180 rpm in the presence of 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 +/- 0.1). In conclusion, our results suggest that the use of zinc sulfate as counterions to encapsulate B. thuringiensis var. israelensis within alginate may be a potent mosquito control program in the habitats where more phosphate ions are present.
BibTeX:
@article{PrabakaranG2008,
  author = {Prabakaran G, Hoti SL.},
  title = {Immobilization of alginate-encapsulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis containing different multivalent counterions for mosquito control.},
  journal = {Curr Microbiol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {57(2)},
  pages = {111-4.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-008-9159-z}
}
Prakash A, Bhattacharyya DR, Mohapatra PK, Gogoi P, Sarma DK, Bhattacharjee K, Mahanta J Evaluation of PermaNet 2.0 mosquito bednets against mosquitoes, including Anopheles minimus s.l., in India. 2009 Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health.
Vol. 40(3), pp. 449-57 
article  
Abstract: Wash resistance and field bioefficacy of PermaNet 2.0 nets, long lasting insecticidal nets, against mosquitoes were evaluated in Assam, northeastern India. After repeated hand washings at 12-day intervals a decline in the mosquito killing ability of PermaNet nets was noted (trend chi2 38.9, p < 0.0001), yet these nets retained good insecticidal efficacy for up to 15 wash cycles, producing a 72.5% mean mortality of An. minimus 24 hours after a 3-minute exposure in World Health Organization cones after 15 washings. Significantly fewer (p < 0.001) mosquitoes were captured in self-baited landing collections in houses equipped with PermaNet nets than in houses using untreated nets in the case of culicines (p < 0.001) but not with anophelines, including An. minimus. The use of PermaNet nets resulted in noticeably fewer bites from Culex pseudovishnui (68.5%) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (70%). Blood-feeding inhibition of mosquitoes in deliberately torn PermaNet nets was seen, indicating a protective effect for those sleeping under these nets. No serious adverse effects of the PermaNet nets were reported by users.
BibTeX:
@article{PrakashA2009,
  author = {Prakash A, Bhattacharyya DR, Mohapatra PK, Gogoi P, Sarma DK, Bhattacharjee K, Mahanta J.},
  title = {Evaluation of PermaNet 2.0 mosquito bednets against mosquitoes, including Anopheles minimus s.l., in India.},
  journal = {Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {40(3)},
  pages = {449-57}
}
Prakash B, Shukla R, Singh P, Kumar A, Mishra PK, Dubey NK Efficacy of chemically characterized Piper betle L. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity. 2010 Int J Food Microbiol.
Vol. 142(1-2), pp. 114-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: The study investigates fungal contamination in some dry fruits, spices and areca nut and evaluation of the essential oil (EO) of Piper betle var. magahi for its antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant properties. A total of 1651 fungal isolates belonging to 14 species were isolated from the samples and Aspergillus was recorded as the dominant genus with 6 species. Eleven aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) producing strains of A. flavus were recorded from the samples. Eugenol (63.39%) and acetyleugenol (14.05%) were the major components of 32 constituents identified from the Piper betle EO through GC and GC-MS analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. betle EO was found 0.7 microl/ml against A.flavus. The EO reduced AFB(1) production in a dose dependent manner and completely inhibited at 0.6 microl/ml. This is the first report on efficacy of P. betle EO as aflatoxin suppressor. EO also exhibited strong antioxidant potential as its IC(50) value (3.6 microg/ml) was close to that of ascorbic acid (3.2 microg/ml) and lower than that of the synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytouene (BHT) (7.4 microg/ml) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (4.5 microg/ml). P. betle EO thus exhibited special merits possessing antifungal, aflatoxin suppressive and antioxidant characters which are desirable for an ideal preservative. Hence, its application as a plant based food additive in protection and enhancement of shelf life of edible commodities during storage and processing is strongly recommended in view of the toxicological implications by synthetic preservatives.
BibTeX:
@article{PrakashB2010,
  author = {Prakash B, Shukla R, Singh P, Kumar A, Mishra PK, Dubey NK},
  title = {Efficacy of chemically characterized Piper betle L. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity.},
  journal = {Int J Food Microbiol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {142(1-2)},
  pages = {114-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.06.011}
}
Prakash G, Srivastava AK Production of biopesticides in an in situ cell retention bioreactor. 2008 Appl Biochem Biotechnol.
Vol. 151(2-3), pp. 307-18 
article DOI  
Abstract: The seeds of Azadirachta indica contain azadirachtin and other limonoids, which can be used as a biopesticide for crop protection. Significant variability and availability of seed only in arid zones has triggered biotechnological production of biopesticides to cope up with its huge requirement. Batch cultivation of A. indica suspension culture was carried out in statistically optimized media (25.0 g/l glucose, 5.7 g/l nitrate, 0.094 g/l phosphate and 5 g/l inoculum) in 3 l stirred tank bioreactor. This resulted in 15.5 g/l biomass and 0.05 g/l azadirachtin production in 10 days leading to productivity of 5 mg l(-1) day(-1). Possible inhibition by the limiting substrates (C, N, P) were also studied and maximum inhibitory concentrations identified. The batch kinetic/inhibitory data were then used to develop and identify an unstructured mathematical model. The batch model was extrapolated to simulate continuous cultivation with and without cell retention in the bioreactor. Several offline computer simulations were done to identify right nutrient feeding strategies (with respect to key limiting substrates; carbon, nitrate and phosphate) to maintain non-limiting and non-inhibitory substrate concentrations in bioreactor. One such continuous culture (with cell retention) simulation was experimentally implemented. In this cultivation, the cells were propagated batch-wise for 8 days. It was then converted to continuous cultivation by feeding MS salts with glucose (75 g/l), nitrate (10 g/l), and phosphate (0.5 g/l) at a feed rate of 500 ml/day and withdrawing the spent medium at the same rate. The above continuous cultivation (with cell retention) demonstrated an improvement in cell growth to 95.8 g/l and intracellular accumulation of 0.38 g/l azadirachtin in 40 days leading to an overall productivity of 9.5 mg l(-1) day(-1).
BibTeX:
@article{PrakashG2008,
  author = {Prakash G, Srivastava AK.},
  title = {Production of biopesticides in an in situ cell retention bioreactor.},
  journal = {Appl Biochem Biotechnol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {151(2-3)},
  pages = {307-18},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-008-8191-6}
}
Prasad M, Kumar A, Mishra D, Srivastav SK, Srivastav AK Alterations in blood electrolytes of a freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in response to treatment with a botanical pesticide, Nerium indicum leaf extract. 2011 Fish Physiol Biochem.
Vol. 37(3), pp. 505-10 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study aimed at investigating the effects of Nerium indicum leaf extract on the blood electrolytes of Heteropneustes fossilis for short- and long term. Fish were subjected to Nerium indicum leaf extract for short term (11.27 mg/L i.e. 0.8 of 96 h LC??) and long term (2.81 mg/L i.e. 0.2 of 96 h LC??). Fish were killed on each time intervals from control and experimental (Nerium indicum) groups after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in short-term exposure and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment. Blood samples were analyzed for calcium and inorganic phosphate levels. Acute exposure of Nerium indicum leaf extract caused a progressive decrease in the serum calcium levels after 48 h in fish H. fossilis, which persists till the close of the experiment (96 h). The serum inorganic phosphate levels remain unaffected till 48 h in the Nerium indicum leaf extract-exposed fish. After 72 and 96 h, the levels exhibit a decrease. Chronic Nerium indicum leaf extract treatment provoked a decrease in serum calcium levels at day 14. This decrease continues till 28 days. The serum phosphate level of the Nerium indicum leaf extract-treated fish decreases on day 14 and 21. However, on day 28, the levels become close to the normal values. We conclude that Nerium indicum leaf extract exposure alters the blood electrolytes of the fish, thus causing physiological disturbances which might affect seriously the normal vital functions, growth rate, reproduction, and their survival in nature.
BibTeX:
@article{PrasadM2011,
  author = {Prasad M, Kumar A, Mishra D, Srivastav SK, Srivastav AK.},
  title = {Alterations in blood electrolytes of a freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in response to treatment with a botanical pesticide, Nerium indicum leaf extract.},
  journal = {Fish Physiol Biochem.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {37(3)},
  pages = {505-10},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-010-9452-1}
}
Prasad M, Kumar A, Srivastav SK, Srivastav AK Nerium indicum, a botanical pesticide affects ultimobranchial gland of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. 2013 Environ Toxicol.
Vol. 28(12), pp. 661-5 
article  
Abstract: Heteropneustes fossilis were subjected to 11.27 mg L(-1) (80% of 96 h LC50 ) and 2.81 mg L(-1) (20% of 96 h LC50 ) of Nerium indicum leaf extract for short-term and long-term, respectively. After sacrificing the fish, blood was collected on 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in short-term and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment and analyzed for plasma calcium levels. Also, ultimobranchial glands (UBG) were fixed on these intervals. Serum calcium levels of H. fossilis exhibited a decline after 48 h following exposure to Nerium indicum leaf extract. This decrease continued till the end of the experiment (96 h). Ultimobranchial cells exhibited a decrease in the cytoplasmic staining response after 72 h following the treatment. The nuclear volumes of these cells were slightly decreased. These changes were exaggerated after 96 h following the treatment. Chronically exposed fish exhibited a decline in serum calcium levels of H. fossilis on day 14. The level progressively declined till the end of the experiment. Up to day 14 following the treatment there was no change in the histological structure of UBG. A decrease in the nuclear volume of ultimobranchial cells was noticed on day 21. Moreover, the cytoplasm of these cells displayed weakstaining response. The nuclear volume of these cells recorded a further decrease following 28-day treatment. Also there was noticed vacuolization and degeneration at certain places. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of any botanical pesticides on fish UBG have not been reported yet.
BibTeX:
@article{PrasadM2013,
  author = {Prasad M, Kumar A, Srivastav SK, Srivastav AK.},
  title = {Nerium indicum, a botanical pesticide affects ultimobranchial gland of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {28(12)},
  pages = {661-5}
}
Prashanth MS, Hiragond NC, Nikam KN The effect of cypermethrin on different tissues of freshwater fish Tilapia mossambica (Perters).
.
2011 J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.
Vol. 22(4), pp. 115-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems mankind is facing in this century. Arthropods and fish are highly sensitive to synthetic pyrethroids. In this article, we describe the acute toxicity, free amino acid level and protease activity in the tissues of freshwater fish when exposed to cypermethrin.
METHODS:
Acute toxicity of cypermethrin to the freshwater fish Tilapia mossambica was studied using a static bioassay method. The effect of cypermethrin on free amino acid and protease activity in tissues of gills, liver and muscle of freshwater fish Tilapia mossambica was also studied.
RESULTS:
The LC50 in 96 h was found to be 35.6 ?g/L. Free amino acid levels and protease activity showed an elevation following exposure to lethal and sub lethal doses of cypermethrin. A significant change was noticed on day 4 increase. However, normal condition was restored only in sub lethal concentration.
CONCLUSIONS:
The present study clearly shows significant changes in the Tilapia mossambica when exposed to a low quantity of cypermethrin.
BibTeX:
@article{PrashanthMS2011,
  author = {Prashanth MS, Hiragond NC, Nikam KN},
  title = {The effect of cypermethrin on different tissues of freshwater fish Tilapia mossambica (Perters).
.}, journal = {J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.}, year = {2011}, volume = {22(4)}, pages = {115-9}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/JBCPP.2011.020} }
Raghavendra K, Barik TK, Bhatt RM, Srivastava HC, Sreehari U, Dash AP Evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. 2011 Acta Trop.
Vol. 118(1), pp. 50-5 
article DOI  
Abstract: Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a widely distributed mosquito vector species in India and also in other tropical regions of the world. This species is implicated in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in many countries. This species is reported to be widely resistant to insecticides of different classes in current use. In the present study, bio-efficacy of chlorfenapyr, an insecticide of pyrrole class with a novel mode of action was tested for the control of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Studies were performed to determine the diagnostic dosage; residual efficacy on different artificially fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement+distemper; to assess cross-resistance with different insecticides; and synergism/antagonism using piperonyl butoxide (PBO). A dosage of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as diagnostic dosage with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period for assessing the susceptibility of mosquitoes. The residual efficacy was observed up to 34 weeks on wood and mud+lime substrates while on other substrates, it was about 15 weeks at a dosage of 400mg a.i./m(2). Laboratory-reared strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed cross-resistance, whereas field-collected mosquitoes showed absence of cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr. Potentiation bioassays showed antagonistic effect of PBO to chlorfenapyr toxicity owing to the involvement of oxidases in the initial step of a conversion of pro-insecticide chlorfenapyr to toxic form CL 303268. The present study results have shown that chlorfenapyr can be a potential insecticide for the control of multiple insecticide resistant strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, in countries where indoor residual spray (IRS) is not targeted for the control of this species, like in India, chlorfenapyr used in IRS for the control of malaria vectors in rural and peri-urban areas can additionally provide control of Cx. quinquefasciatus also.
BibTeX:
@article{RaghavendraK2011,
  author = {Raghavendra K, Barik TK, Bhatt RM, Srivastava HC, Sreehari U, Dash AP.},
  title = {Evaluation of the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say.},
  journal = {Acta Trop.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {118(1)},
  pages = {50-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2011.02.001}
}
Rahuman AA, Gopalakrishnan G, Venkatesan P, Geetha K, Bagavan A Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. 2008 Phytother Res.
Vol. 22(8), pp. 1035-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: The larvicidal activity of a petroleum ether extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera). Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 4-gingerol (1), (6)-dehydrogingerdione (2) and (6)-dihydrogingerdione (3); the latter has not previously been reported from Z. officinale. The structures were established from infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV), (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR and mass spectral data. Following a 24 h exposure, compounds 1-3 exhibited larvicidal activities against fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC(50) 4.25, 9.80, 18.20 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 5.52, 7.66, 27.24 ppm), respectively. The results show that the most effective compound was 4-gingerol.
BibTeX:
@article{RahumanAA2008,
  author = {Rahuman AA, Gopalakrishnan G, Venkatesan P, Geetha K, Bagavan A},
  title = {Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale.},
  journal = {Phytother Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {22(8)},
  pages = {1035-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2423}
}
Rahuman AA, Venkatesan P, Gopalakrishnan G Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad. 2008 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 103(6), pp. 1383-90. 
article DOI  
Abstract: In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis.
BibTeX:
@article{RahumanAA2008a,
  author = {Rahuman AA, Venkatesan P, Gopalakrishnan G.},
  title = {Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {103(6)},
  pages = {1383-90.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1146-6}
}
Rai A, Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Dubey S, Shri M, Kumar S, Tripathi PK, Dave R, Kumar A, Singh R, Adhikari B, Bag M, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D, Tuli R Arsenic tolerances in rice (Oryza sativa) have a predominant role in transcriptional regulation of a set of genes including sulphur assimilation pathway and antioxidant system. 2011 Chemosphere.
Vol. 82(7), pp. 986-95 
article DOI  
Abstract: World wide arsenic (As) contamination of rice has raised much concern as it is the staple crop for millions. Four most commonly cultivated rice cultivars, Triguna, IR-36, PNR-519 and IET-4786, of the West Bengal region were taken for a hydroponic study to examine the effect of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on growth response, expression of genes and antioxidants vis-à-vis As accumulation. The rice genotypes responded differentially under As(V) and As(III) stress in terms of gene expression and antioxidant defences. Some of the transporters were up-regulated in all rice cultivars at lower doses of As species, except IET-4786. Phytochelatin synthase, GST and ?-ECS showed considerable variation in their expression pattern in all genotypes, however in IET-4786 they were generally down-regulated in higher As(III) stress. Similarly, most of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) increased significantly in Triguna, IR-36 and PNR-519 and decreased in IET-4786. Our study suggests that Triguna, IR-36 and PNR-519 are tolerant rice cultivars accumulating higher arsenic; however IET-4786 is susceptible to As-stress and accumulates less arsenic than other cultivars.
BibTeX:
@article{RaiA2011,
  author = {Rai A, Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Dubey S, Shri M, Kumar S, Tripathi PK, Dave R, Kumar A, Singh R, Adhikari B, Bag M, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D, Tuli R},
  title = {Arsenic tolerances in rice (Oryza sativa) have a predominant role in transcriptional regulation of a set of genes including sulphur assimilation pathway and antioxidant system.},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {82(7)},
  pages = {986-95},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.070}
}
Rajender S, Avery K, Agarwal A Epigenetics, spermatogenesis and male infertility. 2011 Mutat Res.
Vol. 727(3), pp. 62-71 
article DOI  
Abstract: Epigenetic modifications characterized by DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling are important regulators in a number of biological processes, including spermatogenesis. Several genes in the testes are regulated through epigenetic mechanisms, indicating a direct influence of epigenetic mechanisms on the process of spermatogenesis. In the present article, we have provided a comprehensive review of the epigenetic processes in the testes, correlation of epigenetic aberrations with male infertility, impact of environmental factors on the epigenome and male fertility, and significance of epigenetic changes/aberrations in assisted reproduction. The literature review suggested a significant impact of epigenetic aberrations (epimutations) on spermatogenesis, and this could lead to male infertility. Epimutations (often hypermethylation) in several genes, namely MTHFR, PAX8, NTF3, SFN, HRAS, JHM2DA, IGF2, H19, RASGRF1, GTL2, PLAG1, D1RAS3, MEST, KCNQ1, LIT1, and SNRPN, have been reported in association with poor semen parameters or male infertility. Environmental toxins/drugs may affect fertility via epigenetic modifications. For example, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an anticancer agent, causes a decrease in global DNA methylation that leads to altered sperm morphology, decreased sperm motility, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased embryo survival. Similarly, Endocrine disruptors, such as methoxychlor (an estrogenic pesticide) and vinclozolin (an anti-androgenic fungicide) have been found by experiments on animals to affect epigenetic modifications that may cause spermatogenic defects in subsequent generations. Assisted reproduction procedures that have been considered rather safe, are now being implicated in inducing epigenetic changes that could affect fertility in subsequent generations. Techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) may increase the incidence of imprinting disorders and adversely affect embryonic development by using immature spermatozoa that may not have established proper imprints or global methylation. Epigenetic changes, in contrast to genetic aberrations, may be less deleterious because they are potentially reversible. Further research could identify certain drugs capable of reversing epigenetic changes.
BibTeX:
@article{RajenderS2011,
  author = {Rajender S, Avery K, Agarwal A},
  title = {Epigenetics, spermatogenesis and male infertility.},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {727(3)},
  pages = {62-71},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2011.04.002}
}
Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A Larvicidal and oviposition activity of Cassia obtusifolia Linn (Family: Leguminosae) leaf extract against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). 2009 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 104(2), pp. 337-40. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The ethanolic leaf extract of Cassia obtusifolia was investigated for their larvicidal and oviposition deterrence effects against Anopheles stephensi. Concentrations ranging from 25 to 125 mg/l were assessed at 24 h post-treatment against late third instar larvae. The leaf extract had significant larvicidal effect with LC(50) and LC(90) values were 52.2 and 108.7 mg/l, respectively. In oviposition behaviour study, four different concentrations ranging from 100 to 400 mg/l were studied against gravid female mosquitoes. The results of oviposition study indicated that the leaf extract showed concentration dependent oviposition deterrent activity. At higher concentration (400 mg/l) showed 92.5% effective repellency against oviposition, followed by 300, 200 and 100 mg/l showed 87.2%, 83.0% and 75.5%, respectively. The larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effect of C. obtusifolia against A. stephensi make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.
BibTeX:
@article{RajkumarS2009,
  author = {Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A.},
  title = {Larvicidal and oviposition activity of Cassia obtusifolia Linn (Family: Leguminosae) leaf extract against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {104(2)},
  pages = {337-40.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1197-8}
}
Ramaneswari K, Rao LM Influence of endosulfan and monocrotophos exposure on the activity of NADPH cytochrome C reductase (NCCR) of Labeo rohita (Ham). 2008 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 29(2), pp. 183-5. 
article  
Abstract: The response of NADPH cytochrome C reductase (NCCR) activity in liver of Labeo rohita fish exposed to the pesticides, 0.25 microgl(-1) endosulfan and 2 mg/l monocrotophos was studied. In terms of specific enzyme activity (mU/mg protein) a significant level of NCCR was observed in the liver tissues of Labeo rohita exposed to the pesticides, when compared to the control fish (2.460 mU/mg protein). Increase of NCCR activity was more in the liver of the fish exposed to monocrotophos (4.595 mU/mg protein) than those exposed to endosulfan (2.850 mU/mg protein). The results demonstrate that the pesticides, endosulfan and monocrotophos, interfere with NADPH dependent monoxygenase mechanism and are effective inducers of NADPH cytochrome C reductase. The activity of NCCR in the liver tissue of Labeo rohita may serve as a useful tool for monitoring aquatic pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{RamaneswariK2008,
  author = {Ramaneswari K, Rao LM.},
  title = {Influence of endosulfan and monocrotophos exposure on the activity of NADPH cytochrome C reductase (NCCR) of Labeo rohita (Ham).},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {29(2)},
  pages = {183-5.}
}
Ramasamy D, Laxmanappa HS, Sharma R, Das MK Influence of anti-filarial chemotherapy strategies on the genetic structure of Wuchereria bancrofti populations. 2011 Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz.
Vol. 106(2), pp. 240-7 
article  
Abstract: Lymphatic filarial (LF) parasites have been under anti-filarial drug pressure for more than half a century. Currently, annual mass drug administration (MDA) of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin in combination with albendazole (ALB) have been used globally to eliminate LF. Long-term chemotherapies exert significant pressure on the genetic structure of parasitic populations. We investigated the genetic variation among 210 Wuchereria bancrofti populations that were under three different chemotherapy strategies, namely MDA with DEC alone (group I, n = 74), MDA with DEC and ALB (group II, n = 60) and selective therapy (ST) with DEC (group III, n = 34) to understand the impact of these three drug regimens on the parasite genetic structure. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA profiles were generated for the three groups of parasite populations; the gene diversity, gene flow and genetic distance values were determined and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Analysis of these parameters indicated that parasite populations under ST with a standard dose of DEC (group III) were genetically more diverse (0.2660) than parasite populations under MDA with DEC alone (group I, H = 0.2197) or with DEC + ALB (group II, H = 0.2317). These results indicate that the MDA may reduce the genetic diversity of W. bancrofti populations when compared to the genetic diversity of parasite populations under ST.
BibTeX:
@article{RamasamyD2011,
  author = {Ramasamy D, Laxmanappa HS, Sharma R, Das MK.},
  title = {Influence of anti-filarial chemotherapy strategies on the genetic structure of Wuchereria bancrofti populations.},
  journal = {Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {106(2)},
  pages = {240-7}
}
Rani R, Juwarkar A Adsorption of phorate, an organophosphorus pesticide, on vertisol. 2010 Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 58(4), pp. 927-34 
article DOI  
Abstract: Adsorption of phorate, an organophosphorus pesticide, on a vertisol soil was studied. The resulting data were well described by Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Adsorption was fast and the equilibrium was established within 8 h, which is comparatively less than reported previously. The mechanism of interaction between phorate and clay and humic acid extracted from the same soil was studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR results suggested the formation of hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acid groups present in humic acid and appropriate electrophilic hydrogen atoms present in phorate. Also there is an indication of involvement of -P-O- group of phorate in the interaction with humic acid. However, the binding of phorate with clay minerals involves van der Waal forces of attraction.
BibTeX:
@article{RaniR2010,
  author = {Rani R, Juwarkar A.},
  title = {Adsorption of phorate, an organophosphorus pesticide, on vertisol.},
  journal = {Arch Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {58(4)},
  pages = {927-34},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-009-9424-6}
}
Ranjini MS, Hosamani R, Muralidhara, Ramachandra NB Differential susceptibility of a few members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila to paraquat-induced lethality and oxidative stress. 2011 Genome.
Vol. 54(10), pp. 829-35 
article DOI  
Abstract: The evolution of karyotypically stabilized short-lived (SL) and long-lived (LL) cytoraces in the laboratory have been established and validated through our previous lifespan studies. In the present investigation, we examined the possible reason(s) for the differential longevity among selected members of SL and LL cytoraces, employing the well known paraquat (PQ) resistance bioassay. Exposure of these races to varying concentrations of PQ revealed relatively higher resistance among LL cytoraces than SL cytoraces, as evident by the lower incidence of mortality. Biochemical analysis for endogenous markers of oxidative stress revealed that LL-2 cytorace exhibited lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, higher activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and coupled with higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) compared with the levels found in SL-2 cytorace. These findings suggest that the higher susceptibility of SL cytoraces to PQ challenge may be, at least in part, related to the higher endogenous levels of oxidative stress markers. Although the precise mechanisms responsible for the longer longevity among LL cytoraces of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila merits further investigation, our data suggest that the relatively longer lifespan may be related to the status of endogenous markers that renders them more resistant towards oxidative-stress-mediated lethality, as evident in the PQ assay.
BibTeX:
@article{RanjiniMS2011,
  author = {Ranjini MS, Hosamani R, Muralidhara, Ramachandra NB.},
  title = {Differential susceptibility of a few members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila to paraquat-induced lethality and oxidative stress.},
  journal = {Genome.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {54(10)},
  pages = {829-35},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/g11-049}
}
Rastogi SK, Singh VK, Kesavachandran C, Jyoti, Siddiqui MK, Mathur N, Bharti RS Monitoring of plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity and hematological parameters in pesticide sprayers. 2008 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 12(1), pp. 29-32. 
article DOI  
Abstract: To evaluate the health impact of spraying organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), 34 male sprayers in the mango belt of Malihabad, a small town located 27 km from Lucknow in North India was selected. Plasma butyryl cholinesterase (PBChE) and complete blood count were assessed among sprayers after spraying pesticides and the findings obtained were compared with those determined in a reference group (n = 18). The most common symptoms observed were burning sensation in the eyes (8.82%), itching/skin irritation (23.52%) and chest symptoms (32.35%) in the exposed workers. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (PBChE) was significantly decreased in workers. The results indicated significant decrease in the mean value of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets count; however, significantly higher count of leukocytes was also observed in the exposed group (sprayers) compared to that observed in the control group (P < 0.05). Monitoring of PBChE in pesticidesprayers could be useful to predict and prevent health hazards of OPs.
BibTeX:
@article{RastogiSK2008,
  author = {Rastogi SK, Singh VK, Kesavachandran C, Jyoti, Siddiqui MK, Mathur N, Bharti RS.},
  title = {Monitoring of plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity and hematological parameters in pesticide sprayers.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {12(1)},
  pages = {29-32.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.40813}
}
Rastogi SK, Tripathi S, Ravishanker D A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphatepesticides in the children of agricultural workers. 2010 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 14(2), pp. 54-7 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect ofpesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP), carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident.In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132) and females (n = 93) who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion) and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion) as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16) on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50) never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor) belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups.Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in eye/face were the most important clinical manifestations attributed to OP pesticide exposure. These symptoms could probably be the consequence of chronic effects of most pesticides on the central nervous system. The muscarinic symptoms reported the maximum prevalence of salivation (18.22%), whereas lacrimation was observed in 17.33% cases, followed by diarrhea in 9.33% cases. The nicotinic clinical manifestations of acute OP poisoning revealed excessive sweating in 13.78% cases and tremors in 9.3% cases followed by mydriasis in 8.4% exposed children. The characteristic cholinergic symptoms, such as insomnia, headache, muscle cramps, weakness, and anorexia were also reported by both male and female exposed children. The high frequency of neurologic symptoms observed in the study may be due to parasympathetic hyperactivity due to the accumulated ACh resulting from AChE inhibition.
BibTeX:
@article{RastogiSK2010,
  author = {Rastogi SK, Tripathi S, Ravishanker D},
  title = {A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphatepesticides in the children of agricultural workers.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {14(2)},
  pages = {54-7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.72242}
}
Singh RN Effects of dimethoate (30% EC), an organophosphate pesticide on liver of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. 2013 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 34(3), pp. 657-61 
article  
Abstract: Organ histopathology and changes in biochemical parameters in fish are good biomarkers of aquatic pollution. This study is an attempt to assess the effects of dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide on the liver of common carp (C. carpio). Healthy individual fish were exposed to 0.40 mg l(-1) (25% of 96 hr LC50) concentration of dimethoate, for short term (96 hr). Liver of the exposed fish exhibited alterations like disruption of regular arrangement of hepatocytes, congestion and rupture of vessels; hemorrhage, cytoplasmic vacuolization, pyknotic nuclei and necrosis. Biochemical parameters viz. total liver protein (p < 0.001) and liver glycogen (p < 0.001) registered a significant decrease and blood glucose (p < 0.001) exhibited significant increase throughout exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{RN.2013,
  author = {Singh RN.},
  title = {Effects of dimethoate (30% EC), an organophosphate pesticide on liver of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {34(3)},
  pages = {657-61}
}
Saharia K, Arya U, Kumar R, Sahu R, Das CK, Gupta K, Dwivedi H, Subramaniam JR Reserpine modulates neurotransmitter release to extend lifespan and alleviate age-dependent A? proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. 2012 Exp Gerontol.
Vol. 47(2), pp. 188-97 
article DOI  
Abstract: Aging is a debilitating process often associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD occurs at a very high incidence posing a huge burden to the society. Model organisms such as C. elegans become essential to understand aging or lifespan extension - the etiology, molecular mechanism and identification of new drugs against age associated diseases. The AD model, manifesting A? proteotoxicity, in C. elegans is well established and has provided valuable insights. Earlier, we have reported that Reserpine, an FDA-approved antihypertensive drug, increases C. elegans lifespan with a high quality of life and ameliorates A? toxicity in C. elegans. But reserpine does not seem to act through the known lifespan extension pathways or inhibition of its known target, vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT. Reserpine's mode of action and the pathways it activates are not known. Here, we have evaluated the presynaptic neurotransmitter(s) release pathway and identified acetylcholine (ACh) as the crucial player for reserpine's action. The corroborating evidences are: i) lack of lifespan extension in the ACh loss of function (hypomorphic) - synthesis (cha-1) and transport (unc-17) mutants; ii) mitigation of chronic aldicarb effect; iii) lifespan extension in dopamine (cat-2) and dopamine and serotonin (bas-1) biosynthetic mutants; iv) no rescue from exogenous serotonin induced paralysis in the AD model worms; upon reserpine treatment. Thus, modulation of acetylcholine is essential for reserpine's action.
BibTeX:
@article{SahariaK2012,
  author = {Saharia K, Arya U, Kumar R, Sahu R, Das CK, Gupta K, Dwivedi H, Subramaniam JR.},
  title = {Reserpine modulates neurotransmitter release to extend lifespan and alleviate age-dependent A? proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.},
  journal = {Exp Gerontol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {47(2)},
  pages = {188-97},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2011.12.006}
}
Saini MK, Dhawan AK Effect of nitrogen fertigation and sowing time on the expression of Cry2Ab and on mortality of Spodoptera litura in Bollgard II cotton. 2014 J Environ Biol
Vol. 35(2), pp. 311-5 
article  
Abstract: Toxin expression of Cry2Ab was studied in plant parts of Bollgard II cotton genotype MRC 7031 sown under different treatments of nitrogen application and planting dates. The expression was quantified by using Cry2Aa ELISA kit. Mean per cent mortality of one-day-old, 3rd and 5th instar larvae of Spodoptera litura was observed on different plant parts of MRC 7031 and their respective non-Bt cotton genotypes. The study deduced that mean maximum expression (19.24, 20.93 and 20.71 microg g(-1) in leaves, squares and bolls, respectively) of Cry2Ab was observed at higher nitrogen dose @ 300 kg ha(-1) (N3), while it was minimum (18.67, 20.44 and 20.14 microg g(-1) in leaves, squares and bolls, respectively) at low nitrogen dose @ 150 kg ha(-1) (N1). Studies conducted for different planting dates showed mean maximum expression (18.98, 20.72 and 20.42 microg g(-1) in leaves, squares and bolls, respectively) of Cry2Ab during late sown crop (15th May) as compared to early sown crop (15th April), the expression was 18.66, 20.32 and 20.06 microg g(-1) in leaves, squares and bolls, respectively. Quantitative expression of Cry2Ab was found to vary among different plant parts, i.e more in squares followed by bolls and leaves. Regarding mortality of different instars of S. litura, it was significantly more at higher nitrogen doses and it ranged from 83.04 to 96.27, 53.38 to 61.87 and 16.87 to 22.58% in case of S. litura one-day-old larvae, 3rd and 5th instar, respectively. While, non significant difference in mortalitywas observed during different sowing dates.
BibTeX:
@article{SainiMK2014,
  author = {Saini MK, Dhawan AK.},
  title = {Effect of nitrogen fertigation and sowing time on the expression of Cry2Ab and on mortality of Spodoptera litura in Bollgard II cotton.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {35(2)},
  pages = {311-5}
}
Samriti, Chauhan R, Kumari B Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of chlorpyriphos residues in okra fruits. 2011 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 87(2), pp. 198-201 
article DOI  
Abstract: Residue levels of chlorpyriphos were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing and washing followed by boiling/cooking) on reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of chlorpyriphos (Radar 20 EC) at 200 g a.i./ha and 400g a.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 400 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 days and at harvest after treatment. Residues were estimated by GC-ECD system and reached BDL of 0.010 mg kg(-1) on 7th and 15th day in case of single and double dose, respectively. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.15 days at lower dose and 3.46 days at higher dose following biphasic first order kinetics. Processing was found very effective in reducing the levels of chlorpyriphos residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (64-77%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by washing (13-35%).
BibTeX:
@article{Samriti2011,
  author = {Samriti, Chauhan R, Kumari B.},
  title = {Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of chlorpyriphos residues in okra fruits.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {87(2)},
  pages = {198-201},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0306-z}
}
Samtani R, Bajpai M, Vashisht K, Ghosh PK, Saraswathy KN Hypospadias risk and polymorphism in SRD5A2 and CYP17 genes: case-control study among Indian children. 2011 J Urol.
Vol. 185(6), pp. 2334-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: PURPOSE:
Hypospadias is a common congenital error of genital development, the frequency of which is increasing. As androgens have a significant role in the development of the male urethra, we sought to investigate the association between 2 functional polymorphisms, CYP17-A1/A2 and SRD5A2-V89L, which are involved in the biosynthesis of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, respectively, in relation to hypospadias.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We examined DNA samples of 80 cases and 100 controls for SRD5A2-V89L and CYP17-A1/A2 gene polymorphisms. Information pertaining to family history, preoperative position of the urethral meatus and parental occupations along with maternal reproductive profile were collected for cases and controls.
RESULTS:
Genotyping of 80 cases and 100 controls revealed a significant association between V89L polymorphism and hypospadias (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.6, p <0.05). When analyzing the risk of hypospadias based on grade, genotypic distribution of SRD5A2-LL genotype differed significantly between severe forms and controls, with an odds ratio of 3.6 (95% CI 1.2-10.0, p = 0.02). Of affected children 71.25% had parents from a rural background, with agriculture as the primary occupation. A statistically significant association was observed for the LL genotype (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.7-12.29, p <0.05) between children with parents having an agricultural background (likely exposed to pesticides) and controls with no such exposure. CYP17-A1/A2 genotypes did not show any significant results.
CONCLUSIONS:
V89L polymorphism of the SRD5A2 gene is a strong determinant of hypospadias risk among children of Indian origin. However, our results suggest that the presence of leucine allele, especially among agriculturalists, may increase the propensity of having a child with hypospadias.
BibTeX:
@article{SamtaniR2011,
  author = {Samtani R, Bajpai M, Vashisht K, Ghosh PK, Saraswathy KN},
  title = {Hypospadias risk and polymorphism in SRD5A2 and CYP17 genes: case-control study among Indian children.},
  journal = {J Urol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {185(6)},
  pages = {2334-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.043}
}
Sankhwar ML, Yadav RS, Shukla RK, Pant AB, Singh D, Parmar D, Khanna VK Impaired cholinergic mechanisms following exposure to monocrotophos in young rats. 2012 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 31(6), pp. 606-16 
article DOI  
Abstract: Studies on the neurobehavioral toxicity of monocrotophos, an organophosphate, have been carried out on rats following their exposure from postnatal day (PD) 22 to PD 49 to investigate whether neurobehavioral changes are transient or persistent. Exposure of rats to monocrotophos (0.50 or 1.0 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) decreased body weight (10% and 30%) and impaired grip strength (28% and 32%) and learning ability (65% and 68%) at both the doses, respectively in comparison to controls. A trend of recovery was observed in body weight and learning, while decrease in grip strength persisted in rats 15 days after withdrawal. Activity of acetylcholinesterase was decreased in frontal cortex (36% and 67%), hippocampus (21% and 49%) and cerebellum (29% and 51%) in monocrotophos-treated rats at both the doses. The decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase persisted in frontal cortex and hippocampus; however, a trend of recovery was observed in cerebellum 15 days after withdrawal. Binding of (3)H-quinuclidinyl benzilate ((3)H-QNB) to frontocortical (19% and 35%), hippocampal (32% and 39%) and cerebellar (19% and 28%) membranes was decreased in monocrotophos-treated rats compared to controls. The decrease in the binding of (3)H-QNB persisted in frontocortical, hippocampal and cerebellar membranes 15 days after withdrawal. The results suggest that repeated exposure to monocrotophos in rats may cause behavioral and neurochemical modifications which may persist even after withdrawal. The findings are of concern in view of the high consumption of monocrotophos in many countries.
BibTeX:
@article{SankhwarML2012,
  author = {Sankhwar ML, Yadav RS, Shukla RK, Pant AB, Singh D, Parmar D, Khanna VK.},
  title = {Impaired cholinergic mechanisms following exposure to monocrotophos in young rats.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {31(6)},
  pages = {606-16},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327111405860}
}
Santhoshkumar T, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Bagavan A, Jayaseelan C, Zahir AA, Elango G, Kamaraj C Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors. 2011 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 108(3), pp. 693-702 
article DOI  
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50)?= 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC(90)?= 28.65, 36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)?= 9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC(90)?= 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of N. nucifera, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.
BibTeX:
@article{SanthoshkumarT2011,
  author = {Santhoshkumar T, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Bagavan A, Jayaseelan C, Zahir AA, Elango G, Kamaraj C.},
  title = {Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {108(3)},
  pages = {693-702},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-2115-4}
}
Sanyal D, Rani A, Alam S, Gujral S, Gupta R Development, validation, and uncertainty measurement of multi-residue analysis of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using pressurized liquid extraction and dispersive-SPE techniques. 2011 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 182(1-4), pp. 97-113 
article DOI  
Abstract: Simple and efficient multi-residue analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of 13 organochlorine and 17 organophosphorous pesticides from soil, spinach and eggplant. Techniques namely accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive SPE were used for sample preparations. The recovery studies were carried out by spiking the samples at three concentration levels (1 limit of quantification (LOQ), 5 LOQ, and 10 LOQ). The methods were subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The mean recovery for soil, spinach and eggplant were in the range of 70-120% with median CV (%) below 10%. The total uncertainty was evaluated taking four main independent sources viz., weighing, purity of the standard, GC calibration curve and repeatability under consideration. The expanded uncertainty was well below 10% for most of the pesticides and the rest fell in the range of 10-20%.
BibTeX:
@article{SanyalD2011,
  author = {Sanyal D, Rani A, Alam S, Gujral S, Gupta R.},
  title = {Development, validation, and uncertainty measurement of multi-residue analysis of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using pressurized liquid extraction and dispersive-SPE techniques.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {182(1-4)},
  pages = {97-113},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1861-1}
}
Sarkar B, Patra AK, Purakayastha TJ, Megharaj M Assessment of biological and biochemical indicators in soil under transgenic Bt and non-Bt cotton crop in a sub-tropical environment. 2009 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 156(1-4), pp. 595-604. 
article DOI  
Abstract: There is concern that transgenic Bt-crops carry genes that could have undesirable effects on natural and agro-ecosystem functions. We investigated the effect of Bt-cotton (expressing the Cry 1Ac protein) on several microbial and biochemical indicators in a sandy loam soil. Bt-cotton (MRC-6301Bt) and its non-transgenic near-isoline (MRC-6301) were grown in a net-house on a sandy clay loam soil. Soil and root samples were collected 60, 90, and 120 days after sowing. Soil from a control (no-crop) treatment was also included. Samples were analysed for microbial biomass C, N and P (MBC, MBN, MBP), total organic carbon (TOC), and several soil enzyme activities. The microbial quotient (MQ) was calculated as the ratio of MBC-to-TOC. The average of the three sampling events revealed a significant increase in MBC, MBN, MBP and MQ in the soil under Bt-cotton over the non-Bt isoline. The TOC was similar in Bt and non-Bt systems. Potential N mineralization, nitrification, nitrate reductase, and acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were all higher in the soil under Bt-cotton. Root dry weights were not different (P > 0.05), but root volume of Bt-cotton was higher on 90 and 120 days than that of non-Bt cotton. The time of sampling strongly affected the above parameters, with most being highest on 90 days after sowing. We concluded from the data that there were some positive or no negative effects of Bt-cotton on the studied indicators, and therefore cultivation of Bt-cotton appears to be no risk to soil ecosystem functions.
BibTeX:
@article{SarkarB2009,
  author = {Sarkar B, Patra AK, Purakayastha TJ, Megharaj M.},
  title = {Assessment of biological and biochemical indicators in soil under transgenic Bt and non-Bt cotton crop in a sub-tropical environment.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {156(1-4)},
  pages = {595-604.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0508-y}
}
SathyaSelvabala V, Varathachary TK, Selvaraj DK, Ponnusamy V, Subramanian S Removal of free fatty acid in Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed oil using phosphoric acid modified mordenite for biodiesel production. 2010 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 101(15), pp. 5897-902. 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this study free fatty acids present in Azadirachta indica (Neem) oil were esterified with our synthesized phosphoric acid modified catalyst. During the esterification, the acid value was reduced from 24.4 to 1.8 mg KOH/g oil. Synthesized catalyst was characterized by NH(3) TPD, XRD, SEM, FTIR and TGA analysis. During phosphoric acid modification hydrophobic character and weak acid sites of the mordenite were increased, which lead to better esterification when compared to H-mordenite. A kinetic study demonstrates that the esterification reaction followed pseudo-first order kinetics. Thermodynamic studies were also done based on the Arrhenius model.
BibTeX:
@article{SathyaSelvabalaV2010,
  author = {SathyaSelvabala V, Varathachary TK, Selvaraj DK, Ponnusamy V, Subramanian S.},
  title = {Removal of free fatty acid in Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed oil using phosphoric acid modified mordenite for biodiesel production.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {101(15)},
  pages = {5897-902.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.092}
}
Satyavani G, Chandrasehar G, Varma KK, Goparaju A, Ayyappan S, Reddy PN, Murthy PB Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. 2012 ISRN Toxicol.  article DOI  
Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of expired pesticides on the yield and growth rate of green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, a study was conducted as per the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline number 201. Fifteen expired pesticideformulations, most commonly used in Indian agriculture, were tested in comparison with their unexpired counterparts. The expired pesticide formulations studied belonged to various class and functional groups: organophosphate, pyrethroid-based insecticides; azole-based fungicides; acetamide, propionate, acetic acid-based herbicides; fungicides mixtures containing two actives-azole and dithiocarbamate. The toxicity endpoints of yield (EyC50: 0-72 h) and growth rate (ErC50: 0-72 h) of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for each pesticide formulation (both expired and unexpired pesticides) were determined statistically using TOXSTAT 3.5 version software. The results pointed out that some expired pesticide formulations exhibited higher toxicity to tested algal species, as compared to the corresponding unexpired pesticides. These data thus stress the need for greater care to dispose expired pesticides to water bodies, to avoid the effects on aquatic ecospecies tested.
BibTeX:
@article{SatyavaniG2012,
  author = {Satyavani G, Chandrasehar G, Varma KK, Goparaju A, Ayyappan S, Reddy PN, Murthy PB.},
  title = {Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.},
  journal = {ISRN Toxicol.},
  year = {2012},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/247072}
}
Sayyed RZ, Chincholkar SB Siderophore-producing Alcaligenes feacalis exhibited more biocontrol potential vis-à-vis chemical fungicide. 2009 Curr Microbiol.
Vol. 58(1), pp. 47-51 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report the in vitro phytopathogen suppression activity of siderophoregenic preparations of Alcaligenes feacalis vis-à-vis the oraganochlorine fungicide, bavistin. Siderophore-rich culture broth, siderophore-rich supernatant, and purified siderophore preparation exerted antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger NCIM 1025, A. flavus NCIM 650, Fusarium oxysporum NCIM 1008, and Alternaria alternata IARI 715. Among all the preparations, siderophore-rich broth exhibited potent antifungal activity. The minimum fungicidal concentration required was 75 microl for A. niger and F. oxysporum and 50 microl for A. flavus and A. alternata.
BibTeX:
@article{SayyedRZ2009,
  author = {Sayyed RZ, Chincholkar SB},
  title = {Siderophore-producing Alcaligenes feacalis exhibited more biocontrol potential vis-à-vis chemical fungicide.},
  journal = {Curr Microbiol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {58(1)},
  pages = {47-51},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-008-9264-z}
}
Seenivasan S, Muraleedharan N Survey on the pesticide residues in tea in south India. 2011 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 176(1-4), pp. 365-71 
article DOI  
Abstract: Tea is considered as a 'health beverage' due its antioxidant properties and resultant beneficial effects on human health. Such a beverage should be free from toxic elements such as pesticideresidues and heavy metals. A large scale survey of teas produced in the tea factories of south India had been carried out for a period of three years from 2006 to 2008 and 912 tea samples were analysed for the residues of certain pesticides such as dicofol, ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and propargite which are used for pest and disease control in tea in this part of the country. The analytical data proved that only less than 0.5 percentage of tea samples had residues of these pesticides. However, residues of pesticides were below their maximum limits in tea, stipulated by the European Union, Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO/WHO and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of Govt. of India.
BibTeX:
@article{SeenivasanS2011,
  author = {Seenivasan S, Muraleedharan N},
  title = {Survey on the pesticide residues in tea in south India.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {176(1-4)},
  pages = {365-71},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1589-y}
}
Selvaraju S, Nandi S, Gupta PS, Ravindra JP Effects of heavy metals and pesticides on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa functions in vitro. 2011 Reprod Domest Anim.
Vol. 46(5), pp. 807-13 
article DOI  
Abstract: Industrial toxic metals, pollutants and bio-accumulative pesticides interfere with the male reproductive functions in farm animals. Frozen-thawed semen samples were incubated with heavy metals (cadmium and lead) and pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) of different concentrations (0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.02, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ?g/ml) for 1 h, and various spermatozoa functional parameters and in vitro fertilization rates were assessed. Any significant effect was assessed by comparing the 1 h data between the control and treatment groups. Progressive forward motility was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in spermatozoa exposed to lower concentrations (0.05-0.5 ?g/ml) of toxic substances. The straight-line velocity (?m/s) and the average path velocity (?m/s) were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in spermatozoa exposed to 1.0 and 0.5 ?g/ml of cadmium (11.6 ± 1.9 and 16.3 ± 1.9) and chlorpyrifos (10.4 ± 1.5 and 17.1 ± 1.3), respectively, when compared to control (20.4 ± 1.4 and 28.1 ± 1.7). The acrosomal integrity was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 0.05 ?g/ml of chlorpyrifos (33.3 ± 1.9), 1.0 ?g/ml of cadmium (36.8 ± 3.7), 1.0 ?g/ml of lead (39.4 ± 2.8) and 0.5 ?g/ml of endosulfan (38.3 ± 3.2), respectively. The spermatozoa chromatin decondensation was significantly (p < 0.05) affected at higher concentrations (>0.5 ?g/ml) of these chemicals. The mitochondrial membrane potential (%) was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced at 0.05 ?g/ml of cadmium (3.2 ± 0.2) and chlorpyrifos (4.3 ± 0.4), 0.1 ?g/ml of lead (3.8 ± 0.3) and 0.5 ?g/ml of endosulfan (3.2 ± 0.3) when compared to control (6.7 ± 1.0). The in vitro fertilization capabilities (cleavage percentage) of spermatozoa were significantly reduced at 1.0 ?g/ml of cadmium (28.3 ± 2.4) and 2.0 ?g/ml of lead (31.1 ± 2.7), chlorpyrifos (29.4 ± 2.2) and endosulfan (32.6 ± 2.5) when compared to control (59.4 ± 4.4). This study suggested that the mitochondrial membrane potential was primarily affected even with lowest doses of toxic chemicals. Cadmium when compared to lead and chlorpyrifos when compared to endosulfan were found to be more toxic to the spermatozoa.
BibTeX:
@article{SelvarajuS2011,
  author = {Selvaraju S, Nandi S, Gupta PS, Ravindra JP.},
  title = {Effects of heavy metals and pesticides on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa functions in vitro.},
  journal = {Reprod Domest Anim.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {46(5)},
  pages = {807-13},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2010.01745.x}
}
Sengupta P, Banerjee R Environmental toxins: Alarming impacts of pesticides on male fertility. 2013 Hum Exp Toxicol.  article  
Abstract: This review comprehensively summarizes the effects of more than 15 mostly used pesticides on male reproductive physiology, as recent experimental and epidemiological research have indicated their alarming impact on overall human health. Mechanisms have described that pesticide exposure damages spermatozoa, alter Sertoli or Leydig cell function, both in vitro and in vivo and thus affects semen quality. But, the literature suggests a need for more intricate research in those pesticides that are defined as mutagens or carcinogens and directly affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This literature review also proposes specific solutions to overcome these health effects.
BibTeX:
@article{SenguptaP2013,
  author = {Sengupta P, Banerjee R},
  title = {Environmental toxins: Alarming impacts of pesticides on male fertility.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2013}
}
Senthilkumar A, Kannathasan K, Venkatesalu V Chemical constituents and larvicidal property of the essential oil of Blumea mollis (D. Don) Merr. against Culex quinquefasciatus. 2008 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 959-62, pp. 103(4) 
article DOI  
Abstract: The essential oil from the leaves of Blumea mollis was extracted and the chemical constituents and the larvicidal against Culex quinquefasciatus effects studied. The analyses of gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the leaf essential oil of B. mollis contained 39 compounds, and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (19.43%), gamma-elemene (12.19%), copaene (10.93%), estragole (10.81%), Allo-ocimene (10.03%), gamma-terpinene (8.28%) and Allo-aromadendrene (7.44%). The essential oil had significant toxic effect against early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus with LC50=71.71 and LC90=143.41 ppm. The results could be useful in search of newer, safer and more effective natural larvicidal agent against C. quinquefasciatus.
BibTeX:
@article{SenthilkumarA2008,
  author = {Senthilkumar A, Kannathasan K, Venkatesalu V},
  title = {Chemical constituents and larvicidal property of the essential oil of Blumea mollis (D. Don) Merr. against Culex quinquefasciatus.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {959-62},
  pages = {103(4)},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1085-2}
}
Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito. 2010 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 107(5), pp. 1275-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus was studied for its chemical composition and larvicidal potential against the malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Totally 26 compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS. The major chemical compounds were carvacrol (28.65%) followed by thymol (21.66%), ?-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), ?-terpinene (7.76%), ?-cymene (6.46%), caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), ?-terpineol (3.28%) and ?-selinene (2.01%). The larvicidal assay was conducted to record the LC(50) and LC(90) values and the larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The LC(50) values of the oil were 33.54 (after 12 h) and 28.37 ppm (after 24 h). The LC(90) values of the oil were 70.27 (after 12 h) and 59.38 ppm (after 24 h). The results of the present study showed that the essential oil of P. amboinicus is one of the inexpensive and eco-friendly sources of natural mosquito larvicidal agent to control/reduce the population of malarial vector mosquito.
BibTeX:
@article{SenthilkumarA2010,
  author = {Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V.},
  title = {Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {107(5)},
  pages = {1275-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-1996-6}
}
Senthilkumar N, Varma P, Gurusubramanian G Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston). 2009 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 104(2), pp. 237-44. 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to test the efficacy of 11 commonly available medicinal plants and compare its efficacy in relation to larvicidal and mosquitocidal activities against larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi (Liston). All the medicinal plants and the mixture were effective against larvae of A. stephensi as evidenced by low lethal concentration and lethal time. The lethality varied in adults and plant extracts of mixture; Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogan citratus, Artemisia annua, Justicia gendarussa, Myristica fragrans, Annona squamosa, and Centella asiatica were found to be most effective. Larval mortality between 80% and 100% was observed in mixture treatment, C. asiatica and E. globulus. The adults that emerged from all the treatments were malformed. Further, the treated larvae showed significant decrement in the levels of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids and affect negatively the presence of certain amino acids. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae and adults in the aquatic ecosystem as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. These plant extracts are easy to prepare, inexpensive, and safe for mosquito control which might be used directly as larvicidal and mosquitocidal agents in small volume aquatic habitats or breeding sites of around human dwellings.
BibTeX:
@article{SenthilkumarN2009,
  author = {Senthilkumar N, Varma P, Gurusubramanian G.},
  title = {Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston).},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {104(2)},
  pages = {237-44.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1180-4}
}
Senthilkumaran S, Balamurgan N, Menezes RG, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P An unusual case of attempted suicide by rectal administration of parathion. 2011 J Forensic Leg Med.
Vol. 18(8), pp. 383-4 
article DOI  
Abstract: Although organophosphate (OP) poisoning is well known, unusual routes of administration of OP compounds are reported occasionally. Herein, a case of self administration of parathion, an OP compound, into the rectum using a six inches (15 cm) nozzle of a sprayer in a 35-year-old man is highlighted along with probable mechanisms for rapid absorption and severe systemic toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{SenthilkumaranS2011,
  author = {Senthilkumaran S, Balamurgan N, Menezes RG, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P.},
  title = {An unusual case of attempted suicide by rectal administration of parathion.},
  journal = {J Forensic Leg Med.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18(8)},
  pages = {383-4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2011.07.002}
}
Senthilkumaran S, Saravanakumar S, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P Cutaneous absorption of Oleander: Fact or fiction. 2009 J Emerg Trauma Shock.
Vol. 2(1), pp. 43-5. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cardiac conduction disorders following oral ingestion of Oleander plant materials were documented earlier. Transcutaneous absorption of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) leaf extract applied over non intact skin (raw wound) resulting in reversible cardiac conduction disorder observed in four healthy males who were free from any other systemic or electrolyte or metabolic disorders or exposure to pesticide or toxins is reported for the first time. Their hematological, biochemical, clinical, and echocardiogram status were within normal limits and free of any abnormalities. One among the four, presented for weakness and breathlessness (class II). He had bradycardia with Mobitz II block and hypotension without any other demonstrable localizing signs. The other three were identified in the community and without any symptoms. However, their ECG revealed bradycardia with Mobitz I block in two and complete heart block in the other. All of the four recovered well without any untoward events. Hence, it is suggested that physicians and practitioners have to elicit history and route of administration of unconventional therapy, whenever they are confronted with clinical challenges and during medical emergencies before embarking final decision.
BibTeX:
@article{SenthilkumaranS2009,
  author = {Senthilkumaran S, Saravanakumar S, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P},
  title = {Cutaneous absorption of Oleander: Fact or fiction.},
  journal = {J Emerg Trauma Shock.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {2(1)},
  pages = {43-5.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-2700.44682}
}
Senthilkumaran S, SathyaPrabhu K, Balamurugan N, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P Deadly drop--cholinergic syndrome from wearing a laundered uniform. 2012 Pediatr Emerg Care.
Vol. 28(1), pp. 57-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: Unintentional organophosphate compound poisoning, although known, contamination of organophosphate compound through laundered uniform and subsequent transcutaneous absorption, in 30 children is reported herewith for its rarity. Emergency physicians have to recognize such entities clinically, confirm by laboratory means wherever possible, and intervene with appropriate measures.
BibTeX:
@article{SenthilkumaranS2012,
  author = {Senthilkumaran S, SathyaPrabhu K, Balamurugan N, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P.},
  title = {Deadly drop--cholinergic syndrome from wearing a laundered uniform.},
  journal = {Pediatr Emerg Care.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {28(1)},
  pages = {57-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0b013e31823f2518}
}
Shabeer TP, Saha A, Gajbhiye VT, Gupta S, Manjaiah KM, Varghese E Simultaneous removal of multiple pesticides from water: effect of organically modified clays as coagulant aid and adsorbent in coagulation-flocculation process. 2014 Environ Technol., pp. 2619-27  article  
Abstract: Contamination of drinking water sources with agrochemical residues became a major concern in the twenty-first century. Coagulation-flocculation is the most widely used water-treatment process, but the efficiency to remove pesticides and other organic pollutants are limited compared to adsorption process. Thus, simultaneous action of adsorption on normal bentonite or organo-modified montmorillonite clays [modified with octadecylamine (ODA-M) and octadecylamine + amino-propyltriethoxysilane (ODAAPS-M)] followed by coagulation-flocculation by alum and poly aluminium chloride has been evaluated for removal of 10 different pesticides, namely atrazine, lindane, metribuzin, aldrin, chlorpyriphos, pendimethalin, alpha-endosulphan, beta-endosulphan, p,p'-DDT, cypermethrin and two of its metabolites, endosulphan sulphate and p,p'-DDE, from water. The coagulation without integration of adsorption was less effective (removal % varies from 12 to 49) than the adsorption-coagulation integrated system (removal % varies from 71 to 100). Further, coagulation integrated with adsorption was more effective when organically modified montmorillonite was used as adsorbent compared to normal bentonite. The removal efficiency of organic clay depends upon the concentration of pesticides, doses of clay minerals, and efficiency was more for ODAAPS-M as compared to ODA-M. The combination of ODAAPS-M-clay with coagulants was also used efficiently for the removal of pesticides from natural and fortified natural water collected and the results exhibit the usefulness of this remediation technique for application in water decontamination and in treatment of industrial and agricultural waste waters.
BibTeX:
@article{ShabeerTP2014,
  author = {Shabeer TP, Saha A, Gajbhiye VT, Gupta S, Manjaiah KM, Varghese E},
  title = {Simultaneous removal of multiple pesticides from water: effect of organically modified clays as coagulant aid and adsorbent in coagulation-flocculation process.},
  journal = {Environ Technol.},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {2619-27}
}
Shah R, Roberts KM, Ramanathan KB Influence of chronic kidney disease on warfarin therapy for atrial fibrillation. 2014 AMA  article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{ShahR2014,
  author = {Shah R, Roberts KM, Ramanathan KB.},
  title = {Influence of chronic kidney disease on warfarin therapy for atrial fibrillation.},
  journal = {AMA},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.5581}
}
Shakil NA, Pandey A, Singh MK, Kumar J, Awasthi SK, Srivastava C, Singh MK, Pandey RP Synthesis and bioefficacy evaluation of new 3-substituted-3,4-dihydro-1,3-benzoxazines. 2010 J Environ Sci Health B.
Vol. 45(2), pp. 108-15 
article DOI  
Abstract: A new series of 1, 3-Benzoxazines were synthesized, characterized ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and evaluated for their pesticidal activity. Six new 3-alkyl-3, 4-dihydro-4-methyl-2H-1, 3-benzoxazines (1-6) were prepared by hydroxymethylation of secondary amines with formaldehyde in 65-68% yields. These compounds were screened for there IGR activity against Spodoptera litura and for antifungal fungal activity in vitro against Sclerotium rolfsii ITCC 6181 by poisoned food technique. Insect Growth Regulatory (IGR) activity against Spodoptera litura showed that compound 3-Nonyl-3,4-dihydro-4-methyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazines was most effective as IGR with larval GI(50) of 1.863 mu g/Insect. Compounds 3-Octyl-3,4-dihydro-4-methyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazines and 3-Decyl-3,4-dihydro-4-methyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazines were effective IGRs. Antifungal screening revealed that compound 3-Dodecyl-3, 4-dihydro-4-methyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazines, was highly effective against Sclerotium rolfsii with LC(50) value 31.7 mg L(-1) comparable with commercial fungicide Hexaconazole (LC(50) 1.27 mg L(-1)). Also compounds 3-Nonyl-3, 4-dihydro-4-methyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazines and 3-Decyl-3,4-dihydro-4-methyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazines displayed promising fungitoxicity. The results described in this paper are promising and provides new array of synthetic chemicals to be utilized as pesticides.
BibTeX:
@article{ShakilNA2010,
  author = {Shakil NA, Pandey A, Singh MK, Kumar J, Awasthi SK, Srivastava C, Singh MK, Pandey RP},
  title = {Synthesis and bioefficacy evaluation of new 3-substituted-3,4-dihydro-1,3-benzoxazines.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Health B.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {45(2)},
  pages = {108-15},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601230903471852}
}
Sharma P, Huq AU, Singh R Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris. 2013 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 34(5), pp. 857-62 
article  
Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaP2013,
  author = {Sharma P, Huq AU, Singh R},
  title = {Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {34(5)},
  pages = {857-62}
}
Sharma P, Suri CR Biotransformation and biomonitoring of phenylurea herbicide diuron. 2011 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 102(3), pp. 3119-25 
article DOI  
Abstract: A Gram-positive, Micrococcus sp. strain PS-1 isolated from diuron storage site was studied for its capability of biotransformation of phenylurea herbicide diuron to a secondary metabolite, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCPU) for bioconjugation and antibody development applications. The metabolite formed associated with profound changes in bacterial cell morphology demonstrated increase in the degradation kinetics of diuron in presence of small quantity of a surfactant. The synthesized metabolite identified by chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques was conjugated with carrier protein, and used as an immunogen for antibodies production. The generated antibody was highly specific, demonstrating excellent sensitivity against diuron. The antibody was used as receptor molecules in standard fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) format showing detection limit of 0.01 ng/mL in the optimum working concentration range of diuron with good signal precision (?2%). The study presented first time the degradation pathway of herbicide by specific microorganism to synthesize hapten for bioconjugation and immunoassay development
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaP2011,
  author = {Sharma P, Suri CR.},
  title = {Biotransformation and biomonitoring of phenylurea herbicide diuron.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {102(3)},
  pages = {3119-25},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.076}
}
Sharma S, Chandra P, Mishra C, Kakkar P Microbiological quality and organochlorine pesticide residue in commercially available ready-to-eat raisins. 2008 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 81(4), pp. 387-92 
article DOI  
Abstract: Microbiological quality and organochlorine pesticide residual contamination in raisins in a restricted area of Lucknow city, India was assessed in 20 samples. Total bacterial count was found in both open and packed raisin samples within the acceptable range (10(5)-<10(6)). The presence of food pathogens like Salmonella spp. and Enterobacteriaceae was detected more in open samples whereas Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were absent. Lactobacilli spp. was found in all open samples and two packed samples. Presence of OCP residue was also found below the MRL although low levels of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH were detected in samples. The study shows presence of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as OCP residue within permissible limits which was more in open samples than in packed ones.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaS2008,
  author = {Sharma S, Chandra P, Mishra C, Kakkar P},
  title = {Microbiological quality and organochlorine pesticide residue in commercially available ready-to-eat raisins.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {81(4)},
  pages = {387-92},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-008-9506-6}
}
Sharma S, Singh S Dabigatran in patients with mechanical heart valves. 2014 N Engl J Med.
Vol. 370(4), pp. 381-2 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaS2014,
  author = {Sharma S, Singh S},
  title = {Dabigatran in patients with mechanical heart valves.},
  journal = {N Engl J Med.},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {370(4)},
  pages = {381-2},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1315004}
}
Sharma S, Singh P, Raj M, Chadha BS, Saini HS Aqueous phase partitioning of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers by biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa WH-2. 2009 J Hazard Mater.
Vol. 171(1-3), pp. 1178-82 
article DOI  
Abstract: The different isomers of technical-grade hexachlorocyclohexane (t-HCH) including the insecticidal gamma-isomer, commonly known as lindane, have been reported to be toxic, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupters. The spatial arrangements of the chlorine atoms on different isomers and low aqueous phase solubility contribute to their persistence in environment, beta-HCH being the most resistance to transformation. The biosurfactant preparation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate WH-2 was evaluated for its ability to improve the aqueous phase partitioning of different isomers of HCH-muck. Further, the ability of biosurfactant preparation to emulsify HCH and n-hexadecane was checked under different conditions, usually characteristic of sites contaminated with pollutants viz. wide range of pH, temperature, and salinity. The data obtained from this study will be helpful in designing suitable bioremediation strategies for huge stock piles of HCH-muck and sites polluted by reckless use/disposal of HCH-isomers.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaS2009,
  author = {Sharma S, Singh P, Raj M, Chadha BS, Saini HS.},
  title = {Aqueous phase partitioning of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers by biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa WH-2.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {171(1-3)},
  pages = {1178-82},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.116}
}
Sharma T, Banerjee BD, Mustafa M, Guleria K, Ahmed RS, Tripathi AK Gene environment interaction in preterm delivery with special reference to organochlorine pesticide: a case control study. 2013 Int J Biochem Mol Biol.
Vol. 4(4), pp. 209-14 
article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
To assess the Gene-Environmental interaction between maternal organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) level and CYP17 gene polymorphism with the risk of preterm delivery (PTD).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Maternal blood samples of hundred cases (n = 100) of PTD and of equal number of healthy controls were collected at the time of delivery. OCPs levels were estimated by Gas chromatography system equipped with electron capture detector and PCR-RFLP was used for polymorphic analysis of CYP17 gene.
RESULTS:
Significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of ?-HCH, ?-HCH, and ?-HCH were found in maternal blood samples of PTD cases as compared to controls. We did not found any significant difference in the frequency genotype distribution CYP17 gene in PTD cases as compared to controls. When gene environmental interaction between the CYP17 gene polymorphism and OCPs level was considered, a significant interaction was observed between ? 50th percentile of ?-HCH and CYP17 A1A1 (wild type) genotype.
CONCLUSIONS:
Higher levels of OCPs along with wild type state of CYP17 gene (A1A1) in women may be considered as an important etiological factor in 'idiopathic' PTD. The present study provides evidence that genetic variation and its interaction with the environmental exposure may increase the risk of PTD.
BibTeX:
@article{SharmaT12013,
  author = {Sharma T1, Banerjee BD, Mustafa M, Guleria K, Ahmed RS, Tripathi AK},
  title = {Gene environment interaction in preterm delivery with special reference to organochlorine pesticide: a case control study.},
  journal = {Int J Biochem Mol Biol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4(4)},
  pages = {209-14}
}
Shashikumar S, Rajini PS Cypermethrin elicited responses in heat shock protein and feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans. 2010 Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Vol. 73(5), pp. 1057-62 
article DOI  
Abstract: Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are a family of stress proteins, which are elicited in response to a variety of stressors in organisms. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, on induction of small heat shock proteins (Hsp16) and feeding response in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans PC72 (Hsp16-LacZ). A concentration-dependent inhibition in feeding was evident in worms exposed to cypermethrin (31%, 46% and 56% at 5, 10, 15 mM, respectively) beyond 4h while marked induction of heat shock protein-16 expression was evident after 12h exposure (as evident from quantitative analysis). Maximum expression of Hsp16 was observed throughout the body of the worms 24h after exposure similar to that evident in the worms exposed to heat shock at 30 degrees C. These data suggest that cypermethrin possesses the potential to induce Hsp16 as well as inhibit feeding in C. elegans at non-lethal concentrations. C. elegans (PC72) thus could serve as a convenient model to study the early toxic effects of xenobiotics.
BibTeX:
@article{ShashikumarS2010,
  author = {Shashikumar S, Rajini PS.},
  title = {Cypermethrin elicited responses in heat shock protein and feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {73(5)},
  pages = {1057-62},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.02.003}
}
Shekharyadav C, Bajpai M, Kumar V, Ahmed RS, Gupta P, Banerjee BD Polymorphism in CYP1A1, GSTMI, GSTT1 genes and organochlorinepesticides in the etiology of hypospadias. 2011 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 30(10), pp. 1464-74 
article DOI  
Abstract: Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and maternal endogenous estrogen may cause hypospadias, common congenital anomaly. Several organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been reported to possess an endocrine-disrupting potential. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1 and GSTT1) of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme family are involved in the metabolism of various environmental toxicants and steroidal hormones. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the role of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 genes polymorphism, OCPs levels and risk of hypospadias. A total of 80 hypospadiac and 120 age-matched control boys were included. OCP levels in blood were determined using Gas Chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and polymorphism in CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes was evaluated by RFLP and multiplex PCR method. We observed significant high levels of ?-hexachlorohexane (HCH), ?-HCH, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in the cases. CYP1A1 polymorphisms were not significantly different among cases and controls, whereas concomitant deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls. However, after adjusting for low birth weight and maternal occupational exposure, the results did not remain significant but odds of risk was higher (OR = 1.72, p = 0.14) among cases. In conclusion, our study suggests irrespective of genetic predisposition, higher level of some OCPs may be associated with increased risk of hypospadias.
BibTeX:
@article{ShekharyadavC2011,
  author = {Shekharyadav C, Bajpai M, Kumar V, Ahmed RS, Gupta P, Banerjee BD},
  title = {Polymorphism in CYP1A1, GSTMI, GSTT1 genes and organochlorinepesticides in the etiology of hypospadias.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {30(10)},
  pages = {1464-74},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327110392402}
}
Shraddha, Shekher R, Sehgal S, Kamthania M, Kumar A Laccase: microbial sources, production, purification, and potential biotechnological applications. 2011 Enzyme Res.  article DOI  
Abstract: Laccase belongs to the blue multicopper oxidases and participates in cross-linking of monomers, degradation of polymers, and ring cleavage of aromatic compounds. It is widely distributed in higher plants and fungi. It is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes and abundant in lignin-degrading white-rot fungi. It is also used in the synthesis of organic substance, where typical substrates are amines and phenols, the reaction products are dimers and oligomers derived from the coupling of reactive radical intermediates. In the recent years, these enzymes have gained application in the field of textile, pulp and paper, and food industry. Recently, it is also used in the design of biosensors, biofuel cells, as a medical diagnostics tool and bioremediation agent to clean up herbicides, pesticides and certain explosives in soil. Laccases have received attention of researchers in the last few decades due to their ability to oxidize both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. It has been identified as the principal enzyme associated with cuticular hardening in insects. Two main forms have been found: laccase-1 and laccase-2. This paper reviews the occurrence, mode of action, general properties, production, applications, and immobilization of laccases within different industrial fields.
BibTeX:
@article{Shraddha2011,
  author = {Shraddha, Shekher R, Sehgal S, Kamthania M, Kumar A.},
  title = {Laccase: microbial sources, production, purification, and potential biotechnological applications.},
  journal = {Enzyme Res.},
  year = {2011},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/217861}
}
Singh A, Srivastava AK, Singh AK Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L. 2013 Environ Toxicol.
Vol. 28(12), pp. 666-72 
article DOI  
Abstract: The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghA2013,
  author = {Singh A, Srivastava AK, Singh AK},
  title = {Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.},
  journal = {Environ Toxicol.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {28(12)},
  pages = {666-72},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.20745}
}
Singh AK, Chhatpar HS Purification and characterization of chitinase from Paenibacillus sp. D1. 2011 Appl Biochem Biotechnol.
Vol. 164(1), pp. 77-88 
article DOI  
Abstract: A 56.56-kDa extracellular chitinase from Paenibacillus sp. D1 was purified to 52.3-fold by ion exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose. Maximum enzyme activity was recorded at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. MALDI-LC-MS/MS analysis identified the purified enzyme as chitinase with 60% similarity to chitinase Chi55 of Paenibacillus ehimensis. The activation energy (E (a)) for chitin hydrolysis and temperature quotient (Q (10)) at optimum temperature was found to be 19.14 kJ/mol and 1.25, respectively. Determination of kinetic constants k (m), V (max), k (cat), and k (cat)/k (m) and thermodynamic parameters ?H*, ?S*, ?G*, ?G*(E-S), and ?G*(E-T) revealed high affinity of the enzyme for chitin. The enzyme exhibited higher stability in presence of commonly used protectant fungicides Captan, Carbendazim, and Mancozeb compared to control as reflected from the t (1/2) values suggesting its applicability in integrated pest management for control of soil-borne fungal phytopathogens. The order of stability of chitinase in presence of fungicides at 80 °C as revealed from t (1/2) values and thermodynamic parameters E (a(d)) (activation energy for irreversible deactivation), ?H*, ?G*, and ?S* was: Captan > Carbendazim > Mancozeb > control. The present study is the first report on thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of chitinase from Paenibacillus sp. D1.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghAK2011,
  author = {Singh AK, Chhatpar HS.},
  title = {Purification and characterization of chitinase from Paenibacillus sp. D1.},
  journal = {Appl Biochem Biotechnol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {164(1)},
  pages = {77-88},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-010-9116-8}
}
Singh CK, Ojha A, Bhatanagar RK, Kachru DN Detection and characterization of recombinant DNA expressing vip3A-type insecticidal gene in GMOs--standard single, multiplex and construct-specific PCR assays. 2008 Anal Bioanal Chem.
Vol. 390(1), pp. 377-87 
article  
Abstract: Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip), a unique class of insecticidal protein, is now part of transgenic plants for conferring resistance against lepidopteron pests. In order to address the imminent regulatory need for detection and labeling of vip3A carrying genetically modified (GM) products, we have developed a standard single PCR and a multiplex PCR assay. As far as we are aware, this is the first report on PCR-based detection of a vip3A-type gene (vip-s) in transgenic cotton and tobacco. Our assay involves amplification of a 284-bp region of the vip-s gene. This assay can possibly detect as many as 20 natural wild-type isolates bearing a vip3A-like gene and two synthetic genes of vip3A in transgenic plants. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (vip-s) is 0.1%. Spiking with nontarget DNA originating from diverse plant sources had no inhibitory effect on vip-s detection. Since autoclaving of vip-s bearing GM leaf samples showed no deterioration/interference in detection efficacy, the assay seems to be suitable for processed food products as well. The vip-s amplicon identity was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease assay. The primer set for vip-s was equally effective in a multiplex PCR assay format (duplex, triplex and quadruplex), used in conjunction with the primer sets for the npt-II selectable marker gene, Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthetase terminator, enabling concurrent detection of the transgene, regulatory sequences and marker gene. Further, the entire transgene construct was amplified using the forward primer of the promoter and the reverse primer of the terminator. The resultant amplicon served as a template for nested PCR to confirm the construct integrity. The method is suitable for screening any vip3A-carrying GM plant and food. The availability of a reliable PCR assay method prior to commercial release of vip3A-based transgenic crops and food would facilitate rapid and efficient regulatory compliance.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghCK2008,
  author = {Singh CK, Ojha A, Bhatanagar RK, Kachru DN.},
  title = {Detection and characterization of recombinant DNA expressing vip3A-type insecticidal gene in GMOs--standard single, multiplex and construct-specific PCR assays.},
  journal = {Anal Bioanal Chem.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {390(1)},
  pages = {377-87}
}
Singh G, Sahoo SK, Takkar R, Battu RS, Singh B, Chahil GS Residual behaviour and risk assessment of flubendiamide on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). 2011 Chemosphere.
Vol. 84(10), pp. 1416-21 
article DOI  
Abstract: The study was undertaken to determine the disappearance trends of flubendiamide residues on chickpea under field conditions and thereby, ensure consumer safety. Average initial deposits of flubendiamide on chickpea pods were found to be 0.68 and 1.17 mg kg(-1), respectively, following three applications of flubendiamide 480SC @ 48 and 96 g a.i. ha(-1) at 7d intervals. Half-life of flubendiamide on chickpea pods was observed to be 1.39 and 1.44 d, respectively, at single and double dosages whereas with respect to chickpea leaves, these values were found to be 0.77 and 0.86 d. Desiodo flubendiamide was not detected at 0.05 mg kg(-1) level on chickpea samples collected at different intervals. Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) for flubendiamide was calculated and found to be well below the maximum permissible intake (MPI) on chickpea pods and leaves at 0-day (1 h after spraying) for the both dosages. Thus, the application of flubendiamide at the recommended dose on chickpea presents no human health risks and is safe to the consumers.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghG2011,
  author = {Singh G, Sahoo SK, Takkar R, Battu RS, Singh B, Chahil GS},
  title = {Residual behaviour and risk assessment of flubendiamide on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).},
  journal = {Chemosphere.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {84(10)},
  pages = {1416-21},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.04.065}
}
Singh H, Dixit S, Verma PC, Singh PK Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract. 2014 J Agric Food Chem.  article DOI  
Abstract: Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 ?g/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 ?g/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 ?L/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghH2014,
  author = {Singh H, Dixit S, Verma PC, Singh PK.},
  title = {Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.},
  journal = {J Agric Food Chem.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf405695y}
}
Singh KP, Gupta S, Basant N, Mohan D QSTR Modeling for Qualitative and Quantitative Toxicity Predictions of Diverse Chemical Pesticides in Honey Bee for Regulatory Purposes. 2014 Chem Res Toxicol.  article  
Abstract: Pesticides are designed toxic chemicals for specific purposes and can harm nontarget species as well. The honey bee is considered a nontarget test species for toxicity evaluation of chemicals. Global QSTR (quantitative structure-toxicity relationship) models were established for qualitative and quantitative toxicity prediction of pesticides in honey bee (Apis mellifera) based on the experimental toxicity data of 237 structurally diverse pesticides. Structural diversity of the chemical pesticides and nonlinear dependence in the toxicity data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) QSTR models were constructed for classification (two and four categories) and function optimization problems using the toxicity end point in honey bees. The predictive power of the QSTR models was tested through rigorous validation performed using the internal and external procedures employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete data, the PNN-QSTR model rendered a classification accuracy of 96.62% (two-category) and 95.57% (four-category), while the GRNN-QSTR model yielded a correlation (R2) of 0.841 between the measured and predicted toxicity values with a mean squared error (MSE) of 0.22. The results suggest the appropriateness of the developed QSTR models for reliably predicting qualitative and quantitative toxicities of pesticides in honey bee. Both the PNN and GRNN based QSTR models constructed here can be useful tools in predicting the qualitative and quantitative toxicities of the new chemical pesticides for regulatory purposes.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghKP2014,
  author = {Singh KP, Gupta S, Basant N, Mohan D},
  title = {QSTR Modeling for Qualitative and Quantitative Toxicity Predictions of Diverse Chemical Pesticides in Honey Bee for Regulatory Purposes.},
  journal = {Chem Res Toxicol.},
  year = {2014}
}
Singh KV, Khanna P, Suri CR, Garg ML Structural and immunogenic effects of multiple hapten loading on carrier protein. 2010 J AOAC Int.
Vol. 93(1), pp. 59-65 
article  
Abstract: Haptens are low-molecular-weight compounds that are usually nonimmunogenic in nature. These compounds are, in general, conjugated with carrier proteins to elicit an immune response for antibody production. In this work, we report the effect of multiple hapten loading on carrier protein after conjugation by monitoring the structural and immunogenic properties of the protein. Biochemical conjugation of carboxylated hapten (atrazine derivative) to bovine serum albumin via epsilon-amino groups of lysine residues was monitored by the intrinsic fluorescence intensity of tryptophan residues of protein. A significant blue shift of emission maxima confirmed the conformational changes with increasing molar ratio of hapten:protein. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested a decreasing trend for alpha-helical and increased formation of beta-sheet structures in hapten-loaded protein. A further insight was sought by using molecular modeling methods for understanding of structural changes in the native protein post-hapten conjugation. A sequential approach for hapten loading on the carrier confirmed that initial binding could affect the possible binding sites for subsequent incorporation of hapten molecules. These changes play a major role in the immunogenic response of hapten-carrier conjugate. The approach taken to develop this model is promising, and can be generalized for studies with other protein-hapten combinations.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghKV2010,
  author = {Singh KV, Khanna P, Suri CR, Garg ML},
  title = {Structural and immunogenic effects of multiple hapten loading on carrier protein.},
  journal = {J AOAC Int.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {93(1)},
  pages = {59-65}
}
Singh M, Singh DK Endosulfan induced alteration in bacterial protein profile and RNA yield of Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6, and Rhodococcus sp. M2. 2014 J Hazard Mater  article DOI  
Abstract: Three bacterial strains identified as Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2 were isolated by soil enrichment with endosulfan followed by shake flask enrichment technique. They were efficiently degrading endosulfan in the NSM (non sulfur medium) broth. Degradation of endosulfan was faster with the cell free extract of bacterial cells grown in the sulfur deficient medium (NSM) supplemented with endosulfan than that of nutrient rich medium (Luria Bertani). In the cell free extract of NSM supplemented with endosulfan as sole sulfur source, a unique band was visualized on SDS-PAGE but not with magnesium sulfate as the sole sulfur source in NSM and LB with endosulfan. Expression of a unique polypeptide band was speculated to be induced by endosulfan under sulfur starved condition. These unique polypeptide bands were identified as OmpK35 protein, sulfate binding protein and outer membrane porin protein, respectively, in Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2. Endosulfan showed dose dependent negative effect on total RNA yield of bacterial strains in nutrient rich medium. Absence of plasmid DNA indicated the presence of endosulfan metabolizing gene on genomic DNA.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghM2014,
  author = {Singh M, Singh DK},
  title = {Endosulfan induced alteration in bacterial protein profile and RNA yield of Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6, and Rhodococcus sp. M2.},
  journal = {J Hazard Mater},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.11.061}
}
Singh M, Sandhir R, Kiran R Alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis in rat erythrocytes with atrazine treatment: positive modulation by vitamin E. 2010 Mol Cell Biochem.
Vol. 340(1-2), pp. 231-8 
article DOI  
Abstract: A very low level of intra-erythrocytic calcium content is very important for normal physiology of cells. In the present study, our main objective was to investigate the effects of atrazine toxicity on Ca(2+) homeostasis and modulation by vitamin E. Experimental animals were orally administered atrazine (300 mg kg(-1) body weight, daily) and vitamin E (100 mg kg(-1) body weight, daily). All studies were carried out for 7, 14, and 21 days in male Wistar rats. Erythrocyte membranes were prepared and were analyzed for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and membrane bound ATPases. Furthermore, Ca(2+) homeostasis was evaluated in erythrocytes. The present findings indicated that atrazine exposure induced oxidative stress which was associated with significant increase in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05). Vitamin E treatment on the other hand significantly lowered the atrazine-induced lipid peroxidation. The increased LPO following atrazine exposure was accompanied by significant decrease in ATPases (P < 0.05) and disturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis. Furthermore, vitamin E treatment had a beneficial effect by partially restoring ATPases and Ca(2+) homeostasis. The current findings suggest that atrazine exerts its toxic effect by increasing LPO, altering the activity of membrane bound enzymes and disturbing Ca(2+) homeostasis. Vitamin E treatment ameliorated the toxic effects of atrazine suggesting its role as a potential antioxidant.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghM2010,
  author = {Singh M, Sandhir R, Kiran R.},
  title = {Alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis in rat erythrocytes with atrazine treatment: positive modulation by vitamin E.},
  journal = {Mol Cell Biochem.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {340(1-2)},
  pages = {231-8},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-010-0422-9}
}
Singh M, Sandhir R, Kiran R Atrazine-induced alterations in rat erythrocyte membranes: ameliorating effect of vitamin E. 2008 J Biochem Mol Toxicol.
Vol. 22(5), pp. 363-9. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Erythrocytes are a convenient model to understand oxidative damage to the membranes induced by various xenobiotics. The objective of the present study was to investigate the propensity of atrazine to induce oxidative stress and its possible attenuation by vitamin E. Experimental animals were orally administered atrazine (300 mg kg(-1) body weight, daily) and vitamin E (100 mg kg(-1) body weight, daily) for a period of 7, 14, and 21 days. Erythrocyte membranes were prepared and analyzed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and lipid composition. Susceptibility of erythrocytes to atrazine exposure was further investigated in terms of morphological alterations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicate that atrazine exposure caused a significant inhibition of AChE activity and induction of oxidative stress in terms of increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Atrazine treatment significantly decreased total lipid, cholesterol, and phospholipid content of erythrocyte membranes. SEM revealed varying degrees of distortion depending on duration of atrazine exposure. However, administration of vitamin E ameliorated the oxidative stress and changes in the erythrocyte membranes induced by atrazine.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghM2008,
  author = {Singh M, Sandhir R, Kiran R.},
  title = {Atrazine-induced alterations in rat erythrocyte membranes: ameliorating effect of vitamin E.},
  journal = {J Biochem Mol Toxicol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {22(5)},
  pages = {363-9.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.20249}
}
Singh NN, Srivastava AK Haematological parameters as bioindicators of insecticide exposure in teleosts. 2010 Ecotoxicology.
Vol. 19(5), pp. 838-54 
article DOI  
Abstract: Haematological parameters, such as erythrocyte and leucocyte count, erythrocyte indices and thrombocyte number vis-a-vis coagulation of blood has been considered bioindicators of toxicosis in fish following exposure to organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides. This review deals with the effects of insecticides on the morphology of red blood cells, total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total and differential leucocyte counts, thrombocyte count and clotting time in the peripheral blood of a number of teleosts. The review also takes stock of knowledge of the subject and explores prospects of additional research in the related area.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghNN2010,
  author = {Singh NN, Srivastava AK.},
  title = {Haematological parameters as bioindicators of insecticide exposure in teleosts.},
  journal = {Ecotoxicology.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {19(5)},
  pages = {838-54},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-010-0465-4}
}
Singh NS, Singh DK Biodegradation of endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate by Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain C8B in broth medium.
.
2011 Biodegradation.
Vol. 22(5), pp. 845-57 
article DOI  
Abstract: Endosulfan is one of the most widely used wide spectrum cyclodiene organochlorine insecticide. In environment, endosulfan can undergo either oxidation or hydrolysis reaction to form endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan diol respectively. Endosulfan sulfate is as toxic and as persistent as its parent isomers. In the present study, endosulfan degrading bacteria were isolated from soil through selective enrichment technique using sulfur free medium with endosulfan as sole sulfur source. Out of the 8 isolated bacterial strains, strain C8B was found to be the most efficient endosulfan degrader, degrading 94.12% ?-endosulfan and 84.52% ?-endosulfan. The bacterial strain was identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain C8B on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence similarity. Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain C8B was also found to degrade 80.10% endosulfan sulfate using it as sulfur source. No known metabolites were found to be formed in the culture media during the entire course of degradation. Besides, the bacterial strain was found to degrade all the known endosulfan metabolites. There was marked increase in the quantity of released CO(2) from the culture media with endosulfan as sulfur source as compared to MgSO(4) suggesting that the bacterial strain, Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain C8B probably degraded endosulfan completely through the formation of endosulfan ether.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghNS2011,
  author = {Singh NS, Singh DK},
  title = {Biodegradation of endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate by Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain C8B in broth medium.
.}, journal = {Biodegradation.}, year = {2011}, volume = {22(5)}, pages = {845-57}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-010-9442-0} }
Singh R, Sharma P Hepatoprotective Effect of Curcumin on Lindane-induced Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats. 2011 Toxicol Int.
Vol. 18(2), pp. 124-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, is recognized as a major public health concern because of its potential toxic effects on human health. Its persistence in the body fluids may lead to continuous blood circulation, liver exposure and hepatotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective role of curcumin on lindane-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty-two healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six rats each. Group I was given dimethylsulfoxide. A single dose of lindane (60 mg/kg bw) was given to group II. Lindane (30 mg/kg bw) was given daily to group III for 14 days. Treatment with curcumin (100 and 200 mg/kg) was given to groups IV and V before (pretreatment) and to groups VI and VII after (post-treatment) 14 days exposure of lindane. Oxidative stress parameters and antioxidative enzymes were investigated in the liver of exposed and treated rats. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and decrease in glutathione level, Superoxide dismutase catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and NADPH quinine reductase activities was observed in liver of rats exposed to lindane. Curcumin (Pre- and post-treatment) nearly normalized all these parameters. Histological alterations were also observed in the liver tissue after lindane exposure. Treatment with curcumin significantly prevented the lindane-induced histological alterations. In conclusion, curcumin has protective effect over lindane-induced oxidative damage in rat liver.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghR2011,
  author = {Singh R, Sharma P},
  title = {Hepatoprotective Effect of Curcumin on Lindane-induced Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats.},
  journal = {Toxicol Int.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {18(2)},
  pages = {124-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.84264}
}
Singh SK, Padmaja P, Pandey SY Fast ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector for the trace determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples. 2014 J Sep Sci
Vol. 37(11), pp. 1315-21 
article DOI  
Abstract: A fast and an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction technique using a lower density extraction solvent than water was developed for the trace-level determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector (GC-NPD). In this approach, ultrasound radiation was applied to accelerate the emulsification of the ethyl acetate in aqueous samples to enhance the extraction efficiency of tebuconazole without requiring extra partitioning or cleaning, and the use of capillary GC-NPD was a more sensitive detection technique for organonitrogen pesticides. The experimental results indicate an excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1-50 ?g/kg or ?g/L. The limit of detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and limit of quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) were obtained in the range 0.2-3 and 1-10 ?g/kg or ?g/L. Good spiked recoveries were achieved from ranges 95.55-101.26%, 96.28-99.33% and 95.04-105.15% in garlic, Nanivaliyal soil and Par River water, respectively, at levels 5 and 20 ?g/kg or ?g/L, and the method precision (% RSD) was ?5%. Our results demonstrate that the proposed technique is a viable alternative for the determination of tebuconazole in complex samples.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghSK2014,
  author = {Singh SK, Padmaja P, Pandey SY.},
  title = {Fast ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector for the trace determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples.},
  journal = {J Sep Sci},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {37(11)},
  pages = {1315-21},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201400006}
}
Solanki PR, Prabhakar N, Pandey MK, Malhotra BD Self-assembled monolayer for toxicant detection using nucleic acid sensor based on surface plasmon resonance technique. 2008 Biomed Microdevices.
Vol. 10(5), pp. 757-67 
article DOI  
Abstract: Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (dsCT-DNA) has been covalently immobilized onto self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of beta-merceptoethanol (MCE) on gold substrates via N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry for fabrication of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensing device. The dsCT-DNA-MCE-SAM/Au bioelectrode has been characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, respectively. This biosensing device has been utilized for detection of cypermethrin (0.0005 ppm) using electrochemical and SPR techniques, respectively. The mechanism of interaction of cypermethrin with dsCT-DNA immobilized onto MCE-SAM has been proposed.
BibTeX:
@article{SolankiPR2008,
  author = {Solanki PR, Prabhakar N, Pandey MK, Malhotra BD.},
  title = {Self-assembled monolayer for toxicant detection using nucleic acid sensor based on surface plasmon resonance technique.},
  journal = {Biomed Microdevices.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {10(5)},
  pages = {757-67},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10544-008-9188-1}
}
Somani SK, Goyal R, Awasthi G Duodenal mucosal nodularity in Strongyloides stercoralis infection. 2009 Trop Gastroenterol.
Vol. 30(1), pp. 47-8. 
article  
Abstract: A 22-year-old man presented with a two-year history of colicky upper abdominal and dyspnoea. His absolute eosinophil count (AEC) was 980/mm3. Chest x-ray revealed hilar prominence. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed marked oedema and nodularity of duodenal mucosal folds. Duodenal biopsy disclosed heavy lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the lamina propria and sheets of eosinophils and rhabdtiform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in the crypts. The patient was not on steroids and his HIV ELISA was nonreactive. His IgG ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis was positive. Nodular duodenal mucosa may thus be seen with Strongyloides stercoralis infection.
BibTeX:
@article{SomaniSK2009,
  author = {Somani SK, Goyal R, Awasthi G.},
  title = {Duodenal mucosal nodularity in Strongyloides stercoralis infection.},
  journal = {Trop Gastroenterol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(1)},
  pages = {47-8.}
}
Sowjanya Sree K, Padmaja V, Murthy YL Insecticidal activity of destruxin, a mycotoxin from Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales), against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval stages. 2008 Pest Manag Sci.
Vol. 64(2), pp. 119-25. 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
The cyclodepsipeptide destruxin produced by the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) was administered by different methods, topical application, ingestion and a combination of the two, in an attempt to minimize the mycotoxin dose for efficient management of the insect pest Spodoptera litura (Fab.).
RESULTS:
The insecticidal activity of destruxin on the larval stages of S. litura showed an ascending trend in LD(50) values with increasing age. The value for 12-day-old larvae in the combined application assay was as low as 0.045 microg g(-1) body weight of crude destruxin from M-19 strain when compared with the corresponding values of 0.17 microg g(-1) body weight in the ingestion assay and 0.237 microg g(-1) body weight in the topical application assay. On the other hand, values were higher in the treatments with crude destruxin from the low-virulence M-10 strain of M. anisopliae showing the least quantities of A and E components of destruxin.
CONCLUSION:
Laboratory bioevaluation showed the combination assay of ingestion and topical application of crude destruxin to be efficient in enhancing its insecticidal properties. The adopted combination assay apparently simulates application of the insecticide at field level. Quantitative differences between destruxins from low- and high-virulence strains of M. anisopliae are in accordance with its presumed role in virulence.
BibTeX:
@article{SowjanyaSreeK2008,
  author = {Sowjanya Sree K, Padmaja V, Murthy YL.},
  title = {Insecticidal activity of destruxin, a mycotoxin from Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales), against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval stages.},
  journal = {Pest Manag Sci.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {64(2)},
  pages = {119-25.}
}
Sreedhar NY, Nayak MS, Shashi Kumar KN, Prasad KS, Prasad PR Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of simeton in its formulations and vegetables. 2010 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 170(1-4), pp. 59-63 
article DOI  
Abstract: A sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of simeton with universal buffer solution has been described. The method was based on the adsorption accumulation of simeton at a hanging mercury drop electrode. The overall reduction process is under controlled diffusion. The adsorptive peak was observed at -0.8 V vs SCE in acidic solution 2
BibTeX:
@article{SreedharNY2010,
  author = {Sreedhar NY, Nayak MS, Shashi Kumar KN, Prasad KS, Prasad PR.},
  title = {Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of simeton in its formulations and vegetables.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {170(1-4)},
  pages = {59-63},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1214-0}
}
Srivastav AK, Srivastava SK, Mishra D, Srivastav SK Histological alterations in the ultimobranchial gland of teleost Heteropneustes fossilis in response to chlorpyrifos treatment. 2011 J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.
Vol. 22(1-2), pp. 23-8. 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this study, an experiment was performed on Heteropneustes fossilis for short-term (1.76 mg/L chlorpyrifos, i.e., 0.8 of 96-h LC50) and long-term (0.44 mg/L chlorpyrifos, i.e., 0.2 of 96-h LC50) exposure. The fish were sacrificed after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in the short-term experiment and after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in the long-term experiment. On these intervals, blood was collected and analysis of serum calcium was done. Ultimobranchial glands were also fixed for histological study. The serum calcium levels of H. fossilis exhibit a decline after 24 h following exposure to chlorpyrifos. This decrease continues until the end of the experiment (96 h). The serum calcium levels of chronically exposed fish exhibit a decrease on day 7. Thereafter, the levels continue to fall progressively until the end of the experiment (28 days). The ultimobranchial gland of chlorpyrifos treated fish exhibits no histological change up to 48 h. After 72 h, there is a decrease in the staining response of cytoplasm of the ultimobranchial cells. The nuclear volume of these cells is slightly decreased. After 96 h following chlorpyrifos exposure, these changes become exaggerated. In chlorpyrifos-treated fish there is no change in the histological structure of the ultimobranchial gland up to 14 days. After 21 days, the cytoplasm of ultimobranchial cells stain feebly and the nuclear volume of these cells exhibits a decrease. Following 28 days treatment, the nuclear volume of these cells records a further decrease and the gland depicts vacuolization and degeneration at certain areas.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavAK2011,
  author = {Srivastav AK, Srivastava SK, Mishra D, Srivastav SK.},
  title = {Histological alterations in the ultimobranchial gland of teleost Heteropneustes fossilis in response to chlorpyrifos treatment.},
  journal = {J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {22(1-2)},
  pages = {23-8.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp.2011.002}
}
Srivastava A, Gaur JS, Bajpai PK Determination of persistent organochlorine residues in a commercial fresh water catfish by GLC and study of their accumulation pattern. 2012 J Environ Sci Eng.
Vol. 54(1), pp. 21-6 
article  
Abstract: Concentrations of various organochlorine pesticides in a commercial fresh water catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis, were measured. This study reveals possible toxicological exposure of human beings by way of consuming such fish containing pesticide and that will amount to possible exposure. Tissue extracts obtained by Soxhlet apparatus were used for analysis and the concentrations of analytes were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The major organochlorines found in blood sample were Endosulfan, Alpha-HCH, Beta-HCH and Gamma-HCH. However, the organochlorines found in edible portion of fish (i.e.flesh) were mainly--Endosulfan, Delta-HCH, Aldrine, pp-DDE etc. The concentrations of these organochlorines were at or above the theoretical threshold limit and hence are supposed to be effectively toxic to fish eaters, due to biomagnification.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaA2012,
  author = {Srivastava A, Gaur JS, Bajpai PK.},
  title = {Determination of persistent organochlorine residues in a commercial fresh water catfish by GLC and study of their accumulation pattern.},
  journal = {J Environ Sci Eng.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {54(1)},
  pages = {21-6}
}
Srivastava A, Shivanandappa T Stereospecificity in the cytotoxic action of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. 2010 Chem Biol Interact
Vol. 183(1), pp. 34-9. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Abstract
Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is a highly recalcitrant organochlorine insecticide known for its chronic toxicity. In spite of many isolated studies a clear mechanism of cytotoxic action of HCH and the structure-toxicity relationship of its isomers is not well understood. We have investigated the toxicity of HCH isomers and its mechanism in Ehrlich Ascites tumor (EAT) cells. Our studies show differential cytotoxicity of HCH isomers (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta), delta isomer being most toxic and beta the least. HCH-induced cell death was associated with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and depletion of glutathione (GSH). The increase in oxidative stress was linked with increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity. HCH inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which could be involved in raising the intracellular calcium and increased Ca(2+),Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. HCH lead to apoptotic as well as necrotic cell death as it was marked by increased caspase-3 activity and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, respectively. Based on the results it is concluded that the HCH isomers inflict differential cytotoxicity which was highest by delta and lowest by beta. Further, this study demonstrates for the first time a clear link between Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, i[Ca(2+)] level, and oxidative stress in HCH-induced cytotoxicity.
y (Bangladesh study); lime plastering in India and one Nepali site, resulted in a significant reduction of sand fly density but not in the second Nepali site.
CONCLUSION:
Sand fly control can contribute to the regional VL elimination programme; IRS should be strengthened in India and Nepal but in Bangladesh, where vector control has largely been abandoned during the last decades, the insecticide treatment of existing bed nets (coverage above 90% in VL endemic districts) could bring about an immediate reduction of vector populations; operational research to inform policy makers about the efficacious options for VL vector control and programme performance should be strengthened in the three countries.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaA2010,
  author = {Srivastava A, Shivanandappa T.},
  title = {Stereospecificity in the cytotoxic action of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers.},
  journal = {Chem Biol Interact},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {183(1)},
  pages = {34-9.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2009.09.026}
}
Srivastava N, Harit G, Srivastava R A study of physico-chemical characteristics of lakes around Jaipur, India. 2009 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 30(5 Suppl), pp. 889-94 
article  
Abstract: Annual survey of Jalmahal, Amer, Nevta and Ramgarh lakes, has been conducted for one calendar year, to determine physicochemical characteristics of water and the levels of zinc (heavy metal) and endosulfan (an organochlorine pesticide). These lakes are situated on the outskirts of Jaipur city. Changes in pollutants correlated well with the physico-chemical characteristics of water bodies. Results reveal that the levels of endosulfan and zinc are highest in Jalmahal lake (1.324 and 0.197 mg l(-1) respectively) and lowest in Ramgarh lake (0.020 and 0.120 mg l(-1) respectively). Anthropogenic sources and cultivation in the dried up area of these lakes seem to contribute largely to pollution.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaN2009,
  author = {Srivastava N, Harit G, Srivastava R},
  title = {A study of physico-chemical characteristics of lakes around Jaipur, India.},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(5 Suppl)},
  pages = {889-94}
}
Srivastava P, Chaturvedi R Increased production of azadirachtin from an improved method of androgenic cultures of a medicinal tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. 2011 Plant Signal Behav.
Vol. 6(7), pp. 974-81 
article  
Abstract: Present report is the first direct evidence of azadirachtin production in androgenic haploid cultures of Azadirachta indica, a woody medicinal tree. Anther cultures at early-late-uninucleate stage of microspores were established on MS medium with BAP (5 ?M), 2,4-D (1 ?M) and NAA (1 ?M) containing 12% sucrose. The calli, induced, were further multiplied on 2,4-D and Kinetin media. Shoots, differentiated on BAP (2.2 ?M) + NAA (0.05 ?M) medium, were elongated on MS + BAP (0.5 ?M) and multiplied on MS + BAP (1 ?M) + CH (250 mg/l). Thereafter, the shoots were rooted on ¼ MS + IBA (0.5 ?M). Cytological analysis of the calli and regenerants have confirmed their haploid status with the chromosome number as 2n = x = 12. The haploid cell lines and leaves from in vitro grown plantlets were analyzed for azadirachtin by RP-HPLC and mass spectroscopy. Maximum azadirachtin (728.41 ?g/g DW) was detected in calli supporting best shoot proliferation while least (49 ?g/g DW) was observed in an undifferentiated line from maintenance medium. This study has brought us a step closer to develop genetically pure lines that could serve as new and attractive alternative ways of homogeneous controlled production of high value compounds, round the year, independent of geographical and climatic barrier.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaP2011,
  author = {Srivastava P, Chaturvedi R.},
  title = {Increased production of azadirachtin from an improved method of androgenic cultures of a medicinal tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss.},
  journal = {Plant Signal Behav.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {6(7)},
  pages = {974-81}
}
Srivastava RK, Yadav KK, Trivedi SP Devicyprin induced gonadal impairment in a freshwater food fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). 2008 J Environ Biol.
Vol. 29(2), pp. 187-91. 
article  
Abstract: Synthetic pyrethroids are the recent major class of broad spectrum, photostable, organic insecticides used in agricultural, domestic and veterinary applications and now account for more than 30% of global insecticide use. Cypermethrin is metabolized and eliminated significantly more slowly by fish than by mammals or birds, which may explain this compound's high toxicity in fish compared to other organisms. The present communication deals with histoanatomical alterations in the gonads of a local fresh water food fish, Channa punctatus exposed to 0.033 ppm (96 hr LC50 X 1/10) concentration of a synthetic pyrethroid, devicyprin (cypermethrin 25%) in aquatic medium of aged tap water for 15, 30 and 45 days respectively. In testis, exposure dependent histological damage has been observed in terms of vacuolization, condensation of spermatogonic cells, distortion of tubular epithelium, shrinkage of interstitial cells and general inflammatory responses. Longest exposure of 45 days has resulted in peculiar starry-sky appearance of the testicular tissue. Gross histo-anatomy of ovarian tissue reveals epithelial lesions, inflammatory responses, stromal hemorrhage, increased interstitium and shrinkage of yolk vesicles towards periphery These findings are quite suggestive of reproductive impairments leading to delayed gonadal maturity and adversely affecting processes of sperm production and ovulation and thus, the fish production.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaRK2008,
  author = {Srivastava RK, Yadav KK, Trivedi SP.},
  title = {Devicyprin induced gonadal impairment in a freshwater food fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).},
  journal = {J Environ Biol.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {29(2)},
  pages = {187-91.}
}
Mukhopadhyay SS Nanotechnology in agriculture: prospects and constraints. 2014 Nanotechnol Sci Appl  article DOI  
Abstract: Attempts to apply nanotechnology in agriculture began with the growing realization that conventional farming technologies would neither be able to increase productivity any further nor restore ecosystems damaged by existing technologies back to their pristine state; in particular because the long-term effects of farming with "miracle seeds", in conjunction with irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides, have been questioned both at the scientific and policy levels, and must be gradually phased out. Nanotechnology in agriculture has gained momentum in the last decade with an abundance of public funding, but the pace of development is modest, even though many disciplines come under the umbrella of agriculture. This could be attributed to: a unique nature of farm production, which functions as an open system whereby energy and matter are exchanged freely; the scale of demand of input materials always being gigantic in contrast with industrial nanoproducts; an absence of control over the input nanomaterials in contrast with industrial nanoproducts (eg, the cell phone) and because their fate has to be conceived on the geosphere (pedosphere)-biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere continuum; the time lag of emerging technologies reaching the farmers' field, especially given that many emerging economies are unwilling to spend on innovation; and the lack of foresight resulting from agricultural education not having attracted a sufficient number of brilliant minds the world over, while personnel from kindred disciplines might lack an understanding of agricultural production systems. If these issues are taken care of, nanotechnologic intervention in farming has bright prospects for improving the efficiency of nutrient use through nanoformulations of fertilizers, breaking yield barriers through bionanotechnology, surveillance and control of pests and diseases, understanding mechanisms of host-parasite interactions at the molecular level, development of new-generation pesticides and their carriers, preservation and packaging of food and food additives, strengthening of natural fibers, removal of contaminants from soil and water, improving the shelf-life of vegetables and flowers, clay-based nanoresources for precision water management, reclamation of salt-affected soils, and stabilization of erosion-prone surfaces, to name a few.
BibTeX:
@article{SS.2014,
  author = {Mukhopadhyay SS.},
  title = {Nanotechnology in agriculture: prospects and constraints.},
  journal = {Nanotechnol Sci Appl},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSA.S39409}
}
Sujanya S, Devi BP, Sai I In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of Azadirachta indica. 2008 J Biosci.
Vol. 33(1), pp. 113-20. 
article  
Abstract: The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of nutritional alteration on biomass content and azadirachtin production in cell suspensions of the elite neem variety crida-8. Variations in total nitrogen availability in the medium in terms of different ratios of nitrate: ammonium showed that the ratio 4:1 revealed a profound effect, leading to a 1.5-fold increase in the total extracellular azadirachtin production (5.59 mg/l) over the standard MS medium. Reduction in sucrose (15 mg/l) in the medium exhibited a reduction in biomass and absence of azadirachtin, whereas total phosphate reduction raised intracellular azadirachtin production (6.98 mg/l). An altered medium with a nitrate: ammonium ratio of 4:1 coupled with complete elimination of phosphate enhanced biomass by 36% (59.36 g/l).
BibTeX:
@article{SujanyaS2008,
  author = {Sujanya S, Devi BP, Sai I.},
  title = {In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of Azadirachta indica.},
  journal = {J Biosci.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {33(1)},
  pages = {113-20.}
}
Suman DS, Parashar BD, Prakash S Effect of sublethal dose of diflubenzuron and azadirachtin on various life table attributes of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). 2010 J Med Entomol.
Vol. 47(6), pp. 996-1002 
article  
Abstract: The exposure of sublethal doses (25% emergence inhibition) of diflubenzuron (DFB) (0.0002 mg/liter) and azadirachtin (AZD; 0.0079 mg/liter) insect growth regulators was provided to late third- early fourth instars of Culex quinquefasciatus till emergence of adults to find out the effects on various biological and life table attributes of adults, and comparison was made with control (CTL) as well. Life expectancy of both males and females of DFB survivors was significantly less in comparison with AZD and CTL ones; however, it was nonsignificantly different between CTL and AZD. In all treatments, males were shorter lived than females of their respective treatments. DFB survivors showed significant reduction in number of blood-fed females, resulting in minimum of oviposition days, total number of egg rafts, total number of eggs, eggs per egg raft, eggs per female life span, and eggs per female per day than survivors of both AZD and CTL significantly, but these parameters did not differ significantly between CTL and AZD, except eggs per egg raft. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were significantly less in DFB than rest of the survivors, whereas doubling time for generation was significantly high; however, difference in mean generation was not significant among them. This study reveals that DFB has the potency to affect severely the various life table attributes at sublethal dose, but AZD does not have such effectiveness at similar sublethal dose against Cx. quinquefasciatus.
BibTeX:
@article{SumanDS2010,
  author = {Suman DS, Parashar BD, Prakash S.},
  title = {Effect of sublethal dose of diflubenzuron and azadirachtin on various life table attributes of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).},
  journal = {J Med Entomol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {47(6)},
  pages = {996-1002}
}
Suri V, Keepanasseril A, Aggarwal N, Chopra S, Bagga R, Sikka P, Vijayvergiya R Mechanical valve prosthesis and anticoagulation regimens in pregnancy: a tertiary centre experience. 2011 Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol.
Vol. 159(2), pp. 320-3 
article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
This study was undertaken to analyze the maternal and perinatal outcome in women with prosthetic heart valves on different anticoagulant regimens.
STUDY DESIGN:
A retrospective chart review of pregnancies in 40 women with mechanical valve prostheses at a tertiary referral centre from 1997 to 2010. The main outcome measures were major maternal complications and perinatal outcome.
RESULTS:
The valves replaced were mitral (67.5%), aortic (15.0%), or both (17.5%). Forty-nine pregnancies (72.1%) resulted in live births, 3(4.4%) had stillbirths, and 13(19.1%) had spontaneous abortions and 1(1.4%) underwent therapeutic abortions. The live birth rate was higher in women on heparin (78.3%) compared with those on warfarin (66.9%). There were 2 maternal deaths due to acute mitral valvular thrombosis while on acenocoumarol in the second trimester. Hemorrhagic complications occurred in 3 patients on heparin in the postpartum period, 2 of whom required transfusion. In addition one patient who was on acenocoumarol developed secondary hemorrhage.
CONCLUSION:
No anticoagulant regimen can be said to be entirely safe for use during pregnancy as there is a degree of risk with each regimen. Further larger studies are needed to come up with sufficient evidence-based recommendations for the best possible management of such patients to reduce the maternal risks after mechanical heart valve replacement without compromising fetal outcome.
BibTeX:
@article{SuriV2011,
  author = {Suri V, Keepanasseril A, Aggarwal N, Chopra S, Bagga R, Sikka P, Vijayvergiya R.},
  title = {Mechanical valve prosthesis and anticoagulation regimens in pregnancy: a tertiary centre experience.},
  journal = {Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {159(2)},
  pages = {320-3},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.09.011}
}
Surya Kalyani S, Sharma J, Dureja P, Singh S, Lata Influence of endosulfan on microbial biomass and soil enzymatic activities of a tropical alfisol. 2010 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 84(3), pp. 351-6 
article DOI  
Abstract: The effect of endosulfan at normal residue level (1 and 10 ppm) and elevated level (100 ppm) on microbial biomass and enzymatic activities of a tropical alfisol was studied. Dehydrogenase, Fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, acid phosphatase, aryl sulphatase activities and microbial biomass of the soil increased by 2.4, 1.7, 1.4, 1.8 and 3.7 times, respectively by the 14th day of incubation with 1 ppm endosulfan, indicating the possible involvement of soil microorganisms and their enzymes in degradation of endosulfan. Soil nitrogenase activity decreased by 8.0 times by the 14th day of application of 1 ppm endosulfan, suggesting that endosulfan or its metabolites may pose toxicological threat to nitrogen fixers in soil.
BibTeX:
@article{SuryaKalyaniS2010,
  author = {Surya Kalyani S, Sharma J, Dureja P, Singh S, Lata.},
  title = {Influence of endosulfan on microbial biomass and soil enzymatic activities of a tropical alfisol.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {84(3)},
  pages = {351-6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9943-x}
}
Sushma N, Devasena T Aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) prevents cypermethrin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. 2010 Hum Exp Toxicol.
Vol. 29(4)., pp. 311-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: Cypermethrin (CM) is an important type II pyrethroid pesticide used extensively in pest control and is reported to cause hepatic and renal toxicity. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been implicated in the toxicology of pyrethroids. Fenugreek is known for its antitoxic and antioxidant potential. We have investigated the protective effect of aqueous extract of germinated fenugreek seeds in CM-induced hepatic and renal toxicity. Male Wistar rats were treated with 1/10 LD(50) (25 mg/kg body weight) of CM and 10% aqueous extract of fenugreek (GFaq) for 60 days. CM treatment caused increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), depletion in glutathione (GSH) and reduction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver and kidneys. There was a significant reduction in total phospholipids and increased activities of phospholipases A (PLA) and C (PLC) in liver and kidneys and increased activities of serum marker enzymes, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine tansaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). Treatment with 10% GFaq showed replenishment of antioxidant status and brought all the values to near normal, indicating the protective effect of fenugreek. Phytochemicals present in fenugreek could play an important role in ameliorating the pesticide-induced toxicity.
BibTeX:
@article{SushmaN2010,
  author = {Sushma N, Devasena T},
  title = {Aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) prevents cypermethrin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {29(4).},
  pages = {311-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327110361502}
}
Swain V, Mohanty SS, Raghavendra K Sunlight exposure enhances larval mortality rate in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. 2008 .J Vector Borne Dis.
Vol. 45(1), pp. 70-2 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SwainV2008,
  author = {Swain V, Mohanty SS, Raghavendra K},
  title = {Sunlight exposure enhances larval mortality rate in Culex quinquefasciatus Say.},
  journal = {.J Vector Borne Dis.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {45(1)},
  pages = {70-2}
}
Swain V, Seth RK, Mohanty SS, Raghavendra K Effect of temperature on development, eclosion, longevity and survivorship of malathion-resistant and malathion-susceptible strain of Culex quinquefasciatus. 2008 Parasitol Res
Vol. 103(2), pp. 299-303. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Density of vectors and development of resistance against insecticides are two important aspects in the control of vector-borne diseases. Here, effect of temperature on different aspects of development of malathion-resistant and susceptible strains of Culex quinquefasciatus was evaluated in the laboratory. Fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to 37 degrees C, 39 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 41 degrees C, and their LT(50) values calculated. The fourth-instar larvae were subjected to heat for 4 h at 39 degrees C and live larvae were reared until the completion of life cycle. The larvae of malathion-resistant strain were more tolerant to heat than the larvae of malathion-susceptible ones. The difference in mortality between 37 degrees C, 39 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 41 degrees C of both the strains of C. quinquefasciatus were highly significant. Pupation percentage of heat-exposed larvae of both the strains was higher and delayed than the control ones. The percentage of adult emergence from the heat-exposed larvae was significantly lower than the control. The adult female of malathion-resistant strain showed increased longevity when exposed to heat at larval stage but reverse was true in case of malathion-susceptible. The highlights of the study would help in the management of resistance of mosquito vectors in the tropics where variable climatic condition is observed.
BibTeX:
@article{SwainV2008a,
  author = {Swain V, Seth RK, Mohanty SS, Raghavendra K.},
  title = {Effect of temperature on development, eclosion, longevity and survivorship of malathion-resistant and malathion-susceptible strain of Culex quinquefasciatus.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {103(2)},
  pages = {299-303.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-0969-5}
}
Tai ML, Sharma VK Thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients with prior subtherapeutic warfarin use. 2011 J Neurol Sci.
Vol. 300(1-2), pp. 194-5 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{TaiML2011,
  author = {Tai ML, Sharma VK.},
  title = {Thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients with prior subtherapeutic warfarin use.},
  journal = {J Neurol Sci.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {300(1-2)},
  pages = {194-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2010.10.027}
}
Takkar R, Sahoo SK, Singh G, Battu RS, Singh B Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in/on brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). 2012 Environ Monit Assess.
Vol. 184(8), pp. 5077-83 
article DOI  
Abstract: Residues of flubendiamide and desiodo flubendiamide were studied following three applications of flubendiamide 480 SC at 7 days interval at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1) in/on brinjal fruits. An average initial deposit of 0.33 and 0.61 mg kg(-1) of flubendiamide was observed respectively after application at single and double dosages. The residues of flubendiamide dissipated quickly at both the dosages, and after 3 days, the extent of dissipation was found to be about 76% and 79% at the single and double dosages, respectively. Brinjal fruit samples analysed at different time intervals did not show the presence of desiodo flubendiamide. The half-life of flubendiamide was observed to be 0.62 and 0.54 days at single and double dosages, respectively. The limit of determination of flubendiamide and desiodo flubendiamide was observed to be 0.05 mg kg(-1). Soil samples analysed after 15 days of the last application did not reveal the presence of flubendiamide and desiodo flubendiamide at their determination limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1). An assessment of the total intake of flubendiamide resulting through the consumption of brinjal fruits and its comparison with acceptable daily intake seems to be quite safe from consumer point of view.
BibTeX:
@article{TakkarR2012,
  author = {Takkar R, Sahoo SK, Singh G, Battu RS, Singh B.},
  title = {Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in/on brinjal (Solanum melongena L.).},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {184(8)},
  pages = {5077-83},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2323-0}
}
Taneja N, Khurana S, Dubey ML, Malla N, Bhasin DK, Chatterjee S, Sharma M Concomitant intestinal parasitism and non-cholera vibrio infection. 2009 Trop Gastroenterol
Vol. 30(1), pp. 42-3. 
article  
Abstract: Concomitant parasitism is not uncommon especially in tropical countries with low socioeconomic status. Here we report an unusual combination of intestinal infection due to Strongyloides stercoralis, Blastomyces hominis and non-cholera Vibrio in a patient suffering from acute gastroenteritis and hypoalbuminemia. Early recognition and accurate treatment of gastrointestinal infections and infestations before the patient develops complications is important.
BibTeX:
@article{TanejaN2009,
  author = {Taneja N, Khurana S, Dubey ML, Malla N, Bhasin DK, Chatterjee S, Sharma M},
  title = {Concomitant intestinal parasitism and non-cholera vibrio infection.},
  journal = {Trop Gastroenterol},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {30(1)},
  pages = {42-3.}
}
Thakur JS, Prinja S, Singh D, Rajwanshi A, Prasad R, Parwana HK, Kumar R Adverse reproductive and child health outcomes among people living near highly toxic waste water drains in Punjab, India. 2010 J Epidemiol Community Health.
Vol. 64(2), pp. 148-54 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Environmental influence plays a major role in determining health status of individuals. Punjab has been reported as having a high degree of water pollution due to heavy metals from untreated industrial effluent discharge and high pesticide consumption in agriculture. The present study ascertained the association of heavy metal and pesticide exposure on reproductive and child health outcomes in Punjab, India.
METHODS:
A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted in which 1904 women in reproductive age group and 1762 children below 12 years of age from 35 villages in three districts of Punjab were interviewed on a semistructured schedule for systemic and general health morbidities. Medical doctors conducted a clinical examination and review of records where relevant. Out of 35 study villages, 25 served as target (exposed) and 10 as non-target (less exposed or reference). Effluent, ground and surface water, fodder, vegetables and milk (bovine and human) samples were tested for chemical composition, heavy metals and pesticides.
RESULTS:
Spontaneous abortion (20.6 per 1000 live births) and premature births (6.7 per 1000 live births) were significantly higher in area affected by heavy metal and pesticide pollution (p<0.05). Stillbirths were about five times higher as compared with a meta-analysis for South Asian countries. A larger proportion of children in target area were reported to have delayed milestones, language delay, blue line in the gums, mottling of teeth and gastrointestinal morbidities (p<0.05). Mercury was found in more than permissible limits (MPL) in 84.4% samples from the target area. Heptachlor, chlorpyriphos, beta-endosulfan, dimethoate and aldrin were found to be more than MPL in 23.9%, 21.7%, 19.6%, 6.5% and 6.5% ground water samples respectively.
CONCLUSION:
Although no direct association could be established in this study, heavy metal andpesticide exposure may be potential risk factors for adverse reproductive and child health outcomes
BibTeX:
@article{ThakurJS2010,
  author = {Thakur JS, Prinja S, Singh D, Rajwanshi A, Prasad R, Parwana HK, Kumar R.},
  title = {Adverse reproductive and child health outcomes among people living near highly toxic waste water drains in Punjab, India.},
  journal = {J Epidemiol Community Health.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {64(2)},
  pages = {148-54},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2008.078568}
}
Thriveni T, Kumar JR, Lee JY, Sreedhar NY Study of the voltammetric behaviour of the ethalfluralin and methalpropalin and its determination in environmental matrices at hanging mercury drop electrode. 2009 Environ Monit Assess
Vol. 151(1-4), pp. :9-18. 
article DOI  
Abstract: An electroanalytical method has been developed for the determination of the herbicides ethalfluralin[N-ethyl-N-(2-methyl-2-propenyl)-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) bezenamine] and methalpropalin [N-(2-methyl-2-propenyl)-2, 6-dinitro-N-propyl-4 (trifluoromethyl) benzenamine] by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DP-AdSV) on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) with universal buffer as supporting electrolyte. The optimum adsorption conditions were found to be pH 6.0, an accumulation potential of -0.6 V (HMDE vs SCE), an accumulation time of 80 s. and scan rate 45 mVs(-1). Calibration curve is linear in the range 1.30 x 10(-9) to 1.32 x 10(-5) M of ethalfluralin and 1.13 x 10(-5) to 2.0 x 10(-8) M of methalpropalin with detection limits of 1.08 x 10(-9) and 1.87 x 10(-8) M, respectively. The relative SD and correlation coefficients were found to be 1.24%, 0.998 and 1.34%, 0.995, respectively for ten replicates. The method is applied to the determination of the ethalfluralin and methalpropalin in formulations and environmental matrices.
BibTeX:
@article{ThriveniT2009,
  author = {Thriveni T, Kumar JR, Lee JY, Sreedhar NY},
  title = {Study of the voltammetric behaviour of the ethalfluralin and methalpropalin and its determination in environmental matrices at hanging mercury drop electrode.},
  journal = {Environ Monit Assess},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {151(1-4)},
  pages = {:9-18.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0283-9}
}
Tilak R, Verma AK, Wankhade UB Effectiveness of Diflubenzuron in the control of houseflies. 2010 J Vector Borne Dis.
Vol. 47(2), pp. 97-102 
article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES:
Houseflies are one of the major pest problems worldwide. The current housefly control strategy in the country hinges on the use of Dichlorvos as a housefly larvicide and pyrethrum spray in kitchens/dining areas. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the newer housefly control options in the wake of concerns about human toxicity of Dichlorvos and its continued use in public health.
METHODS:
Efficacy of Diflubenzuron WP and granule formulations (chitin synthesis inhibitor) vis-à-vis Dichlorvos EC in the control of housefly was assessed in laboratory by adult emergence inhibition after treatment and in field conditions by estimation of density post-application up to three weeks using standard methods.
RESULTS:
Dichlorvos EC and Diflubenzuron formulations (WP and granule) brought about 100% inhibition of adult emergence under laboratory conditions. However, in the field evaluation, effective suppression of housefly population was brought about by Dichlorvos and Diflubenzuron granule formulation (though delayed).
CONCLUSION:
Dichlorvos EC and Diflubenzuron granule formulation are effective housefly larvicides. It is recommended that Diflubenzuron WP formulation be evaluated at a higher frequency to enhance its effectiveness and its use may be considered in conjunction with an initial suppression of housefly adults with an adulticide, e.g. Cyphenothrin, etc.
BibTeX:
@article{TilakR2010,
  author = {Tilak R, Verma AK, Wankhade UB},
  title = {Effectiveness of Diflubenzuron in the control of houseflies.},
  journal = {J Vector Borne Dis.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {47(2)},
  pages = {97-102}
}
Tiwari S, Ghosh SK, Ojha VP, Dash AP, Raghavendra K Reduced susceptibility to selected synthetic pyrethroids in urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi: a case study in Mangalore city, South India. 2010 Malar J.
Vol. 9:179 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Synthetic pyrethroids are potent insecticides most commonly used in the vector control programme. These are applied for indoor residual sprays, space sprays and in impregnated bed nets. Resistance reduces the efficacy of insecticides. Thus, the susceptibility status of the target vector(s) is monitored routinely to select the effective ones. A study was undertaken in a malaria endemic coastal city Mangalore, Karnataka, South India, against the known malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.
METHODS:
The susceptibility status was assessed at diagnostic doses of DDT (4%), malathion (5%), deltamethrin (0.05%), cyfluthrin (0.15%), alphacypermethrin (0.10%), lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) using the standard WHO tube test method during October/November 2006.
RESULTS:
Anopheles stephensi was resistant to malathion by 54.9%, but tolerant to deltamethrin by 86.1%, cyfluthrin 95.5% and alphacypermethrin 90.6%, whereas it was susceptible to DDT by 98.1%, lambdacyhalothrin 98.6% and permethrin 100.0%, respectively. The KDT50 and KDT95 values for these insecticides also showed the similar responses.
CONCLUSION:
Susceptibility of An. stephensi to DDT is an important finding as this has never been used in Mangalore city, whereas its rural counterpart Anopheles culicifacies is widely resistant to this insecticide. The study explores the selection and rotation of the appropriate insecticide molecule even within the same group for effective vector management.
BibTeX:
@article{TiwariS2010,
  author = {Tiwari S, Ghosh SK, Ojha VP, Dash AP, Raghavendra K},
  title = {Reduced susceptibility to selected synthetic pyrethroids in urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi: a case study in Mangalore city, South India.},
  journal = {Malar J.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {9:179},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-9-179}
}
Tyagi E, Agrawal R, Nath C, Shukla R Inhibitory role of cholinergic system mediated via alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in LPS-induced neuro-inflammation. 2010 Innate Immun.
Vol. 16(1), pp. 3-13 
article DOI  
Abstract: This study investigated the influence of the cholinergic system on neuro-inflammation using nicotinic and muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 microg) was used to induce neuro-inflammation in rats and estimations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mRNA expression were done in striatum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus at 24 h after LPS injection. Nicotine (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, i.p.) or oxotremorine (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 2 h prior to sacrifice. We found that only nicotine was able to block the proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS whereas, oxotremorine was found ineffective. Methyllycaconitine (MLA; 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.), an alpha7 nAChR antagonist or dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE; 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.), an alpha4beta2 nAChR antagonist, was given 20 min prior to nicotine in LPS-treated rats. Methyllycaconitine antagonized the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine whereas DHbetaE showed no effect demonstrating that alpha7 nAChR is responsible for attenuation of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study suggests that the inhibitory role of the central cholinergic system on neuro-inflammation is mediated via alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and muscarinic receptors are not involved.
BibTeX:
@article{TyagiE2010,
  author = {Tyagi E, Agrawal R, Nath C, Shukla R.},
  title = {Inhibitory role of cholinergic system mediated via alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in LPS-induced neuro-inflammation.},
  journal = {Innate Immun.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {16(1)},
  pages = {3-13},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753425909104680}
}
Upadhyay SK, Saurabh S, Singh R, Rai P, Dubey NK, Chandrashekar K, Negi KS, Tuli R, Singh PK Purification and characterization of a lectin with high hemagglutination property isolated from Allium altaicum. 2011 Protein J.
Vol. 30(6), pp. 374-83 
article DOI  
Abstract: A lectin was purified from the leaves of Allium altaicum and corresponding gene was cloned. The lectin namely Allium altaicum agglutinin (AAA) was ~24 kDa homodimeric protein and similar to a typical garlic leaf lectin. It was synthesized as 177 amino acid residues pre-proprotein, which consisted of 28 and 43 amino acid long N and C-terminal signal peptides, respectively. The plant expressed this protein more in scapes and flowers in comparison to the bulbs and leaves. Hemagglutination activity (with rabbit erythrocytes) was 1,428 fold higher as compared to Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) although, the insecticidal activity against cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) was relatively low. Glycan array revealed that AAA had higher affinity towards GlcAb1-3Galb as compared to ASAL. Homology analysis showed 57-94% similarity with other Allium lectins. The mature protein was expressed in E. coli as a fusion with SUMO peptide in soluble and biologically active form. Recombinant protein retained high hemagglutination activity.
BibTeX:
@article{UpadhyaySK2011,
  author = {Upadhyay SK, Saurabh S, Singh R, Rai P, Dubey NK, Chandrashekar K, Negi KS, Tuli R, Singh PK.},
  title = {Purification and characterization of a lectin with high hemagglutination property isolated from Allium altaicum.},
  journal = {Protein J.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {30(6)},
  pages = {374-83},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-011-9342-0}
}
Velayutham K, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Santhoshkumar T, Marimuthu S, Jayaseelan C, Bagavan A,Kirthi AV, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Elango G Evaluation of Catharanthus roseus leaf extract-mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles against Hippobosca maculata and Bovicola ovis. 2012 Parasitol Res.
Vol. 111(6), pp. 2329-37 
article DOI  
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus against the adults of hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and sheep-biting louse, Bovicola ovis Schrank (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). The synthesized TiO(2) NPs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The formation of the TiO(2) NPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the standard confirmed spectrum of titanium particles formed in the present experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2? values of 27.43°, 36.03°, and 54.32°. The FTIR spectra of TiO(2) NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 714 (Ti-O-O bond), 1,076 (C-N stretch aliphatic amines), 1,172 (C-O stretching vibrations in alcoholic groups), 1,642 (N-H bend bond), and 3,426 (O-H stretching due to alcoholic group). SEM analysis of the synthesized TiO(2) NPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 25-110 nm. By Bragg's law and Scherrer's constant, it is proved that the mean size of synthesized TiO(2) NPs was 65 nm. The AFM obviously depicts the formation of the rutile and anatase forms in the TiO(2) NPs and also, the surface morphology of the particles is uneven due to the presence of some of the aggregates and individual particles. Adulticidal parasitic activity was observed in varying concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of C. roseus, TiO(2) solution, and synthesized TiO(2) NPs for 24 h. The maximum parasitic activity was observed in aqueous crude leaf extracts of C. roseus against the adults of H. maculata and B. ovis with LD(50) values of 36.17 and 30.35 mg/L, and r (2) values of 0.948 and 0.908, respectively. The highest efficacy was reported in 5 mM TiO(2) solution against H. maculata and B. ovis (LD(50) = 33.40 and 34.74 mg/L; r (2) = 0.786 and 0.873), respectively, and the maximum activity was observed in the synthesized TiO(2) NPs against H. maculata and B. ovis with LD(50) values of LD(50) = 7.09 and 6.56 mg/L, and r (2) values of 0.880 and 0.913, respectively. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach to control the hematophagous fly and sheep-biting louse.
BibTeX:
@article{VelayuthamK2012,
  author = {Velayutham K, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Santhoshkumar T, Marimuthu S, Jayaseelan C, Bagavan A,Kirthi AV, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Elango G.},
  title = {Evaluation of Catharanthus roseus leaf extract-mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles against Hippobosca maculata and Bovicola ovis.},
  journal = {Parasitol Res.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {111(6)},
  pages = {2329-37},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2676-x}
}
Verma AK, Misra A, Subash S, Das M, Dwivedi PD Computational allergenicity prediction of transgenic proteins expressed in genetically modified crops. 2011 Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol.
Vol. 33(3), pp. 410-22 
article DOI  
Abstract: Development of genetically modified (GM) crops is on increase to improve food quality, increase harvest yields, and reduce the dependency on chemical pesticides. Before their release in marketplace, they should be scrutinized for their safety. Several guidelines of different regulatory agencies like ILSI, WHO Codex, OECD, and so on for allergenicity evaluation of transgenics are available and sequence homology analysis is the first test to determine the allergenic potential of inserted proteins. Therefore, to test and validate, 312 allergenic, 100 non-allergenic, and 48 inserted proteins were assessed for sequence similarity using 8-mer, 80-mer, and full FASTA search. On performing sequence homology studies, ~94% the allergenic proteins gave exact matches for 8-mer and 80-mer homology. However, 20 allergenic proteins showed non-allergenic behavior. Out of 100 non-allergenic proteins, seven qualified as allergens. None of the inserted proteins demonstrated allergenic behavior. In order to improve the predictability, proteins showing anomalous behavior were tested by Algpred and ADFS separately. Use of Algpred and ADFS softwares reduced the tendency of false prediction to a great extent (74-78%). In conclusion, routine sequence homology needs to be coupled with some other bioinformatic method like ADFS/Algpred to reduce false allergenicity prediction of novel proteins.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaAK2011,
  author = {Verma AK, Misra A, Subash S, Das M, Dwivedi PD.},
  title = {Computational allergenicity prediction of transgenic proteins expressed in genetically modified crops.},
  journal = {Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {33(3)},
  pages = {410-22},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08923973.2010.523704}
}
Verma V, Raju SC, Kapley A, Kalia VC, Kanade GS, Daginawala HF, Purohit HJ Degradative potential of Stenotrophomonas strain HPC383 having genes homologous to dmp operon. 2011 Bioresour Technol.
Vol. 102(3), pp. 3227-33 
article DOI  
Abstract: A strain, Stenotrophomonas HPC383 is isolated from effluent treatment plant treating wastewater from pesticide industry; degrades various aromatic compounds (cresols, phenol, catechol, 4methyl-catechol and hydroquinone) and crude oil, as determined through HPLC and GC analysis. Culture HPC383 could degrade (%) various compounds (1 mM) from a mixture: phenol - 99, p-cresol - 100, 4-methylcatechol - 96 and hydroquinone - 43 within 48 h of incubation, whereas it took 7 days to degrade 94% of 0.5% crude oil. Gene locus dmpN, to identify phenol degrading capacity was determined by PCR followed by southern analysis. The sequenced DNA fragment exhibited 99% sequence similarity to phenol hydroxylase gene from Arthrobacter sp. W1 (FJ610336). Amino acid sequence analysis of phenol hydroxylase reveals it to belong to high-Ks (affinity constant) group. Application of HPC383 in bioremediation of aquatic and terrestrial sites contaminated with petrochemical has been suggested.
BibTeX:
@article{VermaV2011,
  author = {Verma V, Raju SC, Kapley A, Kalia VC, Kanade GS, Daginawala HF, Purohit HJ.},
  title = {Degradative potential of Stenotrophomonas strain HPC383 having genes homologous to dmp operon.},
  journal = {Bioresour Technol.},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {102(3)},
  pages = {3227-33},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.016}
}
Vinayaka AC, Thakur MS Focus on quantum dots as potential fluorescent probes for monitoring food toxicants and foodborne pathogens. 2010 Anal Bioanal Chem.
Vol. 397(4), pp. 1445-55 
article DOI  
Abstract: Water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles with narrow, very specific, stable emission spectra. Therefore, the bioconjugation of these QDs for biological fluorescent labeling may be of interest due to their unique physical and optical properties as compared to organic fluorescent dyes. These intrinsic properties of QDs have been used for the sensitive detection of target analytes. From the viewpoint of ensuring food safety, there is a need to develop rapid, sensitive and specific detection techniques to monitor food toxicants in food and environmental samples. Even trace levels of these toxicants can inadvertently enter the food chain, creating severe health hazards. The present review emphasizes the application of water-soluble bioconjugated QDs for the detection of food contaminants such as pesticides, pathogenic bacterial toxins such as botulinum toxin, enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and for the development of oligonucleotide-based microarrays. This review also emphasizes the application of a possible resonance energy transfer phenomenon resulting from nanobiomolecular interactions obtained through the bioconjugation of QDs with biomolecules. Furthermore, the utilization of significant changes in the spectral behavior of QDs (attributed to resonance energy transfer in the bioconjugate) in future nanobiosensor development is also emphasized.
BibTeX:
@article{VinayakaAC2010,
  author = {Vinayaka AC, Thakur MS.},
  title = {Focus on quantum dots as potential fluorescent probes for monitoring food toxicants and foodborne pathogens.},
  journal = {Anal Bioanal Chem.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {397(4)},
  pages = {1445-55},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-3683-y}
}
Walia S, Boora P, Kumari B Effect of processing on dislodging of cypermethrin residues on brinjal. 2010 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.
Vol. 84(4), pp. 465-8. 
article DOI  
Abstract: Brinjal fruits were sprayed with recommended dose (0.001%) of cypermethrin. Effects of processing viz. washing, cooking in water, cooking in oil, microwave cooking, and grilling was studied to dislodge cypermethrin residues on brinjal. Cypermethrin residues remaining in the control and processed samples were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with ECD. Dislodging of cypermethrin residues was observed more in grilling (50.12%), followed by cooking in oil (45.2%), cooking in water (41.4%), and microwave cooking (40.89%) after 1st day of the treatment. Reduction of residues after washing treatment was minimal.
BibTeX:
@article{WaliaS2010,
  author = {Walia S, Boora P, Kumari B},
  title = {Effect of processing on dislodging of cypermethrin residues on brinjal.},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {84(4)},
  pages = {465-8.},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-9952-9}
}
Anand AC Kerala pesticide tragedy 2001 Natl Med J India(14(2)), pp. 123-4  article  
BibTeX:
@article{An2001,
  author = {Anand AC},
  title = {Kerala pesticide tragedy},
  journal = {Natl Med J India},
  year = {2001},
  number = {14(2)},
  pages = {123-4}
}
Blok AC, Mann AH Organophosphorus insecticide exposure of spraying under field conditions on rice in India. 1977 The Hague, Shell International Research Maatschappi, BV Report Series
Vol. 2 
article  
Abstract: The effects of monocrotophos on workers involved in its application to rice fields in India was assessed in field conditions. Five workers were involved in the application of the pesticide on 6 consecutive days, working 7 h/day. A 40% water soluble solution of monocrotophos was diluted to 0.06% and applied from a knapsack sprayer containing 10 L of formulation. On the first day of spraying, the formulation was accidentally made up at 0.12%; all other days used the correct dilution. Workers applied an average of 66 g monocrotophos/day. Workers did not use protective clothing; their normal clothing exposed the arms, legs and feet. Clean clothes were worn for each day's work, and the workers washed their hands before meals. Workers were trained in common sense ways of avoiding contamination, such as avoiding direct contact with formulation and spray mix, giving attention to the containers to ensure they were not leaking, and avoiding spraying against the wind or upwind of other workers. All workers were normal farmhands, aged between 17 and 40 years, and described as healthy and fit, with normal nutritional status. They had not had contact with pesticides for 2 weeks prior to the trial. Five pre-test blood samples were taken from the workers applying monocrotophos, and also from 5
workers not involved in pesticide applications to act as controls, to determine plasma and erythrocyte ChE levels. Samples were taken regularly throughout the trial, and for two days at the end of the trial. It was recognised that there were practical difficulties with the sampling and testing methods, due to the uncontrolled field conditions. No clinical signs of exposure were seen during the trial. Plasma ChE appeared to be inhibited on the evening of the first day, and morning of the second day. Control workers also had some depression of ChE, so there may have been a
problem with the testing method at these times. No inhibition of plasma or erythrocyte ChE was seen for the rest of the trial. Therefore it appears that there is little effect from applying monocrotophos from a knapsack spray without protective clothing, however the quality of the assay method may obscure any real effects.
BibTeX:
@article{AH1977,
  author = {Blok AC & Mann AH},
  title = {Organophosphorus insecticide exposure of spraying under field conditions on rice in India.},
  journal = {The Hague, Shell International Research Maatschappi, BV Report Series},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {2}
}
Balarajan R, Acheson ED Soft tissue sarcomas in agriculture and forestry workers 1984 J Epidemiol Community Health.(38(2)), pp. 113-6  article  
Abstract: The National Cancer Register maintained by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) was used to investigate the relative risks of soft tissue sarcomas among farmers, agricultural workers, and related occupational groups. The relative risk for the group as a whole was 1.15 (95% confidence limits 0.83-1.59). One of the four subgroups (which comprises farmers, farm managers, and market gardeners) experienced a relative risk of 1.7 which just achieves significance at the 5% level (95% confidence limits 1.00-2.88). The risks in the other three subgroups were
respectively 1.0 (agricultural workers, 003), 0.7 (gardeners and groundsmen, 005), and 1.0 (foresters and woodmen, 006). No attempt has been made in this study to determine exposure to phenoxy herbicides in cases or controls. The significance of these findings is discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{BalarajanR1984,
  author = {Balarajan R, Acheson ED},
  title = {Soft tissue sarcomas in agriculture and forestry workers},
  journal = {J Epidemiol Community Health.},
  year = {1984},
  number = {38(2)},
  pages = {113-6}
}
Bawaskar HS, Joshi SR Organophosphorus poisoning in agricultural India--status in 2005 2005 J Assoc Physicians India.(53), pp. 422-4  article  
BibTeX:
@article{BawaskarHS2005,
  author = {Bawaskar HS, Joshi SR},
  title = {Organophosphorus poisoning in agricultural India--status in 2005},
  journal = {J Assoc Physicians India.},
  year = {2005},
  number = {53},
  pages = {422-4}
}
Bhatnagar VK, Karnik AB, Suthar AM, Zaidi SSA, Kashyap R,Shah MP, Kulkarni PK, Saiyed HN Biological indices in formulators exposed to a combination of pesticides 2002 Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol(68), pp. 22-28  article  
BibTeX:
@article{BhatnagarVK2002,
  author = {Bhatnagar VK, Karnik AB, Suthar AM, Zaidi SSA, Kashyap R,Shah MP, Kulkarni PK, Saiyed HN},
  title = {Biological indices in formulators exposed to a combination of pesticides},
  journal = {Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol},
  year = {2002},
  number = {68},
  pages = {22-28}
}
Bhatnagar VK, Kashyap R, Saiyed HN Residues of organochlorine pesticides in human blood in Ahmedabad, India 2006 Asian J. of Chemistry
Vol. 18(2), pp. 1583-1585 
article  
Abstract: Three studies on the estimation of residues of organochlorine pesticides in the general population of Ahmedabad at different intervals were carried out. Observed trend for these contaminants is descending which may be due to restrictions imposed on the use of these chemicals. However, these levels are still higher than the studies originating from other developing countries.
BibTeX:
@article{BhatnagarVK2006,
  author = {Bhatnagar VK, Kashyap R, Saiyed HN},
  title = {Residues of organochlorine pesticides in human blood in Ahmedabad, India},
  journal = {Asian J. of Chemistry},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {18},
  number = {2},
  pages = {1583-1585}
}
Bhatnagar VK, Kashyap R, Zaidi SSA, Kulkarni PK, Saiyed HN Levels of DDT, HCH, and HCB Residues in human blood in Ahmedabad, India 2004 Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol(72), pp. 261-265  article  
BibTeX:
@article{BhatnagarVK2004,
  author = {Bhatnagar VK, Kashyap R, Zaidi SSA, Kulkarni PK, Saiyed HN},
  title = {Levels of DDT, HCH, and HCB Residues in human blood in Ahmedabad, India},
  journal = {Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol},
  year = {2004},
  number = {72},
  pages = {261-265}
}
Bhatnagar VK, Patel JS, Variya MR, Venkaiah K, Shah MP, Kashyap SK Levels of organochlorine insecticides in human blood from Ahmedabad (Rural), India 1992 Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.(48), pp. 302-307  article  
BibTeX:
@article{BhatnagarVK1992,
  author = {Bhatnagar VK, Patel JS, Variya MR, Venkaiah K, Shah MP, Kashyap SK},
  title = {Levels of organochlorine insecticides in human blood from Ahmedabad (Rural), India},
  journal = {Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.},
  year = {1992},
  number = {48},
  pages = {302-307}
}
Bhatnagar VK, Saigal S, Singh SP, Khemani LD, Malviya AN Survey amongst workers in pesticide factories Feb Toxicol Lett.(10(2-3)), pp. 129-32  article  
Abstract: Blood samples of 75 pesticide factory workers in Agra Division, India, were analyzed for biochemical parameters of clinical importance. About 75% of the subjects had significantly low levels of serum cholinesterase activity. Several subjects had below average blood sugar and urea values. The majority had elevated levels of serum cholesterol, phospholipid and SGOT activity. 52 workers reported general toxic symptoms. A correlation between the clinical manifestations and blood biochemical parameters has been attempted.
BibTeX:
@article{BhatnagarVKFeb,
  author = {Bhatnagar VK, Saigal S, Singh SP, Khemani LD, Malviya AN},
  title = {Survey amongst workers in pesticide factories},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {Feb},
  number = {10(2-3)},
  pages = {129-32}
}
Bhatnagar VK, Sharma RP, Malviya AN Effects of pesticidal stress amongst pesticide factory workers in Agra, India 1980 Public Health (London)(94), pp. 375-378  article  
BibTeX:
@article{BhatnagarVK1980,
  author = {Bhatnagar VK, Sharma RP, Malviya AN},
  title = {Effects of pesticidal stress amongst pesticide factory workers in Agra, India},
  journal = {Public Health (London)},
  year = {1980},
  number = {94},
  pages = {375-378}
}
Bhatnagar VK, Zaidi SSA, Kashyap R, Karnik AB, Kulkarni PK, Venkaish K, Shah MP, Saiyed HN Pesticides residues in formulators and their relevance to certain biological indices 2003 Toxicol. Int.
Vol. 10(1), pp. 47-50 
article  
Abstract: The study on the biological monitoring of the residues of persistent pesticides in formulators engaged in formulation of various pesticides in an industrial setting was 14 conducted. Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its residues were significantly higher (p<0.005) in formulators. ?-HCH was the chief contaminant and it accounts for about 93% of the total HCH content. A total of four residues of DDT (pp�-DDE, pp�- DDT, op�-DDT and pp�-DDD) were also detected. However, significant elevation (p<0.01) was noticed in the level of pp�-DDE and total DDT in formulators. The pp�- DDE contributed about 73% of the total DDT content. On comparison with the levels of various organochlorine insecticides detected in this study, a significant positive correlation was found between ?-HCH and IgM (r=0.526, p<0.005) and total HCHand IgM (r=0.401, p< 0.05). These findings merit surveillance insight reflective of industrial exposure and may be regarded as an aid towards understanding of the environmental problems resulting from pesticide formulation practices in industrial settings.
BibTeX:
@article{BhatnagarVK2003,
  author = {Bhatnagar VK, Zaidi SSA, Kashyap R, Karnik AB, Kulkarni PK, Venkaish K, Shah MP and Saiyed HN},
  title = {Pesticides residues in formulators and their relevance to certain biological indices},
  journal = {Toxicol. Int.},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {47-50}
}
Edward Broughton The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review 2005 Environ Health  article DOI  
Abstract: On December 3 1984, more than 40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas leaked from a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, immediately killing at least 3,800 people and causing significant morbidity and premature death for many thousands more. The company involved in what became the worst industrial accident in history immediately tried to dissociate itself from legal responsibility. Eventually it reached a settlement with the Indian Government through mediation of that country's Supreme Court and accepted moral responsibility. It paid $470 million in compensation, a relatively small amount of based on significant underestimations of the long-term health consequences of exposure and the number of people exposed. The disaster indicated a need for enforceable international standards for environmental safety, preventative strategies to avoid similar accidents and industrial disaster preparedness.

Since the disaster, India has experienced rapid industrialization. While some positive changes in government policy and behavior of a few industries have taken place, major threats to the environment from rapid and poorly regulated industrial growth remain. Widespread environmental degradation with significant adverse human health consequences continues to occur throughout India.

December 2004 marked the twentieth anniversary of the massive toxic gas leak from Union Carbide Corporation's chemical plant in Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India that killed more than 3,800 people. This review examines the health effects of exposure to the disaster, the legal response, the lessons learned and whether or not these are put into practice in India in terms of industrial development, environmental management and public health.

BibTeX:
@article{Broughton2005,
  author = {Edward Broughton},
  title = {The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review},
  journal = {Environ Health},
  year = {2005},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-4-6}
}
Chand B, Sankaranarayan T, Yadava RL, Narasimham MV Residues of DDT and its metabolite in blood of exposed factory workers and their correlation with ill health symptoms 1991 J Commun Dis.(23(4)), pp. 245-7  article  
Abstract: The residue levels of DDE, op1--DDT and pp1--DDT of the factory workers exposed to DDT formulations having temporary clinical symptoms and of those without any such symptoms did not show any significant difference in their values suggestive of no direct correlation between insecticide residues and ill health symptoms. The average residue values of DDT (mg/litre) and its metabolite DDE (mg/litre) in exposed workers were 0.8634 +/- 0.1529 and 0.2106 +/- 0.0458 respectively while in unexposed control subjects 0.0826 +/- 0.0238 and 0.0278 +/- 0.0040. Total DDT residue in blood in exposed workers is more than 10 times higher than the same in unexposed control.
BibTeX:
@article{Ch1991,
  author = {Chand B, Sankaranarayan T, Yadava RL, Narasimham MV},
  title = {Residues of DDT and its metabolite in blood of exposed factory workers and their correlation with ill health symptoms},
  journal = {J Commun Dis.},
  year = {1991},
  number = {23(4)},
  pages = {245-7}
}
Chandrasekharan Nair Kesa vachandran, Subhodh Kumar Rastogi, Neeraj Mathur, Mohammad Kaleem Javed Siddiqui, Vipul Kumar Singh, Vipin Bihari, Ram Shankar Bharti Health Status Among Pesticide Applicators at a Mango Plantation in India 2006 Journal of Pesticide Safety Education
Vol. 8 
article  
Abstract: Observations of mango plantation workers applying chemicals showed many were mixing pesticides without the appropriate personal protective equipment. Personal hygiene was lacking in that many applicators commonly ate and drank without previously washing their hands. Medical evaluation of thirty-four of these workers at
a free health clinic shows pesticide exposure may be linked to health problems. Respiratory, gastrointestinal, ocular and dermal problems were observed; biochemical analysis shows decreased glutathione levels and increased levels of malondialdehyde thereby suggesting significant pesticide exposure. Our study clearly indicates that growers and workers applying pesticides in mango plantations need additional training on how to properly and safely use pesticides.
BibTeX:
@article{ChandrasekharanNairKesavachandran2006,
  author = {Chandrasekharan Nair Kesa vachandran, Subhodh Kumar Rastogi, Neeraj Mathur, Mohammad Kaleem Javed Siddiqui, Vipul Kumar Singh, Vipin Bihari, Ram Shankar Bharti},
  title = {Health Status Among Pesticide Applicators at a Mango Plantation in India},
  journal = {Journal of Pesticide Safety Education},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8}
}
Chattopadhyay P, Karnik AB, Thakore KN, Lakkad BC, Nigam SK, Kashyap SK Health effects among workers involved in the manufacture of hexachlorocyclohexane 1988 J Soc Occup Med.(38(3)), pp. 77-81  article  
Abstract: Forty-five male workers exposed to hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) during its manufacture were studied and compared with 22 matched controls. Twenty-one of the exposed workers worked in packaging and manual transport of HCH. Twentyfour other exposed workers were plant operators. Exposure was mainly through skin. Results indicate that the neurological symptoms reported were due to recent exposure to HCH and were related to the intensity of exposure.

An increase in leucine aminopeptidase, ornithine carbamyl transaminase, 5'nucleotides and immunoglobulin M levels among the exposed workers is suggestive of some degree of liver damage. A significant increase in total blood HCH and its , � and isomers was also observed in these workers. In spite of pronounced exposure to the , � and isomers of HCH, signs of severe health impairment were not observed. Further biological monitoring needs to be carried out among such workers exposed to HCH.

BibTeX:
@article{ChattopadhyayP1988,
  author = {Chattopadhyay P, Karnik AB, Thakore KN, Lakkad BC, Nigam SK, Kashyap SK},
  title = {Health effects among workers involved in the manufacture of hexachlorocyclohexane},
  journal = {J Soc Occup Med.},
  year = {1988},
  number = {38(3)},
  pages = {77-81}
}
Cherian MA, Roshini C, Visalakshi J, Jeyaseelan L, Cherian AM Biochemical and clinical profile after organophosphorus poisoning--a place bo-controlled trial using pralidoxime 2005 J. Assoc. Physicians India(53), pp. 427-31  article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are the most common suicidal poison in developing countries and mortality continues to be high. METHODS: A study was done to see butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) profile after OP poisoning in pralidoxime (P2AM) and placebo treated cases. Highest recommended dose of P2AM was used to study the reactivation of cholinesterase. Clinical outcomes like, correlation of BuChE and severity of poisoning, mortality and complications like Type I and II paralysis, need for ventilation and ICU stay were also studied. RESULTS: Twenty-one cases of moderate and severe poisoning with OP compounds were included in the study. Mean BuChE levels came up gradually over 6-7 days, some taking up to two weeks. There was no. difference between the treatment and placebo groups. BuChE levels did not correlate with severity of poisoning nor did it correlate with Type I or II paralysis, need for ventilation, ICU stay or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with P2AM does not make any difference in BuChE reactivation or complications of moderate and severe OP poisoning. We have not been using P2AM for OP poisoning in our medical ICU with good patient outcomes.
BibTeX:
@article{CherianMA2005,
  author = {Cherian MA, Roshini C, Visalakshi J, Jeyaseelan L, Cherian AM},
  title = {Biochemical and clinical profile after organophosphorus poisoning--a place bo-controlled trial using pralidoxime},
  journal = {J. Assoc. Physicians India},
  year = {2005},
  number = {53},
  pages = {427-31}
}
Chitra GA, Muraleedharan VR, Swaminathan T, Veeraraghavan D Use of pesticides and its impact on health of farmers in South India 2006 International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Vol. 12, pp. 228 
article  
Abstract: A study of the health effects of acute pesticide toxicity among the cotton growers of India, by Mancini et al., is a positive step to fill this research gap.6 Specific studies dealing with the agricultural practices of Indian farmers regarding pesticide use and its health impacts are needed to inform policy decisions to bring about changes in agricultural practices. The interview questionnaire was designed to elicit land ownership, the plantation where the farmer was currently working, exposure to pesticides, the use of pesticides, the commonly used pesticides, precautions taken, the farmer's source of information about pesticides, and signs and symptoms of illnesses related to pesticide exposure. Some signs, such as tremors, skin lesions, and wheezing, which can be chronic, were observed at the time of the interview.
BibTeX:
@article{ChitraGA2006,
  author = {Chitra GA, Muraleedharan VR, Swaminathan T, Veeraraghavan D},
  title = {Use of pesticides and its impact on health of farmers in South India},
  journal = {International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {228}
}
Chugh SN, Dhawan R, Agrawal N, Mahajan SK Endosulfan poisoning in Northern India: a report of 18 cases 1998 Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther(36(9)), pp. 474-7  article  
Abstract: Eighteen cases of endosulfan poisoning by accidental overexposure during spray, admitted between October 1995 to September 1997, were observed and analyzed. These accounted for approximately one third of the total number of poisoning cases admitted in our unit during this period. Nausea, vomiting abdominal discomfort, tonic and clonic convulsions, confusion, disorientation, and muscular twitchings were cardinal manifestations. None of the patients succumbed to their illness. Analysis of various incriminating factors revealed that accidental overexposure was due to failure to adhere to the instructions for spray either due to ignorance or due to illiteracy. All the patients avoided preventive measures and developed toxicity both due to inhalation and absorption through skin. Endosulfan (a chlordiene derivative) poisoning is gaining up momentum in this part of world and has become an important matter for public health in India.
BibTeX:
@article{ChughSN1998,
  author = {Chugh SN, Dhawan R, Agrawal N, Mahajan SK},
  title = {Endosulfan poisoning in Northern India: a report of 18 cases},
  journal = {Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther},
  year = {1998},
  number = {36(9)},
  pages = {474-7}
}
Das DK, Dey TK Agricultural practices and personal hygiene among agricultural workers in a rural area of Howrah district, West Bengal 2005 Indian J Public Health.(49(4)), pp. 252-3  article  
Abstract: The study attempted to assess agricultural practices and personal hygiene among 100 agricultural workers in a rural area of West Bengal in 1999. 69% of the study population was marginal farmer with less than 2 acres of land. Organophosphorus group of pesticides were most commonly used pesticides (68%); spraying was irregular in nature (98%), through semiautomatic sprayer (99%) and only 5% used any special dress while spraying pesticides. 40% of workers used to store pesticides either in living room or in food storage area. 88% of them did not take any food during work with pesticides, only 37% used to take regular bath after working with pesticides but regular hand washing was practiced by all of them.
BibTeX:
@article{DasDK2005,
  author = {Das DK, Dey TK},
  title = {Agricultural practices and personal hygiene among agricultural workers in a rural area of Howrah district, West Bengal},
  journal = {Indian J Public Health.},
  year = {2005},
  number = {49(4)},
  pages = {252-3}
}
Dewan A, Bhatnagar VK, Mathur ML, Chakma T, Kashyap R, Sadhu HG, Sinha SN, Saiyed HN Repeated episodes of endosulfan poisoning 2004 J. Toxicol Clin Toxicol(42(4)), pp. 363-9  article  
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: A number of families in a rural area of Jabalpur District (MadhyaPradesh), India, were affected by repeated episodes of convulsive illness over a period of three weeks. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause of the illness.

METHODS: The investigation included a house-to-house survey, interviews of affected families, discussions with treating physicians, and examination of hospital records. Endosulfan poisoning was suspected as many villagers were using empty pesticide containers for food storage. To confirm this, our team 10 collected blood and food samples, which were transported to the laboratory and analyzed with GC-ECD. RESULTS: Thirty-six persons of all age groups had illness of varying severity over a period of three weeks. In the first week, due to superstitions and lack of treatment, three children died. In the second week, symptomatic treatment of affected persons in a district hospital led to recovery but recurrence of convulsive episodes occurred after the return home. In the third week, 10 people were again hospitalized in a teaching hospital. Investigations carried out in this hospital ruled out infective etiology but no facilities were available for chemical analysis. All persons responded to symptomatic treatment. The blood and food samples analyzed by our team showed presence of endosulfan, which was confirmed by GCMS. One of the food items (Laddu) prepared from wheat flour was found to contain 676 ppm of alpha-endosulfan.

CONCLUSIONS: Contamination of wheat grains or flour with endosulfan and its consumption over a period of time was the most likely cause of repeated episodes of convulsions, but the exact reason for this contamination could not be determined. This report highlights the unsafe disposal of pesticide containers by illiterate farm workers, superstitions leading to delay in treatment, and susceptibility of children to endosulfan.

BibTeX:
@article{DewanA2004,
  author = {Dewan A, Bhatnagar VK, Mathur ML, Chakma T, Kashyap R, Sadhu HG, Sinha SN, Saiyed HN},
  title = {Repeated episodes of endosulfan poisoning},
  journal = {J. Toxicol Clin Toxicol},
  year = {2004},
  number = {42(4)},
  pages = {363-9}
}
Varma DR The Bhopal accident and methyl isocyanate toxicity 1993 J Toxicol Environ Health(40(4)), pp. 513-29  article  
Abstract: The Bhopal accident, the world's worst industrial disaster, in which nearly 40 metric tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) was released from the Union Carbide pesticide plant, occurred nearly 10 yr ago during the night of December 2 and 3, 1984. Over 3000 people residing in areas adjacent to the plant died of pulmonary edema within 3 d of the accident. Follow-up studies revealed pulmonary, ophthalmic, reproductive, immunologic, neurological, and hematologic toxicity among the survivors. Despite high reactivity, MIC can traverse cell membranes and reach distant organs, perhaps as a reversible conjugate with glutathione, which may explain some of the systemic effects of MIC. MIC can be degraded as a result of pyrolysis and interaction with water, but none of the breakdown products can duplicate the toxicity observed in Bhopal and in animal models. MIC may be the most toxic of all isocyanates because of its very high vapor pressure relative to other isocyanates and because of its ability to exert toxic effects on numerous organ systems.
BibTeX:
@article{DR1993,
  author = {Varma DR},
  title = {The Bhopal accident and methyl isocyanate toxicity},
  journal = {J Toxicol Environ Health},
  year = {1993},
  number = {40(4)},
  pages = {513-29}
}
Dua VK, Pant CS, Sharma VP, Pathak GK HCH and DDT in surface extractable skin lipid as a measure of human exposure in India 1998 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol(60(2)), pp. 238-44  article  
BibTeX:
@article{DuaVK1998,
  author = {Dua VK, Pant CS, Sharma VP, Pathak GK},
  title = {HCH and DDT in surface extractable skin lipid as a measure of human exposure in India},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol},
  year = {1998},
  number = {60(2)},
  pages = {238-44}
}
Dua VK, Pant CS, Sharma VP, Pathak GK Determination of HCH and DDT in finger-prick whole blood dried on filter paper and its field application for monitoring concentrations in blood 1996 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.(56(1)), pp. 50-7  article  
BibTeX:
@article{DuaVK1996,
  author = {Dua VK, Pant CS, Sharma VP, Pathak GK},
  title = {Determination of HCH and DDT in finger-prick whole blood dried on filter paper and its field application for monitoring concentrations in blood},
  journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.},
  year = {1996},
  number = {56(1)},
  pages = {50-7}
}
Gupta BN, Mathur N, Rastogi SK, Srivastava AK, Chandra H,Pangtey BS, Mahendra PN, Bharti RS Socio-economic, environmental and health aspects of farm workers engaged in mango plantations 1995 Biomed Environ Sci(8(4)), pp. 301-9  article  
Abstract: A cross-sectional survey of 489 male subjects in the age group 15 to 65 years engaged directly or indirectly in mango cultivation along with 208 control subjects was carried out to find their socio-economic, environmental and health conditions. The conditions like high illiteracy rate (49.5%), poverty (PCI less than Rs 100 per month, 52.2%), poor housing (mud houses, 66.7%) unsafe water supply (78.6%) were prevailing in the surveyed population. The high respiratory morbidity may be attributed to high prevalence of smoking and prolonged inhalation of organic dusts during farming operation associated with illiteracy and poor socio-economic status. Gastrointestinal disorders were related to poor hygienic conditions, smoking and consumption of contaminated water. The symptoms pertaining to CNS, skin and eyes were found to be associated with exposure to pesticides.
BibTeX:
@article{GuptaBN1995,
  author = {Gupta BN, Mathur N, Rastogi SK, Srivastava AK, Chandra H,Pangtey BS, Mahendra PN, Bharti RS},
  title = {Socio-economic, environmental and health aspects of farm workers engaged in mango plantations},
  journal = {Biomed Environ Sci},
  year = {1995},
  number = {8(4)},
  pages = {301-9}
}
kaiser Jamil, G. Prabhavathy Das, Abjal Pasha Shaik, Sunita S Dharmi, Sudha Murthy Epidemiological studies of pesticide exposed individuals and their
clinical implications
2007 Current science
Vol. 92(3, 10) 
article  
Abstract: Epidemiological studies were conducted in pesticide exposed agricultural workers along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls. All the 200 exposed volunteers were suffering from fever, nausea, headache and other abnormal symptoms and visited the hospital for general health check-up. These cases were taken up for more detailed studies. Five (2.5%) showed decrease in RBC, haemoglobin, and increase in WBC with a large number of immature cells. These volunteers were further diagnosed as Philadelphia negative Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) cases based on clinical and pathological examinations. In similar environs, about 100 children (aged between 1 and 17 years) were studied for the above parameters. About 3% of the exposed children showed signs of mental retardation and delayed milestones; these were compared with healthy children (age- and sex-matched) from pristine environment. It is therefore concluded that clinical evaluations supported by occupational epidemiology could determine CML in exposed individuals (adults).
BibTeX:
@article{Jamil2007,
  author = {kaiser Jamil, G. Prabhavathy Das, Abjal Pasha Shaik, Sunita S Dharmi, Sudha Murthy},
  title = {Epidemiological studies of pesticide exposed individuals and their
clinical implications}, journal = {Current science}, year = {2007}, volume = {92}, number = {3, 10} }
Jani JP, Patel JS, Shah MP, Gupta SK and Kashyap SK Levels of organochlorine pesticides in human milk in Ahmedabad, India 1988 Int Arch Occup Environ Health(60(2)), pp. 111-3  article  
Abstract: Concentrations of organochlorine compounds, i.e., alpha HCH, gamma HCH, beta HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT; p,p'-DDD and PCBs were determined in 50 human milk samples collected in Ahmedabad, India during 1981�1982. The mothers' ages ranged from 18 to 30 years (mean 24 years), and they were nursing their first or second child. All 50 samples contained alpha-HCH, gamma HCH, beta HCH, p,p'- DDE, and p,p'-DDT in a concentration of 17.51, 1.62, 205.48, 244.71, and 53.43, 29 respectively (median ?g/kg: whole-milk basis). o,p'-DDT was found in 48 samples whereas p,p'DDD was detected in 44 samples. The concentration of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD was 53.43 and 5.13 ?g/kg (median), expressed on a whole-milk basis. PCBs were absent in all samples.
BibTeX:
@article{JaniJP1988,
  author = {Jani JP, Patel JS, Shah MP, Gupta SK and Kashyap SK},
  title = {Levels of organochlorine pesticides in human milk in Ahmedabad, India},
  journal = {Int Arch Occup Environ Health},
  year = {1988},
  number = {60(2)},
  pages = {111-3}
}
Joshi PL, Bhattacharya M, Yadava RL, Chand B, Narasimham MV, Nigam DK, Jain CL A community-based study on the effect of hexachlorocyclo-hexane (HCH) exposure in spraymen and general population 1996 J Commun Dis(28(3)), pp. 189-98  article  
Abstract: The study was carried out in Allahabad district, (Uttar Pradesh) with 260 spraymen as test subjects and 50 persons as controls from a sprayed and unsprayed village respectively. Majority of the spraymen (44%) had worked for 3-4 years (seasons) and 31% had worked in the programme for 5-10 years. The spraymen were relatively healthy with no complaints in 77% whereas the figures were 76% for the Community living in the sprayed village, and 50% for the Community in the unsprayed village. A 21 comparison of the biochemical parameters revealed lowered Cholesterol more than 150 mg % in 38% of the spraymen and 58% had altered A:G ratio. Other biochemical estimations were not significantly different from the control population. The mean residue of Alpha, Beta and Gamma Isomers and the total Alpha, Beta and Gamma isomers were 0.0317, 0.2254, 0.0288 and 0.2859 mg/1 respectively; the corresponding mean values in the control population were 0.0211, 0.1112, 0.0197 and 0.1520 mg/1 respectively. The values in spraymen were twice those of the general population. A significant association (p < .05) was observed between their length of exposure and the levels of Cholesterol and HCH isomers in blood of spraymen. No significant morbidity was evident in spraymen due to HCH exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{JoshiPL1996,
  author = {Joshi PL, Bhattacharya M, Yadava RL, Chand B, Narasimham MV, Nigam DK, Jain CL},
  title = {A community-based study on the effect of hexachlorocyclo-hexane (HCH) exposure in spraymen and general population},
  journal = {J Commun Dis},
  year = {1996},
  number = {28(3)},
  pages = {189-98}
}
Jyotsna A. Patil, Arun J. Patil, Sanjay P. Govindwar Biochemical Effects of Various Pesticides on Sprayers of Grape Gardens 2003 Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry(18(2)), pp. 16-22  article  
Abstract: A total of 85 healthy male pesticide sprayers in grape garden exposed to different class of pesticides for 3 to 10 years were compared with 75 controls matched for age with respect to serum cholinesterase, serum total protein, albumin, AST, ALT, hematological parameters such as Hb, Hct, RBC and serum lipid peroxidation. Serum lipid peroxidation was estimated in the form of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) produced. Significant decrease was observed in serum cholinesterase, serum total proteins, albumin and hematological parameters viz. Hb,
Hct and RBC. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation, AST, ALT, was observed in exposed group when compared with control. These results suggest that the long term exposure of various pesticides on sprayers of grape garden affect liver, heme biosynthesis and decrease serum cholinesterase.
BibTeX:
@article{JyotsnaA.Patil*2003,
  author = {Jyotsna A. Patil*, Arun J. Patil* and Sanjay P. Govindwar},
  title = {Biochemical Effects of Various Pesticides on Sprayers of Grape Gardens},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry},
  year = {2003},
  number = {18(2)},
  pages = {16-22}
}
Kashyap R, Iyer LR, Singh MM, Kashyap SK Assessment of location-specific human exposure to dichloro-diphenyl trichloroethane and benzenehexachloride in Gujarat state, India 1994 Int Arch Occup Environ Health.(65(6)), pp. 381-4  article  
Abstract: On the basis of the use of insecticides in agriculture and vector control programmes, two locations were selected in Gujarat state, India. In location 1 the insecticides are used in both agriculture and vector control programmes while in location 2 they are used only in agriculture. Raw food commodities, water, soil and blood samples were collected from the people residing in these locations, and analysed for total dichlorodiphenyl
trichloroethane and total benzenehexachloride residues. Residue levels were significantly lower in location 2 than in location 1
BibTeX:
@article{KashyapR1994,
  author = {Kashyap R, Iyer LR, Singh MM, Kashyap SK},
  title = {Assessment of location-specific human exposure to dichloro-diphenyl trichloroethane and benzenehexachloride in Gujarat state, India},
  journal = {Int Arch Occup Environ Health.},
  year = {1994},
  number = {65(6)},
  pages = {381-4}
}
Kashyap R, Iyer LR, Singh MM, Kashyap SK Evaluation of human exposure to the persistent insecticides DDT and HCH in Ahmedabad, India 1993 J Anal Toxicol(17(4)), pp. 211-4  article  
Abstract: Concentrations of two organochlorine insecticides, DDT and HCH, in 21 human adipose tissue samples (from cadavers) and 20 venous blood samples collected in Ahmedabad, India were determined. None of the cases had any history of occupational exposure to organochlorine insecticides. Residue concentrations of DDT and HCH in these samples indicated considerable exposure of the general population to these chemicals. Samples from males had comparatively higher concentrations of these insecticide residues than females. The mean residue
concentrations of total DDT and HCH in the blood serum of males was 213.83 and 70.051 ppb, respectively, whereas females had DDT and HCH concentrations of 177.38 and 65.44 ppb, respectively. Total DDT and HCH in adipose tissue was 3.967 and 4.054 ppm in males, and 3.538 and 3.144 ppm in females, respectively. Residue concentrations reported here are lower than those reported earlier.
BibTeX:
@article{KashyapR1993,
  author = {Kashyap R, Iyer LR, Singh MM, Kashyap SK},
  title = {Evaluation of human exposure to the persistent insecticides DDT and HCH in Ahmedabad, India},
  journal = {J Anal Toxicol},
  year = {1993},
  number = {17(4)},
  pages = {211-4}
}
Kerger Heinz, Dodidou Petroula, Passani-Kruppa Daniela, Gruttner Joachim, Birmelin Monika, Volz Alexander, Waschke Klaus F Excessive methaemoglobinaemia and multi-organ failure following 4-DMAP antidote therapy 2005 Resuscitation
Vol. 66(2), pp. 231-235 
article  
Abstract: This report describes the clinical history of a patient intoxicated with methyl isocyanate (MIC), a toxic agent first receiving attention in 1984 after a mass accident
in a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, and treated with the cyanide-specific antidote 4-DMAP. The numerous clinical conditions requiring 39-day intensive care treatment included ARDS, renal and hepatic failure, haemolysis, bone marrow depression, septic encephalopathy and critical illness polyneuropathy. The most outstanding condition, however, was a methaemoglobinemia of 86.7%, which was predominantly related to the use of 4-DMAP, although uptake of MIC may have been a significant contributing factor. Since significant cyanide intoxication could be excluded clinically and by laboratory testing in the initial phase of emergency treatment, most of the clinical effects were due to the side-effects of the antidote therapy. Due to intensive therapy, the patient survived without any neurological or organ deficit. This case shows that antidotes should be used cautiously in cases where uncertainties about the nature of the underlying toxic agent exist. This may prevent severe side-effects associated with antidote therapy, e.g. 4-DMAP. if there is-as in our case-a mismatch between the toxic agent and the antidote.
BibTeX:
@article{KergerHeinz2005,
  author = {Kerger Heinz, Dodidou Petroula; Passani-Kruppa Daniela, Gruttner Joachim, Birmelin Monika; Volz Alexander, Waschke Klaus F},
  title = {Excessive methaemoglobinaemia and multi-organ failure following 4-DMAP antidote therapy},
  journal = {Resuscitation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {66},
  number = {2},
  pages = {231-235}
}
Lal CS, Kumar V, Ranjan A, Das VN, Kumar N, Kishore K, Bhattacharya SK Evaluation of cholinesterase level in an endemic population exposed to malathion suspension formulation as a vector control measure 2004 Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz(99(2)), pp. 219-221  article  
Abstract: The manuscript describes a study on the blood cholinesterase (ChE) level in an exposed population at different interval of time after spraying with malathion
suspension (SRES) use for kala-azar vector control in an endemic area of Bihar, India. The toxicity of a 5% malathion formulation in the form of a slow release
emulsified suspension (SRES) was assessed by measuring serum ChE levels in spraymen and in the exposed population. The study showed a significant decrease in ChE levels in the spraymen (p < 0.01) after one week of spraying and in exposed population one week and one month after of spraying (p < 0.01), but was still within the normal range of ChE concentration, one year after spraying, the ChE concentration in the exposed population was the same as prior to spraying (p > 0.01). On no occasion was the decrease in ChE level alarming. A parallel examination of the clinical status also showed the absence of any over toxicity or any behavioural changes in the exposed population. Hence, it may be concluded that 5% malathion slow release formulation, SRES, is a safe insecticide for use as a vector control measure in endemic areas of kala-azar in Bihar, India so long as good 11 personal protection for spraymen is provided to minimize absorption and it can sssssubstitute the presently used traditional DDT spray.
BibTeX:
@article{LalCS2004,
  author = {Lal CS, Kumar V, Ranjan A, Das VN, Kumar N, Kishore K, Bhattacharya SK},
  title = {Evaluation of cholinesterase level in an endemic population exposed to malathion suspension formulation as a vector control measure},
  journal = {Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz},
  year = {2004},
  number = {99(2)},
  pages = {219-221}
}
Mancini F, Van Bruggen AH, Jiggins JL, Ambatipudi AC, Murphy H Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India 2005 International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Vol. 11, pp. 221 
article  
Abstract: A season-long assessment of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers was conducted in three villages in India. Fifty female cotton growers reported the adverse effects experienced after exposures to pesticides by themselves and by their male relatives (n = 47). The study documented the serious consequences of pesticide use for the health of farmers, particularly women field helpers. Typically female tasks such as mixing concentrated chemicals and refilling spraying tanks were as hazardous as direct pesticide application. Of 323 reported events, 83.6% were associated with signs and symptoms of mild to severe poisoning, and 10% of the pesticide application sessions were associated with three or more neurotoxic/systemic signs and symptoms typical of poisoning by organophosphates, which were used in 47% of the applications. Although in 6% of the spray sessions the workers� neurotoxic effects were extremely serious, none sought medical care. 7 Low-income marginal farmers were more often subjected to severe poisoning than were landlords.
BibTeX:
@article{ManciniF2005,
  author = {Mancini F, Van Bruggen AH, Jiggins JL, Ambatipudi AC, Murphy H},
  title = {Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India},
  journal = {International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {221}
}
Mathews R, Reis C, Iacopino V Child labor. A matter of health and human rights 2003 Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
Vol. 26(2), pp. 181 
article  
Abstract: Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, 15 Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100
children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands.
Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society. Key words: Andhra Pradesh, child labor, cottonseed, health, hybrid, India

CHILD LABOR is a worldwide problem. The International Labor Organization estimates that there are 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 working in developing countries. Most of these children do not have access to education. The often repetitious work in which they engage frequently endangers their health and safety and adversely affects their physical and mental development.

India has the largest number of working children. Approximately 70 to 115 million Indian children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force; this approximation does not include children who engage in paid or unpaid domestic labor and is made despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14 in most industrial sectors, especially those deemed hazardous. India's labor laws regulate working conditions for children employed in nonprohibited industries, but these provisions are often not enforced and monitoring is poor. Most of India's child laborers work long hours for low wages, often to pay off family debts. Such employment in debt servitude is forbidden by Indian and international law, however, an estimated 15 million children in India and millions more worldwide are subject to this practice of debt bondage. Campaigns against and subsequent bans of child labor in the carpet, beedi (cigarette), textile, and other industries may have contributed to shifting the child labor underground, which may place children at increased risk for adverse health effects.

Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of children in hybrid cotton seed production in rural Andhra Pradesh, a state on the southeastern coast of India. PHR studied the nature and scope of the labor practices, work conditions, employment arrangements, exposure to harmful agents, education status, access to health care, and socioeconomic status of the family through interviews with 100 children in the hybrid cottonseed fields.

Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14 years old. On average, these children worked 12 hours a day, earning 18 rupees a day (38 cents). Eighty-eight percent were working to pay off a family loan or advance. They were frequently exposed to pesticides while they worked and were not provided with 16 protective equipment by their employer. Children reported having frequent headaches, dizziness, and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. A few reported experiencing fainting spells and convulsions.

Boys were employed expressly for taking on extra tasks that were deemed dangerous, such as mixing and spraying the pesticides. None of the boys interviewed by PHR were provided with proper protection or training on safe handling of the extremely hazardous pesticides used in the cottonseed fields. In fact, almost all the children worked barefoot and are likely to have been in constant direct contact with these toxic chemicals. None had regular access to water to wash themselves or their clothes. A local physician interviewed by PHR indicated that he had seen many cases of pesticide poisoning in the area and most of them were children or adults who work in the fields.

All of the 100 children who participated in the PHR study reported that they could not go to school during the cottonseed season, from May to February, due to work demands. Most of the children reported dropping out of school completely or never having attended. Ninety-four children told PHR investigators that they would rather go to school than be working. A 13-year-old girl, who told PHR she has been working since the age of eight, stated: "Whenever I see children of my age who are going to school, I get a feeling that I am missing something and feel bad about myself. My future would have been better if I had joined in school and had tried to study." In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers.

All the children in the PHR study were working in fields that were producing hybrid cottonseed for major multinational and national seed companies. Representatives of the involved companies acknowledged to PHR researchers that they have known for up to 10 years about the child labor employed in making their hybrid cottonseed. Although representatives of the multinational corporations indicated their intention to
remedy the problem of child labor, little has changed in practice.

PHR's study is a snapshot of a range of experiences reported by children working in the agricultural industry in India. Such practices are harmful to children and may displace opportunities for educational development. State and nonstate actors must ensure through monitoring and accountability measures an immediate end to harmful practices such as bonded labor and pesticide spraying while workers are in the field. The progressive elimination of all child labor practices will require the concentrated efforts of wide cross-section of civil society including state representatives, employers and farmers, community organizations, parents and children, human rights organizations, health professionals, educators, and the support of the public. For more information on PHR's child labor project, visit www.phrusa.org or contact
Rahel Mathews at phrusa@phrusa.org.

BibTeX:
@article{MathewsR2003,
  author = {Mathews R, Reis C, Iacopino V},
  title = {Child labor. A matter of health and human rights},
  journal = {Journal of Ambulatory Care Management},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {26},
  number = {2},
  pages = {181}
}
McKnight RH, Spiller HA Green tobacco sickness in children and adolescents 2005 Public Health Rep(120(6)), pp. 602-605  article  
Abstract: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is cultivated in more than 100 countries, and in 2004, some 5.73 million metric tons dry weight of tobacco were grown worldwide. The top five tobacco producers forecast for 2004 are China (2.01 million metric tons; 35.1%), Brazil (757 thousand metric tons; 13.2%), India (598 thousand metric tons; 10.4%), United States (358 thousand metric tons; 6.2%), and Malawi (138 thousand metric tons; 2.4%). Together, these five countries account for two-thirds of worldwide tobacco production. Tobacco farming presents several hazards to those who cultivate and harvest the plant. Although some of these hazards, such as pesticide exposure and musculoskeletal trauma, are faced by workers in other types of agricultural production, tobacco production presents some unique hazards, most notably acute nicotine poisoning, a condition also known as green tobacco sickness (GTS). GTS is an occupational poisoning that can affect workers who cultivate and harvest tobacco. It occurs when workers absorb nicotine through the skin as they come into contact with leaves of the mature tobacco plant. GTS is characterized largely by nausea, vomiting, headache, muscle weakness, and dizziness. Historically, children have played a role in agricultural production in the United States, and they continue to do so today. This includes tobacco farming. The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks, a set of injury prevention guidelines prepared by the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety, lists GTS as one of several hazards children face when working on tobacco farms. Children 17 years of age and younger who work on U.S. tobacco farms come from three main groups: members of farm families, migrant youth laborers (primarily Latinos), and other hired local children. All three groups are at risk
for GTS. Beyond the U.S., tobacco production using child labor is an emerging topic of concern in developing nations. An international movement, advocated by the Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Foundation, is underway to restrict child labor in tobacco production. GTS is a unique occupational poisoning associated with tobacco farming. We suspect that many public health practitioners, clinicians, advocates, and researchers are unaware of GTS among children and adolescents. In this article, we provide an overview of GTS among young people who work in tobacco, summarize reports documenting pediatric GTS cases, explain GTS etiology, and present three case studies of pediatric GTS in Kentucky. In addition, we discuss the need forexpanded surveillance and prevention of GTS, both in the United States and globally.
BibTeX:
@article{McKnightRH2005,
  author = {McKnight RH, Spiller HA},
  title = {Green tobacco sickness in children and adolescents},
  journal = {Public Health Rep},
  year = {2005},
  number = {120(6)},
  pages = {602-605}
}
Misra UK, Bhargava SK, Nag D, Kidwai MM, Lal MM Occupational phosphine exposure in Indian workers 1988 Toxicol Lett.(42(3)), pp. 257-63  article  
Abstract: To evaluate the health effects of occupational phosphine exposure, 22 workers engaged in fumigation of stored grains were subjected to a clinical and environmental study. These workers were used to placing aluminum phosphide tablets on the stacks of grains and covering it with a gas-proof plastic cover. The mean age of the workers was 48 years (range 24-60) and mean duration of exposure 11.1 years (range 0.5-29). After fumigation they reported minor symptoms, which included cough (18.2%), dyspnoea (31.8%), tightness around the chest (27.3%), headache (31.8%), giddiness, numbness and lethargy (13.6% each), anorexia and epigastric pain (18.2% each). The abnormal physical signs included
bilateral diffuse rhonchi and absent ankle reflex each occurring in one worker. Motor nerve conduction velocity of median and peroneal nerves, and sensory conduction velocity of median and sural nerves were normal. Phosphine concentration in the work environment ranged from 0.17 to 2.11 ppm. Occupational phosphine exposure in the workers was associated with mild to moderate symptoms, which were transient. However, to assess the chronic effects, long-term follow-up is recommended.
BibTeX:
@article{MisraUK1988a,
  author = {Misra UK, Bhargava SK, Nag D, Kidwai MM, Lal MM},
  title = {Occupational phosphine exposure in Indian workers},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1988},
  number = {42(3)},
  pages = {257-63}
}
Misra UK, Nag D, Khan WA, Ray PK A study of nerve conduction velocity, late responses and neuromuscular synapse functions in organophosphate workers in India 1988 Arch Toxicol.(61(6)), pp. 496-500  article  
Abstract: To study the effect of occupational organophosphate exposure on neuromuscular function, 24 workers exposed to fenthion [0,0-dimethyl-0(4-methyl mercapto-3 methyl phenyl)phosphorothioate], whose mean age was 31.7 years (range 22-50) and mean duration of exposure to fenthion 8.5 years (range 1-19) were subjected to detailed clinical and neurophysiological evaluation after spraying. The neurophysiological tests included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity; F response, H reflex and electromyographic neuromuscular synapse testing. Fenthion exposure was monitored by serum acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) levels. The observations were repeated after withdrawing the workers from fenthion exposure for 3 weeks to study the reversibility of the observed changes. There was no clinical evidence of
peripheral neuropathy or muscle weakness. However, peroneal motor conduction velocity (p less than 0.05) terminal motor latency of median (p less than 0.1), and peroneal nerve (p less than 0.05); F minimal latency and H reflex latency (p less than 0.01) were significantly affected. Twenty-nine per cent of workers had repetitive 30 muscle activity. Serum AchE levels also showed significant changes (p less than 0.01). The clinical significance of these subtle neurophysiological changes requires further investigation and follow-up.
BibTeX:
@article{MisraUK1988,
  author = {Misra UK, Nag D, Khan WA, Ray PK},
  title = {A study of nerve conduction velocity, late responses and neuromuscular synapse functions in organophosphate workers in India},
  journal = {Arch Toxicol.},
  year = {1988},
  number = {61(6)},
  pages = {496-500}
}
Misra UK, Nag D, Misra NK, Mehra MK, Ray PK Some observations on the macula of pesticide workers 1985 Hum Toxicol.(4(2)), pp. 135-45  article  
Abstract: To study the retinal changes in occupationally exposed pesticide workers, 79 subjects exposed to an organophosphate, fenthion, and 18 exposed to an 32 organochlorine pesticide DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane], were subjected to a detailed study, including history taking, physical examination and ophthalmic evaluation. Fluorescein angiography was performed in selected cases. Serum cholinesterase level in 22 workers and serum DDT residue in 17 workers of the respective groups were also estimated. Fifteen workers (19%), who were exposed to fenthion had macular changes (P less than 0.01). The macular lesions were characterized by perifoveal irregularity of pigmentation and areas of
hypopigmentation of 1/8-1/3 disc diameter. Mean age of the subjects having macular involvement was 30.6 years and mean duration of exposure 7.9 years. The symptoms reported by them were diminution of vision (8), dislike for bright light, flash of light, black dots in front of the eyes (2 each) and visual blurring (1). Paracentral scotoma and constriction of peripheral field were present in three workers each. Fluorescein angiography suggested pigment epithelium defect. Other causes of macular involvement in these workers were excluded; a possible role of pesticides in
the genesis of these macular changes is suggested.
BibTeX:
@article{MisraUK1985,
  author = {Misra UK, Nag D, Misra NK, Mehra MK, Ray PK},
  title = {Some observations on the macula of pesticide workers},
  journal = {Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {1985},
  number = {4(2)},
  pages = {135-45}
}
Misra UK, Nag D, Khan WA, Ray PK A study of nerve conduction velocity, late responses and neuromuscular synapse functions in organophosphate workers in India 1988 Archives of Toxicology(61(6)), pp. 496-500  article  
Abstract: To study the effect of occupational organophosphate exposure on neuromuscular function, 24 workers exposed to fenthion [0,0-dimethyl-0(4-methyl mercapto-3 methyl phenyl phosphorothioate], whose mean age was 31.7 years (range 22�50) and mean duration of exposure to fenthion 8.5 years (range 1�19) were subjected to detailed clinical and neurophysiological evaluation after spraying. The
neurophysiological tests included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity; F response, H reflex and electromyographic neuromuscular synapse testing. Fenthion exposure was monitored by serum acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) levels. The observations were repeated after withdrawing the workers from fenthion exposure for 3 weeks to study the reversibility of the observed changes. There was no clinical
evidence of peripheral neuropathy or muscle weakness. However, peroneal motor conduction velocity (p<0.05) terminal motor latency of median (p<0.1), and peroneal nerve (p<0.05); F minimal latency and H reflex latency (p<0.01) were significantly affected. Twenty-nine per cent of workers had repetitive muscle activity. Serum AchE levels also showed significant changes (p<0.01). The clinical significance of these subtle neurophysiological changes requires further investigation and follow-up.
BibTeX:
@article{MisraUK11988,
  author = {Misra UK, Nag D, Khan WA, Ray PK},
  title = {A study of nerve conduction velocity, late responses and neuromuscular synapse functions in organophosphate workers in India},
  journal = {Archives of Toxicology},
  year = {1988},
  number = {61(6)},
  pages = {496-500}
}
Nayak NJ, Shingatgeri MK, Rao RR, Marathe MR, Gangoli SD Toxicological, residual and biological evaluation of NUVACRON 40 (monocrotophos) by aerial application under Indian field conditions 1975 Ciba-Geigy of India Ltd. Bombay
Vol. 6 
article  
Abstract: Monocrotophos (Nuvacron 40, 40% w/v) was diluted in water (400 mL/8.5L) and applied aerially at 8.5L/acre to a 10-acre plot using a helicopter flying at 2 to 3 metres, and spraying approximately a 40 m swath. There was approximately 2 kg of monocrotophos applied overall. Workers, cattle and fowls were exposed, with the domestic animals being tethered along footpaths at the edges of the sprayed plot, while workers continued to work in the plot during spraying. Only light clothing was worn, and men remover their shirts. The only protective clothing used was a rubber finger glove to protect the blood sampling site. Blood was taken from each volunteer 1 to 2 days before spraying, and then between 1 and 3 h after spraying. Samples were also taken 24, 48 and 72 h after the application of the monocrotophos. No abnormal clinical signs were noted in the volunteers. There were no changes in ChE activity, erythrocyte or leucocyte counts or Hct values, either before or after spraying.
BibTeX:
@article{NayakNJ1975,
  author = {Nayak NJ, Shingatgeri MK, Rao RR, Marathe MR & Gangoli SD},
  title = {Toxicological, residual and biological evaluation of NUVACRON 40 (monocrotophos) by aerial application under Indian field conditions},
  journal = {Ciba-Geigy of India Ltd. Bombay},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {6}
}
Rastogi SK, Gupta BN, Husain T, Mathur N, Garg N Study of respiratory impairment among pesticide sprayers in Mango plantations 1989 Am J Ind Med(16(5)), pp. 529-38  article  
Abstract: Pulmonary function studies were conducted on 489 pesticide workers engaged in spraying operations on mango plantations. These workers were exposed to a variety of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. A reference group consisting of 208 controls, belonging to the same socioeconomic stratum, was taken from the same area for purposes of comparison. The results of the study showed 36.5 and 41.5% prevalence of respiratory impairment in the exposed workers and in the controls, respectively. The most common pulmonary impairment among the exposed
subjects (18.8%) and controls (16.9%) was of the restrictive type, followed by mixed ventilatory defect. Bronchial obstruction affected 2.5 and 3.7% of the exposed and control populations, respectively. In a comparison of the prevalence of total respiratory impairment in the pesticide workers and the controls, the nonsmokers did not show any significant difference in this study. The prevalence rate of respiratory impairment showed an increasing trend in different exposure groups (p less than 0.05), thereby clearly indicating a dose effect. The study revealed that occupational
exposure to pesticides had a direct bearing on the respiratory impairment identified in the exposed workers.
BibTeX:
@article{RastogiSK1989,
  author = {Rastogi SK, Gupta BN, Husain T, Mathur N, Garg N},
  title = {Study of respiratory impairment among pesticide sprayers in Mango plantations},
  journal = {Am J Ind Med},
  year = {1989},
  number = {16(5)},
  pages = {529-38}
}
Rita P, Reddy PP, Reddy SV Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides in grape gardens of Andhra Pradesh 1987 Environ Res.(44(1)), pp. 1-5  article  
Abstract: Studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of pesticides on workers employed in grape gardens of Andhra Pradesh. The data obtained on the reproductive performance showed an increase in the incidence of abortions and stillbirths. Out of 12 employed couples in grape gardens, 2 were found to be sterile. Cytogenetic studies revealed a significant increase in chromatid breaks and gaps in chromosomes of peripheral blood in workers exposed to pesticides. In addition, a high frequency of satellite associations was recorded in these workers.
BibTeX:
@article{RitaP1987,
  author = {Rita P, Reddy PP, Reddy SV},
  title = {Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides in grape gardens of Andhra Pradesh},
  journal = {Environ Res.},
  year = {1987},
  number = {44(1)},
  pages = {1-5}
}
Chaudhuri RN Occupational health problems among agricultural and plantation workers 2000 J Indian Med Assoc(98(8)), pp. 439-41, 445  article  
Abstract: Agricultural and plantation works are associated with a variety of unique occupational health hazards in the form of physical factors like extreme weather conditions, sunrays, etc; chemicaVtoxicological hazards in the form of pesticides/fertilisers, etc, including different forms of biological and mechanical hazards. As most of our rural people are engaged in varied types of agricultural activities, they are highly susceptible for suffering from numerous work related health disorders. There are very few data regarding the epidemiology of occupational health disorders among agricultural and plantation workers. Clinically well recognised group of occupationally acquired health problems may be respiratory, dermatological,
traumatic, poisoning and neoplastic in nature. Prevalence of some specific zoonotic diseases and behavioural health problems are also found to be more among them. There is lack of attention for prevention and control of these occupational health problems. An adequately developed comprehensive occupational health care 19 programme having all the components of preventive, curative and rehabilitative aspects can only promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being in all types of agricultural and plantation workers of rural India.
BibTeX:
@article{RN2000,
  author = {Chaudhuri RN},
  title = {Occupational health problems among agricultural and plantation workers},
  journal = {J Indian Med Assoc},
  year = {2000},
  number = {98(8)},
  pages = {439-41, 445}
}
Patil RR An investigative report on circumstances leading to death among Indian cotton farmers 2002 Int J Occup Med Environ Health(15(4)), pp. 405-7  article  
Abstract: Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India has been in the news for cotton farmers' deaths/suicides since 1998. The occurrence of 12 deaths among the farmers in the years 2001-2002 clustering around September-October expedited the investigation. The objective of our investigation was to identify the circumstances leading to death of cotton farmers in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh. Some of the broadly held hypotheses were also analyzed for their validity. The socioeconomic-political factors emerge as very strong determinants of deaths, given the occupational work environment.
BibTeX:
@article{RR2002,
  author = {Patil RR},
  title = {An investigative report on circumstances leading to death among Indian cotton farmers},
  journal = {Int J Occup Med Environ Health},
  year = {2002},
  number = {15(4)},
  pages = {405-7}
}
Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS Clastogenic effect of pesticides in peripheral lymphocytes of cotton-field workers 1991 Mutat Res.(261(3)), pp. 177-80  article  
Abstract: We studied clastogenic effects in peripheral lymphocytes of cotton-field workers who were exposed to different pesticides. All the cells were grown in RPMI 1640 medium for 48 and 72 h. The type of aberrations observed in the exposed group are gaps, breaks, dicentrics, exchanges, rings and polyploidy. The frequency of total chromosomal aberrations increased significantly in male pesticide applicators when compared to controls. A significant decrease in mitotic index was observed in the exposed group as compared to the control group. The 48-h cultures showed high incidence of chromosomal aberrations and low mitotic index when compared to 72-h cultures. The difference in chromosomal aberrations between 48- and 72-h cultures was not significant. 24 out of 26 individuals showed ill health effects such as severe giddiness and nervous disorders.
BibTeX:
@article{RupaDS1991a,
  author = {Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS},
  title = {Clastogenic effect of pesticides in peripheral lymphocytes of cotton-field workers},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {1991},
  number = {261(3)},
  pages = {177-80}
}
Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS Reproductive performance in population exposed to pesticides in cotton fields in India 1991 Environ Res.(55(2)), pp. 123-8  article  
Abstract: Data on reproductive histories were collected from 1016 couples in which the males were directly exposed to pesticides. For comparison data were collected from 1020 couples who were not exposed to pesticides and belong to the same socioeconomic group and age range. Statistical analysis revealed a significant decrease in fertile males and a significant increase in abortions among the wives of these exposed males when compared to the control group. The frequency of live births decreased significantly and still births, neonatal deaths, and congenital defects showed a significant increase in the offspring of exposed males when compared to the offspring of control group. Smokers exposed to pesticides showed a higher effect than nonsmokers exposed to pesticides. Eighty percent males in the exposed group showed ill health effects such as severe giddiness, nervous, skin, and eye disorders.
BibTeX:
@article{RupaDS1991b,
  author = {Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS},
  title = {Reproductive performance in population exposed to pesticides in cotton fields in India},
  journal = {Environ Res.},
  year = {1991},
  number = {55(2)},
  pages = {123-8}
}
Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS Analysis of sister-chromatid exchanges, cell kinetics and mitotic index in lymphocytes of smoking pesticide sprayers 1989 Mutat Res.(223(2)), pp. 253-8  article  
Abstract: Whole blood of 50 smokers who were exposed to pesticides was set up in RPMI 1640 medium, and observed for sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs), cell kinetics (CK) and mitotic index (MI). As controls, blood samples were collected from 20 nonsmokers (control I) and 27 smokers (control II) who were not exposed to pesticides. A significant increase in SCEs was observed as the duration of exposure increased. The frequency of M1 metaphases increased significantly whereas M2 and M3+ metaphases decreased in the exposed group. The mitotic index increased in control II and in the exposed population while it showed a decrease at 11-25 years' exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{RupaDS1989,
  author = {Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS},
  title = {Analysis of sister-chromatid exchanges, cell kinetics and mitotic index in lymphocytes of smoking pesticide sprayers},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {1989},
  number = {223(2)},
  pages = {253-8}
}
Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of cotton field workers exposed to pesticides 1989 Environ Res.(49(1)), pp. 1-6  article  
Abstract: Fifty-two pesticide sprayers in cotton fields were selected for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. Twenty-five samples were collected from healthy males who were not exposed to pesticides. Statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations in the exposed population compared to controls. Total chromosomal aberrations increased irrespective of duration of exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{RupaDS1989a,
  author = {Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS},
  title = {Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of cotton field workers exposed to pesticides},
  journal = {Environ Res.},
  year = {1989},
  number = {49(1)},
  pages = {1-6}
}
Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in smokers exposed to pesticides in cotton fields 1989 Mutat Res.(222(1)), pp. 37-41  article  
Abstract: Blood samples were collected from 50 smokers who were exposed to the pesticides DDT, BHC, endosulfan, malathion, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, quinolphos, dimethoate, phosphomidon, cypermethrin and fenvelrate. Samples were also collected from 20 non-smokers (control I) and 27 smokers (control II) who were unexposed to pesticides. Control II showed a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations when compared to control I. There was a significant increase in total chromosomal aberrations in smokers exposed to pesticides when compared to unexposed populations.
BibTeX:
@article{RupaDS1989b,
  author = {Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Reddi OS},
  title = {Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in smokers exposed to pesticides in cotton fields},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {1989},
  number = {222(1)},
  pages = {37-41}
}
Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Sreemannarayana K, Reddi OS Frequency of sister chromatid exchange in peripheral lymphocytes of male pesticide applicators 1991 Environ Mol Mutagen.(18(2)), pp. 136-8  article  
Abstract: In the present study 61 male pesticide applicators who worked in cotton fields and regularly sprayed pesticides such as DDT, BHC, endosulfan, malathion, methyl parathion, phosphamidon, dimethoate, monocrotophos, quinalphos fenvelrate, and cypermethrin were analyzed for sister chromatid exchanges, mitotic index, and cell cycle kinetics in peripheral lymphocytes. Subjects who handled pesticides were nonsmokers
and teetotalers and the data were compared with the matched control group. Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges 26 was significantly higher among the pesticide applicators at all the durations of exposure when compared to controls. Subjects exposed to pesticides also showed cell cycle delay and decrease in mitotic index when compared to the control group.
BibTeX:
@article{RupaDS1991,
  author = {Rupa DS, Reddy PP, Sreemannarayana K, Reddi OS},
  title = {Frequency of sister chromatid exchange in peripheral lymphocytes of male pesticide applicators},
  journal = {Environ Mol Mutagen.},
  year = {1991},
  number = {18(2)},
  pages = {136-8}
}
Rupa DS, Rita P, Reddy PP, Reddi OS Screening of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral lymphocytes of vegetable garden workers 1988 Hum Toxicol.(7(4)), pp. 333-6  article  
Abstract: 1. Twenty-five male workers occupationally exposed to DDT, BHC malathion, parathion, dimethoate, fenitrothion, urea and gromor were selected as subjects for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in peripheral lymphocytes. 2. Blood samples were collected from 30 normal healthy males from the same age group and socioeconomic class for the control. 3. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs increased significantly irrespective of the duration of exposure to pesticides, when compared to controls.
BibTeX:
@article{RupaDS1988,
  author = {Rupa DS, Rita P, Reddy PP, Reddi OS},
  title = {Screening of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral lymphocytes of vegetable garden workers},
  journal = {Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {1988},
  number = {7(4)},
  pages = {333-6}
}
Sailaja N, Chandrasekhar M, Rekhadevi PV, Mahboob M, Rahman MF, Vuyyuri SB, Danadevi K, Hussain SA, Grover P Genotoxic evaluation of workers employed in pesticide production 2006 Mutat Res.
Vol. 0(609(1)), pp. 74-80 
article  
Abstract: Pesticides are widely used throughout the world in agriculture to protect crops and in public health to control diseases. Nevertheless exposure to pesticides can represent a potential risk to humans. Pesticide manufacturing unit workers are prone to possible occupational pesticide exposure. Therefore, this study was performed to 4 evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticide exposure in these workers. In the present investigation 54 pesticide workers and an equal number of control subjects were assessed for genome damage in blood lymphocytes utilizing the chromosomal aberration analysis and the buccal epithelial cell by adopting the micronucleus test. The results suggested that pesticide workers had a significantly increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations when compared with controls (mean+/-S.D., 8.43+/-2.36 versus 3.32+/-1.26; P<0.05). Similarly, the pesticides exposed workers showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells compared with controls (1.24+/-0.72 versus 0.32+/-0.26; P<0.05). Analysis of variance revealed that occupational exposure to pesticides had a significant effect on frequency of micronuclei (P<0.05), whereas smoking, age, gender and alcohol consumption had no significant effect on
genetic damage (P>0.05). However, no association was found between years of exposure, smoking, age, gender, alcohol consumption and higher levels of genetic damage as assessed by the chromosomal aberration assay (P>0.05). Our findings indicate that occupational exposure to pesticides could cause genome damage in somatic cells.
BibTeX:
@article{SailajaN2006,
  author = {Sailaja N, Chandrasekhar M, Rekhadevi PV, Mahboob M, Rahman MF, Vuyyuri SB, Danadevi K, Hussain SA, Grover P},
  title = {Genotoxic evaluation of workers employed in pesticide production},
  journal = {Mutat Res.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {0},
  number = {609(1)},
  pages = {74-80}
}
Saiyed HN, Dewan A, Bhatnagar VK, Shenoy U, Shenoy R, Rajmohan H, Patel K, Kashyap R, Kulkarni PK, Rajan B,Lakkad BC Effect of endosulfan on male reproductive development 2003 Environ Health Perspect(111(16)), pp. 1958-62  article  
Abstract: There is experimental evidence of adverse effects of endosulfan on the male reproductive system, but there are no human data. Therefore, we undertook a study to examine the relationship between environmental endosulfan exposure and reproductive development in male children and adolescents. The study population was composed of 117 male schoolchildren (10-19 years of age) of a village situated at the foothills of cashew plantations, where endosulfan had been aerially sprayed for more than 20 years, and 90 comparable controls with no such exposure history.
The study parameters included recording of clinical history, physical examination, sexual maturity rating (SMR) according to Tanner stages, and estimation of serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and endosulfan residues (70 study and 47 control subjects). Mean +/- SE serum endosulfan levels in the study group (7.47 +/- 1.19 ppb) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in controls (1.37 +/- 0.40 ppb). Multiple regression analysis showed that SMR scoring for development of pubic hair, testes, penis, and serum testosterone
level was positively related to age and negatively related to aerial exposure to endosulfan (AEE; p < 0.01). Serum LH levels were significantly positively related to AEE after controlling for age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of congenital abnormalities elated to testicular descent (congenital hydrocele, undescended testis, and congenital inguinal hernia) among study and controls subjects was 5.1% and 1.1%, respectively, but the differences were statistically nonsignificant. Our study results suggest that endosulfan exposure in male children may delay sexual maturity and
interfere with sex hormone synthesis. Our study is limited by small sample size and nonparticipation.
BibTeX:
@article{SaiyedHN2003,
  author = {Saiyed HN, Dewan A, Bhatnagar VK, Shenoy U, Shenoy R, Rajmohan H, Patel K, Kashyap R, Kulkarni PK, Rajan B,Lakkad BC},
  title = {Effect of endosulfan on male reproductive development},
  journal = {Environ Health Perspect},
  year = {2003},
  number = {111(16)},
  pages = {1958-62}
}
Saiyed HN, Tiwari RR Occupational health research in India 2004 Ind Health,(42(2)), pp. 141-8  article  
Abstract: India being a developing nation is faced with traditional public health problems like communicable diseases, malnutrition, poor environmental sanitation and inadequate medical care. However, globalization and rapid industrial growth in the last few years has resulted in emergence of occupational health related issues. Agriculture (cultivators i.e. land owners + agriculture labourers) is the main occupation in India giving employment to about 58% of the people. The major occupational diseases/morbidity of concern in India are silicosis, musculo-skeletal injuries, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive lung diseases, asbestosis, byssinosis, pesticide poisoning and noise induced hearing loss. There are many agencies like National Institute of Occupational Health, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Central Labour Institute, etc. are working on researchable issues like Asbestos and asbestos related diseases, Pesticide poisoning, Silica related diseases other than silicosis and Musculoskeletal disorders. Still much more is to be done for improving
the occupational health research. The measures such as creation of advanced research facilities, human resources development, creation of environmental and occupational health cells and development of database and information system should be taken.
BibTeX:
@article{SaiyedHN2004,
  author = {Saiyed HN, Tiwari RR},
  title = {Occupational health research in India},
  journal = {Ind Health,},
  year = {2004},
  number = {42(2)},
  pages = {141-8}
}
Sanghi R, Pillai MK, Jayalekshmi TR, Nair A Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in breast milk from Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India 2003 Hum Exp Toxicol(22(2)), pp. 73-6  article  
Abstract: HCH isomers, endosulfan, malathion, chlorpyrifos, and methyl-parathion were monitored in human milk samples from Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. The endosulfan concentrations were highest and exceeded the sigma-HCH, chlorpyrifos, and malathion concentrations by 3.5-, 1.5-, and 8.4-fold, respectively. Through breast milk, infants consumed 8.6 times more endosulfan and 4.1 times more malathion than the average daily intake levels recommended by the World Health Organization. A correlation analysis (r values) between mothers' age and the content of the chemicals accumulated in breast milk indicated a substantial degree of correlation for malathion (r = 0.5). The other chemicals showed low to negligible correlation with donor age.
BibTeX:
@article{SanghiR2003,
  author = {Sanghi R, Pillai MK, Jayalekshmi TR, Nair A},
  title = {Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in breast milk from Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India},
  journal = {Hum Exp Toxicol},
  year = {2003},
  number = {22(2)},
  pages = {73-6}
}
Agarwal SB A clinical, biochemical, neurobehavioral, and sociopsychological study of 190 patients admitted to hospital as a result of acute organophosphorus poisoning 1993 Environ Res(62(1)), pp. 63-70  article  
Abstract: To study acute organophosphorus (OP) poisoning cases, 190 OP-intoxicated cases admitted to Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, were investigated in depth. The group consisted of subjects ranging from 11 to 60 years of age, with the maximum number of cases in the age group 21-30 years and a male-to-female ratio of 2.1:1. Most of the subjects (71.61%) were partially educated, 24.2% of the cases were illiterate, and only 4.2% of the cases were highly educated. Socioeconomically, 21.1% of the subjects were of low economic status, 52.6% were low middle class, 16.8% were
upper middle class, and only 9.5% were upper class. With regard to marital status of the subjects, 98 cases were married and 92 were unmarried. About 67.4% of the cases had the intention of committing suicide, 16.8% of the cases were the result of occupational exposure, and 15.8% of the cases were from accidental poisoning. Social and domestic problems (37.5%), marital friction (15.6%), financial stress (15.6%), love affairs (14.1%), job problems (10.9%), chronic illness (4.7%), and failure in examination (1.6%) were observed as the precipitating factors. Muscarinic
23 manifestations such as vomiting (96.8%), nausea (82.1%), miosis (64.2%), excessive salivation (61.1%), and blurred vision (54.7%) and CNS manifestations such as giddiness (93.7%), headache (84.2%), disturbances of consciousness (44.2%), and typical pungent odor from mouth and clothes (77.9%) were the main presenting symptoms. Cardiac manifestations such as sinus tachycardia (25.3%), sinus bradycardia (6.3%), and depression of ST segments with T-wave inversion (6.3%) were observed electrocardiographically, with hypertension (10.5%) and muscular twitching in some (2.1%) cases. Biochemical changes such as albuminuria (12.6%) and azotemia (18.9%) with inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in blood were recorded in 78.9% of the cases. About 89.5% of the cases recovered completely, 4.2% of the cases absconded after partial recovery, and 6.3% of the cases died. The mortality rate (6.3%) depended on various factors such as the organophosphorus compound consumed, the amount ingested, the time interval for hospitalization, and the general health of the patient. Chances of recovery were higher when the patient was hospitalized at the earliest indication.
BibTeX:
@article{SB1993,
  author = {Agarwal SB},
  title = {A clinical, biochemical, neurobehavioral, and sociopsychological study of 190 patients admitted to hospital as a result of acute organophosphorus poisoning},
  journal = {Environ Res},
  year = {1993},
  number = {62(1)},
  pages = {63-70}
}
Shoeb A. Khan, Sharique A. Ali Assessment of certain hematological responses of factory workers exposed to pesticides 1993 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Vol. 51(5), pp. 740-747 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{ShoebA.Khan1993,
  author = {Shoeb A. Khan, Sharique A. Ali},
  title = {Assessment of certain hematological responses of factory workers exposed to pesticides},
  journal = {Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {51},
  number = {5},
  pages = {740-747}
}
Siddiqui MK, Anand M, Mehrotra PK, Sarangi R, Mathur N Biomonitoring of organochlorines in women with benign and malignant breast disease 2005 Environ Res(98(2)), pp. 250-7  article  
Abstract: Established risk factors for breast cancer explain breast cancer risk only partially. Organochlorines are considered to be a possible cause for hormone-dependent cancers. A hospital-based case-control study, the first from India, was conducted among 50 women undergoing surgery for breast disease to examine the association between organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk. Blood, tumor, and surrounding adipose tissue of the breast were collected from the subjects with benign (control) and malignant breast (study) lesions and analyzed to determine organochlorine insecticides using a gas-liquid chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The alpha, beta, gamma, and delta isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p'- DDT, p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were frequently detected in three specimens. Total HCH and total DDT levels were higher in the blood of the study group (25 cases) than in those of the controls (25 cases) with only gamma-HCH being significantly different (P<0.05). However, both total HCH and total DDT were higher in the tumor tissues of the controls than in
those of the study group; gamma-HCH was significantly different (P<0.05). The level of total HCH (alpha-HCH was significantly different, P<0.05) was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the study group, whereas total DDT was higher in the breast adipose tissue of the control group. The distribution of known confounders of breast cancer including age, body mass index, age at menarche and menopause, duration of breast feeding, and family history related to breast disease did not differ significantly between benign and malignant groups. This pilot study with limited statistical power does not support a positive association between exposure to organochlorines and risk of breast cancer but paves the way for a larger Indian study with greater statistical power encompassing different regions of the country to enable statistically sound conclusions.
BibTeX:
@article{SiddiquiMK2005,
  author = {Siddiqui MK, Anand M, Mehrotra PK, Sarangi R, Mathur N},
  title = {Biomonitoring of organochlorines in women with benign and malignant breast disease},
  journal = {Environ Res},
  year = {2005},
  number = {98(2)},
  pages = {250-7}
}
Siddiqui MK, Saxena MC Placenta and milk as excretory routes of lipophilic pesticides in women 1985 Hum Toxicol.(4(3)), pp. 249-54  article  
Abstract: Age, diet and ethnic-dependent excretion of chlorinated pesticides through placenta and milk was studied in women from the general population around Lucknow in India by using gas-liquid chromatography equipped with an electron-capture detector (3H+). Pesticidal contaminants in both placenta and milk were 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), its metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(pchlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDD), alpha, beta, gamma - isomers of benzene hexachloride (BHC) and
aldrin. The study revealed higher excretion of pesticides through the placentas of older and non-vegetarian women than younger and vegetarian women. There was higher excretion of total DDT in rural than in urban women while a reverse trend was found in the case of total BHC in two ethnic groups. Similarly, age and dietary habits influenced the excretion of these pesticides in milk. Women undergoing premature delivery and stillbirths were found to excrete more DDT in their milk than those undergoing full-term normal delivery.
BibTeX:
@article{SiddiquiMK1985,
  author = {Siddiqui MK, Saxena MC},
  title = {Placenta and milk as excretory routes of lipophilic pesticides in women},
  journal = {Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {1985},
  number = {4(3)},
  pages = {249-54}
}
Siddiqui MK, Saxena MC, Krishna Murti CR Storage of DDT and BHC in adipose tissue of Indian males 1981 Int J Environ Anal Chem.(10(3-4)), pp. 197-204  article  
Abstract: Adipose tissue of 50 human subjects (10 to 60 years old) were taken from autopsy cases and analysed by gas-liquid chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (3H +) for determination of storage levels of BHC (benzene hexa chloride), DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane) and its metabolites DDE and DDD in human body fat. The data is reported according to age (length of exposure), dietetic habits and area of residence of the subjects. The results show relatively moderate 34 exposure to DDT and BHC. Levels of residues were slightly higher in non-vegetarian and rural residents than those of their counterpart vegetarian and urban inhabitants. The study suggests that DDT levels in human adipose show a decreasing trend as compared to earlier report of Dale et al. of highest body burden of pesticides being present in indians.
BibTeX:
@article{SiddiquiMK1981,
  author = {Siddiqui MK, Saxena MC, Krishna Murti CR},
  title = {Storage of DDT and BHC in adipose tissue of Indian males},
  journal = {Int J Environ Anal Chem.},
  year = {1981},
  number = {10(3-4)},
  pages = {197-204}
}
Siddiqui MK, Saxena MC, Mishra UK, Krishna Murti CR, Nag D D2Long-term occupational exposure to DDT 1981 International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health(48(3)), pp. 301-308  article  
Abstract: Blood serum of twenty workers occupationally exposed to DDT for an average duration of 14 years was analysed for organochlorine pesticides by gas-liquid chromatography with an electron capture detector. Significant levels of BHC, p,p - DDT, p,p -DDD and p,p -DDE were detected. A higher incidence of total DDT equivalent, about 10 times, was observed in DDT exposed workers when compared with a comparable sample of unexposed persons from the general population. Levels of DDT in serum of occupationally exposed workers were more than the permitted level of 200 ppb. The daily intake was computed to be about 10 mg/man/day as against 0.25 mg/man/day the acceptable daily intake. Abnormal
nerve conduction was encountered in a few cases of DDT sprayers. No significant correlation was observed between the total DDT equivalent in serum and duration of occupational exposure in workers. Levels of BHC in controls was 2.3 times the level in exposed workers, possibly due to induction of hepatic drug metabolising enzymes by high levels of DDT in the latter group. Findings are discussed in the light of existing knowledge of the bio-chemical effects evoked due to residual intoxication of DDT during occupational exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{SiddiquiMK11981,
  author = {Siddiqui MK, Saxena MC, Mishra UK, Krishna Murti CR, Nag D},
  title = {D2Long-term occupational exposure to DDT},
  journal = {International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health},
  year = {1981},
  number = {48(3)},
  pages = {301-308}
}
Singh S, Ranjit A, Parthasarathy S, Sharma N, Bambery P Organo-phosphate induced delayed neuropathy: report of two cases 2004 Neurol India.(52(4)), pp. 525-6  article  
Abstract: Organophosphates are the most common cause of acute poisoning in India. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is common following exposure to OPC's, which have weak cholinergic activity, little insecticidal activity and are of use in chemical warfare.[2] The presently used organophosphates have potent cholinergic activity and are being widely used as insecticides. However OPIDN is distinctly uncommon following exposure to these OPC's. A 35-year-old farmer consumed about 200 ml of dichlorvos with a suicidal intent. He was treated with atropine and pralidoxime and required assisted ventilation for 7 days. Four days after his discharge, he developed weakness of all the four limbs and fever. Neurological examination revealed generalized hypotonia with power 3/5 in proximal muscles and 5/5 in distal muscles of upper limbs and 3/5 and 4/5 in lower limbs respectively. Sensory examination was normal. However there was completeare flexia and plantars were mute. Hematological, biochemical and CSF examinations did not reveal significant abnormalities. Nerve conduction revealed normal distal latency (right median 3.2 ms, 7.3 ms wrist elbow), (ulnar 2.9 ms, 7.4 ms wrist below elbow), (peroneal 2.3 ms, 2.0 ms ankle fibular head); amplitude (11.0 mv, 8.3 mV wrist elbow; 5.9, 6.3 mV; 2.3, 2.0 mV) and conduction velocity (54 ms, 51 ms, 37 ms) respectively. However F-waves were absent. Sural nerve was not 12 stimulable. Sensory nerve conduction in the right ulnar and median nerves was peak latency 2.6, 2.7 ms; amplitude 14 mV, 38 mV; conduction velocity 51 ms and 62 ms respectively. These findings were considered to be consistent with mild
polyradiculoneuropathy with mild peripheral neuropathy. The nerve conduction was repeated 5 days later and it revealed decreased amplitude (1.4 mV and 1.1 mV); distal latency (7.5 ms) and conduction velocity (43 ms) in the right peroneal nerve. The right sural nerve was not stimulable. However in the median and ulnar nerves, amplitude, distal latency and conduction velocity were normal. EMG of right vastus lateralis revealed normal insertional activity, minimal spontaneous activity, a few polyphasic MUP's with increased duration and amplitude with decreased recruitment and discrete pattern and less than normal interference consistent with neurogenic EMG. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) did not reveal increment-decrement phenomenon. He was followed up for 6 months during which he recovered completely and the nerve conduction done at 6 months was normal except F- waves were absent (right median nerve distal latency 4.2 ms,8.7 ms; amplitude 12.6 uV, 9.7 mV; conduction velocity 12.6 ms; right ulnar nerve distal latency 7.0,15.5 ms; conduction velocity 47 ms and amplitude 4.1,4.7 mV).

A 19-year-old female had ingested 200-300 ml of monocrotophos with a suicidal intent 23 days ago and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime (total 3 gm). For the next 3 weeks, she continued to remain in altered sensorium and was brought to the institute. On examination her pulse was 100/min and BP 130/70 mmHg. Pupils were 3 mm in size with normal reaction to light. Neurological examination revealed spontaneous eye opening and movements, generalized hypotonia, areflexia and power grade 0-1 in all the four limbs. Nerve conduction revealed absent F waves but normal latency (3.2 ms, 7.4 ms wrist elbow), amplitude (4.0 m V, 2.3 m V and conduction velocity (57 ms) in right median motor nerve. The sensory median conduction revealed normal peak latency (2.9 ms), amplitude (12 uV) and conduction velocity (55 ms). However the peroneal nerve was not stimulable. The impression was predominant distal motor neuropathy more marked in the lower limbs than the upper limbs. EMG of right vastus lateralis revealed normal insertional
activity but minimal spontaneous activity, a few polyphasic MUP's with increased duration and amplitude with decreased recruitment and discrete pattern with less than normal interference as in first case. RNS could not be carried out. Her altered sensorium was thought to be due to hypoxic brain damage. However MRI of brain was normal. She was treated with antibiotics and became afebrile after about 2 weeks. Her neurological status had not changed at discharge and she did not return for follow up.

Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy is a well-recognized complication of organophosphate poisoning.[1],[3] The later appears 2-4 weeks after poisoning and leads to motor paralysis affecting the distal muscles of limbs, minimal sensory involvement and calf pain which precedes its onset. It has been reported following poisoning with compounds like TOCP, mipafox, leptophos, chlorophos etc which have weak cholinergic activity and are not being used as insecticides at present.[2] Senanayake and Jhonson reported 10 cases of OPIDN following poisoning with methomidaphos.[4] All these cases had acute cholinergic crisis preceding its development. Das and Jena[5] have reported a young female who developed OPIDN following phorate ingestion. Both our patients had acute cholinergic crisis and 2-3 weeks later developed OPIDN. 13 In patients reported by Senanayake and Jhonson, 50% inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) was found.[4] However we have not been able to estimate this in our patients. NTE is present in abundance in the axons of nervous system and > 70% of its phosphorylation and ageing leads to development of neuropathy in experimental studies.[2]

BibTeX:
@article{SinghS2004,
  author = {Singh S, Ranjit A, Parthasarathy S, Sharma N, Bambery P},
  title = {Organo-phosphate induced delayed neuropathy: report of two cases},
  journal = {Neurol India.},
  year = {2004},
  number = {52(4)},
  pages = {525-6}
}
Singh S, Sharma N Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning 2000 Neurol India(48(4)), pp. 308-13  article  
Abstract: Organophosphorous compounds, the anticholinesterases, produce significant morbidity and mortality in India. Although exact estimates are not available, hospital based statistics suggest that nearly half of the admissions to emergency with acute poisoning are due to organophosphates. Following accidental or suicidal exposure, these anticholinesterases lead to three well defined neurological syndromes i.e. initial life threatening acute cholinergic crisis which often requires management in intensive care unit, intermediate syndrome in which cranial nerve palsies, proximal
muscle weakness and respiratory muscle weakness are common and patients often require respiratory support and delayed organophosphate induced polyneuropathy. In addition to these three classical neurological syndromes following acute exposure and in some following low dose chronic exposure, several neurobehavioural changes have been observed and these have been termed together as 'chronic organophosphate induced neuropsychiatric disorders' (COPIND). Organo-phosphate compounds produce significant pesticide related illness in developing countries. There is, thus, a need to determine exact extent of the problem and to develop appropriate strategies to manage these cases with available resources in these countries.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghS2000,
  author = {Singh S, Sharma N},
  title = {Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning},
  journal = {Neurol India},
  year = {2000},
  number = {48(4)},
  pages = {308-13}
}
Singh VK, Jyoti , Reddy MM, Kesavachandran C, Rastogi SK, Siddiqui MK Biomonitoring of organochlorines, glutathione, lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activity among pesticide sprayers in mango orchards 2007 , pp. 377(1-2):268-72  article  
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pesticide sprayers in mango orchards of Malihabad, Lucknow (India) are generally exposed to organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. We determined the pesticide exposure levels along with their biochemical and clinical effects in 31 sprayers, compared with 18 controls. METHODS: Assay of acetyl and butyrylcholinesterases (AChE, BChE respectively) as an indirect measurement of OP exposure and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in blood samples to determine their impact on redox potential. Organochlorines were estimated by GLC-ECD. RESULTS: Significantly inhibited
AChE, BChE activities and higher MDA level were found among sprayers compared to controls (p<0.05). Mean of total organochlorines were surprisingly higher (97.65+/-
13.38 ppb) in sprayers than in those of controls (20.42+/-3.56 ppb) (p<0.05). Respiratory morbidity (32.4%), ocular problems (8.8%), gastrointestinal (17.6%) and
skin problems (23.5%) were found in sprayers. There was significant correlation 2 between AChE and GSH (r=0.29, p<0.05) and AChE with MDA (r=-0.34, p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Results indicated the significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation in sprayers correlated with cholinesterases inhibition. A small sample size limits the
significance of this study. However, it paves the way for a larger Indian study with extended practical significance.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghVK2007,
  author = {Singh VK, Jyoti , Reddy MM, Kesavachandran C, Rastogi SK, Siddiqui MK},
  title = {Biomonitoring of organochlorines, glutathione, lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activity among pesticide sprayers in mango orchards},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {377(1-2):268-72}
}
Kashyap SK Health surveillance and biological monitoring of pesticide formulators in India 1986 Toxicol Lett.(33(1-3)), pp. 107-14  article  
Abstract: Results of health survey and biological monitoring in pesticide formulators exposed to a combination of pesticides, an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide (phorate) and a persistent chlorinated insecticide (technical hexachlorocyclohexane; HCH; BHC) are reported. Exposure of 160 workers to a combination of pesticides (malathion, parathion, DDT and HCH) resulted in 73% of the workers showing toxic signs and symptoms. Formulators showed marked inhibition of whole blood, plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase (ChE) activity and slightly higher concentrations of DDT and HCH in serum. An interesting observation was that over 25% of the formulators showed ECG aberrations. The ECG changes were not related to whole blood ChE activity. Exposure to the chlorinated insecticide HCH in 19 workers engaged in the manufacture of technical HCH resulted in toxic signs and symptoms in over 90% of the subjects. The HCH concentrations in serum showed a ten-fold increase. Changes in the liver enzymes ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), gammaglutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and in
immunoglobulin M(IgM) showed possible effects on liver and humoral immunity. ECG monitoring showed evidence of cardiac effects. Exposure of 40 formulators to a highly toxic OP insecticide (phorate) showed that over 60% of the workers suffered from toxic effects in spite of using a complete set of protective clothing. A marked and progressive inhibition in whole blood and plasma ChE activity was found during the two weeks of exposure to phorate. An appreciable recovery in ChE activity was observed 10 days after cessation of exposure. These surveys have established the need to practice and develop biological monitoring techniques to assess exposure and predict health risks in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides.
BibTeX:
@article{SK1986,
  author = {Kashyap SK},
  title = {Health surveillance and biological monitoring of pesticide formulators in India},
  journal = {Toxicol Lett.},
  year = {1986},
  number = {33(1-3)},
  pages = {107-14}
}
Srinivas Rao Ch, Venkateswarlu V, Surender T, Eddleston M, Buckley NA Pesticide poisoning in south India: opportunities for prevention and improved medical management 2005 Trop Med Int Health(10(6)), pp. 581-8  article  
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Warangal district in Andhra Pradesh, southern India, records >1000 pesticide poisoning cases each year and hundreds of deaths. We aimed to describe their frequency and distribution, and to assess quality of management and subsequent outcomes from pesticide poisoning in one large hospital in the district.

METHODS: We reviewed data on all patients admitted with pesticide poisoning to a district government hospital for the years 1997 to 2002. For 2002, details of the 9 particular pesticide ingested and management were abstracted from the medical files.

FINDINGS: During these 6 years, 8040 patients were admitted to the hospital with pesticide poisoning. The overall case fatality ratio was 22.6%. More detailed data from 2002 revealed that two-thirds of the patients were <30 years old, 57% were male and 96% had intentionally poisoned themselves. Two compounds,
monocrotophos and endosulfan, accounted for the majority of deaths with known pesticides in 2002. Low fixed-dose regimens were used in the majority of cases for he most commonly used antidotes (atropine and pralidoxime). Inappropriate antidotes were also used in some patients. CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that these findings reflect the situation in many rural hospitals of the Asia Pacific region. Even without an increase in resources, there appear to be significant opportunities for reducing mortality by better medical management and further restrictions on the most toxic pesticides.

BibTeX:
@article{SrinivasRaoCh2005,
  author = {Srinivas Rao Ch, Venkateswarlu V, Surender T, Eddleston M, Buckley NA},
  title = {Pesticide poisoning in south India: opportunities for prevention and improved medical management},
  journal = {Trop Med Int Health},
  year = {2005},
  number = {10(6)},
  pages = {581-8}
}
Srivastava AK, Gupta BN, Bihari V, Mathur N, Pangtey BS,Bharti RS Chronic effects of hexachlorocyclohexane exposure: clinical,hematologic and electrocardiographic studies 1995 Vet Hum Toxicol.(37(4)), pp. 302-5  article  
Abstract: Twenty-six farm workers handling about 4 kg of commercial grade hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)/y for 2-5 y and 21 control subjects were studied for chronic effects in clinical, hematological and cardiac variables. No clinically apparent morbidity was detected, but changes in hemoglobin and electrocardiograms were early effects of HCH exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaAK1995a,
  author = {Srivastava AK, Gupta BN, Bihari V, Mathur N, Pangtey BS,Bharti RS},
  title = {Chronic effects of hexachlorocyclohexane exposure: clinical,hematologic and electrocardiographic studies},
  journal = {Vet Hum Toxicol.},
  year = {1995},
  number = {37(4)},
  pages = {302-5}
}
Srivastava AK, Gupta BN, Bihari V, Mathur N, Pangtey BS,Bharti RS, Godbole MM Organochlorine pesticide exposure and thyroid function: a study in human subjects 1995 J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol(14(2)), pp. 107-10  article  
Abstract: We examined the serum levels of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone in 103 rural subjects with respect to blood levels of organochlorine pesticide and occupation. We found that 24.3% of study subjects had depleted thyroxine levels in association with significantly lower organochlorine pesticide residues in blood. Sex, nutritional status, thyromegaly, or handling of pesticides in the course of work were not found to be factors contributing to depleted thyroxine levels.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaAK1995,
  author = {Srivastava AK, Gupta BN, Bihari V, Mathur N, Pangtey BS,Bharti RS, Godbole MM},
  title = {Organochlorine pesticide exposure and thyroid function: a study in human subjects},
  journal = {J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol},
  year = {1995},
  number = {14(2)},
  pages = {107-10}
}
Srivastava HC, Kumar GP, Hassan A, Dabhi M, Pant CS, Yadav RS Evaluation of possible health effects of pyrethroid insecticides,
bifenthrin 10% WP, and deltamethrin 25% WG, on spraymen exposed in
a field trial in India
2005 Bull Environ Contam Toxicol(75(3)), pp. 413-20  article  
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaHC2005,
  author = {Srivastava HC, Kumar GP, Hassan A, Dabhi M, Pant CS, Yadav RS},
  title = {Evaluation of possible health effects of pyrethroid insecticides,
bifenthrin 10% WP, and deltamethrin 25% WG, on spraymen exposed in
a field trial in India}, journal = {Bull Environ Contam Toxicol}, year = {2005}, number = {75(3)}, pages = {413-20} }
Kallidass Subramaniam, RD. Jebakumar Solomon Organochlorine pesticides BHC and DDE in human blood in and around madurai, india 2006 Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry
Vol. 21 (2), pp. 169-172 
article  
Abstract: In this study blood samples are taken from two groups of people, one that has direct exposure to pesticides (agriculturists & public health workers) the second group, which has indirect exposure to pesticides through food chain. The objective of our investigation is to analyze the blood of the patients with minimum health complaints and skin diseases for the residue of the banned organochlorine pesticides DDE and BHC using Gas Chromatography. High concentrations of both BHC & DDE were observed in the serum samples of the people who had direct exposure to the pesticides, namely agriculturalists and public health workers with few exceptions. The pesticide residue concentration in serum ranges from 0.006 to 0.130 ppm for BHC and 0.002 to 0.033 ppm for DDE. Significance of this study reveals that the presence of these banned pesticides in human serum.
BibTeX:
@article{Subramaniam2006,
  author = {Kallidass Subramaniam and RD. Jebakumar Solomon},
  title = {Organochlorine pesticides BHC and DDE in human blood in and around madurai, india},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {21 (2)},
  pages = {169-172}
}
Bhatnagar VK Status of pesticide residues in human tissues in India A Review article
Symposium on risk assessment of pesticide residues in water and food
2003   article  
Abstract: This article is a review on available data on presence of pesticide residues in human tissues (adipose tissue, blood and breast milk) in general population of the country. Findings suggest that residues of pesticides in biologic samples are present in detectable amounts and the potential health risk to man and the environment remains. There is wide variation in the data, which may be related to the local use pattern. An improved National Monitoring Program on residues of persistent pesticides including PCBs, dioxins and furans based on human epidemiological rationale would submit for more consistent data on trends over time, regional variability and in our knowledge on contribution of such exposure resulting adverse health outcomes.
BibTeX:
@article{VK2003,
  author = {Bhatnagar VK},
  title = {Status of pesticide residues in human tissues in India A Review article
Symposium on risk assessment of pesticide residues in water and food}, year = {2003} }
Dhara VR Assessing exposure to toxic gases in Bhopal 2004 The Journal of the American Medical Association
Vol. 291, pp. 422 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{VR2004,
  author = {Dhara VR},
  title = {Assessing exposure to toxic gases in Bhopal},
  journal = {The Journal of the American Medical Association},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {291},
  pages = {422}
}
Yadava RL, Rao CK, Thapar BR, Narasimham MV Blood Cholinesterase monitoring in spraymen involved in malathion spraying--a health protection measure 1991 J Commun Dis.(23(1)), pp. 55-8  article  
Abstract: The blood Cholinesterase (ChE) level of malathion in spraymen is continuously monitored through a "built-in warning system" existing under NMEP since the introduction of malathion spraying. The data available from the States of Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat revealed that, in spraymen of Punjab, the ChE level in 1988 and 1989 remained normal in about 99.8 per cent spray personnel, and in 1 out of 381 workers, the ChE level fell to 62.5 per cent during 1989. In Gujarat and Maharashtra, the normal level of ChE was maintained in nearly 88 and 98.4 per cent of spray personnel respectively during the spraying period. The ChE level fell to 62.5 per cent in 11.9 per cent of spray staff in Gujarat during 1987 and in 1.5 and 1.6 per cent persons during 1988 and 1989 respectively in Maharashtra. Only in three cases (0.07 per cent) out of 4,100 in Maharashtra showed depression in ChE to 50 per cent in 1988. In none of the above mentioned cases, there was any parasympathetic overstimulation or uneasiness, etc, even then they were withdrawn from spray and were given rest and where needed medical care.
BibTeX:
@article{YadavaRL1991,
  author = {Yadava RL, Rao CK, Thapar BR, Narasimham MV},
  title = {Blood Cholinesterase monitoring in spraymen involved in malathion spraying--a health protection measure},
  journal = {J Commun Dis.},
  year = {1991},
  number = {23(1)},
  pages = {55-8}
}
Zaidi SSA, Bhatnagar VK, Gandhi SJ, Shah MP, Kulkarni PK, Saiyed HN Assessment of thyroid function in pesticide formulators 2000 Human & Experimental Toxicology(19), pp. 497-501  article  
Abstract: Thirty male pesticide formulators exposed to the dust and liquid formulation of endosulfan, quinalphos, chlorpyriphos, monocrotophos, lindane, parathion, phorate, and fenvalerate and 20 comparable control subjects from the same area of study were examined for the evaluation of thyroid function tests. The level of TSH was elevated (about 28%) in pesticide formulators as compared to a control group, but the increase was statistically insignificant. Based on the individual TSH measurement, 3 of 30 formulators had isolated elevated levels of TSH and seem to have acquired sub-clinical hypothyroidism; five had TSH values slightly elevated to the upper boarder line (4.03,uIU/ml); and the majority of formulators (N= 22) had TSH values in the normal range varying from 1.29 to 3.9 pIU/ml. Total T3 was suppressed significantly (P <0.01) in formulators, while marginal decrease (about 7%) was noticed in T4 level. This study indicated thyroid function impairment in few pesticide formulators.
BibTeX:
@article{ZaidiSSA2000,
  author = {Zaidi SSA, Bhatnagar VK, Gandhi SJ, Shah MP, Kulkarni PK, Saiyed HN},
  title = {Assessment of thyroid function in pesticide formulators},
  journal = {Human & Experimental Toxicology},
  year = {2000},
  number = {19},
  pages = {497-501}
}
(Last Updated Upto:2014)