Bibliography : Temperature Hazards

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Majumder J, Bagepally BS, Shah P, Kotadiya S, Yadav S, Naha N Comparison of workers' perceptions toward work climate and health symptoms between ceramic and iron foundry workers. 2016 Indian J Occup Environ Med.
Vol. 20(1), pp. 48-53 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
Workers exposed to heavy manual material handling (MMH) in a hot working environment succumb to severe physical stress and psychological stress.
AIMS:
(1) Recognize the heat load at workplaces of ceramic industry and iron industry, and (2) comparatively examine the characteristics of self-reported physiological responses and heat-health perception among these workers.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
Cross-sectional prospective study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Workplace microclimate in the ceramic industry and iron industry was monitored. An ergonomic checklist and a questionnaire was used to record self-reported workers' perceptions toward heat stress at workplace (ceramic workers N = 321, iron foundry workers N = 253). The prevalence rates of subjective symptoms among workers of both the industries were compared.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:
Chi-square test was used to examine the association between stressors and health complaints at a significance level set at P < 0.05.
RESULTS:
Iron foundries recorded higher mean ambient temperature (43.4 ± 3.7°C) and wet-bulb globe temperature (WGBT) index (31.5 ± 0.7°C) as compared to ceramic industries (39.9 ± 3.3°C and 28 ± 1.5°C, respectively). Heavy sweating, elevated body temperature, sleeplessness, excessive thirst, muscular discomforts, and fatigue were prime symptoms recorded among workers of both industries. Skin-related disorders (red face, dry skin, bumps, itching) were significantly higher among iron foundry workers, whereas sleeplessness, high blood pressure, heavy sweating, kidney stone, decreased urination, muscular discomforts, and fatigue were significantly more among ceramic workers. Young workers reported more sweating and fatigue than older workers.
CONCLUSIONS:
A hot work climate and heavy manual labor designate ceramic and iron industries as arduous. Direct contact with hot surface and continuous MMH in tandem with the mechanical pace of production process makes work in ceramic industries more difficult than iron foundries.
BibTeX:
@article{MajumderJ2016,
  author = {Majumder J, Bagepally BS, Shah P, Kotadiya S, Yadav S, Naha N.},
  title = {Comparison of workers' perceptions toward work climate and health symptoms between ceramic and iron foundry workers.},
  journal = {Indian J Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {20(1)},
  pages = {48-53},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.183845}
}
Singh A, Kamal R, Mudiam MK, Gupta MK, Satyanarayana GN, Bihari V, Shukla N, Khan AH, Kesavachandran CN Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India. 2016 PLoS One.
Vol. 11(2)(e0148641) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM) for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001) was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd) pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001) as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001) among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs metabolites may lead to inflammation, which can cause microalbuminuria in kitchen workers, as observed in the present study.
BibTeX:
@article{SinghA2016,
  author = {Singh A, Kamal R, Mudiam MK, Gupta MK, Satyanarayana GN, Bihari V, Shukla N, Khan AH, Kesavachandran CN},
  title = {Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.},
  journal = {PLoS One.},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {11(2)},
  number = {e0148641},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148641}
}
Velamati RK, Vivek M, Goutham K, Sreekanth GR, Dharmarajan S, Goel M Numerical study of a buoyant plume from a multi-flue stack into a variable temperature gradient atmosphere. 2015 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 22(21), pp. 16814-29 
article DOI  
Abstract: Air pollution is one of the major global hazards and industries have been one of its major contributors. This paper primarily focuses on analyzing the dispersion characteristics of buoyant plumes of the pollutant released from a multi-flue vertical stack into a variable temperature gradient atmosphere (?) in a constant-velocity cross wind using two stack configurations-inline and parallel. The study is conducted for different Froude numbers, Fr?=?12.64, 9.55, and 8.27. The atmospheric temperature gradients considered for the study are 0, +1, +1.5, and +2 K/100 m. The numerical study is done using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. The effects of stack configuration, ?, and Fr on the plume characteristics are presented. It is observed that the plume rises higher and disperses over a larger area with the inline configuration due to better mixing and shielding effect. With higher ?, it is seen that the plume rises initially and then descends due to variation of the buoyant force. The plume rise initially is strongly influenced by the momentum of the jet, and as it moves downstream, it is influenced by the cooling rate of the plume. Furthermore, the plume rises higher and disperses over a larger area with a decrease in Fr.
BibTeX:
@article{VelamatiRK12015,
  author = {Velamati RK1, Vivek M2, Goutham K2, Sreekanth GR2, Dharmarajan S2, Goel M3},
  title = {Numerical study of a buoyant plume from a multi-flue stack into a variable temperature gradient atmosphere.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {22(21)},
  pages = {16814-29},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4877-9}
}
Venugopal V, Chinnadurai JS, Lucas RA, Kjellstrom T Occupational Heat Stress Profiles in Selected Workplaces in India. 2015 Int J Environ Res Public Health.
Vol. 13(1) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Health and productivity impacts from occupational heat stress have significant ramifications for the large workforce of India. This study profiled occupational heat stress impacts on the health and productivity of workers in select organized and unorganized Indian work sectors. During hotter and cooler seasons, Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT) were used to quantify the risk of heat stress, according to International workplace guidelines. Questionnaires assessed workers' perceived health and productivity impacts from heat stress. A total of 442 workers from 18 Indian workplaces participated (22% and 78% from the organized and unorganized sector, respectively). Overall 82% and 42% of workers were exposed to higher than recommended WBGT during hotter and cooler periods, respectively. Workers with heavy workloads reported more heat-related health issues (chi square = 23.67, p ? 0.001) and reduced productivity (chi square = 15.82, p ? 0.001), especially the outdoor workers. Heat-rashes, dehydration, heat-syncope and urinogenital symptoms were self-reported health issues. Cited reasons for productivity losses were: extended-work hours due to fatigue/exhaustion, sickness/hospitalization and wages lost. Reducing workplace heat stress will benefit industries and workers via improving worker health and productivity. Adaptation and mitigation measures to tackle heat stress are imperative to protect the present and future workforce as climate change progresses.
BibTeX:
@article{VenugopalV2015,
  author = {Venugopal V, Chinnadurai JS, Lucas RA, Kjellstrom T.},
  title = {Occupational Heat Stress Profiles in Selected Workplaces in India.},
  journal = {Int J Environ Res Public Health.},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {13(1)},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010089}
}
Awasthi V, Bahman S, Thakur LK, Singh SK, Dua A, Ganguly S Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: an assessment study. 2012 Indian J Public Health.
Vol. 56(1), pp. 95-9 
article DOI  
Abstract: BACKGROUND:
The major contaminants usually encountered in milk and milk products include pesticide residues, heavy metals, and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Primarily, milk get contaminated before milching, from the cattle feed, from sources/materials used during the processing of milk as well as improper handling of the milk during the pre- and postprocessing period.
OBJECTIVE:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of household practices on milk contaminants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Samples of pasteurized as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor's milk) were analyzed for AFM1, pesticide residues, and heavy metals. Simulating the household practices, the impact of boiling on these contaminants was assessed.
RESULTS:
The contaminant Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was detected at a concentration ranging from 0.071-0.075 ppb in unpasteurized as well as pasteurized milk samples analyzed during the course of study. Moreover, boiling had no impact on the quantity of AFM1 present in the milk. Pesticides and heavy metal contents were found to be within acceptable limits in all the milk samples tested.
CONCLUSION:
Mycotoxins especially aflatoxins in cattle feed and their consequential presence in milk and milk products is a serious concern world over as they are reported carcinogens. These fungal toxins are resistant to high temperatures and may lead to various health hazards. Preventive steps must be taken at each stage to ensure good quality of milk and milk products free from these contaminants. Awareness programs and education for the dairy farmers and milk processors may be helpful in this regard.
BibTeX:
@article{AwasthiV2012,
  author = {Awasthi V, Bahman S, Thakur LK, Singh SK, Dua A, Ganguly S},
  title = {Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: an assessment study.},
  journal = {Indian J Public Health.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {56(1)},
  pages = {95-9},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-557X.96985}
}
Bhatt H, Sharma P 0275 An ergonomic assessment: occupational health and safety risk factors of commercial cafeteria workers. 2014 Occup Environ Med.  article DOI  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES:
Kitchen work is demanding, both physically and mentally. The employees work under pressure of time and perform various parallel tasks, many of which include exposure to a combination of risk factors of MSDs. This study was conducted for ergonomic assessment of commercial kitchen workers working in university hostel cafeteria
METHOD:
A survey of 40 workers employed at university hostel cafeteria at G. B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology at Uttarakhand state in India was carried out. Self administered questionnaire, interviews and observations were used as research instruments to collect data.
RESULTS:
It was found that there exists some major risk factors including repetition, awkward postures, force exertion, static posture, mechanical contact stress, temperature and vibration at these commercial kitchen workstation. 77.5 percent respondents were found to be involved in 5-8 h, 15 per cent of respondent were found to be involved for 9-12 h and 7.5 percent of the respondents were found working for 13-16 h. Nearly all the workers felt pain in neck, shoulders, wrist, elbow, knee, and ankle, upper and in lower back.
CONCLUSIONS:
An ergonomically designed workstation reduces the human efforts, enhances the work efficiency and at the same time provides the safety to the worker. Kitchen workers should be given awareness about the advantages and disadvantages of the good ergonomic practices so as to reduce the occupational health hazards and increase productivity.
BibTeX:
@article{BhattH2014,
  author = {Bhatt H, Sharma P},
  title = {0275 An ergonomic assessment: occupational health and safety risk factors of commercial cafeteria workers.},
  journal = {Occup Environ Med.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2014-102362.308}
}
Ghosh SK, Pal S, Ray S Study of microbes having potentiality for biodegradation of plastics. 2013 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
Vol. 20(7), pp. 4339-55 
article DOI  
Abstract: Plastic is a broad name given to the different types of organic polymers having high molecular weight and is commonly derived from different petrochemicals. Plastics are generally not biodegradable or few are degradable but in a very slow rate. Day by day, the global demand of these polymers is sharply increasing; however, considering their abundance and potentiality in causing different environmental hazards, there is a great concern in the possible methods of degradation of plastics. Recently, there have been some debates at the world stage about the potential degradation procedures of these synthetic polymers and microbial degradation has emerged as one of the potential alternative ways of degradation of plastics. Alternatively, some scientists have also reported many adverse effects of these polymers in human health, and thus, there is an immediate need of a potential screening of some potential microbes to degrade these synthetic polymers. In this review, we have taken an attempt to accumulate all information regarding the chemical nature along with some potential microbes and their enzymatic nature of biodegradation of plastics along with some key factors that affect their biodegradability.
BibTeX:
@article{GhoshSK2013,
  author = {Ghosh SK, Pal S, Ray S},
  title = {Study of microbes having potentiality for biodegradation of plastics.},
  journal = {Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {20(7)},
  pages = {4339-55},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1706-x}
}
Kinger S, Kumar R, Sharma A Prediction based proactive thermal virtual machine scheduling in green clouds. 2014 ScientificWorldJournal.  article DOI  
Abstract: Cloud computing has rapidly emerged as a widely accepted computing paradigm, but the research on Cloud computing is still at an early stage. Cloud computing provides many advanced features but it still has some shortcomings such as relatively high operating cost and environmental hazards like increasing carbon footprints. These hazards can be reduced up to some extent by efficient scheduling of Cloud resources. Working temperature on which a machine is currently running can be taken as a criterion for Virtual Machine (VM) scheduling. This paper proposes a new proactive technique that considers current and maximum threshold temperature of Server Machines (SMs) before making scheduling decisions with the help of a temperature predictor, so that maximum temperature is never reached. Different workload scenarios have been taken into consideration. The results obtained show that the proposed system is better than existing systems of VM scheduling, which does not consider current temperature of nodes before making scheduling decisions. Thus, a reduction in need of cooling systems for a Cloud environment has been obtained and validated.
BibTeX:
@article{KingerS2014,
  author = {Kinger S, Kumar R, Sharma A},
  title = {Prediction based proactive thermal virtual machine scheduling in green clouds.},
  journal = {ScientificWorldJournal.},
  year = {2014},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/208983}
}
A. Nag, D. Kothari, H. Desai Exposure limits of women in hot environment 1999 Indian Journal of Medical
Vol. 110, pp. 138-144 
article URL 
Abstract: The tolerance of six women to work in hot environments was examined under four environmental conditions from 38 to 44 degrees C dry bulb temperature and 50 to 80 per cent relative humidity, i.e., 32 to 36.5 degrees C effective temperature [ET (normal scale)] in a climatic chamber. The subjects performed bicycle ergometric work at an intensity of 50 W and the exposure duration was determined by the cardiorespiratory, body temperature and sweating responses. At the limit of tolerance, the body core temperature (Tcr) reached over 38.5 degrees C and the heart rates attained a peak level (i.e., about 172 beats/min). The total oxygen demand decreased significantly with higher environmental load, particularly beyond 33.5 degrees C ET (N). While the tolerance time decrement was evident with the higher heat stress, on an average, an increase or decrease of every liter of total oxygen demand was equivalent to a 0.8 min change in the tolerance time. As such, the women volunteers were not susceptible to heat; only in extreme hot situations beyond 33.5 degrees C ET (N), they had unacceptable levels of physiological and psychophysical reactions. Based on the distribution of tolerance time of the women in different exposure conditions, the safe exposure times were estimated, which varied from 43 min [32.0 degrees C ET (N)] to 16 min [36.5 degrees C ET (N)].
BibTeX:
@article{A.Nag1999,
  author = {A. Nag, D. Kothari, H. Desai},
  title = {Exposure limits of women in hot environment},
  journal = {Indian Journal of Medical},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {110},
  pages = {138-144},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10645102}
}
A. Nag , P.K. Nag Heat stress of women doing manipulative work 1992 American Industrial Hygiene Association journal
Vol. 53, pp. 751-756 
article URL 
Abstract: Six women were exposed to nine environmental conditions, ranging from 26.0 to 35.8 degrees C effective temperature (ET), in a climatic chamber. They were involved in manipulative work in a seated position for a duration of 3 hr. The O2 uptake, heart rate, deep body (Tc) and skin temperature (Tsk), sweat loss, and perception of thermal comfort were noted. The O2 uptake increased with the time of exposure at different heat levels. The work energy demand, which was 19% of VO2max at 26 degree C ET, increased to 35% of VO2max at 35.8 degrees C ET. However, the work output declined with the increase in ET. Thus, the elevated metabolic demands were the results of the thermal stimuli. The Tsk was greatly influenced by the environmental heat; the Tc changes were gradual. The highest mean Tsk attained was 37.3 degrees C at 33.8 degrees C ET when the gradient of Tc-Tsk was only 0.5 degrees C. The rate of change in mean Tsk for 31.6 to 33.8 degrees C ET was much faster compared to the range between 26.0 and 31.6 degrees C ET. From 32.1 degrees C ET onward the Tc and heart rates rose rapidly, while the sweating rate tended to fall, indicating some hindrance for evaporative cooling. Also, thermal sensations were noted as extremely hot for the conditions 32.1 to 35.8 degrees C ET with the increase in exposure duration.
BibTeX:
@article{A.Nag1992,
  author = {A. Nag , P.K. Nag},
  title = {Heat stress of women doing manipulative work},
  journal = {American Industrial Hygiene Association journal},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {751-756},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1471596}
}
Bhanarkar, Srivastava A, Joseph AE, Kumar R Air pollution and heat exposure study in the workplace in a glass-manufacturing unit in India 2005 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Vol. 109, pp. 73-80 
article URL 
Abstract: Air pollution in the workplace environment due to industrial operation have been found to cause serious occupational health hazard. Similarly, heat stress is still most neglected occupational hazard in the tropical and subtropical countries like India. The hot climate augments the heat exposure close to sources like furnaces. In this study an attempt is made to assess air pollution and heat exposure levels to workers in the workplace environment in glass manufacturing unit located in the State of Gujarat, India. Samples for workplace air quality were collected for SPM, SO(2), NO(2) and CO(2) at eight locations. Results of workplace air quality showed 8-hourly average concentrations of SPM: 165-9118 microg/m(3), SO(2): 6-9 microg/m(3) and NO(2): 5-42 microg/m(3), which were below the threshold limit values of workplace environment. The level of CO(2) in workplace air of the plant was found to be in the range 827-2886 microg/m(3), which was below TLV but much higher than the normal concentration for CO(2) in the air (585 mg/m(3)). Indoor heat exposure was studied near the furnace and at various locations in an industrial complex for glass manufacturing. The heat exposure parameters including the air temperature, the wet bulb temperature, and the globe parameters were measured. The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), an indicator of heat, exceeded ACGIH TLVs limits most of the time at all the locations in workplace areas. The recommended duration of work and rest have also been estimated.
BibTeX:
@article{Bhanarkar2005,
  author = {Bhanarkar, Srivastava A, Joseph AE, Kumar R},
  title = {Air pollution and heat exposure study in the workplace in a glass-manufacturing unit in India},
  journal = {Environmental Monitoring and Assessment},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {109},
  pages = {73-80},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16240190}
}
Biswas R, Samanta A, Saha P Cardiac strain of confectionery worker in relation to heat exposure during regular work shift 2011 Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine
Vol. 15, pp. 120-126 
article URL 
Abstract: CONTEXT: In India, a wide variety of occupations are performed in adverse indoor working environment. Work physiological studies in these jobs are scanty as compared to investigations done on more arduous outdoor occupations.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Physiological strain of workers engaged in sweet making activities was assessed in terms of cardiac strain indices in relation to heat stress.
SETTING AND DESIGN: 33 full-time workers from eastern India were compared for cardiac strain profile obtained during summer and winter during their regular work shift. A comparison was also done in between younger (n=12) and older (n=16) subjects.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Working heart rate (WHR) was recorded continuously during work. The pulse deceleration index (PDI) was obtained from recovery heart rate (RHR). Net cardiac cost (NCC) and relative cardiac cost (RCC) were the main indices used to evaluate physical strain. Thermal stress assessed from wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT).
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Students' t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank paired tests were used for comparing physiological responses. Values were considered significant when P < 0.05.
RESULTS: Workload was significantly higher in summer for all workers. RCC of younger workers in winter and summer ranged between 18% and 26%. This was significantly lower as compared to the RCC of older workers, which was 27% in winter and 30% in summer. The physiological workload appeared to be moderate in nature. The WBGT index was above the recommended range in summer for both the groups. Older workers showed a no recovery pattern in terms of recovery pulse that indicated toward a cumulative stress which may be attributed to a combined effect of heat and work in summer and extra amount of work performed in winter season.
CONCLUSION: The physical workload is aggravated with various ergonomic stressors present in the work place. An ergonomic intervention has been indicated as further scope of this study.
BibTeX:
@article{BiswasR2011,
  author = {Biswas R, Samanta A, Saha P},
  title = {Cardiac strain of confectionery worker in relation to heat exposure during regular work shift},
  journal = {Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {120-126},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22412290}
}
G. Madhan Mohan, P.S.S. Prasad, B. Karthikeyan, M. Vidhya, E. Karthikeyan Simulation of foundry environment for improving occupational exposure to heat stress conditions 2008 International Journal of Environment and Health
Vol. 2, pp. 171-183 
article URL 
Abstract: : A worker in a foundry, especially near the furnace, is affected by several heat-related adverse health outcomes arising from non-ionising radiation emitted by molten metal. Such workers are likely to be affected by heat cramps, exhaustion, stroke, etc. Hence, the design of a proper furnace environment is an important issue to avoid these health hazards. In this study, the furnace environment is modelled using GAMBIT software and analysed by FLUENT software version 6.0 to simulate and improve the conditions. The findings indicate that temperature distribution around the furnace is found to be in the range of 324�350 K, which can cause heat stresses in the workers. Appropriate suggestions are then proposed and discussed to provide thermal comforts for the worker.
BibTeX:
@article{G.MadhanMohan2008,
  author = {G. Madhan Mohan, P.S.S. Prasad, B. Karthikeyan, M. Vidhya, E. Karthikeyan},
  title = {Simulation of foundry environment for improving occupational exposure to heat stress conditions},
  journal = {International Journal of Environment and Health},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {171-183},
  url = {http://inderscience.metapress.com/content/308730m588242058/fulltext.pdf?page=1}
}
Jagdish C. Hundekari , A.K. Bondade Associations between Serum Lipid Levels and Cardiovascular Risk in Men Exposed to Heat 2012 International Journal of Health Sciences and Research
Vol. 2, pp. 47-51 
article URL 
Abstract: Objective:- To examine the association between exposure to stressful stimuli (heat) and cardiovascular risk in thermal power station workers with blood levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Material and methods :- Two Hundred male workers were selected out of whom 100 were workers exposed to heat emitted by boiler in boiler section for 8 hrs daily and 6 days in a week and the control group consists of office workers and staff who were not exposed to extreme heat. Depending on age, they were divided into four groups. (Group I (21-30yrs), Group II (31-40yrs), Group III (41-50yrs) and Group IV (41 onwards). Estimation of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride was carried out by enzymatic method between cases and controls to see whether exposure to heat (stress) is associated with increase in lipid profile. Results :- It was observed that age adjusted average serum cholesterol and triglyceride level was highly significant (P< 0.005) in workers exposed to heat as compared to controls. Conclusion :- Above results suggests that greater is the risk of hypertension and coronary heart disease (CHD) in these workers exposed to heat as compared to controls.
BibTeX:
@article{JagdishC.Hundekari2012,
  author = {Jagdish C. Hundekari , A.K. Bondade},
  title = {Associations between Serum Lipid Levels and Cardiovascular Risk in Men Exposed to Heat},
  journal = {International Journal of Health Sciences and Research},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {47-51},
  url = {http://www.ijhsr.org/current_issue_6/6.pdf}
}
K.A. Wani, Y.K. Jaiswal Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Workers in the Cricket Bat Manufacturing Industry in Kashmir, India 2011 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Vol. 8, pp. D63-D67 
article URL 
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the general working conditions of the workers of cricket bat industry of Kashmir (India) and to assess the health risk factors of the workers working in this industry. The study has been conducted in ten cricket bat industries of Kashmir valley situated in India. The prepared questionnaire was circulated among workers to assess the health risk factors of these workers. Noise level, temperature and dust concentration in air were measured with the help of sound level meter, thermo-hygrometer and handy air sampler, respectively. The present investigation indicates that the majority of the workers of this industry were illiterate. Most of them were suffering from health problems like eye irritation, injuries, difficulty in hearing, back pain, allergies, respiratory problems and general weakness. The presented results demonstrate that the health and working conditions of the workers in cricket bat industries in Kashmir (India) were found to be unsatisfactory. Every worker on an average suffered from 3-5 health-risk factors. Personal protective equipments should be provided to the workers to reduce the risk factors.
BibTeX:
@article{K.A.Wani2011,
  author = {K.A. Wani, Y.K. Jaiswal},
  title = {Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Workers in the Cricket Bat Manufacturing Industry in Kashmir, India},
  journal = {Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {D63-D67},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21667371}
}
K. Pandit, R.R. Tiwari Morbidity profile of steel pipe production workers 2008 Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine
Vol. 12, pp. 88-90 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Objective: To study the different morbid conditions among steel pipe producing workers. Methods: The present cross-sectional study has been carried out among the workers of one of the steel pipes and tubes manufacturing factory of Gujarat. Hundred workers from the four major departments of the steel pipe production plant, namely welding, pressing machine, X-ray welding and loading/transportation department were covered. The information regarding demographic, occupational, clinical characteristics and diagnosis were recorded on a pre-designed proforma. Statistical analysis included calculation of percentages and proportions and was carried out using the statistical software Epi Info Version 3.3.2. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was found to be 38.7�7.1 years. The mean duration of exposure was found to be 9.0�3.4 years. Forty-four percent of the subjects had an upper respiratory tract infection, as evidenced by symptoms like dry cough, cough with rhinitis and cough with fever. Symptoms suggestive of allergic bronchitis were observed in 12% of the subjects while symptoms suggestive of heat stress such as prickly heat, dehydration, perspiration and pyrexia were observed in 13% of the subjects.
BibTeX:
@article{K.Pandit2008,
  author = {K. Pandit, R.R. Tiwari},
  title = {Morbidity profile of steel pipe production workers},
  journal = {Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {88-90},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20040985},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.43267}
}
Kalpana Balakrishnan et al. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India 2010 Global Health Action
Vol. 3(5635) 
article DOI URL 
Abstract: Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/ management.Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions. Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker�s perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the industries may be facilitated by monitoring worker discomfort, disability, and performance in more intensive ways so that the top management is able to justify the associated cost benefits. Given the potential implications of future climate change related increases in ambient heat stress that are likely to translate into workplace exposures in developing country settings, concerted efforts are needed to integrate exposure assessments with assessments of productivity as well as health impacts. This will likely build the momentum for much needed interventions for large worker populations in the developing world.
BibTeX:
@article{KalpanaBalakrishnan2010,
  author = {Kalpana Balakrishnan, Ayyappan Ramalingam, Venkatesan Dasu, Jeremiah Chinnadurai Stephen, Mohan Raj Sivaperumal, Deepan Kumarasamy, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Santu Ghosh and Sankar Sambandam},
  title = {Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India},
  journal = {Global Health Action},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {3},
  number = {5635},
  url = {http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/5635},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v3i0.5635}
}
M.L. Chen, C.J.Chen, W.Y. Yeh, J.W. Huang, I.F. Mao Heat stress evaluation and worker fatigue in a steel plant 2003 AIHA journal : a journal for the science of occupational and environmental health and safety
Vol. 64, pp. 352-359 
article URL 
Abstract: This study assessed fatigue in electric arc melting workers (ER) and continuous casting workers (CC) in a steel plant and evaluated their physiological response to different levels of heat stress. Fifty-five men participated in the study. The ER group (mean, standard deviation [SD]=41.6, 7.4 years) was significantly older than the CC group (34.9, 6.4 years). The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index of the workplace was measured. Workers' subjective fatigue symptoms were investigated by a 30-item constructive questionnaire, and physiological conditions and response time were measured before and after work for 2 consecutive days. WBGT ranged from 25.4 approximately 28.7 degrees C and 30.0 approximately 33.2 degrees C for the CC and ER areas, respectively. After age adjustment the ER group had significantly higher prevalence rates in subjective symptoms and slower response time than the CC group. The response "thirsty" was the highest after work (75 and 60% for the 2 ER interview days, respectively). A high prevalence (over 40%) of "eyes feel strained," "perception of shoulders stiff," or "feel waist pain" also was observed. Average pre- and postwork ER group systolic pressures were 129.1+/-11.4 mmHg (mean+/-SD) and 126.1+/-12.1 mmHg, 132.5+/-11.4 and 130.6+/-11.2 mmHg for the CC group. Continuous heat-strain monitoring data from one ER and one CC worker indicated that average working heart rate and body temperature were well below 150 beats/min and 38 degrees C. Faster response in critical flicker fusion was found after work than before work, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>.05). Response time for the falling bar grasp was faster at the beginning of work, declined with working time, and rebounded at the end of work. Workers exposed to a hot environment are inclined to subjective fatigue, and their fatigue symptoms increase with the heat exposure levels. However, low resting heart rate and systolic pressure are two characteristics for high heat exposure workers.
BibTeX:
@article{M.L.Chen2003,
  author = {M.L. Chen, C.J.Chen, W.Y. Yeh, J.W. Huang, I.F. Mao.},
  title = {Heat stress evaluation and worker fatigue in a steel plant},
  journal = {AIHA journal : a journal for the science of occupational and environmental health and safety},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {64},
  pages = {352-359},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12809541}
}
P.K. Nag, A. Nag, S.P. Ashtekar Thermal Limits of Men in Moderate to Heavy Work in Tropical Farming 2007 Industrial Health
Vol. 45, pp. 107-117 
article URL 
Abstract: The farmers in tropical climate are exposed to high heat during the summer months. The study examined the physiological strains of farmers (N=26) to six combined exposures of work and high heat, with moderate and heavy work (26 to 50%, and 51 to 75% VO2max) and three ambient conditions, i.e., 34.4 to 42.2�C WBGT (inside) in an environmental chamber. While the cardiorespiratory responses and Tcr were predominantly influenced by the work severity (p<0.001), the environmental warmth greatly influenced the sweating response (p<0.001). The importance was placed on the segmental Tsk as the first rank indicator of the bodily heat strain. Both the environmental warmth and work severity had independent discernable effects on the dynamic equilibrium of the central and peripheral mechanism to regulate the body temperature. The segmental and compartmental (core, muscle, fat and skin) heat balance analysis indicated the span of convergence of the segmental core and muscle temperatures to the divergence of skin and fat temperatures (CORESHELL) as a quantitative estimate of the segmental gradient for heat transfer. The summation of heat exchange across the compartments and segments yielded the transient change in Tcr (0.06 to 0.12�C/min), with significant difference between the moderate and heavy work. The Tcr of 39�C was taken as the limit of tolerance for the farmers, and by defining the criteria limit of Tcr of ~2.5�C gradient from the basal Tcr and the rate of change in Tcr, the tolerance times were estimated. Corollary to the development of ISO 7933 standard (PHS index), the predictions of tolerance times from the transient change in Tcr or the exponential relationship with the WBGT (tolerance time, min = 1,841 e �0.103 WBGT) were useful to suggest the protective limit for men at work in extremely hot environment. The simplicity of prediction lies in using WBGT as a criterion. The exponential equation estimated the tolerance time of 55 min at 34�C WBGT, and up to 38�C WBGT, the decrease in tolerance time was 4 to 5 min per degree increase in environmental warmth. Beyond 38�C WBGT, the estimated tolerance time decreased by 2 to 3 min per degree increase in WBGT. Further optimization and validation of the knowledge for men and women farmers in different age groups will have application in managing heat illnesses and disorders in tropical farming
BibTeX:
@article{P.K.Nag2007,
  author = {P.K. Nag, A. Nag, S.P. Ashtekar},
  title = {Thermal Limits of Men in Moderate to Heavy Work in Tropical Farming},
  journal = {Industrial Health},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {107-117},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17284882}
}
P.K. Nag, P. Dutta, A. Nag, T. Kjellstrom Extreme heat events: Perceived thermal response of indoor and outdoor workers. 2013 International Journal of current research and review
Vol. 5, pp. 65-78 
article URL 
Abstract: Background: With the changing climate in the tropical regions, millions of people in indoor and outdoor occupational situations are vulnerable to frequent heat episodes with health implications. Methodology: The study refers to behavioral responses of the men folks (N=999) to hot environment in indoor (iron work N=287, ceramics and pottery N=137, power loom N=143, pulp and paper mill N=31) and outdoor (stone quarry N=401) working conditions. Result: Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) values in power loom was highest (35.2�1.10C), followed by other respective occupations. The behavioral responses of workers differed significantly (p<0.0001) between the indoor and outdoor working conditions. The subscales of four principal components (PC-1 to PC-4), explained total cumulative variance of 44% in case of iron works, 47% in case of ceramic and pottery work and ~49% in powerloom and stone quarry works. Conclusion: The stone quarry workers faced greater risk, as compared to the workers in indoor work. Perceived response might provide indication of risk mitigation to combat heat-related emergencies.
BibTeX:
@article{P.K.Nag2013,
  author = {P.K. Nag, P. Dutta, A. Nag, T. Kjellstrom},
  title = {Extreme heat events: Perceived thermal response of indoor and outdoor workers.},
  journal = {International Journal of current research and review},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {65-78},
  url = {http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=45472}
}
Pingle S, Shanbhag S CASH--an innovative approach to sustainable OSH improvement. at workplace 206 Medicina del Lavoro (Industrial Medicine
Vol. 97, pp. 358-367 
article URL 
Abstract: Occupational health department of a large private enterprise located in India launched Project CASH--Change Agents for Safety and Health, at manufacturing units of the enterprise to bring about a positive change in work environment and improvement in work practices to reduce occupational health risk. Multidisciplinary teams of change agents were constituted and were given intensive training inputs. Reduction in exposureto noise, dust and heat stress were identified as specific objectives after a baseline survey of the work environment. Occupational safety and health knowledge and training was imparted to all field personnel to improve their work practices and attitudes. The focus of the actions was on engineering control measures and process engineering changes necessary for workplace improvement. Noise levels were reduced by an average of more than 9dBA in most of the top ten high noise locations. Out of two locations identified for dust exposure, one was fully eliminated and dust levels at other location were significantly reduced. Heat stress was reduced in all three identified locations with an average reduction of more than 3 degrees C in WBGT levels. Thus, final evaluation of workplace environments revealed significant reduction in exposure to all identified agents, viz noise, dust and heat fulfilling the project objectives. Educating and empowering the team led to reduction of occupational health risks in the work environment. There was positive attitudinal and behavioural change in safety and occupational health awareness & practices among employees. The monetary savings resulting from improvements far outweighed the investments. Success of this pilot project was followed up with further similar projects and their number has grown in geometric proportion for the last three years indicating the sustainability of the project.
BibTeX:
@article{PingleS206,
  author = {Pingle S, Shanbhag S.},
  title = {CASH--an innovative approach to sustainable OSH improvement. at workplace},
  journal = {Medicina del Lavoro (Industrial Medicine},
  year = {206},
  volume = {97},
  pages = {358-367},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17017372}
}
PK Nag, P. Dutta, A. Nag Critical body temperature profile as indicator of heat stress vulnerability 2013 Industrial Health
Vol. 51, pp. 113-122 
article URL 
Abstract: Extreme climatic heat is a major health concern among workers in different occupational pursuits. People in the regions of western India confront frequent heat emergencies, with great risk of mortality and morbidity. Taking account of informal occupational groups (foundry and sheet metal, FSM, N=587; ceramic and pottery, CP, N=426; stone quarry, SQ, N=934) in different seasons, the study examined the body temperature profiling as indicator of vulnerability to environmental warmth. About 3/4th of 1947 workers had habitual exposure at 30.1-35.5�C WBGT and ~10% of them were exposed to 38.2-41.6�C WBGT. The responses of FSM, CP and SQ workers indicated prevailing high heat load during summer and post-monsoon months. Local skin temperatures (T(sk)) varied significantly in different seasons, with consistently high level in summer, followed by post-monsoon and winter months. The mean difference of T(cr) and T(sk) was ~5.2�C up to 26.7�C WBGT, and ~2.5�C beyond 30�C WBGT. Nearly 90% of the workers had T(cr) within 38�C, suggesting their self-adjustment strategy in pacing work and regulating T(cr). In extreme heat, the limit of peripheral adjustability (35-36�C T(sk)) and the narrowing down of the difference between T(cr) and T(sk) might indicate the limit of one's ability to withstand heat exposure.
BibTeX:
@article{PKNag2013,
  author = {PK Nag, P. Dutta, A. Nag},
  title = {Critical body temperature profile as indicator of heat stress vulnerability},
  journal = {Industrial Health},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {113-122},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23411761}
}
R. Dada et al. Deterioration Of Sperm Morphology In Men Exposed To High Temperature 2001 Journal of Anatomical Society of India
Vol. 50, pp. 107-111 
article URL 
Abstract: Occupational exposure to high temperatures adversely affects testicular function causing partial or complete spermatogenic arrest. This leads to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) and azoospermia. This study reiterates that exposure to high temperture causes deterioration in sperm morphology and impairs motility. This inverse relationship of sperm function with elevated temperature has implication in clinical medicine both in understanding pathological st tes and for therapeutic measures
BibTeX:
@article{R.Dada2001,
  author = {R. Dada, N.P. Gupta, Kucheria},
  title = {Deterioration Of Sperm Morphology In Men Exposed To High Temperature},
  journal = {Journal of Anatomical Society of India},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {107-111},
  url = {http://www.ijhg.com/article.asp?issn=0971-6866;year=2002;volume=8;issue=1;spage=20;epage=25;aulast=Dada}
}
R. Saha et al. A comparison of cardiac strain among drillers of two different age groups in underground manual coal mines in India 2008 Journal of occupatinal health
Vol. 50, pp. 512-520 
article URL 
Abstract: Cardiac strain was evaluated in terms of working heart rate (WHR), relative cardiac cost (RCC), net cardiac cost (NCC) and other recovery indices among six younger (mean age 34.2 +/- 2.7 yr) and sixteen older (mean age 48.9 +/- 5.4 yr) drillers working in a manual underground coal mine over two spells of work. The mean WHR was within the range of 117-132 beats / min with corresponding mean relative cardiac cost between 44-48% of heart rate reserve for the younger group and 53-55% for their older counterparts. The mean NCC was above 50 beats/min for both age groups. It was seen that the workers surpassed the recommended limits of cardiac strain indices. The intensity of workload indicates the job to be "heavy" to "extremely heavy" in accordance with the heaviness scales based on WHR, NCC and recovery heart rates. Heat stress prevailing in the workplace in terms of effective temperature (ET) and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), was above the recommended limits as per the guidelines proposed by WHO and ACGIH. High physiological demands of the job which requires predominate static muscular exertions coupled with high heat stress were found to hinder the recovery process and may prove deleterious particularly for the older workers. Therefore, in the present context, the need of ergonomic interventions for job organization and quick reparation of environmental condition are strongly indicted.
BibTeX:
@article{R.Saha2008,
  author = {R. Saha, N.C. Dey, A. Samanta, R. Biswas},
  title = {A comparison of cardiac strain among drillers of two different age groups in underground manual coal mines in India},
  journal = {Journal of occupatinal health},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {512-520},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18971575}
}
Ramalingam Ayyappan et al. Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India. 2009 Global Health Action  article DOI URL 
Abstract: Background: Work-related heat stress assessments, the quantification of thermal loads and their physiological consequences have mostly been performed in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries (many of which are also tropical), limited attempts have been made to create detailed job-exposure profiles for various sectors. We present here a case study from Chennai in southern India that illustrates the prevalence of work-related heat stress in multiple processes of automotive industries and the efficacy of relatively simple controls in reducing prevalence of the risk through longitudinal assessments. Methods: We conducted workplace heat stress assessments in automotive and automotive parts manufacturing units according to the protocols recommended by NIOSH, USA. Sites for measurements included indoor locations with process-generated heat exposure, indoor locations without direct process-generated heat exposure and outdoor locations. Nearly 400 measurements of heat stress were made over a four-year period at more than 100 locations within eight units involved with automotive or automotive parts manufacturing in greater Chennai metropolitan area. In addition, cross-sectional measurements were made in select processes of glass manufacturing and textiles to estimate relative prevalence of heat stress. Results: Results indicate that many processes even in organised large-scale industries have yet to control heat stress-related hazards adequately. Upwards of 28% of workers employed in multiple processes were at risk of heat stress-related health impairment in the sectors assessed. Implications of longitudinal baseline data for assessing efficacy of interventions as well as modelling potential future impacts from climate change (through contributions from worker health and productivity impairments consequent to increases in ambient temperature) are described. Conclusions: The study re-emphasises the need for recognising heat stress as an important occupational health risk in both formal and informal sectors in India. Making available good baseline data is critical for estimating future impacts.
BibTeX:
@article{RamalingamAyyappan2009,
  author = {Ramalingam Ayyappan, Sambandam Sankar, Paramasivan Rajkumar and Kalpana Balakrishnan},
  title = {Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India.},
  journal = {Global Health Action},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2799256/},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v2i0.2060}
}
S.K. Dash, T. Kjellstrom Workplace heat stress in the context of rising temperature in India. 2011 Current Science
Vol. 101, pp. 496-503 
article URL 
Abstract: Heat stress is an important aspect in the lives of people working under exposed conditions for long hours. It is interesting to examine the impact of global warming on the occurrence of heat stress in India. This study uses India Meteorological Department (IMD) daily temperature gridded data to investigate the changes in frequency and episodes of extreme temperature events in seven temperature homogenous regions and the country as a whole by applying the guidelines suggested by the World Meteorological Organization 'Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices'. It is emphasized here that climate change may lead to significant increase of heat events and hence heat stress during the hot seasons in most parts of India. Heat stress may cause occupational health risks as well as reductions of work productivity that can have a negative impact on family income and the community economy. It is time to recognize the importance of heat stress as a public health issue and conduct more scientific studies in different parts of India to formulate guidelines for safety measures.
Copyright of Current Science (00113891) is the property of Indian Academy of Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.
BibTeX:
@article{S.K.Dash2011,
  author = {S.K. Dash, T. Kjellstrom},
  title = {Workplace heat stress in the context of rising temperature in India.},
  journal = {Current Science},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {496-503},
  url = {http://web.b.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=00113891&AN=67547915&h=jqQsti3%2bXi5i%2f%2flylY6dOjgcB6susw%2bmqVLOY%2bAYOrrw6F8a%2fofsV5NgN2I93nGc5%2fomg1o0w04SqdsEL7dQUA%3d%3d&crl=c}
}
S.K. Dash, T. Kjellstrom Workplace heat stress in the context of rising temperature in India 2011 Current science
Vol. 101, pp. 496-503 
article URL 
Abstract: Heat stress is an important aspect in the lives of people working under exposed conditions for long hours. It is interesting to examine the impact of global warming on the occurrence of heat stress in India. This study uses India Meteorological Department (IMD) daily temperature gridded data to investigate the changes in frequency and episodes of extreme temperature events in seven temperature homogenous regions and the country as a whole by applying the guidelines suggested by the World Meteorological Organization �Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices�. It is emphasized here that climate change may lead to significant increase of heat events and hence heat stress during the hot seasons in most parts of India. Heat stress may cause occupational health risks as well as reductions of work productivity that can have a negative impact on family income and the community economy. It is time to recognize the importance of heat stress as a public health issue and conduct more scientific studies in different parts of India to formulate guidelines for safety measures.
BibTeX:
@article{S.K.Dash2011a,
  author = {S. K. Dash, T. Kjellstrom},
  title = {Workplace heat stress in the context of rising temperature in India},
  journal = {Current science},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {496-503},
  url = {http://www.currentscience.ac.in/Volumes/101/04/0496.pdf}
}
S.K. Ghosh et al. Studies on Occupational Health Problems in Agricultural Tobacco Workers. 1980 Occupational Medicine
Vol. 30(3), pp. 113-117 
article URL 
Abstract: An epidemiological study with X-ray, lung function, urine and blood tests was undertaken to ascertain the incidence of �green symptoms� among 290 tobacco workers handling cured or uncured tobacco leaves. The frequency of symptoms was found to be very high (86�20 per cent). The urinary excretion rate of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, was significantly increased in most of the cases.
BibTeX:
@article{S.K.Ghosh1980,
  author = {S.K. Ghosh, J.R. Parikh, V.N. Gokani, M.N. Rao, S.K. Kashyap and S.K. Chatterjee},
  title = {Studies on Occupational Health Problems in Agricultural Tobacco Workers.},
  journal = {Occupational Medicine},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {30},
  number = {3},
  pages = {113-117},
  url = {http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/30/3/113.short}
}
Sahu S, Sett M, Kjellstrom T Heat exposure, cardiovascular stress and work productivity in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future 2013 Industrial health
Vol. 51, pp. 424-431 
article URL 
Abstract: Excessive workplace heat exposures create well-known risks of heat stroke, and it limits the workers' capacity to sustain physical activity. There is very limited evidence available on how these effects reduce work productivity, while the quantitative relationship between heat and work productivity is an essential basis for climate change impact assessments. We measured hourly heat exposure in rice fields in West Bengal and recorded perceived health problems via interviews of 124 rice harvesters. In a sub-group (n = 48) heart rate was recorded every minute in a standard work situation. Work productivity was recorded as hourly rice bundle collection output. The hourly heat levels (WBGT = Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were 26-32�C (at air temperatures of 30-38�C), exceeding international standards. Most workers reported exhaustion and pain during work on hot days. Heart rate recovered quickly at low heat, but more slowly at high heat, indicating cardiovascular strain. The hourly number of rice bundles collected was significantly reduced at WBGT>26�C (approximately 5% per�C of increased WBGT). We conclude that high heat exposure in agriculture caused heat strain and reduced work productivity. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the local economy.
BibTeX:
@article{SahuS2013,
  author = {Sahu S, Sett M, Kjellstrom T},
  title = {Heat exposure, cardiovascular stress and work productivity in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future},
  journal = {Industrial health},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {424-431},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685851}
}
Srivastava A et al. Heat exposure study in the workplace in a glass-manufacturing unit in India. 2000 Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Vol. 44, pp. 449-453 
article URL 
Abstract: The heat exposure for working conditions in coastal areas of tropical and subtropical countries like India is a crucial factor in improved qualitative and quantitative production. The hot climate augments the heat exposure close to sources like furnaces. In the present work heat exposure to workers in glass manufacturing units in a coastal area of India has been assessed. The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), the Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) and Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) were measured. The WBGT values much exceeded ACGIH TLVs. A revision of these standards to suit tropical and subtropical conditions is required. The recommended durations of work and rest have been estimated.
BibTeX:
@article{SrivastavaA2000,
  author = {Srivastava A, Kumar R, Joseph E, Kumar A},
  title = {Heat exposure study in the workplace in a glass-manufacturing unit in India.},
  journal = {Annals of Occupational Hygiene},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {449-453},
  url = {http://annhyg.oxfordjournals.org/content/44/6/449.abstract}
}
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